Dagger (typography)

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Several terms redirect here. Dagger (typography)_sentence_0

For other uses, see Double Dagger, Double Dagger (album), Cross (Justice album) and Dagger (disambiguation). Dagger (typography)_sentence_1

"‡" redirects here. Dagger (typography)_sentence_2

It is not to be confused with ǂ, , or . Dagger (typography)_sentence_3

Dagger (typography)_table_infobox_0

† ‡Dagger (typography)_header_cell_0_0_0
DaggerDagger (typography)_header_cell_0_1_0
In UnicodeDagger (typography)_header_cell_0_2_0 U+2020 † DAGGER (HTML † · †)
U+2021 ‡ DOUBLE DAGGER (HTML ‡ · ‡, ‡)Dagger (typography)_cell_0_2_1
RelatedDagger (typography)_header_cell_0_3_0
See alsoDagger (typography)_header_cell_0_4_0 U+2E4B ⹋ TRIPLE DAGGER (HTML ⹋)Dagger (typography)_cell_0_4_1
Different fromDagger (typography)_header_cell_0_5_0
Different fromDagger (typography)_header_cell_0_6_0 U+271D ✝ LATIN CROSS (HTML ✝)

U+2628 ☨ CROSS OF LORRAINE (HTML ☨)Dagger (typography)_cell_0_6_1

A dagger, obelisk, or obelus † is a typographical symbol that usually indicates a if an asterisk has already been used. Dagger (typography)_sentence_4

It is one of the modern descendants of the obelus, a mark used historically by scholars as a critical or highlighting indicator in manuscripts. Dagger (typography)_sentence_5

(The term obelisk derives from the Greek: ὀβελίσκος (obeliskos), which means "little obelus"; from ὀβελός (obelos) meaning 'roasting spit'). Dagger (typography)_sentence_6

A double dagger or diesis ‡ is a variant with two handles that usually marks a third footnote after the asterisk and dagger. Dagger (typography)_sentence_7

The triple dagger ⹋ is a variant with three handles and is used by medievalists to indicate another level of notation. Dagger (typography)_sentence_8

History Dagger (typography)_section_0

Main article: Obelus Dagger (typography)_sentence_9

See also: Obelism Dagger (typography)_sentence_10

The dagger symbol originated from a variant of the obelus, originally depicted by a plain line − or a line with one or two dots ÷. Dagger (typography)_sentence_11

It represented an iron roasting spit, a dart, or the sharp end of a javelin, symbolizing the skewering or cutting out of dubious matter. Dagger (typography)_sentence_12

The obelus is believed to have been invented by the Homeric scholar Zenodotus as one of a system of editorial symbols. Dagger (typography)_sentence_13

They marked questionable or corrupt words or passages in manuscripts of the Homeric epics. Dagger (typography)_sentence_14

The system was further refined by his student Aristophanes of Byzantium, who first introduced the asterisk and used a symbol resembling a ⊤ for an obelus; and finally by Aristophanes' student, in turn, Aristarchus, from whom they earned the name of "Aristarchian symbols". Dagger (typography)_sentence_15

While the asterisk (asteriscus) was used for corrective additions, the obelus was used for corrective deletions of invalid reconstructions. Dagger (typography)_sentence_16

It was used when non-attested words are reconstructed for the sake of argument only, implying that the author did not believe such a word or word form had ever existed. Dagger (typography)_sentence_17

Some scholars used the obelus and various other critical symbols, in conjunction with a second symbol known as the metobelos ("end of obelus"), variously represented as two vertically arranged dots, a γ-like symbol, a mallet-like symbol, or a diagonal slash (with or without one or two dots). Dagger (typography)_sentence_18

They indicated the end of a marked passage. Dagger (typography)_sentence_19

It was used much in the same way by later scholars to mark differences between various translations or versions of the Bible and other manuscripts. Dagger (typography)_sentence_20

The early Christian Alexandrian scholar Origen (c. 184–253 AD) used it to indicate differences between different versions of the Old Testament in his Hexapla. Dagger (typography)_sentence_21

Epiphanius of Salamis (c. 310–320 – 403) used both a horizontal slash or hook (with or without dots) and an upright and slightly slanting dagger to represent an obelus. Dagger (typography)_sentence_22

St. Dagger (typography)_sentence_23 Jerome (c. 347–420) used a simple horizontal slash for an obelus, but only for passages in the Old Testament. Dagger (typography)_sentence_24

He describes the use of the asterisk and the dagger as: "an asterisk makes a light shine, the obelisk cuts and pierces". Dagger (typography)_sentence_25

Isidore of Seville (c. 560–636) described the use of the symbol as follows: "The obelus is appended to words or phrases uselessly repeated, or else where the passage involves a false reading, so that, like the arrow, it lays low the superfluous and makes the errors disappear ... Dagger (typography)_sentence_26

The obelus accompanied by points is used when we do not know whether a passage should be suppressed or not." Dagger (typography)_sentence_27

Medieval scribes used the symbols extensively for critical markings of manuscripts. Dagger (typography)_sentence_28

In addition to this, the dagger was also used in notations in early Christianity, to indicate a minor intermediate pause in the chanting of Psalms, equivalent to the quaver rest notation or the trope symbol in Hebrew cantillation. Dagger (typography)_sentence_29

It also indicates a breath mark when reciting, along with the asterisk, and is thus frequently seen beside a comma. Dagger (typography)_sentence_30

In the 16th century, the printer and scholar Robert Estienne (also known as Stephanus in Latin and Stephens in English) used it to mark differences in the words or passages between different printed versions of the Greek New Testament (Textus Receptus). Dagger (typography)_sentence_31

Due to the variations as to the different uses of the different forms of the obelus, there is some controversy as to which symbols can actually be considered an obelus. Dagger (typography)_sentence_32

The ⨪ symbol and its variant, the ÷, is sometimes considered to be different from other obeli. Dagger (typography)_sentence_33

The term 'obelus' may have referred strictly only to the horizontal slash and the dagger symbols. Dagger (typography)_sentence_34

Modern usage Dagger (typography)_section_1

The dagger usually indicates a if an asterisk has already been used. Dagger (typography)_sentence_35

A third footnote employs the double dagger. Dagger (typography)_sentence_36

Additional footnotes are somewhat inconsistent and represented by a variety of symbols, e.g., parallels ( ‖ ), section sign §, and the pilcrow ¶ – some of which were nonexistent in early modern typography. Dagger (typography)_sentence_37

Partly because of this, superscript numerals have increasingly been used in modern literature in the place of these symbols, especially when several footnotes are required. Dagger (typography)_sentence_38

Some texts use asterisks and daggers alongside superscripts, using the former for per-page footnotes and the latter for endnotes. Dagger (typography)_sentence_39

The dagger is also used to indicate death, extinction, or obsolescence. Dagger (typography)_sentence_40

The asterisk and the dagger, when placed beside years, indicate year of birth and year of death respectively. Dagger (typography)_sentence_41

This usage is particularly common in German. Dagger (typography)_sentence_42

When placed immediately before or after a person's name, the dagger indicates that the person is deceased. Dagger (typography)_sentence_43

In this usage, it is referred to as the "death dagger". Dagger (typography)_sentence_44

In the Oxford English Dictionary, the dagger symbol indicates an obsolete word. Dagger (typography)_sentence_45

Dagger (typography)_unordered_list_0

  • In mathematics and, more often, physics, a dagger denotes the Hermitian adjoint of an operator; for example, A denotes the adjoint of A. This notation is sometimes replaced with an asterisk, especially in mathematics. An operator is said to be Hermitian if A = A.Dagger (typography)_item_0_0
  • In textual criticism and in some editions of works written before the invention of printing, daggers enclose text that is believed not to be original.Dagger (typography)_item_0_1
  • In biology, the dagger next to a taxon name indicates that the taxon is extinct.Dagger (typography)_item_0_2
  • In linguistics, the dagger placed after a language name indicates an extinct language.Dagger (typography)_item_0_3
  • In cataloging, a double dagger delimits MARC subfields.Dagger (typography)_item_0_4
  • In chess notation, the dagger may be suffixed to a move to signify the move resulted in a check, and a double dagger denotes checkmate. This is a stylistic variation on the more common + (plus sign) for a check and # (number sign) for checkmate.Dagger (typography)_item_0_5
  • In chemistry, the double dagger is used in chemical kinetics to indicate a transition state species.Dagger (typography)_item_0_6
  • In psychological statistics the dagger indicates that a difference between two figures is not significant to a p<0.05 level, however is still considered a "trend" or worthy of note. Commonly this will be used for a p-value between 0.1 and 0.05.Dagger (typography)_item_0_7
  • On a cricket scorecard or team list, the dagger indicates the team's wicket-keeper.Dagger (typography)_item_0_8
  • In military history, a dagger is often placed next to the name of a commander who is killed in action.Dagger (typography)_item_0_9
  • The asteroid 37 Fides, the last asteroid to be assigned an astronomical symbol before the practice faded, was assigned the dagger.Dagger (typography)_item_0_10
  • In philology, the dagger indicates an obsolete form of a word or phrase.Dagger (typography)_item_0_11
  • In the early printings of the King James Bible, a dagger indicates a literal translation of a word or phrase is to be found in the margin. When used the margin begins with an abbreviation (Heb. Gk. Chald. Lat.) for the original language.Dagger (typography)_item_0_12
  • In the Geneva Bible, a double dagger indicates a literal translation of a word or phrase is to be found in the margin. When used the margin begins with an abbreviation (Heb. Gk. Chald. Lat.) for the original language.Dagger (typography)_item_0_13
  • In Anglican chant pointing, the dagger indicates a verse to be sung to the second part of the chant.Dagger (typography)_item_0_14
  • Some logicians use the dagger as an affirmation ('it is true that ...') operator.Dagger (typography)_item_0_15

While daggers are freely used in English-language texts, they are often avoided in other languages because of their similarity to the Christian cross. Dagger (typography)_sentence_46

In German, for example, daggers are commonly employed only to indicate a person's death or the extinction of a word, language, species or the like. Dagger (typography)_sentence_47

Encoding Dagger (typography)_section_2

Dagger (typography)_unordered_list_1

  • U+2020 † DAGGER (HTML † · † · Alt+0134 in Windows or option-t in macOS)Dagger (typography)_item_1_16
  • U+2021 ‡ DOUBLE DAGGER (HTML ‡ · ‡, &ddagger; · Alt+0135 in Windows or option-shift-7 in macOS)Dagger (typography)_item_1_17
  • U+2E36 ⸶ DAGGER WITH LEFT GUARD – used in Alexander John Ellis's "palaeotype" transliteration to indicate retracted pronunciationDagger (typography)_item_1_18
  • U+2E37 ⸷ DAGGER WITH RIGHT GUARD – used in Alexander John Ellis's "palaeotype" transliteration to indicate advanced pronunciationDagger (typography)_item_1_19
  • U+2E38 ⸸ TURNED DAGGER – used in Alexander John Ellis's "palaeotype" transliteration to indicate retroflex pronunciationDagger (typography)_item_1_20
  • U+2E4B ⹋ TRIPLE DAGGER – A variant with three handles.Dagger (typography)_item_1_21

Similar symbols Dagger (typography)_section_3

The dagger should not be confused with the symbols "Latin cross" (✝, U+271D), "box drawings light vertical and horizontal" (┼, U+253C), and other cross symbols. Dagger (typography)_sentence_48

The double dagger should not be confused with the Cross of Lorraine (☨, U+2628), or the patriarchal cross (☦, U+2626), the palatal click symbol in IPA (ǂ, U+01C2), or the Canadian Syllabics Woods-Cree Final Th (ᙾ, U+167E), . Dagger (typography)_sentence_49

See also Dagger (typography)_section_4

Dagger (typography)_unordered_list_2

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dagger (typography).