Guillemet

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For the seabird, see guillemot. Guillemet_sentence_0

Guillemet_table_infobox_0

« »Guillemet_header_cell_0_0_0
GuillemetsGuillemet_header_cell_0_1_0
In UnicodeGuillemet_header_cell_0_2_0 U+00AB « LEFT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK (HTML « · «)

U+00BB » RIGHT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK (HTML » · »)Guillemet_cell_0_2_1

Guillemets (/ˈɡɪləmɛt/, also UK: /ˈɡiːmeɪ/, US: /ˌɡiː(j)əˈmeɪ, ˌɡɪləˈmɛt/, French: [ɡijmɛ) are a pair of punctuation marks in the form of sideways double chevrons, « and », used as quotation marks in a number of languages. Guillemet_sentence_1

In some of these languages "single" Guillemets, ‹ and ›, are used for a quotation inside another quotation. Guillemet_sentence_2

Guillemets are not conventionally used in the English language. Guillemet_sentence_3

Terminology Guillemet_section_0

Guillemets may also be called angle, Latin, or French quotes / quotation marks. Guillemet_sentence_4

Guillemet is a diminutive of the French name Guillaume (equivalent to English William), apparently after the French printer and punchcutter Guillaume Le Bé (1525–1598), though he did not invent the symbols: they first appear in a 1527 book printed by Josse Bade. Guillemet_sentence_5

Some languages derive their word for guillemets analogously: the Irish term is Liamóg, from Liam 'William' and a diminutive suffix. Guillemet_sentence_6

In Adobe Systems font software, its file format specifications, and in all fonts derived from these that contain the characters, the glyph names are incorrectly spelled guillemotleft and guillemotright (a malapropism: guillemot is actually a species of seabird). Guillemet_sentence_7

Adobe acknowledges the error. Guillemet_sentence_8

Likewise, X11 mistakenly uses XK_guillemotleft and XK_guillemotright to name keys producing the characters. Guillemet_sentence_9

Shape Guillemet_section_1

Guillemets are smaller than less-than and greater-than signs, which in turn are smaller than angle brackets. Guillemet_sentence_10

Uses Guillemet_section_2

As quotation marks Guillemet_section_3

See also: Quotation mark § Summary table Guillemet_sentence_11

Guillemets are used pointing outwards («like this») to indicate speech in these languages and regions: Guillemet_sentence_12

Guillemet_unordered_list_0

Guillemets are used pointing inwards (»like this«) to indicate speech in these languages: Guillemet_sentence_13

Guillemet_unordered_list_1

  • Croatian (marked usage; „...” prevails)Guillemet_item_1_31
  • Czech (marked usage; „...“ prevails)Guillemet_item_1_32
  • Danish ("..." is also used)Guillemet_item_1_33
  • Esperanto (very uncommon)Guillemet_item_1_34
  • German (except in Switzerland; preferred for printed matters; „...“ is preferred in handwriting)Guillemet_item_1_35
  • Hungarian (only used „inside a section »as a secondary quote« marked by the usual quotes“ like this)Guillemet_item_1_36
  • Polish (used to indicate a quote inside a quote as defined by dictionaries; more common usage in practice. See also: Polish orthography)Guillemet_item_1_37
  • Serbian (marked usage; „...“ prevails)Guillemet_item_1_38
  • Slovak (marked usage; „...“ prevails)Guillemet_item_1_39
  • Slovene („...“ and "..." also used)Guillemet_item_1_40
  • Swedish (this style, and »...» are rarely used; ”...” is the common and correct form)Guillemet_item_1_41

Guillemets are used pointing right (»like this») to indicate speech in these languages: Guillemet_sentence_14

Guillemet_unordered_list_2

  • Finnish (”...” is the common and correct form)Guillemet_item_2_42
  • Swedish (this style and «...» are rarely used; ”...” is the common and correct form)Guillemet_item_2_43

Ditto mark Guillemet_section_4

In Quebec, the right-hand guillemet, », called a guillemet itératif, is used as a ditto mark. Guillemet_sentence_15

UML Guillemet_section_5

Guillemets are used in Unified Modeling Language to indicate a stereotype of a standard element. Guillemet_sentence_16

Mail merge Guillemet_section_6

Microsoft Word uses guillemets when creating mail merges. Guillemet_sentence_17

Microsoft use these punctuation marks to denote a mail merge "field", such as «Title», «AddressBlock» or «GreetingLine». Guillemet_sentence_18

Then on the final printout, the guillemet-marked tags are replaced by each instance of the corresponding data item intended for that field by the user. Guillemet_sentence_19

Encoding Guillemet_section_7

Double guillemets are present in many 8-bit extended ASCII character sets. Guillemet_sentence_20

They were at 0xAE and 0xAF (174 and 175) in CP437 on the IBM PC, and 0xC7 and 0xC8 in Mac OS Roman, and placed in several of ISO 8859 code pages (namely: -1, -7, -8, -9, -13, -15, -16) at 0xAB and 0xBB (171 and 187). Guillemet_sentence_21

Microsoft added the single guillemets to CP1252 and similar sets used in Windows at 0x8B and 0x9B (139 and 155) (where the ISO standard placed C1 control codes). Guillemet_sentence_22

The ISO 8859 locations were inherited by Unicode, which added the single guillemets at new locations: Guillemet_sentence_23

Guillemet_unordered_list_3

  • U+00AB « LEFT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARKGuillemet_item_3_44
  • U+00BB » RIGHT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARKGuillemet_item_3_45
  • U+2039 ‹ SINGLE LEFT-POINTING ANGLE QUOTATION MARKGuillemet_item_3_46
  • U+203A › SINGLE RIGHT-POINTING ANGLE QUOTATION MARKGuillemet_item_3_47

Despite their names, the characters are mirrored when used in right-to-left contexts. Guillemet_sentence_24

Keyboard entry Guillemet_section_8

The double guillemets are standard keys on AZERTY and French Canadian QWERTY keyboards and some others. Guillemet_sentence_25

Guillemet_table_general_1

Guillemet_header_cell_1_0_0 «Guillemet_header_cell_1_0_1 »Guillemet_header_cell_1_0_2 Guillemet_header_cell_1_0_3 Guillemet_header_cell_1_0_4
DOS+WindowsGuillemet_header_cell_1_1_0 Alt+174Guillemet_cell_1_1_1 Alt+175Guillemet_cell_1_1_2 Guillemet_cell_1_1_3
WindowsGuillemet_header_cell_1_2_0 Alt+0171Guillemet_cell_1_2_1 Alt+0187Guillemet_cell_1_2_2 Alt+0139Guillemet_cell_1_2_3 Alt+0155Guillemet_cell_1_2_4
Windows US-International keyboardGuillemet_header_cell_1_3_0 Alt Gr+[Guillemet_cell_1_3_1 Alt Gr+]Guillemet_cell_1_3_2 Guillemet_cell_1_3_3
MacintoshGuillemet_header_cell_1_4_0 ⌥ Opt+\Guillemet_cell_1_4_1 ⌥ Opt+⇧ Shift+\Guillemet_cell_1_4_2 ⌥ Opt+⇧ Shift+3Guillemet_cell_1_4_3 ⌥ Opt+⇧ Shift+4Guillemet_cell_1_4_4
Macintosh French keyboardGuillemet_header_cell_1_5_0 ⌥ Opt+7Guillemet_cell_1_5_1 ⌥ Opt+⇧ Shift+7Guillemet_cell_1_5_2 Guillemet_cell_1_5_3
Macintosh Norwegian keyboardGuillemet_header_cell_1_6_0 ⌥ Opt+⇧ Shift+VGuillemet_cell_1_6_1 ⌥ Opt+⇧ Shift+BGuillemet_cell_1_6_2 Guillemet_cell_1_6_3
Compose key (Unix/Linux/etc)Guillemet_header_cell_1_7_0 Compose<<Guillemet_cell_1_7_1 Compose>>Guillemet_cell_1_7_2 Compose.<Guillemet_cell_1_7_3 Compose.>Guillemet_cell_1_7_4
ChromeOS, Linux (US international &

UK extended keyboards)Guillemet_header_cell_1_8_0

Alt Gr+ZGuillemet_cell_1_8_1 Alt Gr+XGuillemet_cell_1_8_2 Alt Gr+⇧ Shift+ZGuillemet_cell_1_8_3 Alt Gr+⇧ Shift+XGuillemet_cell_1_8_4
HTMLGuillemet_header_cell_1_9_0 «Guillemet_cell_1_9_1 »Guillemet_cell_1_9_2 Guillemet_cell_1_9_3 Guillemet_cell_1_9_4

See also Guillemet_section_9

Guillemet_unordered_list_4


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guillemet.