It can be above or below, and reversed.
Its forms are called tie, double breve, enotikon or papyrological hyphen, ligature tie, and undertie.
Not to be confused with emoticon.
The enotikon (ἑνωτικόν, henōtikón, lit.
In an era when Greek texts were typically written scripta continua, the enotikon served to show that a series of letters should be read as a single word rather than misunderstood as two separate words.
(Its companion mark was the hypodiastole, which showed that a series of letters should be understood as two separate words.)
Although modern Greek now uses the Latin hyphen, the Hellenic Organization for Standardization included mention of the enotikon in its romanization standard and Unicode is able to reproduce the symbol with its characters U+203F ‿ UNDERTIE and U+035C ͜ COMBINING DOUBLE BREVE BELOW.
Vocal Music Scores
In musical score engraving, the undertie symbol is called an "elision slur" or "lyric slur", and is used to indicate synalepha: the elision of two or more spoken syllables into a single note; this is in contrast to the more common melisma, the extension of a single spoken syllable over multiple sung notes.
Although rare in English texts, synalepha is often encountered in musical lyrics written in the Romance languages.
In use, the undertie is placed between the words of the lyric that are to be sung as one note to prevent the space between them being interpreted as a syllable break.
For example, in the printed lyric "the‿im - mor - tal air", the undertie between "the" and "im-" instructs the singer to elide these two syllables into one, thus reducing five spoken syllables into four sung notes.
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet uses two type of ties: the ligature tie (IPA #433), above or below two symbols and the undertie (IPA #509) between two symbols.
It is mostly found above but can also be found below when more suitable (e.g. [k͜p]).
On computers, it is encoded with characters U+0361 ͡ COMBINING DOUBLE INVERTED BREVE and, as an alternative when raisers might be interfering with the bow, U+035C ͜ COMBINING DOUBLE BREVE BELOW.
The undertie is used to represent linking (absence of a break) in the International Phonetic Alphabet.
On computers, the character used is U+203F ‿ UNDERTIE.
Uralic Phonetic Alphabet
The Uralic Phonetic Alphabet uses several forms of the tie or double breve:
- The triple inverted breve or triple breve below indicates a triphthong
- The double inverted breve, also known as the ligature tie, marks a diphthong
- The double inverted breve below indicates a syllable boundary between vowels
- The undertie is used for prosody
- The inverted undertie is used for prosody.
The triple breve below is used in the phonetic writing Rheinische Dokumenta for three letter combinations.
In the field of Computing, the Unicode character U+2040 ⁀ CHARACTER TIE is used is used to represent concatenation of sequences in Z notation.
For example, "s⁀t" represents the concatenation sequence of sequences called s and t, while the notation "⁀/q" is the distributed concatenation of the sequence of sequences called q.
In proofreading, the undertie was used to indicate that word in a manuscript had been divided incorrectly by a space.
(See Hyphen#Origin and history).
The indicator used in modern practice is convention is U+2050 ⁐ CLOSE UP.
|name||character||HTML code||Unicode||Unicode name||sample|
|double breve||͝||͝||U+035D||combining double breve||o͝o|
|ligature tie||͡||͡||U+0361||combining double inverted breve||/k͡p/|
|ligature tie below,
|͜||͜||U+035C||combining double breve below||/k͜p/|
|inverted undertie||⁔||⁔||U+2054||inverted undertie||o⁔o|
The diacritic signs triple inverted breve, triple breve, and double inverted breve have not yet been encoded for computers.
Unicode has characters similar to the tie:
- U+23DC ⏜ TOP PARENTHESIS and U+23DD ⏝ BOTTOM PARENTHESIS
- U+2322 ⌢ FROWN and U+2323 ⌣ SMILE
- U+2050 ⁐ CLOSE UP, which is a proofreading mark
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tie (typography).