Tie (typography)

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Tie (typography)_table_infobox_0

Tie (typography)_header_cell_0_0_0
TieTie (typography)_header_cell_0_1_0

The tie is a symbol in the shape of an arc similar to a large breve, used in Greek, phonetic alphabets, and Z notation. Tie (typography)_sentence_0

It can be used between two characters with spacing as punctuation, non-spacing as a diacritic, or (underneath) as a proofreading mark. Tie (typography)_sentence_1

It can be above or below, and reversed. Tie (typography)_sentence_2

Its forms are called tie, double breve, enotikon or papyrological hyphen, ligature tie, and undertie. Tie (typography)_sentence_3

Uses Tie (typography)_section_0

Greek Tie (typography)_section_1

Not to be confused with emoticon. Tie (typography)_sentence_4

The enotikon (ἑνωτικόν, henōtikón, lit. Tie (typography)_sentence_5

"uniter", from ἑνωτικός "a serving to unite or unify"), papyrological hyphen, or Greek hyphen was a low tie mark found in late Classical and Byzantine papyri. Tie (typography)_sentence_6

In an era when Greek texts were typically written scripta continua, the enotikon served to show that a series of letters should be read as a single word rather than misunderstood as two separate words. Tie (typography)_sentence_7

(Its companion mark was the hypodiastole, which showed that a series of letters should be understood as two separate words.) Tie (typography)_sentence_8

Although modern Greek now uses the Latin hyphen, the Hellenic Organization for Standardization included mention of the enotikon in its romanization standard and Unicode is able to reproduce the symbol with its characters U+203F   ‿ UNDERTIE and U+035C  ͜  COMBINING DOUBLE BREVE BELOW. Tie (typography)_sentence_9

The enotikon was also used in Greek musical notation, as a slur under two notes. Tie (typography)_sentence_10

When a syllable was sung with three notes, this slur was used in combination with a double point and a diseme overline. Tie (typography)_sentence_11

Vocal Music Scores Tie (typography)_section_2

In musical score engraving, the undertie symbol is called an "elision slur" or "lyric slur", and is used to indicate synalepha: the elision of two or more spoken syllables into a single note; this is in contrast to the more common melisma, the extension of a single spoken syllable over multiple sung notes. Tie (typography)_sentence_12

Although rare in English texts, synalepha is often encountered in musical lyrics written in the Romance languages. Tie (typography)_sentence_13

In use, the undertie is placed between the words of the lyric that are to be sung as one note to prevent the space between them being interpreted as a syllable break. Tie (typography)_sentence_14

For example, in the printed lyric "the‿im - mor - tal air", the undertie between "the" and "im-" instructs the singer to elide these two syllables into one, thus reducing five spoken syllables into four sung notes. Tie (typography)_sentence_15

International Phonetic Alphabet Tie (typography)_section_3

The International Phonetic Alphabet uses two type of ties: the ligature tie (IPA #433), above or below two symbols and the undertie (IPA #509) between two symbols. Tie (typography)_sentence_16

Ligature tie Tie (typography)_section_4

The ligature tie, also called double inverted breve, is used to represent double articulation (e.g. [k͡p]), affricates (e.g. [t͡ʃ]) or prenasalized consonant (e.g. [m͡b]) in the IPA. Tie (typography)_sentence_17

It is mostly found above but can also be found below when more suitable (e.g. [k͜p]). Tie (typography)_sentence_18

On computers, it is encoded with characters U+0361   ͡ COMBINING DOUBLE INVERTED BREVE and, as an alternative when raisers might be interfering with the bow, U+035C   ͜ COMBINING DOUBLE BREVE BELOW. Tie (typography)_sentence_19

Undertie Tie (typography)_section_5

The undertie is used to represent linking (absence of a break) in the International Phonetic Alphabet. Tie (typography)_sentence_20

For example it is used to indicate liaison (e.g. /vuz‿ave/) but can also be used for other types of sandhi. Tie (typography)_sentence_21

On computers, the character used is U+203F ‿ UNDERTIE. Tie (typography)_sentence_22

This is a spacing character, not to be confused with the alternative (below-letter) form of the ligature tie (a͜b U+035C ͜ COMBINING DOUBLE BREVE BELOW), which is a combining character. Tie (typography)_sentence_23

Uralic Phonetic Alphabet Tie (typography)_section_6

The Uralic Phonetic Alphabet uses several forms of the tie or double breve: Tie (typography)_sentence_24

Tie (typography)_unordered_list_0

  • The triple inverted breve or triple breve below indicates a triphthongTie (typography)_item_0_0
  • The double inverted breve, also known as the ligature tie, marks a diphthongTie (typography)_item_0_1
  • The double inverted breve below indicates a syllable boundary between vowelsTie (typography)_item_0_2
  • The undertie is used for prosodyTie (typography)_item_0_3
  • The inverted undertie is used for prosody.Tie (typography)_item_0_4

Other uses Tie (typography)_section_7

The double breve is used in the phonetic notation of the American Heritage Dictionary in combination with a double o, o͝o, to represent the near-close near-back rounded vowel (ʊ in IPA). Tie (typography)_sentence_25

The triple breve below is used in the phonetic writing Rheinische Dokumenta for three letter combinations. Tie (typography)_sentence_26

In the field of Computing, the Unicode character U+2040 ⁀ CHARACTER TIE is used is used to represent concatenation of sequences in Z notation. Tie (typography)_sentence_27

For example, "s⁀t" represents the concatenation sequence of sequences called s and t, while the notation "⁀/q" is the distributed concatenation of the sequence of sequences called q. Tie (typography)_sentence_28

In proofreading, the undertie was used to indicate that word in a manuscript had been divided incorrectly by a space. Tie (typography)_sentence_29

(See Hyphen#Origin and history). Tie (typography)_sentence_30

The indicator used in modern practice is convention is U+2050 ⁐ CLOSE UP. Tie (typography)_sentence_31

Encoding Tie (typography)_section_8

Tie (typography)_table_general_1

nameTie (typography)_header_cell_1_0_0 characterTie (typography)_header_cell_1_0_1 HTML codeTie (typography)_header_cell_1_0_2 UnicodeTie (typography)_header_cell_1_0_3 Unicode nameTie (typography)_header_cell_1_0_4 sampleTie (typography)_header_cell_1_0_5
non-spacingTie (typography)_header_cell_1_1_0
double breveTie (typography)_cell_1_2_0 ͝Tie (typography)_cell_1_2_1 ͝Tie (typography)_cell_1_2_2 U+035DTie (typography)_cell_1_2_3 combining double breveTie (typography)_cell_1_2_4 o͝oTie (typography)_cell_1_2_5
ligature tieTie (typography)_cell_1_3_0 ͡Tie (typography)_cell_1_3_1 ͡Tie (typography)_cell_1_3_2 U+0361Tie (typography)_cell_1_3_3 combining double inverted breveTie (typography)_cell_1_3_4 /k͡p/Tie (typography)_cell_1_3_5
ligature tie below,

enotikonTie (typography)_cell_1_4_0

͜Tie (typography)_cell_1_4_1 ͜Tie (typography)_cell_1_4_2 U+035CTie (typography)_cell_1_4_3 combining double breve belowTie (typography)_cell_1_4_4 /k͜p/Tie (typography)_cell_1_4_5
spacingTie (typography)_header_cell_1_5_0

enotikonTie (typography)_cell_1_6_0

Tie (typography)_cell_1_6_1 Tie (typography)_cell_1_6_2 U+203FTie (typography)_cell_1_6_3 undertieTie (typography)_cell_1_6_4 /vuz‿ave/Tie (typography)_cell_1_6_5
tieTie (typography)_cell_1_7_0 Tie (typography)_cell_1_7_1 Tie (typography)_cell_1_7_2 U+2040Tie (typography)_cell_1_7_3 character tieTie (typography)_cell_1_7_4 s⁀tTie (typography)_cell_1_7_5
inverted undertieTie (typography)_cell_1_8_0 Tie (typography)_cell_1_8_1 Tie (typography)_cell_1_8_2 U+2054Tie (typography)_cell_1_8_3 inverted undertieTie (typography)_cell_1_8_4 o⁔oTie (typography)_cell_1_8_5

The diacritic signs triple inverted breve, triple breve, and double inverted breve have not yet been encoded for computers. Tie (typography)_sentence_32

Unicode has characters similar to the tie: Tie (typography)_sentence_33

Tie (typography)_unordered_list_1

  • U+23DC ⏜ TOP PARENTHESIS and U+23DD ⏝ BOTTOM PARENTHESISTie (typography)_item_1_5
  • U+2322 ⌢ FROWN and U+2323 ⌣ SMILETie (typography)_item_1_6
  • U+2050 ⁐ CLOSE UP, which is a proofreading markTie (typography)_item_1_7

See also Tie (typography)_section_9

Tie (typography)_unordered_list_2

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tie (typography).