Slash (punctuation)

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This article is about the punctuation. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_0

For the root directory in Unix and Unix-like operating systems, see Root directory. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_1

The slash is an oblique slanting line punctuation mark /. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_2

Once used to mark periods and commas, the slash is now most often used to represent exclusive or inclusive or, division and fractions, and as a date separator. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_3

It is called a solidus in Unicode, it is also known as an oblique stroke, and it has several other historical or technical names, including oblique and virgule. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_4

A slash in the reverse direction \ is known as a backslash. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_5

History Slash (punctuation)_section_0

Slashes may be found in early writing as a variant form of dashes, vertical strokes, etc. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_6

The present use of a slash distinguished from such other marks derives from the medieval European virgule (Latin: virgula, lit. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_7

"twig"), which was used as a period, scratch comma, and caesura mark. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_8

(The first sense was eventually lost to the low dot and the other two developed separately into the comma , and caesura mark ||) Its use as a comma became especially widespread in France, where it was also used to mark the continuation of a word onto the next line of a page, a sense later taken on by the hyphen -. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_9

The Fraktur script used throughout Central Europe in the early modern period used a single slash as a scratch comma and a double slash // as a dash. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_10

The double slash developed into the double oblique hyphen ⸗ and double hyphen = or ゠ before being usually simplified into various single dashes. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_11

In the 18th century, the mark was generally known in English as the "oblique". Slash (punctuation)_sentence_12

The variant "oblique stroke" was increasingly shortened to "stroke", which became the common British name for the character, although printers and publishing professionals often instead referred to it as an "oblique". Slash (punctuation)_sentence_13

In the 19th and early 20th century, it was also widely known as the "shilling mark" or "solidus", from its use as the currency sign for the shilling. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_14

The name "slash" is a recent development, first attested in American English c. 1961, but has gained wide currency through its use in computing, a context where it is sometimes even used in British English in preference to the usual name "stroke". Slash (punctuation)_sentence_15

Clarifying terms such as "forward slash" have been coined owing to widespread use of Microsoft's DOS and Windows operating systems, which use the backslash extensively. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_16

Usage Slash (punctuation)_section_1

Disjunction and conjunction Slash (punctuation)_section_2

Connecting alternatives Slash (punctuation)_section_3

See also: Gender neutrality in languages with grammatical gender Slash (punctuation)_sentence_17

The slash is commonly used in many languages as a shorter substitute for the conjunction "or", typically with the sense of exclusive or (e.g., Y/N permits yes or no but not both). Slash (punctuation)_sentence_18

Its use in this sense is somewhat informal, although it is used in philology to note variants (e.g., virgula/uirgula) and etymologies (e.g., F. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_19

virgule/LL. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_20

virgula/L. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_21

virga/PIE. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_22

  • wirgā). Slash (punctuation)_sentence_23

Such slashes may be used to avoid taking a position in naming disputes. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_24

One example is the Syriac naming dispute, which prompted the US and Swedish censuses to use the respective official designations "Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac" and "Assyrier/Syrianer" for the ethnic group. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_25

In particular, since the late 20th century, the slash is used to permit more gender-neutral language in place of the traditional masculine or plural gender neutrals. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_26

In the case of English, this is usually restricted to degendered pronouns such as "he/she" or "s/he". Slash (punctuation)_sentence_27

Most other Indo-European languages include more far-reaching use of grammatical gender. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_28

In these, the separate gendered desinences (grammatical suffices) of the words may be given divided by slashes or set off with parentheses. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_29

For example, in Spanish, hijo is a son and a hija is a daughter; some proponents of gender-neutral language advocate the use of hijo/a or hijo(a) when writing for a general audience or addressing a listener of unknown gender. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_30

Less commonly, the æ ligature or at sign ⟨@⟩ is used instead: hij@. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_31

Similarly, in German, Sekretär refers to any secretary and Sekretärin to an explicitly female secretary; some advocates of gender neutrality support forms such as Sekretär/-in for general use. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_32

This does not always work smoothly, however: problems arise in the case of words like Arzt ("doctor") where the explicitly female form Ärztin is umlauted and words like Chinese ("Chinese person") where the explicitly female form Chinesin loses the terminal -e. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_33

Connecting non-contrasting items Slash (punctuation)_section_4

The slash is also used as a shorter substitute for the conjunction "and" or inclusive or (i.e., A or B or both), typically in situations where it fills the role of a hyphen or en dash. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_34

For example, the "Hemingway/Faulkner generation" might be used to discuss the era of the Lost Generation inclusive of the people around and affected by both Hemingway and Faulkner. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_35

This use is sometimes proscribed, as by New Hart's Rules, the style guide for the Oxford University Press. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_36

Presenting routes Slash (punctuation)_section_5

The slash, as a form of inclusive or, is also used to punctuate the stages of a route (e.g., Shanghai/Nanjing/Wuhan/Chongqing as stops on a tour of the Yangtze). Slash (punctuation)_sentence_37

Introducing topic shifts Slash (punctuation)_section_6

The word "slash" is also developing as a way to introduce topic shifts or follow-up statements. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_38

"Slash" can introduce a follow up statement, such as, "I really love that hot dog place on Liberty Street. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_39

Slash can we go there tomorrow?" Slash (punctuation)_sentence_40

It can also indicate a shift to an unrelated topic, as in "JUST SAW ALEX! Slash (punctuation)_sentence_41

Slash I just chubbed on oatmeal raisin cookies at north quad and i miss you." Slash (punctuation)_sentence_42

The new usage of "slash" appears most frequently in spoken conversation, though it can also appear in writing. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_43

In speech Slash (punctuation)_section_7

Sometimes the word "slash" is used in speech as a conjunction to represent the written role of the character, e.g. "bee slash mosquito protection" for a beekeeper's net hood, and "There's a little bit of nectar slash honey over here, but really it's not a lot." Slash (punctuation)_sentence_44

(said by a beekeeper examining in a beehive), and "Gastornis slash Diatryma" for two genera of prehistoric birds which are now thought to be the same one genus. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_45

Mathematics Slash (punctuation)_section_8

Fractions Slash (punctuation)_section_9

The fraction slash ⟨ ⁄ ⟩ is used between two numbers to indicate a fraction or ratio. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_46

Such formatting developed as a way to write the horizontal fraction bar on a single line of text. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_47

It is first attested in England and Mexico in the 18th century. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_48

This notation is known as an online, solidus, or shilling fraction. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_49

Nowadays fractions, unlike inline division, are often given using smaller numbers, superscript, and subscript (e.g., ⁄43). Slash (punctuation)_sentence_50

This notation is responsible for the current form of the percent ⟨%⟩, permille ⟨‰⟩, and permyriad ⟨‱⟩ signs, developed from the horizontal form 0/0 which represented an early modern corruption of an Italian abbreviation of per cento. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_51

Many fonts draw the fraction slash (and the division slash) less vertical than the slash. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_52

The separate encoding is also intended to permit automatic formatting of the preceding and succeeding digits by glyph substitution with numerator and denominator glyphs (e.g., display of "1, fraction slash, 2" as "½"), though this is not yet supported in many environments or fonts. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_53

Because of this lack of support, some authors still use Unicode subscripts and superscripts to compose fractions, and many fonts design these characters for this purpose. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_54

In addition, all of the multiples less than 1 of ⁄n for 0 < n ≤ 6 and n = 8 (e.g. ⁄3 and ⁄8), as well as ⁄7, ⁄9, and ⁄10, are in the Unicode Number Forms block as precomposed characters. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_55

This notation can also be used when the concept of fractions is extended from numbers to arbitrary rings by the method of localization of a ring. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_56

Division Slash (punctuation)_section_10

The division slash ⟨ ∕ ⟩, is used between two numbers to indicate division (e.g., 23 ÷ 43 can also be written as 23 ∕ 43). Slash (punctuation)_sentence_57

This use developed from the fraction slash in the late 18th or early 19th century. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_58

The formatting was advocated by De Morgan in the mid-19th century. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_59

Quotient of set Slash (punctuation)_section_11

Combining slash Slash (punctuation)_section_12

Computing Slash (punctuation)_section_13

The slash, sometimes distinguished as "forward slash", is used in computing in a number of ways, primarily as a separator among levels in a given hierarchy, for example in the path of a filesystem. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_60

File paths Slash (punctuation)_section_14

The slash is used as the path component separator in many computer operating systems (e.g., Unix's pictures/image.png). Slash (punctuation)_sentence_61

In Unix and Unix-like systems, such as macOS and Linux, the slash is also used for the volume root directory (e.g., the initial slash in /usr/john/pictures). Slash (punctuation)_sentence_62

Confusion of the slash with the backslash ⟨\⟩ largely arises from the use of the latter as the path component separator in the widely used MS-DOS, Windows, and OS/2 systems. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_63

Networking Slash (punctuation)_section_15

The slash is used in a similar fashion in internet URLs (e.g., Slash (punctuation)_sentence_64

Often a portion of such URLs corresponds with files on a Unix server with the same name. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_65

The slash in an IP address (e.g., indicates the prefix size in CIDR notation. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_66

The number of addresses of a subnet may be calculated as 2, in which the address size is 128 for IPv6 and 32 for IPv4. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_67

For example, in IPv4, the prefix size /29 gives: 2 = 2 = 8 addresses. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_68

Programming Slash (punctuation)_section_16

The slash is used as a division operator in most programming languages while APL uses it for reduction (fold) and compression (filter). Slash (punctuation)_sentence_69

The double slash is used by Rexx as a modulo operator, and Python (starting in version 2.2) uses a double slash for division which rounds (using floor) to an integer. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_70

In Raku the double slash is used as a "defined-or" alternative to ||. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_71

A dot and slash ⟨./⟩ is used in MATLAB and GNU Octave to indicate an element-by-element division of matrices. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_72

Comments that begin with /* (a slash and an asterisk) and end with */ were introduced in PL/I and subsequently adopted by SAS, C, Rexx, C++, Java, JavaScript, PHP, CSS, and C#. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_73

A double slash // is also used by C99, C++, C#, PHP, Java, Swift, and JavaScript to start a single line comment. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_74

In SGML and derived languages such as HTML and XML, a slash is used in closing tags. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_75

For example, in HTML, begins a section of bold text and closes it. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_76

In XHTML, slashes are also necessary for "self-closing" elements such as the newline command
where HTML has simply
. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_77

In a style originating in the Digital Equipment Corporation line of operating systems (OS/8, RT-11, TOPS-10, et cetera), Windows, DOS, some CP/M programs, OpenVMS, and OS/2 all use the slash to indicate command-line options. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_78

For example, the command dir/w is understood as using the command dir ("directory") with the "wide" option. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_79

Notice that no space is required between the command and the switch; this was the reason for the choice to use backslashes as the path separator since one would otherwise be unable to run a program in a different directory. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_80

Slashes are used as the standard delimiters for regular expressions, although other characters can be used instead. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_81

IBM JCL uses a double slash to start each line in a batch job stream except for /* and /&. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_82

Programs Slash (punctuation)_section_17

IRC and many in-game chat clients use the slash to mark commands, such as joining and leaving a chat room or sending private messages. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_83

For example, in IRC, /join #services is an command to join the channel "services" and /me is a command to format the following message as though it were an action instead of a spoken message. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_84

In Minecraft's chat function, the slash is used for executing console and plugin commands. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_85

In Second Life's chat function, the slash is used to select the "communications channel", allowing users to direct commands to virtual objects "listening" on different channels. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_86

For example, if a virtual house's lights were set to use channel 42, the command "/42 on" would turn them on. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_87

The Gedcom standard for exchanging computerized genealogical data uses slashes to delimit surnames. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_88

Example: Bill /Smith/ Jr. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_89

Slashes around surnames are also used in . Slash (punctuation)_sentence_90

Currency Slash (punctuation)_section_18

The slash (as the "shilling mark" or "solidus") was the currency sign of the shilling, a former coin of the United Kingdom and its former colonies. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_91

Before the decimalization of currency in Britain, its currency symbols (collectively £sd) represented their Latin names, derived from a medieval French modification of the late Roman libra, solidus, and denarius. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_92

Thus, one penny less than two pounds was written £1 19s. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_93

11d. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_94

During the period when English orthography included the long s, ſ, the ſ came to be written as a single slash. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_95

When the d. fell out of general use, one penny less than two pounds was written £1 19/11. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_96

Similarly, "2/6" meant two shillings sixpence. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_97

In Britain, exactly five shillings was typically written "5∕-" while, in East Africa, it was more common to mark it with a double hyphen as "5/=". Slash (punctuation)_sentence_98

The same style was also used under the British Raj and early independent India for the predecimalization rupee/anna/pie system. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_99

In decimalized currency, a slash followed by a dash ⟨/-⟩ continues to be used in some places to mark an exact amount of currency with no subunits. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_100

For example, "£50/-" is a variant of £50.00 and serves a similar function of providing clarity and ensuring that no further digits are added to the end of the number. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_101

The slash is used in currency exchange rate notation to express exchange rates, the ratio of the first currency in terms of the second. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_102

For example, EUR/USD x expresses that the value of 1 euro in terms of US dollars is x. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_103

This value may then be multiplied by any number of euros to find its value in dollars. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_104

Dates Slash (punctuation)_section_19

Slashes are a common calendar date separator used across many countries and by some standards such as the Common Log Format used by web servers. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_105

Depending on context, it may be in the form Day/Month/Year, Month/Day/Year, or Year/Month/Day. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_106

If only two elements are present, they typically denote a day and month in some order. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_107

For example, 9/11 is a common American way of writing the date 11 September and has become shorthand for the attacks on New York and Washington, DC, which occurred on a day Britons write as 11/9/2001. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_108

Owing to the ambiguity across cultures, the practice of using only two elements to denote a date is sometimes proscribed. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_109

Because of the world's many varying conventional date and time formats, ISO 8601 advocates the use of a Year-Month-Day system separated by hyphens (e.g., Armistice Day first occurred on 1918-11-11). Slash (punctuation)_sentence_110

In the ISO 8601 system, slashes represent date ranges: "1939/1945" represents what is more commonly written with an en dash as "1935–1945" or with a hyphen as "1935-1945". Slash (punctuation)_sentence_111

The autumn term of a northern-hemisphere school year might be marked "2010-09-01/12-22". Slash (punctuation)_sentence_112

In English, a range marked by a slash often has a separate meaning from one marked by a dash or hyphen. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_113

"24/25 December" would mark the time shared by both days (i.e., the night from Christmas Eve to Christmas morning) rather than the time made up by both days together, which would be written "24–25 December". Slash (punctuation)_sentence_114

Similarly, a historical reference to "1066/67" might imply an event occurred during the winter of late 1066 and early 1067, whereas a reference to 1066–67 would cover the entirety of both years. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_115

The usage was particularly common in British English during World War II, where such slash dates were used for night-bombing air raids. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_116

It is also used by some police forces in the United States. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_117

Numbering Slash (punctuation)_section_20

The slash is used in numbering to note totals. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_118

For example, "page 17/35" indicates that the relevant passage is on the 17th page of a 35-page document. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_119

Similarly, the marking "#333/500" on a product indicates it is the 333rd out of 500 identical products or out of a batch of 500 such products. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_120

For scores on schoolwork, in games, &c., "85/100" indicates 85 points were attained out of a possible 100. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_121

Slashes are also sometimes used to mark ranges in numbers that already include hyphens or dashes. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_122

One example is the ISO treatment of dating. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_123

Another is the US Air Force's treatment of aircraft serial numbers, which are normally written to note the fiscal year and aircraft number. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_124

For example, "85-1000" notes the thousandth aircraft ordered in fiscal year 1985. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_125

To indicate the next fifty subsequent aircraft, a slash is used in place of a hyphen or dash: "85-1001/1050". Slash (punctuation)_sentence_126

Linguistic transcription Slash (punctuation)_section_21

A pair of slashes (as "slants") are used in the transcription of speech to enclose pronunciations (i.e., phonetic transcriptions). Slash (punctuation)_sentence_127

For example, the IPA transcription of the English pronunciation of "solidus" is written /ˈsɒlɪdəs/. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_128

Properly, slashes mark broad or phonemic transcriptions, whereas narrow, allophonic transcriptions are enclosed by square brackets. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_129

For example, the word "little" may be broadly rendered as /ˈlɪtəl/ but a careful transcription of the velarization of the second L would be written [ˈlɪɾɫ̩]. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_130

In sociolinguistics, a double or triple slash may also be used in the transcription of a traditional sociolinguistic interview or in other type of linguistic elicitation to represent simultaneous speech, interruptions, and certain types of speech disfluencies. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_131

Letter Slash (punctuation)_section_22

The Iraqw language uses the slash as a letter, representing the voiced pharyngeal fricative, as in , "woman". Slash (punctuation)_sentence_132

Line breaks Slash (punctuation)_section_23

The slash (as a "virgule") offset by spaces to either side is used to mark line breaks when transcribing text from a multi-line format into a single-line one. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_133

It is particularly common in quoting poetry, song lyrics, and dramatic scripts, formats where omitting the line breaks risks losing meaningful context. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_134

For example, when quoting Hamlet's soliloquy Slash (punctuation)_sentence_135

into a prose paragraph, it is standard to mark the line breaks as "To be, or not to be, that is the question: / Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer / The slings and arrows of outrageous Fortune, / Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, / And by opposing end them..." Less often, virgules are used in marking paragraph breaks when quoting a prose passage. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_136

Some style guides, such as Hart's, prefer to use a pipe | in place of the slash to mark these line and paragraph breaks. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_137

The virgule may be thinner than a standard slash when typeset. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_138

In computing contexts, it may be necessary to use a non-breaking space before the virgule to prevent it from being widowed on the next line. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_139

Abbreviation Slash (punctuation)_section_24

The slash has become standard in several abbreviations. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_140

Generally, it is used to mark two-letter initialisms such as A/C (short for "air conditioner"), w/o ("without"), b/w ("black and white" or, less often, "between"), w/e ("whatever" or, less often, "weekend" or "week ending"), i/o ("input/output"), r/w ("read/write"), and n/a ("not applicable"). Slash (punctuation)_sentence_141

Other initialisms employing the slash include w/ ("with") and w/r/t ("with regard to"). Slash (punctuation)_sentence_142

Such slashed abbreviations are somewhat more common in British English and were more common around the Second World War (as with "S/E" to mean "single-engined"). Slash (punctuation)_sentence_143

The abbreviation 24/7 (denoting 24 hours a day, 7 days a week) describes a business that is always open or unceasing activity. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_144

The slash in derived units such as m/s (meters per second) is not an abbreviation slash, but a straight division. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_145

It is however in that position read as 'per' rather than e.g. 'over', which can be seen as analogous to units whose symbols are pure abbreviations such as mph (miles per hour), although in abbreviations 'per' is 'p' or dropped entirely (psi, pounds per square inch) rather than a slash. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_146

In the US government, the names of offices within various departments are abbreviated using slashes, starting with the larger office and following with its subdivisions. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_147

For example, the Federal Aviation Administration's Office of Commercial Space Transportation is formally abbreviated FAA/AST. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_148

Proofreading Slash (punctuation)_section_25

The slash or vertical bar (as a "separatrix") is used in proofreading to mark the end of margin notes or to separate margin notes from one another. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_149

The slash is also sometimes used in various proofreading initialisms, such as l/c and u/c for changes to lower and upper case, respectively. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_150

Fiction Slash (punctuation)_section_26

The slash is used in fan fiction to mark the romantic pairing a piece will focus upon (e.g., a K/S denoted a Star Trek story would focus on a sexual relationship between Kirk and Spock), a usage which developed in the 1970s from the earlier friendship pairings marked by ampersands (e.g., K&S). Slash (punctuation)_sentence_151

The genre as a whole is now known as slash fiction. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_152

Because it is more generally associated with homosexual male relationships, lesbian slash fiction is sometimes distinguished as femslash. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_153

In situations where other pairings occur, the genres may be distinguished as m/m, f/f, &c. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_154

Libraries Slash (punctuation)_section_27

The slash is used under the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules to separate the title of a work from its statement of responsibility (i.e., the listing of its author, director, &c.). Slash (punctuation)_sentence_155

Like a line break, this slash is surrounded by a single space on either side. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_156

For example: Slash (punctuation)_sentence_157

Slash (punctuation)_unordered_list_0

  • Gone with the Wind / by Margaret Mitchell.Slash (punctuation)_item_0_0
  • Star Trek II. The Wrath of Khan [videorecording] / Paramount Pictures.Slash (punctuation)_item_0_1

The format is used in both card catalogs and online records. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_158

Addresses Slash (punctuation)_section_28

The slash is sometimes used as an abbreviation for building numbers. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_159

For example, in some contexts, 8/A Evergreen Gardens specifies Apartment 8 in Building A of the residential complex Evergreen Gardens. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_160

In the United States, however, such an address refers to the first division of Apartment 8 and is simply a variant of Apartment 8A or 8-A. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_161

Similarly in the United Kingdom, an address such as 12/2 Anywhere Road means flat (or apartment) 2 in the building numbered 12 on Anywhere Road. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_162

Poetry Slash (punctuation)_section_29

The slash is used in various scansion notations for representing the metrical pattern of a line of verse, typically to indicate a stressed syllable. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_163

Music Slash (punctuation)_section_30

Slashes are used in musical notation as an alternative to writing out specific notes where it is easier to read than traditional notation or where the player can improvise. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_164

They are commonly used to indicate chords either in place of or in combination with traditional notation and for drummers as an indication to continue with the previously indicated style. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_165

Sports Slash (punctuation)_section_31

A slash is used to mark a spare (knocking down all ten pins in two throws) when scoring ten-pin and duckpin bowling. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_166

Text messaging Slash (punctuation)_section_32

In online messaging, a slash might be used to imitate the formatting of a chat command (e.g., writing "/fliptable" as though there were such a command) or the closing tags of languages such as HTML (e.g., writing "/endrant" to end an ironic diatribe or "/s" to mark the preceding text as sarcastic). Slash (punctuation)_sentence_167

A pair of slashes is sometimes used as a way to mark italic text, where no special formatting is available (e.g., /italics/). Slash (punctuation)_sentence_168

A single slash is sometimes used as a way of expressing a check mark, with the meaning "OK", "got it", "done", or "thanks". Slash (punctuation)_sentence_169

In Japan, a set of multiple slashes (typically three: ///) is used to convey shyness or embarrassment, owing to the way blushing is depicted in manga. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_170

These slashes are usually placed at the end of a statement. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_171

Spacing Slash (punctuation)_section_33

There are usually no spaces either before or after a slash. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_172

According to New Hart's Rules: The Oxford Style Guide, a slash is usually written without spacing on either side when it connects single words, letters or symbols. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_173

Exceptions are in representing the start of a new line when quoting verse, or a new paragraph when quoting prose. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_174

The Chicago Manual of Style also allows spaces when either of the separated items is a compound that itself includes a space: "Our New Zealand / Western Australia trip". Slash (punctuation)_sentence_175

(Compare use of an en dash used to separate such compounds.) Slash (punctuation)_sentence_176

The Canadian Style: A Guide to Writing and Editing prescribes, "No space before or after an oblique when used between individual words, letters or symbols; one space before and after the oblique when used between longer groups which contain internal spacing", giving the examples "n/a" and "Language and Society / Langue et société". Slash (punctuation)_sentence_177

According to The Chicago Manual of Style, when typesetting a URL or computer path, line breaks should occur before a slash but not in the text between two slashes. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_178

Encoding Slash (punctuation)_section_34

As a very common character, the slash (as "slant") was originally encoded in ASCII with the decimal code 47 or 0x2F. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_179

The same value was used in Unicode, which calls it "solidus" and also adds some more characters: Slash (punctuation)_sentence_180

Slash (punctuation)_unordered_list_1

  • U+002F / SOLIDUSSlash (punctuation)_item_1_2
  • U+2044 ⁄ FRACTION SLASHSlash (punctuation)_item_1_3
  • U+2215 ∕ DIVISION SLASHSlash (punctuation)_item_1_4
  • U+29F8 ⧸ BIG SOLIDUSSlash (punctuation)_item_1_5
  • U+FF0F / FULLWIDTH SOLIDUS (fullwidth version of solidus)Slash (punctuation)_item_1_6
  • U+1F67C 🙼 VERY HEAVY SOLIDUSSlash (punctuation)_item_1_7

In XML and HTML, the slash can also be represented with the character entity / or / or &sol;. Slash (punctuation)_sentence_181

Alternative names Slash (punctuation)_section_35

Slash (punctuation)_table_general_0

NameSlash (punctuation)_header_cell_0_0_0 Use caseSlash (punctuation)_header_cell_0_0_1
diagonalSlash (punctuation)_cell_0_1_0 An uncommon name for the slash in all its uses, but particularly the less vertical fraction slash.Slash (punctuation)_cell_0_1_1
division slashSlash (punctuation)_cell_0_2_0 Unicode's formal name for the variant of the slash used to mark division.Slash (punctuation)_cell_0_2_1
forward slashSlash (punctuation)_cell_0_3_0 A retronym used to distinguish slash from a backslash following the popularization of MS-DOS and other Microsoft operating systems, which use the backslash for paths in its file system. Less often forward stroke (UK), foreslash, front slash, and frontslash. It is not unknown to even see such back-formations as reverse backslash.Slash (punctuation)_cell_0_3_1
fraction slashSlash (punctuation)_cell_0_4_0 Unicode's formal name for the low slash used to marking fractions. Also sometimes known as the fraction bar, although this more properly refers to the horizontal bar.Slash (punctuation)_cell_0_4_1
obliqueSlash (punctuation)_cell_0_5_0 A formerly common name for the slash in all its uses. Also oblique stroke, oblique dash, &c.Slash (punctuation)_cell_0_5_1
scratch commaSlash (punctuation)_cell_0_6_0 A modern name for the virgule's historic use as a form of comma.Slash (punctuation)_cell_0_6_1
separatrixSlash (punctuation)_cell_0_7_0 Originally, the vertical line separating integers from decimals before the advent of the decimal point; later used for the vertical bar or slash used in proofreader's marginalia to denote the intended replacement for a letter or word struckthrough in proofed text or to separate margin notes. Sometimes misapplied to virgules.Slash (punctuation)_cell_0_7_1
shilling markSlash (punctuation)_cell_0_8_0 A development of the long S ſ used as a currency symbol for the former English shilling (Latin: solidus). Also known as a shilling stroke. Now obsolete except in historical contexts.Slash (punctuation)_cell_0_8_1
slantSlash (punctuation)_cell_0_9_0 From its shape, an infrequent name except (as slants) in its use to mark pronunciations off from other text and as the official ASCII name of the character. Also slant line(s) or bar(s).Slash (punctuation)_cell_0_9_1
slash markSlash (punctuation)_cell_0_10_0 An alternative name used to distinguish the punctuation mark from the word's other senses.Slash (punctuation)_cell_0_10_1
slatSlash (punctuation)_cell_0_11_0 An uncommon name for the slash used by the esoteric programming language INTERCAL. Also slak.Slash (punctuation)_cell_0_11_1
solidusSlash (punctuation)_cell_0_12_0 Another name for the shilling mark (from the Latin form of its name), also applied to other slashes separating numbers or letters, adopted by the ISO and Unicode as their formal name for the slash. When used as a fraction bar, the solidus is less vertical than a standard slash, generally close to 45° and kerned on both sides; this use is distinguished by Unicode as the fraction slash. (This use is sometimes mistakenly described as the sole meaning of "solidus", with its use as a shilling mark and slash distinguished under the name "virgule".) The solidus's use as a division sign is distinguished as the division slash. The "combining short" or "long solidus overlay" is a diagonal strikethrough.Slash (punctuation)_cell_0_12_1
strokeSlash (punctuation)_cell_0_13_0 A common British name for the slash in nearly all its uses, a contraction of oblique stroke popularized by its use in telegraphy. It is particularly employed in reading the mark out loud: "he stroke she" is the common British reading of "he/she". "Slash" has, however, become common in Britain in computing contexts, while some North American amateur radio enthusiasts employ the British "stroke". Less frequently, "stroke" is also used to refer to hyphens.Slash (punctuation)_cell_0_13_1
virguleSlash (punctuation)_cell_0_14_0 A development of virgula ("twig"), the original medieval Latin name of the character when it was used as a period, scratch comma, and caesura mark. Now primarily used as the name of the slash when it is used to mark line breaks in quotations. Sometimes mistakenly distinguished as a formal name for the slash, as against the solidus's supposed use as a fraction slash. Formerly sometimes anglicized in British sources as the virgil.Slash (punctuation)_cell_0_14_1

The slash may also be read out as and, or, and/or, to, or cum in some compounds separated by a slash; over or out of in fractions, division, and numbering; and per or a(n) in derived units (as km/h) and prices (as $~/kg), where the division slash stands for "each". Slash (punctuation)_sentence_182

See also Slash (punctuation)_section_36

Slash (punctuation)_unordered_list_2

  • Strikethrough, including slashes through figuresSlash (punctuation)_item_2_8
  • Feynman slash notation in physics, which employs slash-like strikethroughsSlash (punctuation)_item_2_9
  • Inequality sign, an equals sign with a slash-like strikethroughSlash (punctuation)_item_2_10
  • /, a book by Greg Bear (read Slant)Slash (punctuation)_item_2_11

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: (punctuation).