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For the use of !? Interrobang_sentence_0

and ?! Interrobang_sentence_1

in chess notation, see Chess annotation symbols. Interrobang_sentence_2

For the Italian television series, see Interbang. Interrobang_sentence_3

For the Caparezza album, see ?! Interrobang_sentence_4 (album). Interrobang_sentence_5



The interrobang (/ɪnˈtɛrəbæŋ/), also known as the interabang (‽) (often represented by ? Interrobang_sentence_6

!, ! Interrobang_sentence_7

?, ?!? Interrobang_sentence_8

or !?! Interrobang_sentence_9

), is an unconventional punctuation mark used in various written languages and intended to combine the functions of the question mark, or interrogative point; and the exclamation mark, or exclamation point, known in the jargon of printers and programmers as a "bang". Interrobang_sentence_10

The glyph is a superimposition of these two marks. Interrobang_sentence_11

The interrobang was first proposed in 1962 by Martin K. Speckter. Interrobang_sentence_12

Application Interrobang_section_0

A sentence ending with an interrobang asks a question in an excited manner, expresses excitement or disbelief in the form of a question, or asks a rhetorical question. Interrobang_sentence_13

For example: Interrobang_sentence_14


  • You call that a hat‽Interrobang_item_0_0
  • You're dying‽Interrobang_item_0_1
  • What are those‽Interrobang_item_0_2

Writers using informal language may use several alternating question marks and exclamation marks for even more emphasis; however, this is regarded as poor style in formal writing. Interrobang_sentence_15

History Interrobang_section_1

Historically, writers have used multiple punctuation marks to end a sentence expressing surprise and question. Interrobang_sentence_16

Invention Interrobang_section_2

American Martin K. Speckter (1915 – February 14, 1988) conceptualized the interrobang in 1962. Interrobang_sentence_17

As the head of an advertising agency, Speckter believed that advertisements would look better if copywriters conveyed surprised rhetorical questions using a single mark. Interrobang_sentence_18

He proposed the concept of a single punctuation mark in an article in the magazine TYPEtalks. Interrobang_sentence_19

Speckter solicited possible names for the new character from readers. Interrobang_sentence_20

Contenders included exclamaquest, QuizDing, rhet, and exclarotive, but he settled on interrobang. Interrobang_sentence_21

He chose the name to reference the punctuation marks that inspired it: interrogatio is Latin for "rhetorical question" or "cross-examination"; bang is printers' slang for the exclamation mark. Interrobang_sentence_22

Graphic treatments for the new mark were also submitted in response to the article. Interrobang_sentence_23

Early interest Interrobang_section_3

In 1965, Richard Isbell created the Americana typeface for American Type Founders and included the interrobang as one of the characters. Interrobang_sentence_24

In 1968, an interrobang key was available on some Remington typewriters. Interrobang_sentence_25

In the 1970s, replacement interrobang keycaps and typefaces were available for some Smith-Corona typewriters. Interrobang_sentence_26

The interrobang was in vogue for much of the 1960s; the word interrobang appeared in some dictionaries, and the mark was used in magazine and newspaper articles. Interrobang_sentence_27

Continued support Interrobang_section_4

Most fonts do not include the interrobang, but it has not disappeared: Lucida Grande, the default font for many UI elements of legacy versions of Apple's OS X operating system, includes the interrobang, and Microsoft provides several versions of the interrobang in the Wingdings 2 character set (on the right bracket and tilde keys on US keyboard layouts), included with Microsoft Office. Interrobang_sentence_28

It was accepted into Unicode and is included in several fonts, including Lucida Sans Unicode, Arial Unicode MS, and Calibri, the default font in the Office 2007, 2010, and 2013 suites. Interrobang_sentence_29

Inverted interrobang Interrobang_section_5

A reverse and upside down interrobang (combining ¿ and ¡, Unicode character: ⸘), suitable for starting phrases in Spanish, Galician and Asturian, which use inverted question and exclamation marks, is called an "inverted interrobang" or a gnaborretni (interrobang spelled backwards), but the latter is rarely used. Interrobang_sentence_30

In current practice, interrobang-like emphatic ambiguity in Hispanic languages is usually achieved by including both sets of punctuation marks one inside the other (¿¡De verdad!? Interrobang_sentence_31

or ¡¿De verdad?! Interrobang_sentence_32

[Really!?]). Interrobang_sentence_33

Older usage, still official but not widespread, recommended mixing the punctuation marks: ¡Verdad? Interrobang_sentence_34

or ¿Verdad! Interrobang_sentence_35

Further information: Inverted question and exclamation marks § Mixtures Interrobang_sentence_36

Entering and display Interrobang_section_6

See also: Unicode input Interrobang_sentence_37

Few modern typefaces or fonts include a glyph for the interrobang character. Interrobang_sentence_38

The standard interrobang is at Unicode code point U+203D ‽ INTERROBANG. Interrobang_sentence_39

The inverted interrobang is at Unicode code point U+2E18 ⸘ INVERTED INTERROBANG. Interrobang_sentence_40

Single-character versions of the double-glyph versions are also available at code points U+2048 ⁈ QUESTION EXCLAMATION MARK and U+2049 ⁉ EXCLAMATION QUESTION MARK. Interrobang_sentence_41

On a Linux system supporting the Compose key, an interrobang can be produced by Compose!? Interrobang_sentence_42

reversing the order (Compose?!) Interrobang_sentence_43

creates the inverted interrobang. Interrobang_sentence_44

On Mac OS X, it is found on the Character Palette, obtained by pressing the key combination Ctrl+⌘ Cmd+Space. Interrobang_sentence_45

The interrobang can be inserted in HTML with ‽. Interrobang_sentence_46

The interrobang can be displayed in LaTeX by using the package textcomp and the command \textinterrobang. Interrobang_sentence_47

The inverted interrobang is the command \textinterrobangdown. Interrobang_sentence_48

Examples of use Interrobang_section_7

The State Library of New South Wales, in Australia, uses an interrobang as its logo, as does the educational publishing company Pearson, which intend it to convey "the excitement and fun of learning". Interrobang_sentence_49

Chief Judge Frank H. Easterbrook used an interrobang in the 2012 United States Seventh Circuit opinion Robert F. Booth Trust v. Crowley. Interrobang_sentence_50

Australian Federal Court Justice Michael Wigney used an interrobang in the first paragraph of his 2018 judgment in Faruqi v Latham FCA 1328 (defamation proceedings between former Federal Opposition Leader, Mark Latham, and political campaigner and writer, Osman Faruqi). Interrobang_sentence_51

In popular culture Interrobang_section_8

There is an Italian thriller movie titled Interrabang, which was released on December 31, 1969. Interrobang_sentence_52

American rock band Bayside titled their 8th studio album Interrobang. Interrobang_sentence_53

See also Interrobang_section_9


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