10th edition of Systema Naturae

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Main article: Systema Naturae 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_0

The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature. 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_1

In it, Linnaeus introduced binomial nomenclature for animals, something he had already done for plants in his 1753 publication of Species Plantarum. 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_2

Starting point 10th edition of Systema Naturae_section_0

Before 1758, most biological catalogues had used polynomial names for the taxa included, including earlier editions of Systema Naturae. 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_3

The first work to consistently apply binomial nomenclature across the animal kingdom was the 10th edition of Systema Naturae. 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_4

The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature therefore chose 1 January 1758 as the "starting point" for zoological nomenclature, and asserted that the 10th edition of Systema Naturae was to be treated as if published on that date. 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_5

Names published before that date are unavailable, even if they would otherwise satisfy the rules. 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_6

The only work which takes priority over the 10th edition is Carl Alexander Clerck's Svenska Spindlar or Aranei Suecici, which was published in 1757, but is also to be treated as if published on January 1, 1758. 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_7

Revisions 10th edition of Systema Naturae_section_1

Main article: Linnaean taxonomy 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_8

During Linnaeus' lifetime, Systema Naturae was under continuous revision. 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_9

Progress was incorporated into new and ever-expanding editions; for example, in his 1st edition (1735), whales and manatees were originally classified as species of fish (as was thought to be the case then), but in the 10th edition they were moved into the mammal class. 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_10

Animals 10th edition of Systema Naturae_section_2

The animal kingdom (as described by Linnaeus): "Animals enjoy sensation by means of a living organization, animated by a medullary substance; perception by nerves; and motion by the exertion of the will. 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_11

They have members for the different purposes of life; organs for their different senses; and faculties (or powers) for the application of their different perceptions. 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_12

They all originate from an egg. 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_13

Their external and internal structure; their comparative anatomy, habits, instincts, and various relations to each other, are detailed in authors who professedly treat on their subjects." 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_14

The list has been broken down into the original six classes Linnaeus described for animals; Mammalia, Aves, Amphibia, Pisces, Insecta, and Vermes. 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_15

These classes were ultimately created by studying the internal anatomy, as seen in his key: 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_16

10th edition of Systema Naturae_unordered_list_0

  • Heart with two auricles, two ventricles. Warm, red blood10th edition of Systema Naturae_item_0_0
    • Viviparous: Mammalia10th edition of Systema Naturae_item_0_1
    • Oviparous: Aves10th edition of Systema Naturae_item_0_2
  • Heart with one auricle, one ventricle. Cold, red blood10th edition of Systema Naturae_item_0_3
    • Lungs voluntary: Amphibia10th edition of Systema Naturae_item_0_4
    • External gills: Pisces10th edition of Systema Naturae_item_0_5
  • Heart with one auricle, no ventricles. Cold, pus-like blood10th edition of Systema Naturae_item_0_6
    • Have antennae: Insecta10th edition of Systema Naturae_item_0_7
    • Have tentacles: Vermes10th edition of Systema Naturae_item_0_8

By current standards Pisces and Vermes are informal groupings, Insecta also contained arachnids and crustaceans, and one order of Amphibia comprised sharks, lampreys, and sturgeons. 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_17

Mammalia 10th edition of Systema Naturae_section_3

Main article: Mammalia in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_18

Linnaeus described mammals as: "Animals that suckle their young by means of lactiferous teats. 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_19

In external and internal structure they resemble man: most of them are quadrupeds; and with man, their natural enemy, inhabit the surface of the Earth. 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_20

The largest, though fewest in number, inhabit the ocean." 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_21

Linnaeus divided the mammals based upon the number, situation, and structure of their teeth, into the following orders and genera: 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_22

10th edition of Systema Naturae_unordered_list_1

Aves 10th edition of Systema Naturae_section_4

Main article: Aves in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_23

Linnaeus described birds as: "A beautiful and cheerful portion of created nature consisting of animals having a body covered with feathers and down; protracted and naked jaws (the beak), two wings formed for flight, and two feet. 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_24

They are areal, vocal, swift and light, and destitute of external ears, lips, teeth, scrotum, womb, bladder, epiglottis, corpus callosum and its arch, and diaphragm." 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_25

Linnaeus divided the birds based upon the characters of the bill and feet, into the following 6 orders and 63 genera: 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_26

10th edition of Systema Naturae_unordered_list_2

Amphibia 10th edition of Systema Naturae_section_5

Main article: Amphibia in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_27

Linnaeus described his "Amphibia" (comprising reptiles and amphibians) as: "Animals that are distinguished by a body cold and generally naked; stern and expressive countenance; harsh voice; mostly lurid color; filthy odor; a few are furnished with a horrid poison; all have cartilaginous bones, slow circulation, exquisite sight and hearing, large pulmonary vessels, lobate liver, oblong thick stomach, and cystic, hepatic, and pancreatic ducts: they are deficient in diaphragm, do not transpire (sweat), can live a long time without food, are tenacious of life, and have the power of reproducing parts which have been destroyed or lost; some undergo a metamorphosis; some cast (shed) their skin; some appear to live promiscuously on land or in the water, and some are torpid during the winter." 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_28

Linnaeus divided the amphibians based upon the limb structures and the way they breathed, into the following orders and genera: 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_29

10th edition of Systema Naturae_unordered_list_3

Pisces 10th edition of Systema Naturae_section_6

Main article: Pisces in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_30

Linnaeus described fish as: "Always inhabiting the waters; are swift in their motion and voracious in their appetites. 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_31

They breathe by means of gills, which are generally united by a bony arch; swim by means of radiate fins, and are mostly covered over with cartilaginous scales. 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_32

Besides they parts they have in common with other animals, they are furnished with a nictitant membrane, and most of them with a swim-bladder, by the contraction or dilatation of which, they can raise or sink themselves in their element at pleasure." 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_33

Linnaeus divided the fishes based upon the position of the ventral and pectoral fins, into the following orders and genera: 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_34

10th edition of Systema Naturae_unordered_list_4

Insecta 10th edition of Systema Naturae_section_7

Main article: Insecta in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_35

Linnaeus described his "Insecta" (comprising all arthropods, including insects, crustaceans, arachnids and others) as: "A very numerous and various class consisting of small animals, breathing through lateral spiracles, armed on all sides with a bony skin, or covered with hair; furnished with many feet, and moveable antennae (or horns), which project from the head, and are the probable instruments of sensation." 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_36

Linnaeus divided the insects based upon the form of the wings, into the following orders and genera: 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_37

10th edition of Systema Naturae_unordered_list_5

Vermes 10th edition of Systema Naturae_section_8

Main article: Vermes in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_38

Linnaeus described his "Vermes" as: "Animals of slow motion, soft substance, able to increase their bulk and restore parts which have been destroyed, extremely tenacious of life, and the inhabitants of moist places. 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_39

Many of them are without a distinct head, and most of them without feet. 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_40

They are principally distinguished by their tentacles (or feelers). 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_41

By the Ancients they were not improperly called imperfect animals, as being destitute of ears, nose, head, eyes and legs; and are therefore totally distinct from Insects." 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_42

Linnaeus divided the "Vermes" based upon the structure of the body, into the following orders and genera: 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_43

10th edition of Systema Naturae_unordered_list_6

Plants 10th edition of Systema Naturae_section_9

The second volume, published in 1759, detailed the kingdom Plantae, in which Linnaeus included true plants, as well as fungi, algae and lichens. 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_44

In addition to repeating the species he had previously listed in his Species Plantarum (1753), and those published in the intervening period, Linnaeus described several hundred new plant species. 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_45

The species from Species Plantarum were numbered sequentially, while the new species were labelled with letters. 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_46

Many were sent to Linnaeus by his correspondents overseas, including Johannes Burman and David de Gorter in South Africa, Patrick Browne, Philip Miller and John Ellis in America, Jean-François Séguier, Carlo Allioni and Casimir Christoph Schmidel in the Alps, Gorter and Johann Ernst Hebenstreit in the Orient, and François Boissier de Sauvages de Lacroix, Gerard and Barnadet Gabriel across Europe. 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_47

New plant species described in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae include: 10th edition of Systema Naturae_sentence_48

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/10th edition of Systema Naturae.