2012 United States presidential election

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For related races, see 2012 United States elections. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_0

The 2012 United States presidential election was the 57th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 6, 2012. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_1

The incumbent Democratic President Barack Obama and his running mate, Vice President Joe Biden, were re-elected to a second term. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_2

They defeated the Republican ticket of businessman and former Governor Mitt Romney of Massachusetts and Representative Paul Ryan of Wisconsin. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_3

As the incumbent president, Obama secured the Democratic nomination without serious opposition. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_4

The Republicans experienced a competitive primary. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_5

Romney was consistently competitive in the polls and won the support of many party leaders, but he faced challenges from a number of more conservative contenders. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_6

Romney secured his party's nomination in May, defeating former Senator Rick Santorum, former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich, and Texas congressman Ron Paul, among other candidates. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_7

The campaigns focused heavily on domestic issues, and debate centered largely around sound responses to the Great Recession. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_8

Other issues included long-term federal budget issues, the future of social insurance programs, and the Affordable Care Act, Obama's marquee legislative program. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_9

Foreign policy was also discussed, including the phase-out of the Iraq War, military spending, the Iranian nuclear program, and appropriate counteractions to terrorism. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_10

The campaign was marked by a sharp rise in fundraising, including from nominally independent Super PACs. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_11

Obama defeated Romney, winning a majority of both the Electoral College and the popular vote. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_12

Obama won 332 electoral votes and 51.1% of the popular vote compared to Romney's 206 electoral votes and 47.2%. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_13

Obama was the first incumbent since Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1944 to win reelection with fewer electoral votes and a smaller popular vote margin than had been won in the previous election, and was also the first two-term president since Ronald Reagan to win both his presidential bids with a majority of the nationwide popular vote (50% or more). 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_14

This was also the first presidential election since 1944 in which neither candidate had military experience. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_15

Obama did not hold onto Indiana, North Carolina, or Nebraska's 2nd congressional district, but crucially won all 18 "blue wall" states and defeated Romney in other swing states the Republicans had won in 2000 and 2004, most notably Colorado, Florida, Ohio, and Virginia. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_16

Ultimately, of the nine swing states identified by The Washington Post in the 2012 election, Obama won eight, losing only North Carolina. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_17

This is also the most recent presidential election when the Democratic candidate won the states of Iowa, Ohio, and Florida, along with Maine's 2nd congressional district. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_18

Interestingly, all four major candidates for President and Vice President went on to hold significant public office after this election. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_19

Obama served his second term as President and was succeeded by Donald Trump in 2016, while Biden was elected President four years later by defeating Trump in 2020. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_20

Romney initially retired from politics and moved to Utah in 2014 but was later elected to the Senate there in 2018, succeeding Orrin Hatch, while Ryan served three more terms in the House and eventually became Speaker from 2015 until his retirement from politics in 2019. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_21

State changes to voter registration and electoral rules 2012 United States presidential election_section_0

In 2011, several state legislatures passed new voting laws, especially pertaining to voter identification, with the stated purpose of combating voter fraud; the laws were attacked, however, by the Democratic Party as attempts to suppress voting among its supporters and to improve the Republican Party's presidential prospects. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_22

Florida, Georgia, Ohio, Tennessee, and West Virginia's state legislatures approved measures to shorten early voting periods. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_23

Florida and Iowa barred all felons from voting. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_24

Kansas, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Wisconsin state legislatures passed laws requiring voters to have government-issued IDs before they could cast their ballots. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_25

This meant, typically, that people without driver's licenses or passports had to gain new forms of ID. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_26

Obama, the NAACP, and the Democratic Party fought against many of the new state laws. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_27

Former President Bill Clinton denounced them, saying, "There has never been in my lifetime, since we got rid of the poll tax and all the Jim Crow burdens on voting, the determined effort to limit the franchise that we see today". 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_28

He was referring to Jim Crow laws passed in southern states near the turn of the twentieth century that disenfranchised most blacks from voting and excluded them from the political process for more than six decades. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_29

Clinton said the moves would effectively disenfranchise core voter blocs that trend liberal, including college students, Blacks, and Latinos. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_30

Rolling Stone magazine criticized the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) for lobbying in states to bring about these laws, to "solve" a problem that does not exist. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_31

The Obama campaign fought against the Ohio law, pushing for a petition and statewide referendum to repeal it in time for the 2012 election. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_32

In addition, the Pennsylvania legislature proposed a plan to change its representation in the electoral college from the traditional winner-take-all model to a district-by-district model. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_33

As the governorship and both houses of its legislature were Republican-controlled, the move was viewed by some as an attempt to reduce Democratic chances. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_34

Ultimately they did not do it, leaving their winner take all format intact as of 2020. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_35

Nominations 2012 United States presidential election_section_1

Democratic Party nomination 2012 United States presidential election_section_2

Main article: 2012 Democratic Party presidential primaries 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_36

Primaries 2012 United States presidential election_section_3

With an incumbent president running for re-election against token opposition, the race for the Democratic nomination was largely uneventful. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_37

The nomination process consisted of primaries and caucuses, held by the 50 states, as well as Guam, Puerto Rico, Washington, D.C., U.S. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_38 Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and Democrats Abroad. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_39

Additionally, high-ranking party members known as superdelegates each received one vote in the convention. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_40

A few of the primary challengers surpassed the president's vote total in individual counties in several of the seven contested primaries, though none made a significant impact in the delegate count. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_41

Running unopposed everywhere else, Obama cemented his status as the Democratic presumptive nominee on April 3, 2012, by securing the minimum number of pledged delegates needed to obtain the nomination. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_42

Candidate 2012 United States presidential election_section_4

Main article: 2012 Democratic Party presidential candidates 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_43

Republican Party nomination 2012 United States presidential election_section_5

Main article: 2012 Republican Party presidential primaries 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_44

Primaries 2012 United States presidential election_section_6

Candidates with considerable name recognition who entered the race for the Republican presidential nomination in the early stages of the primary campaign included U.S. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_45 Representative and former Libertarian nominee Ron Paul, former Minnesota Governor Tim Pawlenty, who co-chaired John McCain's campaign in 2008, former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney, the runner-up for the nomination in the 2008 cycle, and former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_46

The first debate took place on May 5, 2011, in Greenville, South Carolina, with businessman Herman Cain, former New Mexico Governor Gary Johnson, Ron Paul, Tim Pawlenty, and former Pennsylvania Senator Rick Santorum participating. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_47

Another debate took place a month later, with Newt Gingrich, Mitt Romney, former Utah Governor Jon Huntsman, and Minnesota Congresswoman Michele Bachmann participating, and Gary Johnson excluded. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_48

A total of thirteen debates were held before the Iowa caucuses. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_49

The first major event of the campaign was the Ames Straw Poll, which took place in Iowa on August 13, 2011. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_50

Michele Bachmann won the straw poll (this ultimately proved to be the acme of her campaign). 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_51

Pawlenty withdrew from the race after a poor showing in the straw poll, as did Thaddeus McCotter, the only candidate among those who qualified for the ballot who was refused entrance into the debate. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_52

It became clear at around this point in the nomination process that while Romney was considered to be the likely nominee by the Republican establishment, a large segment of the conservative primary electorate found him to be too moderate for their political views. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_53

As a result, a number of potential "anti-Romney" candidates were put forward, including future President Donald Trump, former Alaska Governor and 2008 vice-presidential nominee Sarah Palin, New Jersey Governor Chris Christie, and Texas Governor Rick Perry, the last of whom decided to run in August 2011. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_54

Perry did poorly in the debates, however, and Herman Cain and then Newt Gingrich came into the fore in October and November. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_55

Due to a number of scandals, Cain withdrew just before the end of the year, after having gotten on the ballot in several states. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_56

Around the same time, Johnson, who had been able to get into only one other debate, withdrew to seek the Libertarian Party nomination. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_57

For the first time in modern Republican Party history, three different candidates won the first three state contests in January (the Iowa caucuses, the New Hampshire primary, and the South Carolina primary). 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_58

Although Romney had been expected to win in at least Iowa and New Hampshire, Rick Santorum won the non-binding poll at caucus sites in Iowa by 34 votes, as near as can be determined from the incomplete tally, earning him a declaration as winner by state party leaders, although vote totals were missing from eight precincts. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_59

The election of county delegates at the caucuses would eventually lead to Ron Paul earning 22 of the 28 Iowa delegates to the Republican National Convention. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_60

Newt Gingrich won South Carolina by a surprisingly large margin, and Romney won only in New Hampshire. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_61

A number of candidates dropped out at this point in the nomination process. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_62

Bachmann withdrew after finishing sixth in the Iowa caucuses, Huntsman withdrew after coming in third in New Hampshire, and Perry withdrew when polls showed him drawing low numbers in South Carolina. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_63

Santorum, who had previously run an essentially one-state campaign in Iowa, was able to organize a national campaign after his surprising victory there. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_64

He unexpectedly carried three states in a row on February 7 and overtook Romney in nationwide opinion polls, becoming the only candidate in the race to effectively challenge the notion that Romney was the inevitable nominee. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_65

However, Romney won all of the other contests between South Carolina and the Super Tuesday primaries, and regained his first-place status in nationwide opinion polls by the end of February. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_66

The Super Tuesday primaries took place on March 6. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_67

Romney carried six states, Santorum carried three, and Gingrich won only in his home state of Georgia. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_68

Throughout the rest of March, 266 delegates were allocated in 12 events, including the territorial contests and the first local conventions that allocated delegates (Wyoming's county conventions). 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_69

Santorum won Kansas and three Southern primaries, but he was unable to make any substantial gain on Romney, who became a formidable frontrunner after securing more than half of the delegates allocated in March. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_70

On April 10, Santorum suspended his campaign due to a variety of reasons, such as a low delegate count, unfavorable polls in his home state of Pennsylvania, and his daughter's health, leaving Mitt Romney as the undisputed front-runner for the presidential nomination and allowing Gingrich to claim that he was "the last conservative standing" in the campaign for the nomination. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_71

After disappointing results in the April 24 primaries (finishing second in one state, third in three, and fourth in one), Gingrich dropped out on May 2 in a move that was seen as an effective end to the nomination contest. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_72

After Gingrich's spokesman announced his upcoming withdrawal, the Republican National Committee declared Romney the party's presumptive nominee. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_73

Ron Paul officially remained in the race, but he stopped campaigning on May 14 to focus on state conventions. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_74

On May 29, after winning the Texas primary, Romney had received a sufficient number of delegates to clinch the party's nomination with the inclusion of unpledged delegates. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_75

After winning the June 5 primaries in California and several other states, Romney had received more than enough pledged delegates to clinch the nomination without counting unpledged delegates, making the June 26 Utah Primary, the last contest of the cycle, purely symbolic. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_76

CNN's final delegate estimate, released on July 27, 2012, put Romney at 1,462 pledged delegates and 62 unpledged delegates, for a total estimate of 1,524 delegates. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_77

No other candidate had unpledged delegates. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_78

The delegate estimates for the other candidates were Santorum at 261 delegates, Paul at 154, Gingrich at 142, Bachmann at 1, Huntsman at 1, and all others at 0. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_79

On August 28, 2012, delegates at the Republican National Convention officially named Romney the party's presidential nominee. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_80

Romney formally accepted the delegates' nomination on August 30, 2012. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_81

Candidate 2012 United States presidential election_section_7

Withdrawn candidates 2012 United States presidential election_section_8

Main article: 2012 Republican Party presidential candidates 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_82

2012 United States presidential election_table_general_0

Candidates in this section are sorted by reverse date of withdrawal from the primaries2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_0_0
Ron Paul2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_0_1_0 Newt Gingrich2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_0_1_1 Rick Santorum2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_0_1_2 Buddy Roemer2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_0_1_3 Rick Perry2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_0_1_4 Jon Huntsman Jr.2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_0_1_5
2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_2_0 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_2_1 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_2_2 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_2_3 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_2_4 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_2_5
U.S. Representative

from Texas (1997–2013)2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_3_0

50th

Speaker of the United States House of Representatives (1995–1999)2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_3_1

U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania  

(1995–2007)2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_3_2

52nd

Governor of Louisiana (1988–1992)2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_3_3

47th

Governor of Texas (2000–2015)2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_3_4

U.S. Ambassador

to China (2009-2011)2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_3_5

2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_4_0 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_4_1 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_4_2 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_4_3 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_4_4 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_4_5
Campaign2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_5_0 Campaign2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_5_1 Campaign2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_5_2 Campaign2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_5_3 Campaign2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_5_4 Campaign2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_5_5
W: N/A

2,017,957 votes2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_6_0

W: May 2

2,737,442 votes2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_6_1

W: April 10

3,816,110 votes2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_6_2

W: Feb 22

33,212 votes2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_6_3

W: Jan 19

42,251 votes2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_6_4

W: Jan 16

83,173 votes2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_6_5

2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_7_0 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_7_1 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_7_2 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_7_3 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_7_4 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_7_5
Michele Bachmann2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_0_8_0 Gary Johnson2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_0_8_1 Herman Cain2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_0_8_2 Thaddeus McCotter2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_0_8_3 Tim Pawlenty2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_0_8_4 Fred Karger2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_0_8_5
2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_9_0 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_9_1 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_9_2 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_9_3 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_9_4 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_9_5
U.S. Representative

from Minnesota (2007–2013)2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_10_0

29th

Governor of New Mexico (1995–2003)2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_10_1

Chair of the

Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City (1995–1996)2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_10_2

U.S. Representative

from Michigan (2002–2012)2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_10_3

39th

Governor of Minnesota (2003–2011)2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_10_4

Political

Consultant2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_10_5

2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_11_0 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_11_1 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_11_2 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_11_3 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_11_4 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_11_5
Campaign2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_12_0 Campaign2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_12_1 Campaign2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_12_2 Campaign2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_12_3 Campaign2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_12_4 Campaign2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_12_5
W: Jan 4

35,089 votes2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_13_0

W: Dec 28, 2011

4,286 votes2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_13_1

W: Dec 3, 2011

13,538 votes2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_13_2

W: Sep 22, 2011

0 votes2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_13_3

W: Aug 14, 2011

0 votes2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_13_4

W: June 29, 2012

12,776 votes2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_13_5

2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_14_0 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_14_1 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_14_2 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_14_3 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_14_4 2012 United States presidential election_cell_0_14_5

Third party and other nominations 2012 United States presidential election_section_9

Main article: Third-party and independent candidates for the 2012 United States presidential election 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_83

Four other parties nominated candidates that had ballot access or write-in access to at least 270 electoral votes, the minimum number of votes needed in the 2012 election to win the presidency through a majority of the electoral college. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_84

Libertarian Party 2012 United States presidential election_section_10

Main articles: Libertarian Party (United States), 2012 Libertarian National Convention, and Gary Johnson 2012 presidential campaign 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_85

2012 United States presidential election_unordered_list_0

  • Gary Johnson, former governor of New Mexico. Vice-presidential nominee: Jim Gray, retired state court judge, from California2012 United States presidential election_item_0_0

Green Party 2012 United States presidential election_section_11

Main articles: Green Party of the United States, 2012 Green National Convention, and Jill Stein 2012 presidential campaign 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_86

2012 United States presidential election_unordered_list_1

  • Jill Stein, medical doctor from Massachusetts. Vice-presidential nominee: Cheri Honkala, social organizer, from Pennsylvania.2012 United States presidential election_item_1_1

Constitution Party 2012 United States presidential election_section_12

Main articles: Constitution Party (United States), 2012 Constitution Party National Convention, and Virgil Goode 2012 presidential campaign 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_87

2012 United States presidential election_unordered_list_2

  • Virgil Goode, former Representative from Virginia. Vice-presidential nominee: Jim Clymer from Pennsylvania2012 United States presidential election_item_2_2

Justice Party 2012 United States presidential election_section_13

Main articles: Justice Party (United States) and Rocky Anderson 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_88

2012 United States presidential election_unordered_list_3

  • Rocky Anderson, former mayor of Salt Lake City and founding member of the Justice Party, from Utah. Vice-presidential nominee: Luis J. Rodriguez from California.2012 United States presidential election_item_3_3

Candidates gallery 2012 United States presidential election_section_14

2012 United States presidential election_unordered_list_4

  • 2012 United States presidential election_item_4_4
  • 2012 United States presidential election_item_4_5
  • 2012 United States presidential election_item_4_6
  • 2012 United States presidential election_item_4_7

Campaigns 2012 United States presidential election_section_15

See also: Barack Obama presidential campaign, 2012; Mitt Romney presidential campaign, 2012; Gary Johnson presidential campaign, 2012; Jill Stein presidential campaign, 2012; and Virgil Goode presidential campaign, 2012 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_89

Ballot access 2012 United States presidential election_section_16

2012 United States presidential election_table_general_1

Presidential ticket2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_1_0_0 Party2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_1_0_1 Ballot access2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_1_0_2 Votes2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_1_0_5 Percentage2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_1_0_6
States2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_1_1_0 Electors2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_1_1_1 % of voters2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_1_1_2
Obama / Biden2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_2_0 Democratic2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_2_1 50 + DC2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_2_2 5382012 United States presidential election_cell_1_2_3 100%2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_2_4 65,915,7952012 United States presidential election_cell_1_2_5 51.06%2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_2_6
Romney / Ryan2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_3_0 Republican2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_3_1 50 + DC2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_3_2 5382012 United States presidential election_cell_1_3_3 100%2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_3_4 60,933,5042012 United States presidential election_cell_1_3_5 47.20%2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_3_6
Johnson / Gray2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_4_0 Libertarian2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_4_1 48 + DC2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_4_2 5152012 United States presidential election_cell_1_4_3 95.1%2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_4_4 1,275,9712012 United States presidential election_cell_1_4_5 0.99%2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_4_6
Stein / Honkala2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_5_0 Green2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_5_1 36 + DC2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_5_2 4362012 United States presidential election_cell_1_5_3 83.1%2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_5_4 469,6272012 United States presidential election_cell_1_5_5 0.36%2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_5_6
Goode / Clymer2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_6_0 Constitution2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_6_1 262012 United States presidential election_cell_1_6_2 2572012 United States presidential election_cell_1_6_3 49.9%2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_6_4 122,3882012 United States presidential election_cell_1_6_5 0.09%2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_6_6
Anderson / Rodriguez2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_7_0 Justice2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_7_1 152012 United States presidential election_cell_1_7_2 1452012 United States presidential election_cell_1_7_3 28.1%2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_7_4 43,0182012 United States presidential election_cell_1_7_5 0.03%2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_7_6
Lindsay / Osorio2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_8_0 Socialism & Liberation2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_8_1 132012 United States presidential election_cell_1_8_2 1152012 United States presidential election_cell_1_8_3 28.6%2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_8_4 7,7912012 United States presidential election_cell_1_8_5 0.006%2012 United States presidential election_cell_1_8_6

Candidates in bold were on ballots representing 270 electoral votes. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_90

All other candidates were on the ballots of fewer than 10 states, 100 electors, and less than 20% of voters nationwide. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_91

Financing and advertising 2012 United States presidential election_section_17

The United States presidential election of 2012 broke new records in financing, fundraising, and negative campaigning. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_92

Through grassroots campaign contributions, online donations, and Super PACs, Obama and Romney raised a combined total of more than $2 billion. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_93

Super PACs constituted nearly one-fourth of the total financing, with most coming from pro-Romney PACs. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_94

Obama raised $690 million through online channels, beating his record of $500 million in 2008. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_95

Most of the advertising in the 2012 presidential campaign was decidedly negative—80% of Obama's ads and 84% of Romney's ads were negative. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_96

The tax-exempt non-profit Americans for Prosperity, a so-called "outside group", that is, a political advocacy group that is not a political action committee or super-PAC, ran a television advertising campaign opposing Obama described by The Washington Post as "early and relentless". 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_97

Americans for Prosperity spent $8.4 million in swing states on television advertisements denouncing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 loan guarantee to Solyndra, a manufacturer of solar panels that went bankrupt, an advertising campaign described by The Wall Street Journal in November 2011 as "perhaps the biggest attack on Mr. Obama so far". 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_98

Party conventions 2012 United States presidential election_section_18

2012 United States presidential election_unordered_list_5

Presidential debates 2012 United States presidential election_section_19

Main article: 2012 United States presidential debates 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_99

The Commission on Presidential Debates held four debates during the last weeks of the campaign: three presidential and one vice-presidential. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_100

The major issues debated were the economy and jobs, the federal budget deficit, taxation and spending, the future of Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid, healthcare reform, education, social issues, immigration, and foreign policy. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_101

Debate schedule: 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_102

2012 United States presidential election_table_general_2

Debates among candidates for the 2012 U.S. presidential election2012 United States presidential election_table_caption_2
No.2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_2_0_0 Date2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_2_0_1 Host2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_2_0_2 City2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_2_0_3 Moderator2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_2_0_4 Participants2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_2_0_5 Viewership

(million)2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_2_0_6

P12012 United States presidential election_cell_2_1_0 Wednesday, October 3, 20122012 United States presidential election_cell_2_1_1 University of Denver2012 United States presidential election_cell_2_1_2 Denver, Colorado2012 United States presidential election_cell_2_1_3 Jim Lehrer2012 United States presidential election_cell_2_1_4 2012 United States presidential election_cell_2_1_5 67.22012 United States presidential election_cell_2_1_6
VP2012 United States presidential election_cell_2_2_0 Thursday, October 11, 20122012 United States presidential election_cell_2_2_1 Centre College2012 United States presidential election_cell_2_2_2 Danville, Kentucky2012 United States presidential election_cell_2_2_3 Martha Raddatz2012 United States presidential election_cell_2_2_4 2012 United States presidential election_cell_2_2_5 51.42012 United States presidential election_cell_2_2_6
P22012 United States presidential election_cell_2_3_0 Tuesday, October 16, 20122012 United States presidential election_cell_2_3_1 Hofstra University2012 United States presidential election_cell_2_3_2 Hempstead, New York2012 United States presidential election_cell_2_3_3 Candy Crowley2012 United States presidential election_cell_2_3_4 2012 United States presidential election_cell_2_3_5 65.62012 United States presidential election_cell_2_3_6
P32012 United States presidential election_cell_2_4_0 Monday, October 22, 20122012 United States presidential election_cell_2_4_1 Lynn University2012 United States presidential election_cell_2_4_2 Boca Raton, Florida2012 United States presidential election_cell_2_4_3 Bob Schieffer2012 United States presidential election_cell_2_4_4 2012 United States presidential election_cell_2_4_5 59.22012 United States presidential election_cell_2_4_6

An independent presidential debate featuring minor party candidates took place on Tuesday, October 23 at the Hilton Hotel in Chicago, Illinois. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_103

The debate was moderated by Larry King and organized by the Free & Equal Elections Foundation. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_104

The participants were Gary Johnson (Libertarian), Jill Stein (Green), Virgil Goode (Constitution), and Rocky Anderson (Justice). 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_105

A second debate between Stein and Johnson took place on Monday, November 5 in Washington, D.C. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_106

It was hosted by RT and moderated by Thom Hartmann and Christina Tobin. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_107

Notable expressions, phrases, and statements 2012 United States presidential election_section_20

2012 United States presidential election_unordered_list_6

  • Severely conservative – In a speech he made at the Conservative Political Action Conference in February 2012, Romney claimed that he had been a "severely conservative Republican governor". Romney's description of his record as "severely conservative" was widely criticized by political commentators as both rhetorically clumsy and factually inaccurate. Later, the phrase "severely conservative" was frequently brought up by Democrats to make fun of Romney's willingness to associate himself with the far-right of the Republican Party as well as his apparent lack of sincerity while doing so. Conservative radio host Rush Limbaugh, who played the clip on his radio show, said: "I have never heard anybody say, 'I'm severely conservative.' "2012 United States presidential election_item_6_13
  • You didn't build that – A portion of a statement that Obama made in a July 2012 campaign speech in Roanoke, Virginia. Obama said that businesses depend on government-provided infrastructure to succeed, but critics of his remarks argued that he was underplaying the work of entrepreneurs and giving the government credit for individuals' success. The Romney campaign immediately jumped on the statement in an effort to drive a wedge between Obama and small business owners/employees. A major theme of the 2012 Republican National Convention was "We Built It".2012 United States presidential election_item_6_14
  • 47 percent – An expression Romney used at a private campaign fundraising event, which was secretly recorded and publicly released. At the private event, Romney said that 47 percent of the people would vote for Barack Obama no matter what Romney said or did because those people "...are dependent upon government... I'll never convince them they should take personal responsibility and care for their lives." Ironically, Romney received almost exactly 47% of the vote.2012 United States presidential election_item_6_15
  • Binders full of women – A phrase that Romney used in the second presidential debate to refer to the long list of female candidates that he considered when choosing his cabinet members as Governor of Massachusetts.2012 United States presidential election_item_6_16
  • Horses and bayonets – After Romney said in the third presidential debate that the U.S. Navy was smaller than at any time since 1917, Obama replied, "We have fewer ships than we did in 1916. Well, governor, we also have fewer horses and bayonets, because the nature of our military's changed."2012 United States presidential election_item_6_17
  • Shovel-ready jobs – a phrase used to describe some stimulus projects promoted by the administration. During the debate on September 23, 2011, Gary Johnson quipped, "My next-door neighbor's two dogs have created more shovel-ready jobs than this president."2012 United States presidential election_item_6_18
  • Romnesia – A term coined by a blogger in April 2011 and used by Obama late in the campaign to describe Romney's alleged inability to take responsibility for his past statements.2012 United States presidential election_item_6_19
  • $10,000 bet – During a Republican debate, Romney facetiously bet Texas governor Rick Perry $10,000 that he (Perry) was wrong about Romney's position on the individual mandate under the Affordable Healthcare Act. The statement was vilified by Democrats as exemplary of Romney being out of touch with working-class and middle-class Americans.2012 United States presidential election_item_6_20
  • Romneyshambles – a phrase used by the British press after Romney criticized British preparations for the 2012 Summer Olympics, which was a play on omnishambles. The phrase became a popular hashtag on Twitter and was later chosen as one of Collins English Dictionary's words of the year.2012 United States presidential election_item_6_21

Results 2012 United States presidential election_section_21

Electoral results 2012 United States presidential election_section_22

On the day of the election, spread betting firm Spreadex were offering an Obama Electoral College Votes spread of 296–300 to Romney's 239–243. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_108

In reality Obama's victory over Romney was far greater, winning 332 electoral votes to Romney's 206. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_109

Romney lost all but one of nine battleground states and received 47 percent of the nationwide popular vote to Obama's 51 percent. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_110

Popular vote totals are from the Federal Election Commission report. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_111

The results of the electoral vote were certified by Congress on January 4, 2013. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_112

2012 United States presidential election_table_general_3

Electoral results2012 United States presidential election_table_caption_3
Presidential candidate2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_3_0_0 Party2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_3_0_1 Home state2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_3_0_2 Popular vote2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_3_0_3 Electoral

vote2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_3_0_5

Running mate2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_3_0_6
Count2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_3_1_0 Percentage2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_3_1_1 Vice-presidential candidate2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_3_1_2 Home state2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_3_1_3 Electoral vote2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_3_1_4
Barack Hussein Obama II2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_2_0 Democratic2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_2_1 Illinois2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_2_2 65,915,7952012 United States presidential election_cell_3_2_3 51.06%2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_2_4 3322012 United States presidential election_cell_3_2_5 Joseph Robinette Biden Jr.2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_2_6 Delaware2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_2_7 3322012 United States presidential election_cell_3_2_8
Willard Mitt Romney2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_3_0 Republican2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_3_1 Massachusetts2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_3_2 60,933,5042012 United States presidential election_cell_3_3_3 47.20%2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_3_4 2062012 United States presidential election_cell_3_3_5 Paul Davis Ryan Jr.2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_3_6 Wisconsin2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_3_7 2062012 United States presidential election_cell_3_3_8
Gary Earl Johnson2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_4_0 Libertarian2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_4_1 New Mexico2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_4_2 1,275,9712012 United States presidential election_cell_3_4_3 0.99%2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_4_4 02012 United States presidential election_cell_3_4_5 James Polin Gray2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_4_6 California2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_4_7 02012 United States presidential election_cell_3_4_8
Jill Ellen Stein2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_5_0 Green2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_5_1 Massachusetts2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_5_2 469,6272012 United States presidential election_cell_3_5_3 0.36%2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_5_4 02012 United States presidential election_cell_3_5_5 Cheri Lynn Honkala2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_5_6 Pennsylvania2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_5_7 02012 United States presidential election_cell_3_5_8
Virgil Hamlin Goode Jr.2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_6_0 Constitution2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_6_1 Virginia2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_6_2 122,3892012 United States presidential election_cell_3_6_3 0.09%2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_6_4 02012 United States presidential election_cell_3_6_5 James N. Clymer2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_6_6 Pennsylvania2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_6_7 02012 United States presidential election_cell_3_6_8
Roseanne Cherrie Barr2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_7_0 Peace and Freedom2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_7_1 Hawaii2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_7_2 67,3262012 United States presidential election_cell_3_7_3 0.05%2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_7_4 02012 United States presidential election_cell_3_7_5 Cindy Lee Miller Sheehan2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_7_6 California2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_7_7 02012 United States presidential election_cell_3_7_8
Ross Carl "Rocky" Anderson2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_8_0 Justice2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_8_1 Utah2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_8_2 43,0182012 United States presidential election_cell_3_8_3 0.03%2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_8_4 02012 United States presidential election_cell_3_8_5 Luis Javier Rodriguez2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_8_6 California2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_8_7 02012 United States presidential election_cell_3_8_8
Thomas Conrad Hoefling2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_9_0 America's2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_9_1 Iowa2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_9_2 40,6282012 United States presidential election_cell_3_9_3 0.03%2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_9_4 02012 United States presidential election_cell_3_9_5 J.D. Ellis2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_9_6 Tennessee2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_9_7 02012 United States presidential election_cell_3_9_8
Other2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_10_0 217,1522012 United States presidential election_cell_3_10_3 0.17%2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_10_4 2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_10_5 Other2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_10_6 2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_10_8
Total2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_3_11_0 129,085,4102012 United States presidential election_cell_3_11_3 100%2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_11_4 5382012 United States presidential election_cell_3_11_5 2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_11_6 5382012 United States presidential election_cell_3_11_8
Needed to win2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_3_12_0 2702012 United States presidential election_cell_3_12_5 2012 United States presidential election_cell_3_12_6 2702012 United States presidential election_cell_3_12_8

Results by state 2012 United States presidential election_section_23

The table below displays the official vote tallies by each state's Electoral College voting method. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_113

The source for the results of all states, except those that amended their official results, is the official Federal Election Commission report. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_114

The column labeled "Margin" shows Obama's margin of victory over Romney (the margin is negative for every state that Romney won). 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_115

2012 United States presidential election_table_general_4

States/districts won by Obama/Biden2012 United States presidential election_cell_4_0_0
States/districts won by Romney/Ryan2012 United States presidential election_cell_4_1_0

Maine and Nebraska district results 2012 United States presidential election_section_24

Maine and Nebraska each allow for their election results votes to be split between candidates. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_116

In the 2012 election, all four of Maine's electoral votes were won by Obama and all five of Nebraska's electoral votes were won by Romney. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_117

The following table records the official presidential vote tallies for Maine and Nebraska's congressional districts. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_118

2012 United States presidential election_table_general_5

District2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_5_0_0 Obama2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_5_0_1 %2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_5_0_2 Romney2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_5_0_3 %2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_5_0_4 Johnson2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_5_0_5 %2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_5_0_6 Stein2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_5_0_7 %2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_5_0_8 Terry2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_5_0_9 %2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_5_0_10 Margin2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_5_0_11 %2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_5_0_12 Total2012 United States presidential election_header_cell_5_0_13
Maine's 1st congressional district2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_1_0 223,0352012 United States presidential election_cell_5_1_1 59.57%2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_1_2 142,9372012 United States presidential election_cell_5_1_3 38.18%2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_1_4 4,5012012 United States presidential election_cell_5_1_5 1.20%2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_1_6 3,9462012 United States presidential election_cell_5_1_7 1.05%2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_1_8 2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_1_9 2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_1_10 80,0982012 United States presidential election_cell_5_1_11 21.39%2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_1_12 374,4192012 United States presidential election_cell_5_1_13
Maine's 2nd congressional district2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_2_0 177,9982012 United States presidential election_cell_5_2_1 52.94%2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_2_2 149,2152012 United States presidential election_cell_5_2_3 44.38%2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_2_4 4,8432012 United States presidential election_cell_5_2_5 1.44%2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_2_6 4,1702012 United States presidential election_cell_5_2_7 1.24%2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_2_8 2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_2_9 2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_2_10 28,7832012 United States presidential election_cell_5_2_11 8.56%2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_2_12 336,2262012 United States presidential election_cell_5_2_13
Nebraska's 1st congressional district2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_3_0 108,0822012 United States presidential election_cell_5_3_1 40.83%2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_3_2 152,0212012 United States presidential election_cell_5_3_3 57.43%2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_3_4 3,8472012 United States presidential election_cell_5_3_5 1.45%2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_3_6 2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_3_7 2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_3_8 7622012 United States presidential election_cell_5_3_9 0.29%2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_3_10 −43,9392012 United States presidential election_cell_5_3_11 −16.60%2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_3_12 264,7122012 United States presidential election_cell_5_3_13
Nebraska's 2nd congressional district2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_4_0 121,8892012 United States presidential election_cell_5_4_1 45.70%2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_4_2 140,9762012 United States presidential election_cell_5_4_3 52.85%2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_4_4 3,3932012 United States presidential election_cell_5_4_5 1.27%2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_4_6 2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_4_7 2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_4_8 4692012 United States presidential election_cell_5_4_9 0.18%2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_4_10 −19,0872012 United States presidential election_cell_5_4_11 −7.16%2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_4_12 266,7272012 United States presidential election_cell_5_4_13
Nebraska's 3rd congressional district2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_5_0 72,1102012 United States presidential election_cell_5_5_1 27.82%2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_5_2 182,0672012 United States presidential election_cell_5_5_3 70.24%2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_5_4 3,8692012 United States presidential election_cell_5_5_5 1.49%2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_5_6 2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_5_7 2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_5_8 1,1772012 United States presidential election_cell_5_5_9 0.45%2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_5_10 −109,9572012 United States presidential election_cell_5_5_11 −42.42%2012 United States presidential election_cell_5_5_12 259,2232012 United States presidential election_cell_5_5_13

Close races 2012 United States presidential election_section_25

Red denotes states (or congressional districts that contribute an electoral vote) won by Republican Mitt Romney; blue denotes those won by Democrat Barack Obama. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_119

State where the margin of victory was under 1% (29 electoral votes): 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_120

2012 United States presidential election_ordered_list_7

  1. Florida, 0.88%2012 United States presidential election_item_7_22

States where the margin of victory was under 5% (46 electoral votes): 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_121

2012 United States presidential election_ordered_list_8

  1. North Carolina, 2.04%2012 United States presidential election_item_8_23
  2. Ohio, 2.98%2012 United States presidential election_item_8_24
  3. Virginia, 3.87%2012 United States presidential election_item_8_25

States/districts where the margin of victory was between 5% and 10% (120 electoral votes): 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_122

2012 United States presidential election_ordered_list_9

  1. Colorado, 5.37% (tipping point state)2012 United States presidential election_item_9_26
  2. Pennsylvania, 5.39%2012 United States presidential election_item_9_27
  3. New Hampshire, 5.58%2012 United States presidential election_item_9_28
  4. Iowa, 5.81%2012 United States presidential election_item_9_29
  5. Nevada, 6.68%2012 United States presidential election_item_9_30
  6. Wisconsin, 6.94%2012 United States presidential election_item_9_31
  7. Nebraska's 2nd Congressional District, 7.16%2012 United States presidential election_item_9_32
  8. Minnesota, 7.69%2012 United States presidential election_item_9_33
  9. Georgia, 7.82%2012 United States presidential election_item_9_34
  10. Maine's 2nd Congressional District, 8.56%2012 United States presidential election_item_9_35
  11. Arizona, 9.06%2012 United States presidential election_item_9_36
  12. Missouri, 9.38%2012 United States presidential election_item_9_37
  13. Michigan, 9.50%2012 United States presidential election_item_9_38

Romney's concession 2012 United States presidential election_section_26

After the networks called Ohio (the state that was arguably the most critical for Romney, as no Republican has ever won the Presidency without carrying it) for Obama at around 11:15 PM EST on Election Day, Romney was ready to concede the race, but hesitated when Karl Rove strenuously objected on Fox News to the network's decision to make that call. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_123

However, after Colorado and Nevada were called for the President (giving Obama enough electoral votes to win even if Ohio were to leave his column), in tandem with Obama's apparent lead in Florida and Virginia (both were eventually called for Obama), Romney acknowledged that he had lost and conceded at around 1:00 AM EST on November 7. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_124

Despite public polling showing Romney behind Obama in the swing states of Nevada, Colorado, Iowa, Wisconsin, Ohio, and New Hampshire, tied with Obama in Virginia, and just barely ahead of Obama in Florida, the Romney campaign said they were genuinely surprised by the loss, having believed that public polling was oversampling Democrats. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_125

The Romney campaign had already set up a transition website, and had scheduled and purchased a fireworks display to celebrate in case he won the election. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_126

On November 30, 2012, it was revealed that shortly before the election, internal polling done by the Romney campaign had shown Romney ahead in Colorado and New Hampshire, tied in Iowa, and within a few points of Obama in Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, Minnesota, and Ohio. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_127

In addition, the Romney campaign had assumed that they would win Florida and Virginia. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_128

The polls had made Romney and his campaign team so confident of their victory that Romney did not write a concession speech until Obama's victory was announced. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_129

Reactions 2012 United States presidential election_section_27

Further information: International reactions to the 2012 United States presidential election 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_130

Foreign leaders reacted with both positive and mixed messages. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_131

Most world leaders congratulated and praised Barack Obama on his re-election victory. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_132

However, Venezuela and some other states had tempered reactions. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_133

Pakistan commented that Romney's defeat had made Pakistan-United States relations safer. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_134

Stock markets fell noticeably after Obama's re-election, with the Dow Jones Industrial Average, NASDAQ, and the S&P 500 each declining over two percent the day after the election. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_135

Voter demographics 2012 United States presidential election_section_28

Hispanic vote 2012 United States presidential election_section_29

The United States has a population of 50 million Hispanic and Latino Americans, 27 million of whom are citizens eligible to vote (13% of total eligible voters). 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_136

Traditionally, only half of eligible Hispanic voters vote (around 7% of voters); of them, 71% voted for Barack Obama (increasing his percentage of the vote by 5%); therefore, the Hispanic vote was an important factor in Obama's re-election, since the vote difference between the two main parties was only 3.9% 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_137

Exit polls were conducted by Edison Research of Somerville, New Jersey, for the National Election Pool, a consortium of ABC News, Associated Press, CBS News, CNN, Fox News, and NBC News. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_138

Analysis 2012 United States presidential election_section_30

Combined with the re-elections of Bill Clinton and George W. Bush, Obama's victory in the 2012 election marked only the second time in American history that three consecutive presidents were each elected to two or more full terms (the first time being the consecutive two-term presidencies of Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe). 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_139

This was also the first election since 1944 in which neither of the major candidates had any military experience. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_140

The 2012 election marked the first time since Franklin D. Roosevelt's last two re-elections in 1940 and 1944 that a Democratic presidential candidate won a majority of the popular vote in two consecutive elections. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_141

Obama was also the first president of either party to secure at least 51% of the popular vote in two elections since Dwight Eisenhower in 1952 and 1956. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_142

Obama is the third Democratic president to secure at least 51% of the vote twice, after Andrew Jackson and Franklin D. Roosevelt. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_143

Romney won the popular vote in 226 congressional districts making this the first time since 1960 that the winner of the election did not win the popular vote in a majority of the congressional districts. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_144

Romney also became the first Republican since Gerald Ford's narrow defeat to Jimmy Carter, in 1976, to fail to win a presidential election while earning a minimum of 200 electoral votes. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_145

The same feat would also later repeat itself when Donald Trump lost the 2020 Presidential Election to Joe Biden with earning at least that amount of electoral votes. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_146

Romney lost his home state of Massachusetts, becoming the first major party presidential candidate to lose his home state since Democrat Al Gore lost his home state of Tennessee to Republican George W. Bush in the 2000 election. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_147

Romney lost his home state by more than 23%, the worst losing margin for a major party candidate since John Frémont in 1856. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_148

Even worse than Frémont, Romney failed to win a single county in his home state. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_149

In addition, since Obama carried Ryan's home state of Wisconsin, the Romney–Ryan ticket was the first major party ticket since the 1972 election to have both of its nominees lose their home states. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_150

Romney won the popular vote in every county of three states: Utah, Oklahoma, and West Virginia; Obama did so in four states: Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Hawaii. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_151

Romney's loss prompted the Republican National Committee to try to appeal to the American Latino population by concentrating on different approaches to immigration. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_152

These were short-lived due to activity and anger from the Republican base and may have contributed to the selection of Donald Trump as their presidential candidate four years later. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_153

Gary Johnson's popular vote total set a Libertarian Party record, and his popular vote percentage was the second-best showing for a Libertarian in a presidential election, trailing only Ed Clark's in 1980. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_154

Johnson would go on to beat this record in the 2016 presidential election, winning the most votes for the Libertarian ticket in history. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_155

At the time, Green Party candidate Jill Stein's popular vote total made her the most successful female presidential candidate in a general election in United States history. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_156

This was later surpassed by Hillary Clinton in the 2016 election. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_157

Obama's vote total was the fourth most votes received in the history of presidential elections (behind Obama's 2008 victory and both major candidates in 2020) and the most ever for a reelected president. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_158

However, Obama also became the first president in American history to be reelected to a second term by smaller margins in every way possible: Compared to his victory in 2008, he won fewer states (28 to 26), fewer electoral votes (365 to 332), fewer popular votes (69.5 million to 65.9 million), a smaller percentage of the popular vote (52.9% to 51.1%), and fewer congressional districts (242 to 209). 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_159

The 2012 election marked the first time since 1988 in which no state was won by a candidate with a plurality of the state's popular vote. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_160

All states were won with over 50% of the vote. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_161

So far, this is the only presidential election in history where both the Republican and Democratic vice presidential candidates are practicing Roman Catholics. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_162

It is also the only presidential election where there are no white Protestants on either major party ticket. 2012 United States presidential election_sentence_163

Maps 2012 United States presidential election_section_31

2012 United States presidential election_unordered_list_10

  • 2012 United States presidential election_item_10_39
  • 2012 United States presidential election_item_10_40
  • 2012 United States presidential election_item_10_41
  • 2012 United States presidential election_item_10_42
  • 2012 United States presidential election_item_10_43
  • 2012 United States presidential election_item_10_44
  • 2012 United States presidential election_item_10_45
  • 2012 United States presidential election_item_10_46
  • 2012 United States presidential election_item_10_47
  • 2012 United States presidential election_item_10_48


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2012 United States presidential election.