AIDS

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HIV/AIDS, or Human Immunodeficiency Virus, is considered by some authors a global pandemic. AIDS_sentence_0

However, the WHO currently uses the term 'global epidemic' to describe HIV. AIDS_sentence_1

As of 2018, approximately 37.9 million people are infected with HIV globally. AIDS_sentence_2

There were about 770,000 deaths from AIDS in 2018. AIDS_sentence_3

The 2015 Global Burden of Disease Study, in a report published in The Lancet, estimated that the global incidence of HIV infection peaked in 1997 at 3.3 million per year. AIDS_sentence_4

Global incidence fell rapidly from 1997 to 2005, to about 2.6 million per year, but remained stable from 2005 to 2015. AIDS_sentence_5

Sub-Saharan Africa is the region most affected. AIDS_sentence_6

In 2018, an estimated 61% of new HIV infections occurred in this region. AIDS_sentence_7

Prevalence ratios are "In western and central Europe and North America, low and declining incidence of HIV and mortality among people infected with HIV over the last 17 years has seen the incidence:prevalence ratio fall from 0.06 in 2000 to 0.03 in 2017. AIDS_sentence_8

Strong and steady reductions in new HIV infections and mortality among people infected with HIV in eastern and southern Africa has pushed the ratio down from 0.11 in 2000 to 0.04 in 2017. AIDS_sentence_9

Progress has been more gradual in Asia and the Pacific (0.05 in 2017), Latin America (0.06 in 2017), the Caribbean (0.05 in 2017) and western and central Africa (0.06 in 2017). AIDS_sentence_10

The incidence:prevalence ratios of the Middle East and North Africa (0.08 in 2017) and eastern Europe and central Asia (0.09 in 2017)". AIDS_sentence_11

South Africa has the largest population of people with HIV of any country in the world, at 7.06 million as of 2017. AIDS_sentence_12

In Tanzania, HIV/AIDS was reported to have a prevalence of 4.5% among Tanzanian adults aged 15–49 in 2017. AIDS_sentence_13

South & South-East Asia (a region with about 2 billion people as of 2010, over 30% of the global population) has an estimated 4 million cases (12% of all people infected with HIV), with about 250,000 deaths in 2010. AIDS_sentence_14

Approximately 2.5 million of these cases are in India, where however the prevalence is only about 0.3% (somewhat higher than that found in Western and Central Europe or Canada). AIDS_sentence_15

Prevalence is lowest in East Asia at 0.1%. AIDS_sentence_16

In 2017, approximately 1 million people in the United States had HIV; 14% did not realize that they were infected. AIDS_sentence_17

In 2017, 93,385 people (64,472 men and 28,877 women) living with diagnosed HIV infection received HIV care in the UK and 428 deaths. AIDS_sentence_18

42,739 (nearly 50%) of those are gay or bisexual, a small segment of the overall population. AIDS_sentence_19

In Australia, as of 2017, there were about 27,545 cases. AIDS_sentence_20

In Canada as of 2016, there were about 63,110 cases. AIDS_sentence_21

A reconstruction of its genetic history shows that the HIV pandemic almost certainly originated in Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, around 1920. AIDS_sentence_22

AIDS was first recognized in 1981, in 1983 the HIV virus was discovered and identified as the cause of AIDS, and by 2009 AIDS caused nearly 30 million deaths. AIDS_sentence_23

Global HIV data AIDS_section_0

Since the first case of HIV/AIDS reported in 1981, this virus although rare; it continues to be one of the most prevalent and deadliest pandemics worldwide. AIDS_sentence_24

The Center for Disease Control mentions that the HIV disease continues to be a serious health issue for several parts of the world. AIDS_sentence_25

Worldwide, there were about 1.7 million new cases of HIV reported in 2018. AIDS_sentence_26

About 37.9 million people were living with HIV around the world in 2018, and 24.5 million of them were receiving medicines to treat HIV, called antiretroviral therapy (ART). AIDS_sentence_27

In addition, roughly an estimated 770,000 people have died from AIDS-related illnesses in 2018. AIDS_sentence_28

Globally, individuals suffer from HIV/AIDS; yet, there has also been a common trend as far as prevalence in cases and regions most affected by the disease. AIDS_sentence_29

The CDC reports that areas like the Sub-Saharan Africa region is the most affected by HIV and AIDS worldwide, and accounts for approximately 61% of all new HIV infections. AIDS_sentence_30

Other regions significantly affected by HIV and AIDS include Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia. AIDS_sentence_31

Worldwide there is a common stigma and discrimination surrounding HIV/AIDS. AIDS_sentence_32

Respectively, infected patients are more subject to judgement, harassment, and acts of violence and come from marginalized areas where it is common to engage in illegal practices in exchange for money, drugs, or other exchangeable forms of currency. AIDS_sentence_33

AVERT, an international HIV and AIDS charity created in 1986, makes continuous efforts to prioritize, normalize, and provide the latest information and education programs on HIV and AIDS for individuals and areas most affected by this disease worldwide. AIDS_sentence_34

AVERT suggested that, discrimination and other human rights violations may occur in health care settings, barring people from accessing health services or enjoying quality health care. AIDS_sentence_35

Accessibility to tests have also played a significant role in the response and speed to which nations take action. AIDS_sentence_36

Approximately 81% of people with HIV globally knew their HIV status in 2019. AIDS_sentence_37

The remaining 19% (about 7.1 million people) still need access to HIV testing services. AIDS_sentence_38

HIV testing is an essential gateway to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services. AIDS_sentence_39

It is crucial to have HIV tests available for individuals worldwide since it can help individuals detect the status of their disease from an early onset, seek help, and prevent further spread through the practice of suggestive safety precautions. AIDS_sentence_40

There were approximately 38 million people across the globe with HIV/AIDS in 2019. AIDS_sentence_41

Of these, 36.2 million were adults and 1.8 million were children under 15 years old. AIDS_sentence_42

Global Statistics 2020 AIDS_section_1

AIDS_unordered_list_0

  • HIV & AIDS StatisticsAIDS_item_0_0
    • 25.4 million [24.5 million–25.6 million] people were accessing antiretroviral therapy in 2019.AIDS_item_0_1
    • 38.0 million [31.6 million–44.5 million] people globally were living with HIV in 2019.AIDS_item_0_2
    • 1.7 million [1.2 million–2.2 million] people became newly infected with HIV in 2019.AIDS_item_0_3
    • 690 000 [500 000–970 000] people died from AIDS-related illnesses in 2019.AIDS_item_0_4
    • 75.7 million [55.9 million–100 million] people have become infected with HIV since the start of the epidemic.AIDS_item_0_5
    • 32.7 million [24.8 million–42.2 million] people have died from AIDS-related illnesses since the start of the epidemic.AIDS_item_0_6
  • AIDS Deaths & MortalityAIDS_item_0_7
    • AIDS-related deaths have been reduced by 60% since the peak in 2004.AIDS_item_0_8
    • In 2019, around 690 000 [500 000–970 000] people died from AIDS-related illnesses worldwide, compared to 1.7 million [1.2 million–2.4 million] people in 2004 and 1.1 million [830 000 –1.6 million] people in 2010.AIDS_item_0_9
    • AIDS-related mortality has declined by 39% since 2010.AIDS_item_0_10
  • InvestmentsAIDS_item_0_11
    • At the end of 2019, US$ 18.6 billion (constant 2016 dollars) was available for the AIDS response in low- and middle-income countries, almost US$ 1.3 billion less than in 2017AIDS_item_0_12
    • Around 57% of the total resources for HIV in low- and middle-income countries in 2019 were from domestic sourcesAIDS_item_0_13
    • UNAIDS estimates that US$ 26.2 billion (constant 2016 dollars) will be required for the AIDS response in 2020.AIDS_item_0_14

HIV in World – historical data for selected countries AIDS_section_2

HIV/AIDS in World from 2001 to 2014 – adult prevalence rate – data from CIA World Factbook AIDS_sentence_43

By region AIDS_section_3

See also: List of countries by HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate AIDS_sentence_44

The pandemic is not homogeneous within regions, with some countries more afflicted than others. AIDS_sentence_45

Even at the country level, there are wide variations in infection levels between different areas. AIDS_sentence_46

The number of people infected with HIV continues to rise in most parts of the world, despite the implementation of prevention strategies, Sub-Saharan Africa being by far the worst-affected region, with an estimated 22.9 million at the end of 2010, 68% of the global total. AIDS_sentence_47

South and South East Asia have an estimated 12% of the global total. AIDS_sentence_48

The rate of new infections has fallen slightly since 2005 after a more rapid decline between 1997 and 2005. AIDS_sentence_49

Annual AIDS deaths have been continually declining since 2005 as antiretroviral therapy has become more widely available. AIDS_sentence_50

AIDS_table_general_0

World regionAIDS_header_cell_0_0_0 Estimated prevalence of HIV infection

(millions of adults and children)AIDS_header_cell_0_0_1

Estimated adult and child deaths during 2010AIDS_header_cell_0_0_2 Adult prevalence (%)AIDS_header_cell_0_0_3
WorldwideAIDS_header_cell_0_1_0 31.6–35.2AIDS_cell_0_1_1 1.6–1.9 millionAIDS_cell_0_1_2 0.8%AIDS_cell_0_1_3
Sub-Saharan AfricaAIDS_header_cell_0_2_0 21.6–24.1AIDS_cell_0_2_1 1.2 millionAIDS_cell_0_2_2 5.0%AIDS_cell_0_2_3
South and South-East AsiaAIDS_header_cell_0_3_0 3.6–4.5AIDS_cell_0_3_1 250,000AIDS_cell_0_3_2 0.3%AIDS_cell_0_3_3
Eastern Europe and Central AsiaAIDS_header_cell_0_4_0 1.3–1.7AIDS_cell_0_4_1 90,000AIDS_cell_0_4_2 0.9%AIDS_cell_0_4_3
Latin AmericaAIDS_header_cell_0_5_0 1.2–1.7AIDS_cell_0_5_1 67,000AIDS_cell_0_5_2 0.4%AIDS_cell_0_5_3
North AmericaAIDS_header_cell_0_6_0 1–1.9AIDS_cell_0_6_1 20,000AIDS_cell_0_6_2 0.6%AIDS_cell_0_6_3
East AsiaAIDS_header_cell_0_7_0 0.58–1.1AIDS_cell_0_7_1 56,000AIDS_cell_0_7_2 0.1%AIDS_cell_0_7_3
Western and Central EuropeAIDS_header_cell_0_8_0 .77–.93AIDS_cell_0_8_1 9,900AIDS_cell_0_8_2 0.2%AIDS_cell_0_8_3

Sub-Saharan Africa AIDS_section_4

Main article: HIV/AIDS in Africa AIDS_sentence_51

Sub-Saharan Africa remains the hardest-hit region. AIDS_sentence_52

HIV infection is becoming endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, which is home to just over 12% of the world's population but two-thirds of all people infected with HIV. AIDS_sentence_53

The adult HIV prevalence rate is 5.0% and between 21.6 million and 24.1 million total are affected. AIDS_sentence_54

However, the actual prevalence varies between regions. AIDS_sentence_55

Presently, Southern Africa is the hardest hit region, with adult prevalence rates exceeding 20% in most countries in the region, and 30% in Swaziland and Botswana. AIDS_sentence_56

Analysis of prevalence across sub-Saharan Africa between 2000 and 2017 found high variation in prevalence at a subnational level, with some countries demonstrating a more than five-fold difference in prevalence between different districts. AIDS_sentence_57

Eastern Africa also experiences relatively high levels of prevalence with estimates above 10% in some countries, although there are signs that the pandemic is declining in this region. AIDS_sentence_58

West Africa on the other hand has been much less affected by the pandemic. AIDS_sentence_59

Several countries reportedly have prevalence rates around 2 to 3%, and no country has rates above 10%. AIDS_sentence_60

In Nigeria and Côte d'Ivoire, two of the region's most populous countries, between 5 and 7% of adults are reported to carry the virus. AIDS_sentence_61

Across Sub-Saharan Africa, more women are infected with HIV than men, with 13 women infected for every 10 infected men. AIDS_sentence_62

This gender gap continues to grow. AIDS_sentence_63

Throughout the region, women are being infected with HIV at earlier ages than men. AIDS_sentence_64

The differences in infection levels between women and men are most pronounced among young people (aged 15–24 years). AIDS_sentence_65

In this age group, there are 36 women infected with HIV for every 10 men. AIDS_sentence_66

The widespread prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases, the promiscuous culture, the practice of scarification, unsafe blood transfusions, and the poor state of hygiene and nutrition in some areas may all be facilitating factors in the transmission of HIV-1 (Bentwich et al., 1995). AIDS_sentence_67

Mother-to-child transmission is another contributing factor in the transmission of HIV-1 in developing nations. AIDS_sentence_68

Due to a lack of testing, a shortage in antenatal therapies and through the feeding of contaminated breast milk, 590,000 infants born in developing countries are infected with HIV-1 per year. AIDS_sentence_69

In 2000, the World Health Organization estimated that 25% of the units of blood transfused in Africa were not tested for HIV, and that 10% of HIV infections in Africa were transmitted via blood. AIDS_sentence_70

Poor economic conditions (leading to the use of dirty needles in healthcare clinics) and lack of sex education contribute to high rates of infection. AIDS_sentence_71

In some African countries, 25% or more of the working adult population is HIV-positive. AIDS_sentence_72

Poor economic conditions caused by slow onset-emergencies, such as drought, or rapid onset natural disasters and conflict can result in young women and girls being forced into using sex as a survival strategy. AIDS_sentence_73

Worse still, research indicates that as emergencies, such as drought, take their toll and the number of potential 'clients' decreases, women are forced by clients to accept greater risks, such as not using contraceptives. AIDS_sentence_74

AIDS-denialist policies have impeded the creation of effective programs for distribution of antiretroviral drugs. AIDS_sentence_75

Denialist policies by former South African President Thabo Mbeki's administration led to several hundred thousand unnecessary deaths. AIDS_sentence_76

UNAIDS estimates that in 2005 there were 5.5 million people in South Africa infected with HIV — 12.4% of the population. AIDS_sentence_77

This was an increase of 200,000 people since 2003. AIDS_sentence_78

Although HIV infection rates are much lower in Nigeria than in other African countries, the size of Nigeria's population meant that by the end of 2003, there were an estimated 3.6 million people infected. AIDS_sentence_79

On the other hand, Uganda, Zambia, Senegal, and most recently Botswana have begun intervention and educational measures to slow the spread of HIV, and Uganda has succeeded in actually reducing its HIV infection rate. AIDS_sentence_80

Middle East and North Africa AIDS_section_5

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the adult population (15-49) in the Middle East and North Africa is estimated less than 0.1 between 1990 and 2018. AIDS_sentence_81

This is the lowest prevalence rate compared to other regions in the world. AIDS_sentence_82

In the MENA, roughly 240,000 people are living with HIV as of 2018 and Iran accounted for approximately one-quarter (61,000) of the population with HIV followed by Sudan (59,000). AIDS_sentence_83

As well as, Sudan (5,200), Iran (4,400) and Egypt (3,600) took up more than 60% of the number of new infections in the MENA (20,000). AIDS_sentence_84

Roughly two-thirds of AIDS-related deaths in this region happened in these countries for the year 2018. AIDS_sentence_85

Although the prevalence is low, concerns remain in this region. AIDS_sentence_86

First, unlike the global downward trend in new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths, the numbers have continuously increased in the MENA. AIDS_sentence_87

Second, compared to the global rate of antiretroviral therapy (62%), the MENA region's rate is far below (32%). AIDS_sentence_88

The low participation of ART increases not only the number of AIDS-related deaths but the risk of mother-to-baby HIV infections, in which the MENA (24.7%) shows relatively high rates compared to other regions, for example, southern Africa (10%), Asia and the Pacific (17%). AIDS_sentence_89

Key population at high risk in this region is identified as injection drug users, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. AIDS_sentence_90

South and South-East Asia AIDS_section_6

Main article: HIV/AIDS in Asia AIDS_sentence_91

The geographical size and human diversity of South and South-East Asia have resulted in HIV epidemics differing across the region. AIDS_sentence_92

In South and Southeast Asia, the HIV epidemic remains largely concentrated in injecting drug users, men who have sex with men (MSM), sex workers, and clients of sex workers and their immediate sexual partners. AIDS_sentence_93

In the Philippines, in particular, sexual contact between males comprise the majority of new infections. AIDS_sentence_94

An HIV surveillance study conducted by Dr. Louie Mar Gangcuangco and colleagues from the University of the Philippines-Philippine General Hospital showed that out of 406 MSM tested for HIV in Metro Manila, HIV prevalence was 11.8% (95% confidence interval: 8.7- 15.0). AIDS_sentence_95

Migrants, in particular, are vulnerable and 67% of those infected in Bangladesh and 41% in Nepal are migrants returning from India. AIDS_sentence_96

This is in part due to human trafficking and exploitation, but also because even those migrants who willingly go to India in search of work are often afraid to access state health services due to concerns over their immigration status. AIDS_sentence_97

East Asia AIDS_section_7

Main article: HIV/AIDS in Asia AIDS_sentence_98

The national HIV prevalence levels in East Asia is 0.1% in the adult (15–49) group. AIDS_sentence_99

However, due to the large populations of many East Asian nations, this low national HIV prevalence still means that large numbers of people are infected with HIV. AIDS_sentence_100

The picture in this region is dominated by China. AIDS_sentence_101

Much of the current spread of HIV in China is through injecting drug use and paid sex. AIDS_sentence_102

In China, the number was estimated at between 430,000 and 1.5 million by independent researchers, with some estimates going much higher. AIDS_sentence_103

In the rural areas of China, where large numbers of farmers, especially in Henan province, participated in unclean blood transfusions; estimates of those infected are in the tens of thousands. AIDS_sentence_104

In Japan, just over half of HIV/AIDS cases are officially recorded as occurring amongst homosexual men, with the remainder occurring amongst heterosexuals and also via drug abuse, in the womb or unknown means. AIDS_sentence_105

In East Asia, men who have sex with men account for 18% of new HIV/AIDS cases and are therefore a key affected group along with sex workers and their clients who makeup 29% of new cases. AIDS_sentence_106

This is also a noteworthy aspect because men who have sex with men had a prevalence of at least 5% or higher in countries in Asia and Pacific. AIDS_sentence_107

Americas AIDS_section_8

Caribbean AIDS_section_9

Main article: HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean AIDS_sentence_108

The Caribbean is the second-most affected region in the world. AIDS_sentence_109

Among adults aged 15–44, AIDS has become the leading cause of death. AIDS_sentence_110

The region's adult prevalence rate is 0.9%. AIDS_sentence_111

with national rates ranging up to 2.7%. AIDS_sentence_112

HIV transmission occurs largely through heterosexual intercourse. AIDS_sentence_113

A greater number of people who get infected with HIV/AIDS are heterosexuals. AIDS_sentence_114

with two-thirds of AIDS cases in this region attributed to this route. AIDS_sentence_115

Sex between men is also a significant route of transmission, even though it is heavily stigmatised and illegal in many areas. AIDS_sentence_116

HIV transmission through injecting drug use remains rare, except in Bermuda and Puerto Rico. AIDS_sentence_117

Within the Caribbean, the country with the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS is the Bahamas with a rate of 3.2% of adults with the disease. AIDS_sentence_118

However, when comparing rates from 2004 to 2013, the number of newly diagnosed cases of HIV decreased by 4% over those years. AIDS_sentence_119

Increased education and treatment drugs will help to decrease incidence levels even more. AIDS_sentence_120

Central and South America AIDS_section_10

Main article: HIV/AIDS in Latin America AIDS_sentence_121

The populations of Central and South America have approximately 1.6 million people currently infected with HIV and this number has remained relatively unvarying with having a prevalence of approximately .4%. AIDS_sentence_122

In Latin America, those infected with the disease have received help in the form of Antiretroviral treatment, with 75% of people with HIV receiving the treatment. AIDS_sentence_123

In these regions of the American continent, only Guatemala and Honduras have national HIV prevalence of over 1%. AIDS_sentence_124

In these countries, HIV-infected men outnumber HIV-infected women by roughly 3:1. AIDS_sentence_125

With HIV/AIDS incidence levels rising in Central America, education is the most important step in controlling the spread of this disease. AIDS_sentence_126

In Central America, many people do not have access to treatment drugs. AIDS_sentence_127

This results in 8–14% of people dying from AIDS in Honduras. AIDS_sentence_128

To reduce the incidence levels of HIV/AIDS, education and drug access needs to improve. AIDS_sentence_129

In a study of immigrants traveling to Europe, all asymptomatic persons were tested for a variety of infectious diseases. AIDS_sentence_130

The prevalence of HIV among the 383 immigrants from Latin America was low, with only one person testing positive for a HIV infection. AIDS_sentence_131

This data was collected from a group of immigrants with the majority from Bolivia, Ecuador and Colombia. AIDS_sentence_132

United States AIDS_section_11

Main articles: HIV/AIDS in the United States and HIV/AIDS in Canada AIDS_sentence_133

Since the epidemic began in the early 1980s, 1,216,917 people have been diagnosed with AIDS in the US. AIDS_sentence_134

In 2016, 14% of the 1.1 million people over age 13 living with HIV were unaware of their infection. AIDS_sentence_135

The most recent CDC HIV Surveillance Report estimates that 38,281 new cases of HIV were diagnosed in the United States in 2017, a rate of 11.8 per 100,000 population. AIDS_sentence_136

Men who have sex with men accounted for approximately 8 out of 10 HIV diagnoses among males. AIDS_sentence_137

Regionally, the population rates (per 100,000 people) of persons diagnosed with HIV infection in 2015 were highest in the South (16.8), followed by the Northeast (11.6), the West (9.8), and the Midwest (7.6). AIDS_sentence_138

The most frequent mode of transmission of HIV continues to be through male homosexual sexual relations. AIDS_sentence_139

In general, recent studies have shown that 1 in 6 gay and bisexual men were infected with HIV. AIDS_sentence_140

As of 2014, in the United States, 83% of new HIV diagnoses among all males aged 13 and older and 67% of the total estimated new diagnoses were among homosexual and bisexual men. AIDS_sentence_141

Those aged 13 to 24 also accounted for an estimated 92% of new HIV diagnoses among all men in their age group. AIDS_sentence_142

A review of studies containing data regarding the prevalence of HIV in transgender women found that nearly 11.8% self-reported that they were infected with HIV. AIDS_sentence_143

Along with these findings, recent studies have also shown that transgender women are 34 times more likely to have HIV than other women. AIDS_sentence_144

A 2008 review of HIV studies among transgender women found that 28 percent tested positive for HIV. AIDS_sentence_145

In the National Transgender Discrimination Survey, 20.23% of black respondents reported being HIV-positive, with an additional 10% reporting that they were unaware of their status. AIDS_sentence_146

AIDS is one of the top three causes of death for African American men aged 25–54 and for African American women aged 35–44 years in the United States of America. AIDS_sentence_147

In the United States, African Americans make up about 48% of the total HIV-positive population and make up more than half of new HIV cases, despite making up only 12% of the population. AIDS_sentence_148

The main route of transmission for women is through unprotected heterosexual sex. AIDS_sentence_149

African American women are 19 times more likely to contract HIV than other women. AIDS_sentence_150

By 2008, there was increased awareness that young African-American women in particular were at high risk for HIV infection. AIDS_sentence_151

In 2010, African Americans made up 10% of the population but about half of the HIV/AIDS cases nationwide. AIDS_sentence_152

This disparity is attributed in part to a lack of information about AIDS and a perception that they are not vulnerable, as well as to limited access to health-care resources and a higher likelihood of sexual contact with at-risk male sexual partners. AIDS_sentence_153

Since 1985, the incidence of HIV infection among women had been steadily increasing. AIDS_sentence_154

In 2005 it was estimated that at least 27% of new HIV infections were in women. AIDS_sentence_155

There has been increasing concern for the concurrency of violence surrounding women infected with HIV. AIDS_sentence_156

In 2012, a meta-analysis showed that the rates of psychological trauma, including Intimate Partner Violence and PTSD in HIV positive women were more than five times and twice the national averages, respectively. AIDS_sentence_157

In 2013, the White House commissioned an Interagency Federal Working Group to address the intersection of violence and women infected with HIV. AIDS_sentence_158

There are also geographic disparities in AIDS prevalence in the United States, where it is most common in the large cities of California, esp. AIDS_sentence_159

Los Angeles and San Francisco and the East Coast, ex. AIDS_sentence_160

New York City and in urban cities of the Deep South. AIDS_sentence_161

Rates are lower in Utah, Texas, and Northern Florida. AIDS_sentence_162

Washington, D.C., the nation's capital, has the nation's highest rate of infection, at 3%. AIDS_sentence_163

This rate is comparable to what is seen in west Africa, and is considered a severe epidemic. AIDS_sentence_164

In the United States in particular, a new wave of infection is being blamed on the use of methamphetamine, known as crystal meth. AIDS_sentence_165

Research presented at the 12th Annual Retrovirus Conference in Boston in February 2005 concluded that using crystal meth or cocaine is the biggest single risk factor for becoming HIV+ among US gay men, contributing 29% of the overall risk of becoming positive and 28% of the overall risk of being the receptive partner in anal sex. AIDS_sentence_166

In addition, several renowned clinical psychologists now cite methamphetamine as the biggest problem facing gay men today, including Michael Majeski, who believes meth is the catalyst for at least 80% of seroconversions currently occurring across the United States, and Tony Zimbardi, who calls methamphetamine the number one cause of HIV transmission, and says that high rates of new HIV infection are not being found among non-crystal users. AIDS_sentence_167

In addition, various HIV and STD clinics across the United States report anecdotal evidence that 75% of new HIV seroconversions they deal with are methamphetamine-related; indeed, in Los Angeles, methamphetamine is regarded as the main cause of HIV seroconversion among gay men in their late thirties. AIDS_sentence_168

The chemical "methamphetamine", in and of itself, cannot infect someone with HIV. AIDS_sentence_169

Canada AIDS_section_12

In 2016, there were approximately 63,100 people living with HIV/AIDS in Canada. AIDS_sentence_170

It was estimated that 9090 persons were living with undiagnosed HIV at the end of 2016. AIDS_sentence_171

Mortality has decreased due to medical advances against HIV/AIDS, especially highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). AIDS_sentence_172

HIV/AIDS prevalence is increasing most rapidly amongst aboriginal Canadians, with 11.3% of new infections in 2016. AIDS_sentence_173

Eastern Europe and Central Asia AIDS_section_13

Main article: HIV/AIDS in Eastern Europe and Central Asia AIDS_sentence_174

There is growing concern about a rapidly growing epidemic in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where an estimated 1.23–3.7 million people were infected as of December 2011, though the adult (15–49) prevalence rate is low (1.1%). AIDS_sentence_175

The rate of HIV infections began to grow rapidly from the mid-1990s, due to social and economic collapse, increased levels of intravenous drug use and increased numbers of prostitutes. AIDS_sentence_176

By 2010 the number of reported cases in Russia was over 450,000 according to the World Health Organization, up from 15,000 in 1995 and 190,000 in 2002; some estimates claim the real number is up to eight times higher, well over 2 million. AIDS_sentence_177

Ukraine and Estonia also have growing numbers of infected people, with estimates of 240,000 and 7,400 respectively in 2018. AIDS_sentence_178

Also, transmission of HIV is increasing through sexual contact and drug use among the young (<30 years). AIDS_sentence_179

Indeed, over 84% of current AIDS cases in this region occur in non-drug-using heterosexuals less than 26 years of age. AIDS_sentence_180

Western Europe AIDS_section_14

Oceania AIDS_section_15

Main articles: HIV/AIDS in Australia, HIV/AIDS in New Zealand, and HIV/AIDS in Papua New Guinea AIDS_sentence_181

There is a very large range of national situations regarding AIDS and HIV in this region. AIDS_sentence_182

This is due in part to the large distances between the islands of Oceania. AIDS_sentence_183

The wide range of development in the region also plays an important role. AIDS_sentence_184

The prevalence is estimated at between 0.2% and 0.7%, with between 45,000 and 120,000 adults and children currently infected with HIV. AIDS_sentence_185

Papua New Guinea has one of the most serious AIDS epidemics in the region. AIDS_sentence_186

According to UNAIDS, HIV cases in the country have been increasing at a rate of 30 percent annually since 1997, and the country's HIV prevalence rate in late 2006 was 1.3%. AIDS_sentence_187

AIDS Research & Society AIDS_section_16

In June 2001, the United Nations held a Special General Assembly to intensify international action to fight the HIV/AIDS epidemic as a global health issue, and to mobilize the resources needed towards this aim, labelling the situation a "global crisis". AIDS_sentence_188

Regarding the social effects of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, some sociologists suggest that AIDS has caused a "profound re-medicalisation of sexuality". AIDS_sentence_189

There has been extensive research done with HIV since 2001 in the United States, The National Institutes of Health (NIH) which is an agency funded by the U.S department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has substantially improve the health, treatment, and lives of many individuals across the nation. AIDS_sentence_190

Because acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is generally the precursor to AIDS, to this day there is no cure to this virus; However, treatment, education programs, proper medical care, and support have been made available for all individuals living with the virus. AIDS_sentence_191

NIH, is coordinated by the Office of AIDS Research (OAR) and this research carried out by nearly all the NIH Institutes and Centers, in both at NIH and at NIH-funded institutions worldwide. AIDS_sentence_192

The NIH HIV/AIDS Research Program, represents the world’s largest public investment in AIDS research. AIDS_sentence_193

Other agencies like the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases have also made substantial efforts to provide the latest and newest research and treatment available. AIDS_sentence_194

The NIH found that in certain areas of the world, the correlation in risky behaviors and the acquisition of HIV/AIDS is causational. AIDS_sentence_195

Consistent drug usage and related risk behaviors, such as the exchange of sex for drugs or money, are linked to an increased risk of HIV acquisition in marginalized areas. AIDS_sentence_196

NIAID and other NIH institutes work to develop and optimize harm reduction interventions that decrease the risk of drug use-associated and sexual transmission of HIV among injecting and non-injecting drug users. AIDS_sentence_197

Most organizations work collectively around the globe to understand, diagnose, treat, and battle the spread of this notorious disease, through the use of intervention and preventive programs the risk of acquiring HIV and the development of AIDS has dramatically dropped by 40% since its peak of cases back in 1998. AIDS_sentence_198

Despite the advancements in scientific research and treatment, to this day there's no available cure for HIV/AIDS. AIDS_sentence_199

Yet major efforts to contain the disease and improve the lives of many individuals through modernized anti-viral therapy have resulted in positive and promising results that may one day lead to a cure. AIDS_sentence_200

The U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is one of the largest U.S. Government’s response to the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and represents the largest commitment by any nation to address a single disease in history. AIDS_sentence_201

PEPFAR provided HIV testing services for 79.6 million people in Fiscal Year 2019 and, as of September 30, 2019, supported lifesaving anti-retroviral therapy for nearly 15.7 million men, women, and children. AIDS_sentence_202

As of the end of 2019, 25.4 million people with HIV (67%) were accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. AIDS_sentence_203

That means 12.6 million people are still waiting. AIDS_sentence_204

HIV treatment access is key to the global effort to end AIDS as a public health threat. AIDS_sentence_205

Individuals who not only are aware of their condition but also are prescribed ART, are encouraged to remain consistent with their daily-dosage treatment so they can reduce the spread, viral load, and live happy and healthy lives. AIDS_sentence_206

Because HIV is more prevalent in urban areas of the United States, individuals living in rural areas generally don't participate or receive HIV diagnosis. AIDS_sentence_207

The CDC found huge disparities in HIV cases between Northern and Southern regions of the Nation. AIDS_sentence_208

At a rate of 15.9 the Southern regions account for a large number of reports of HIV; subsequently, regions like the North and Midwest account for general rates between 9 to 7.2 making it significantly lower in case prevalence. AIDS_sentence_209

According to the CDC, populations affected and with most reported cases of HIV are generally found in gay, bisexual, and other men who reported male-to-male sexual contact. AIDS_sentence_210

In 2018, gay and bisexual men accounted for 69% of the 37,968 new HIV diagnoses and 86% of diagnoses among males. AIDS_sentence_211

HIV doesn't only affect individuals in this category, heterosexuals tend to be affected by HIV as well. AIDS_sentence_212

In 2018, heterosexuals accounted for 24% of the 37,968 new HIV diagnoses in the United States. AIDS_sentence_213

AIDS_unordered_list_1

  • Heterosexual men accounted for 8% of new HIV diagnoses.AIDS_item_1_15
  • Heterosexual women accounted for 16% of new HIV diagnoses.AIDS_item_1_16

UNAIDS also suggested that the individuals who may also be at risk of acquiring this disease are generally: AIDS_sentence_214

AIDS_unordered_list_2

  • 26 times higher among gay men and other men who have sex with men.AIDS_item_2_17
  • 29 times higher among people who inject drugs.AIDS_item_2_18
  • 30 times higher for sex workers.AIDS_item_2_19
  • 13 times higher for transgender people.AIDS_item_2_20

See also AIDS_section_17

AIDS_unordered_list_3


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AIDS.