Abu Bakr

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For other people with the name, see Abu Bakr (name). Abu Bakr_sentence_0

Abu Bakr_table_infobox_0

Abu Bakr

أَبُو بَكْرٍAbu Bakr_header_cell_0_0_0

1st Caliph of the Rashidun CaliphateAbu Bakr_header_cell_0_1_0
CaliphateAbu Bakr_header_cell_0_2_0 8 June 632 – 23 August 634Abu Bakr_cell_0_2_1
PredecessorAbu Bakr_header_cell_0_3_0 Islamic prophet Muhammad, as a last prophet, according to Sunni IslamAbu Bakr_cell_0_3_1
SuccessorAbu Bakr_header_cell_0_4_0 Umar ibn Al-KhattabAbu Bakr_cell_0_4_1
BornAbu Bakr_header_cell_0_6_0 (573-10-27)27 October 573

Mecca, Hejaz, ArabiaAbu Bakr_cell_0_6_1

DiedAbu Bakr_header_cell_0_7_0 23 August 634(634-08-23) (aged 60)

Medina, Hejaz, Rashidun CaliphateAbu Bakr_cell_0_7_1

BurialAbu Bakr_header_cell_0_8_0 Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, MedinaAbu Bakr_cell_0_8_1
SpousesAbu Bakr_header_cell_0_9_0 Abu Bakr_cell_0_9_1
IssueAbu Bakr_header_cell_0_10_0 Sons

DaughtersAbu Bakr_cell_0_10_1

Full nameAbu Bakr Abdullah ibn Uthman Abu Quhafa

(Arabic: أَبُو بَكْرٍ عَبْدُ ٱللهِ بْنُ عُثْمَانَ أَبِي قُحَافَةَ‎)Abu Bakr_cell_0_11_0

Full nameAbu Bakr_header_cell_0_12_0
FatherAbu Bakr_header_cell_0_13_0 Uthman Abu QuhafaAbu Bakr_cell_0_13_1
MotherAbu Bakr_header_cell_0_14_0 Salma Umm al-KhairAbu Bakr_cell_0_14_1
BrothersAbu Bakr_header_cell_0_15_0 Abu Bakr_cell_0_15_1
SistersAbu Bakr_header_cell_0_16_0 Abu Bakr_cell_0_16_1
TribeAbu Bakr_header_cell_0_17_0 Quraysh (Banu Taym)Abu Bakr_cell_0_17_1
DescendantsAbu Bakr_header_cell_0_18_0 SiddiquiAbu Bakr_cell_0_18_1
ReligionAbu Bakr_header_cell_0_19_0 IslamAbu Bakr_cell_0_19_1
OccupationAbu Bakr_header_cell_0_20_0 Businessman


economistAbu Bakr_cell_0_20_1

Abu Bakr Abdullah ibn Uthman (Arabic: أَبُو بَكْرٍ عَبْدُ ٱللهِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ‎; c. 573 CE – 23 August 634 CE) was a companion and, through his daughter Aisha, a father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as the first of the Rashidun Caliphs. Abu Bakr_sentence_1

Initially a rich and respected businessman, Abu Bakr later became one of the first converts to Islam and extensively contributed his wealth in support of Muhammad's work. Abu Bakr_sentence_2

He was among Muhammad's closest companions, accompanying him on his migration to Medina and being present at a number of his military conflicts, such as the battles of Badr and Uhud. Abu Bakr_sentence_3

Following Muhammad's death in 632, Abu Bakr succeeded in the leadership of the Muslim community as the first Rashidun Caliph. Abu Bakr_sentence_4

During his reign, he overcame a number of uprisings, collectively known as the Ridda wars, as a result of which he was able to consolidate and expand the rule of the Muslim state over the entire Arabian peninsula. Abu Bakr_sentence_5

He also commanded the initial incursions into the neighbouring Sassanian and Byzantine empires, which in the years following his death, would eventually result in the Muslim conquests of Persia and the Levant. Abu Bakr_sentence_6

Abu Bakr died of illness after a reign of 2 years, 2 months and 14 days. Abu Bakr_sentence_7

Lineage and title Abu Bakr_section_0

See also: Family tree of Abu Bakr Abu Bakr_sentence_8

Abu Bakr's full name was Abdullah ibn Uthman ibn Amir ibn Amr ibn Ka'b ibn Sa'd ibn Taym ibn Murrah ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy Ghalib ibn Fihr. Abu Bakr_sentence_9

In Arabic, the name Abd Allah means "servant of Allah". Abu Bakr_sentence_10

One of his early titles, preceding his conversion to Islam, was Ateeq, meaning "saved one". Abu Bakr_sentence_11

Muhammad later restated this title when he said that Abu Bakr is the "Ateeq". Abu Bakr_sentence_12

He was called Al-Siddiq (the truthful) by Muhammad after he believed him in the event of Isra and Mi'raj when other people didn't, and Ali confirmed that title several times. Abu Bakr_sentence_13

He was also reportedly referred to in the Quran as the "second of the two in the cave" in reference to the event of hijra, where with Muhammad he hid in the cave in Jabal Thawr from the Meccan party that was sent after them. Abu Bakr_sentence_14

Early life Abu Bakr_section_1

Abu Bakr was born in Mecca sometime in 573 CE, to a rich family in the Banu Taym tribe of the Quraysh tribal confederacy. Abu Bakr_sentence_15

His father's name was Uthman and given the laqab Abu Quhafa, and his mother was Salma bint Sakhar who was given the laqab of Umm ul-Khair. Abu Bakr_sentence_16

He spent his early childhood like other Arab children of the time, among the Bedouins who called themselves Ahl-i-Ba'eer- the people of the camel, and developed a particular fondness for camels. Abu Bakr_sentence_17

In his early years he played with the camel calves and goats, and his love for camels earned him the nickname (kunya) "Abu Bakr", the father of the camel's calf. Abu Bakr_sentence_18

Like other children of the rich Meccan merchant families, Abu Bakr was literate and developed a fondness for poetry. Abu Bakr_sentence_19

He used to attend the annual fair at Ukaz, and participate in poetical symposia. Abu Bakr_sentence_20

He had a very good memory and had a good knowledge of the genealogy of the Arab tribes, their stories and their politics. Abu Bakr_sentence_21

A story is preserved that once when he was a child, his father took him to the Kaaba, and asked him to pray before the idols. Abu Bakr_sentence_22

His father went away to attend to some other business, and Abu Bakr was left alone. Abu Bakr_sentence_23

Addressing an idol, Abu Bakr said "O my God, I am in need of beautiful clothes; bestow them on me". Abu Bakr_sentence_24

The idol remained indifferent. Abu Bakr_sentence_25

Then he addressed another idol, saying, "O God, give me some delicious food. Abu Bakr_sentence_26

See that I am so hungry". Abu Bakr_sentence_27

The idol remained cold. Abu Bakr_sentence_28

That exhausted the patience of young Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr_sentence_29

He lifted a stone, and, addressing an idol, said, "Here I am aiming a stone; if you are a god protect yourself". Abu Bakr_sentence_30

Abu Bakr hurled the stone at the idol and left the Kaaba. Abu Bakr_sentence_31

Regardless, it recorded that prior to converting to Islam, Abu Bakr practised as a hanif and never worshipped idols. Abu Bakr_sentence_32

Acceptance of Islam Abu Bakr_section_2

On his return from a business trip in Yemen, friends informed him that in his absence, Muhammad had declared himself the Messenger of God and proclaimed a new religion. Abu Bakr_sentence_33

The historian Al-Tabari, in his Ta'rikh al-Tabari, quotes from Muhammad ibn Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas, who said: Abu Bakr_sentence_34

Other Sunni and all Shi'a Muslims maintain that the second person to publicly accept Muhammed as the Messenger of God was Ali ibn Abi Talib, the first being Muhammad's wife Khadija. Abu Bakr_sentence_35

Ibn Kathir, in his Al Bidaya Wal Nihayah, disregards this. Abu Bakr_sentence_36

He stated that the first woman to embrace Islam was Khadijah. Abu Bakr_sentence_37

Zayd ibn Harithah was the first freed slave to embrace Islam. Abu Bakr_sentence_38

Ali ibn Abi Talib was the first child to embrace Islam, for he has not even reached the age of puberty at that time, while Abu Bakr was the first free man to embrace Islam. Abu Bakr_sentence_39

Subsequent life in Mecca Abu Bakr_section_3

His wife Qutaylah bint Abd-al-Uzza did not accept Islam and he divorced her. Abu Bakr_sentence_40

His other wife, Um Ruman, became a Muslim. Abu Bakr_sentence_41

All his children accepted Islam except Abdul-Rahman, from whom Abu Bakr disassociated himself. Abu Bakr_sentence_42

His conversion also brought many people to Islam. Abu Bakr_sentence_43

He persuaded his intimate friends to convert, and presented Islam to other friends in such a way that many of them also accepted the faith. Abu Bakr_sentence_44

Those who converted to Islam at the insistence of Abu Bakr were: Abu Bakr_sentence_45

Abu Bakr_unordered_list_0

Abu Bakr's acceptance proved to be a milestone in Muhammad's mission. Abu Bakr_sentence_46

Slavery was common in Mecca, and many slaves accepted Islam. Abu Bakr_sentence_47

When an ordinary free man accepted Islam, despite opposition, he would enjoy the protection of his tribe. Abu Bakr_sentence_48

For slaves, however, there was no such protection and they commonly experienced persecution. Abu Bakr_sentence_49

Abu Bakr felt compassion for slaves, so he purchased eight (four men and four women) and then freed them, paying 40,000 dinar for their freedom. Abu Bakr_sentence_50

The men were Abu Bakr_sentence_51

Abu Bakr_unordered_list_1

The women were: Abu Bakr_sentence_52

Abu Bakr_unordered_list_2

Most of the slaves liberated by Abu Bakr were either women or old and frail men. Abu Bakr_sentence_53

When the father of Abu Bakr asked him why he didn't liberate strong and young slaves, who could be a source of strength for him, Abu Bakr replied that he was freeing the slaves for the sake of God, and not for his own sake. Abu Bakr_sentence_54

Persecution by the Quraysh, 613 Abu Bakr_section_4

Main article: Persecution of Muslims by the Meccans Abu Bakr_sentence_55

For three years after the birth of Islam, Muslims kept their faith secret. Abu Bakr_sentence_56

In 613, according to Islamic tradition, Muhammad was commanded by God to call people to Islam openly. Abu Bakr_sentence_57

The first public address inviting people to offer allegiance to Muhammad was delivered by Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr_sentence_58

In a fit of fury, the young men of the Quraysh tribe rushed at Abu Bakr and beat him till he lost consciousness. Abu Bakr_sentence_59

Following this incident, Abu Bakr's mother converted to Islam. Abu Bakr_sentence_60

Abu Bakr was persecuted many times by the Quraysh. Abu Bakr_sentence_61

Though Abu Bakr's beliefs would have been defended by his own clan, it would not be so for the entire Quraysh tribe. Abu Bakr_sentence_62

Last years in Mecca Abu Bakr_section_5

In 617, the Quraysh enforced a boycott against the Banu Hashim. Abu Bakr_sentence_63

Muhammad along with his supporters from Banu Hashim, were cut off in a pass away from Mecca. Abu Bakr_sentence_64

All social relations with the Banu Hashim were cut off and their state was that of imprisonment. Abu Bakr_sentence_65

Before it many Muslims migrated to Abyssinia (now Ethiopia). Abu Bakr_sentence_66

Abu Bakr, feeling distressed, set out for Yemen and then to Abyssinia from there. Abu Bakr_sentence_67

He met a friend of his named Ad-Dughna (chief of the Qarah tribe) outside Mecca, who invited Abu Bakr to seek his protection against the Quraysh. Abu Bakr_sentence_68

Abu Bakr went back to Mecca, it was a relief for him, but soon due to the pressure of Quraysh, Ad-Dughna was forced to renounce his protection. Abu Bakr_sentence_69

Once again the Quraysh were free to persecute Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr_sentence_70

In 620, Muhammad's uncle and protector, Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib, and Muhammad's wife Khadija died. Abu Bakr_sentence_71

Abu Bakr's daughter Aisha was engaged to Muhammad, however it was decided that the actual marriage ceremony would be held later. Abu Bakr_sentence_72

In 620 Abu Bakr was the first person to testify to Muhammad's Isra and Mi'raj (Night Journey). Abu Bakr_sentence_73

Migration to Medina Abu Bakr_section_6

Main article: Hijra (Islam) Abu Bakr_sentence_74

In 622, on the invitation of the Muslims of Medina, Muhammad ordered Muslims to migrate to Medina. Abu Bakr_sentence_75

The migration began in batches. Abu Bakr_sentence_76

Ali was the last to remain in Mecca, entrusted with responsibility for settling any loans the Muslims had taken out, and famously slept in the bed of Muhammad when the Quraysh, led by Ikrima, attempted to murder Muhammad as he slept. Abu Bakr_sentence_77

Meanwhile, Abu Bakr accompanied Muhammad to Medina. Abu Bakr_sentence_78

Due to the danger posed by the Quraysh, they did not take the road, but moved in the opposite direction, taking refuge in a cave in Jabal Thawr, some five miles south of Mecca. Abu Bakr_sentence_79

`Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr, the son of Abu Bakr, would listen to the plans and discussions of the Quraysh, and at night he would carry the news to the fugitives in the cave. Abu Bakr_sentence_80

Asma bint Abi Bakr, the daughter of Abu Bakr, brought them meals every day. Abu Bakr_sentence_81

Aamir, a servant of Abu Bakr, would bring a flock of goats to the mouth of the cave every night, where they were milked. Abu Bakr_sentence_82

The Quraysh sent search parties in all directions. Abu Bakr_sentence_83

One party came close to the entrance to the cave, but was unable to see them. Abu Bakr_sentence_84

Due to this, Qur'an verse was revealed. Abu Bakr_sentence_85

Aisha, Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri and Abdullah ibn Abbas in interpreting this verse said that Abu Bakr was the companion who stayed with Muhammad in the cave. Abu Bakr_sentence_86

After staying at the cave for three days and three nights, Abu Bakr and Muhammad proceed to Medina, staying for some time at Quba, a suburb of Medina. Abu Bakr_sentence_87

Life in Medina Abu Bakr_section_7

In Medina, Muhammad decided to construct a mosque. Abu Bakr_sentence_88

A piece of land was chosen and the price of the land was paid for by Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr_sentence_89

The Muslims, including Abu Bakr, constructed a mosque named Al-Masjid al-Nabawi at the site. Abu Bakr_sentence_90

Abu Bakr was paired with Khaarij ah bin Zaid Ansari (who was from Medina) as a brother in faith. Abu Bakr_sentence_91

Abu Bakr's relationship with Khaarijah was most cordial, which was further strengthened when Abu Bakr married Habiba, a daughter of Khaarijah. Abu Bakr_sentence_92

Khaarijah bin Zaid Ansari lived at Sunh, a suburb of Medina, and Abu Bakr also settled there. Abu Bakr_sentence_93

After Abu Bakr's family arrived in Medina, he bought another house near Muhammad's. Abu Bakr_sentence_94

While the climate of Mecca was dry, the climate of Medina was damp and because of this, most of the migrants fell sick on arrival. Abu Bakr_sentence_95

Abu Bakr contracted a fever for several days, during which time he was attended to by Khaarijah and his family. Abu Bakr_sentence_96

In Mecca, Abu Bakr was a wholesale trader in cloth and he started the same business in Medina. Abu Bakr_sentence_97

He opened his new store at Sunh, and from there cloth was supplied to the market at Medina. Abu Bakr_sentence_98

Soon his business flourished. Abu Bakr_sentence_99

Early in 623, Abu Bakr's daughter Aisha, who was already engaged to Muhammad, was handed over to Muhammad in a simple marriage ceremony, further strengthening relations between Abu Bakr and Muhammad. Abu Bakr_sentence_100

Military campaigns under Muhammad Abu Bakr_section_8

Battle of Badr Abu Bakr_section_9

Main article: Battle of Badr Abu Bakr_sentence_101

In 624, Abu Bakr was involved in the first battle between the Muslims and the Quraysh of Mecca, known as the Battle of Badr, but did not fight, instead acting as one of the guards of Muhammad's tent. Abu Bakr_sentence_102

In relation to this, Ali allegedly later asked his associates as to who they thought was the bravest among men. Abu Bakr_sentence_103

Everyone stated that Ali was the bravest of all men. Abu Bakr_sentence_104

Ali then replied: Abu Bakr_sentence_105

In Sunni accounts, during one such attack, two discs from Abu Bakr's shield penetrated into Muhammad's cheeks. Abu Bakr_sentence_106

Abu Bakr went forward with the intention of extracting these discs but Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah requested he leave the matter to him, losing his two incisors during the process. Abu Bakr_sentence_107

In these stories subsequently Abu Bakr, along with other companions, led Muhammad to a place of safety. Abu Bakr_sentence_108

Battle of Uhud Abu Bakr_section_10

Main article: Battle of Uhud Abu Bakr_sentence_109

In 625, he participated in the Battle of Uhud, in which the majority of the Muslims were routed and he himself was wounded. Abu Bakr_sentence_110

Before the battle had begun, his son Abdul-Rahman, at that time still non-Muslim and fighting on the side of the Quraysh, came forward and threw down a challenge for a duel. Abu Bakr_sentence_111

Abu Bakr accepted the challenge but was stopped by Muhammad. Abu Bakr_sentence_112

Later, Abdul-Rahman approached his father and said to him "You were exposed to me as a target, but I turned away from you and did not kill you." Abu Bakr_sentence_113

To this Abu Bakr replied "However, if you had been exposed to me as a target I would not have turned away from you." Abu Bakr_sentence_114

In the second phase of the battle, Khalid ibn al-Walid’s cavalry attacked the Muslims from behind, changing a Muslim victory to defeat. Abu Bakr_sentence_115

Many fled from the battlefield, including Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr_sentence_116

However, according to his own account, he was "the first to return". Abu Bakr_sentence_117

Battle of the Trench Abu Bakr_section_11

Main article: Battle of the Trench Abu Bakr_sentence_118

In 627 he participated in the Battle of the Trench and also in the Invasion of Banu Qurayza. Abu Bakr_sentence_119

In the Battle of the Trench, Muhammad divided the ditch into a number of sectors and a contingent was posted to guard each sector. Abu Bakr_sentence_120

One of these contingents was under the command of Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr_sentence_121

The enemy made frequent assaults in an attempt to cross the ditch, all of which were repulsed. Abu Bakr_sentence_122

To commemorate this event a mosque, later known as 'Masjid-i-Siddiq', was constructed at the site where Abu Bakr had repulsed the charges of the enemy. Abu Bakr_sentence_123

Battle of Khaybar Abu Bakr_section_12

Main article: Battle of Khaybar Abu Bakr_sentence_124

Abu Bakr took part in the Battle of Khaybar. Abu Bakr_sentence_125

Khaybar had eight fortresses, the strongest and most well-guarded of which was called Al-Qamus. Abu Bakr_sentence_126

Muhammad sent Abu Bakr with a group of warriors to attempt to take it, but they were unable to do so. Abu Bakr_sentence_127

Muhammad also sent Umar with a group of warriors, but Umar could not conquer Al-Qamus either. Abu Bakr_sentence_128

Some other Muslims also attempted to capture the fort, but they were unsuccessful as well. Abu Bakr_sentence_129

Finally, Muhammad sent Ali, who defeated the enemy leader, Marhab. Abu Bakr_sentence_130

Military campaigns during final years of Muhammad Abu Bakr_section_13

Main articles: Expedition of Amr ibn al-As, Conquest of Mecca, and Battle of Tabouk Abu Bakr_sentence_131

In 629 Muhammad sent 'Amr ibn al-'As to Zaat-ul-Sallasal, followed by Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah in response to a call for reinforcements. Abu Bakr_sentence_132

Abu Bakr and Umar commanded an army under al-Jarrah, and they attacked and defeated the enemy. Abu Bakr_sentence_133

In 630, when the Muslims conquered Mecca, Abu Bakr was part of the army. Abu Bakr_sentence_134

Before the conquest of Mecca his father Uthman Abu Quhafa converted to Islam. Abu Bakr_sentence_135

Battles of Hunayn and Ta'if Abu Bakr_section_14

Main articles: Battle of Hunayn and Siege of Ta'if Abu Bakr_sentence_136

In 630, the Muslim army was ambushed by archers from the local tribes as it passed through the valley of Hunayn, some eleven miles northeast of Mecca. Abu Bakr_sentence_137

Taken unaware, the advance guard of the Muslim army fled in panic. Abu Bakr_sentence_138

There was considerable confusion, and the camels, horses and men ran into one another in an attempt to seek cover. Abu Bakr_sentence_139

Muhammad, however, stood firm. Abu Bakr_sentence_140

Only nine companions remained around him, including Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr_sentence_141

Under Muhammad's instruction, Abbas shouted at the top of his voice, "O Muslims, come to the Prophet of Allah". Abu Bakr_sentence_142

The call was heard by the Muslim soldiers and they gathered beside Muhammad. Abu Bakr_sentence_143

When the Muslims had gathered in sufficient number, Muhammad ordered a charge against the enemy. Abu Bakr_sentence_144

In the hand-to-hand fight that followed the tribes were routed and they fled to Autas. Abu Bakr_sentence_145

Muhammad posted a contingent to guard the Hunayn pass and led the main army to Autas. Abu Bakr_sentence_146

In the confrontation at Autas the tribes could not withstand the Muslim onslaught. Abu Bakr_sentence_147

Believing continued resistance useless, the tribes broke camp and retired to Ta'if. Abu Bakr_sentence_148

Abu Bakr was commissioned by Muhammad to lead the attack against Ta'if. Abu Bakr_sentence_149

The tribes shut themselves in the fort and refused to come out in the open. Abu Bakr_sentence_150

The Muslims employed catapults, but without tangible result. Abu Bakr_sentence_151

The Muslims attempted to use a testudo formation, in which a group of soldiers shielded by a cover of cowhide advanced to set fire to the gate. Abu Bakr_sentence_152

However, the enemy threw red hot scraps of iron on the testudo, rendering it ineffective. Abu Bakr_sentence_153

The siege dragged on for two weeks, and still there was no sign of weakness in the fort. Abu Bakr_sentence_154

Muhammad held a council of war. Abu Bakr_sentence_155

Abu Bakr advised that the siege might be raised and that God make arrangements for the fall of the fort. Abu Bakr_sentence_156

The advice was accepted, and in February 630, the siege of Ta'if was raised and the Muslim army returned to Mecca. Abu Bakr_sentence_157

A few days later Malik bin Auf, the commander, came to Mecca and became a Muslim. Abu Bakr_sentence_158

Abu Bakr as Amir-ul-Hajj Abu Bakr_section_15

In 631 AD, Muhammad sent from Medina a delegation of three hundred Muslims to perform the Hajj according to the new Islamic way and appointed Abu Bakr as the leader of the delegation. Abu Bakr_sentence_159

The day after Abu Bakr and his party had left for the Hajj, Muhammad received a new revelation: Surah Tawbah, the ninth chapter of the Qur'an. Abu Bakr_sentence_160

It is related that when this revelation came, someone suggested to Muhammad that he should send news of it to Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr_sentence_161

Muhammad said that only a man of his house could proclaim the revelation. Abu Bakr_sentence_162

Muhammad summoned Ali, and asked him to proclaim a portion of Surah Tawbah to the people on the day of sacrifice when they assembled at Mina. Abu Bakr_sentence_163

Ali went forth on Muhammad's slit-eared camel, and overtook Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr_sentence_164

When Ali joined the party, Abu Bakr wanted to know whether he had come to give orders or to convey them. Abu Bakr_sentence_165

Ali said that he had not come to replace Abu Bakr as Amir-ul-Hajj, and that his only mission was to convey a special message to the people on behalf of Muhammad. Abu Bakr_sentence_166

At Mecca, Abu Bakr presided at the Hajj ceremony, and Ali read the proclamation on behalf of Muhammad. Abu Bakr_sentence_167

The main points of the proclamation were: Abu Bakr_sentence_168

Abu Bakr_ordered_list_3

  1. Henceforward the non-Muslims were not to be allowed to visit the Kaaba or perform the pilgrimage.Abu Bakr_item_3_17
  2. No one should circumambulate the Kaaba naked.Abu Bakr_item_3_18
  3. Polytheism was not to be tolerated. Where the Muslims had any agreement with the polytheists such agreements would be honoured for the stipulated periods. Where there were no agreements a grace period of four months was provided and thereafter no quarter was to be given to the polytheists.Abu Bakr_item_3_19

From the day this proclamation was made a new era dawned, and Islam alone was to be supreme in Arabia. Abu Bakr_sentence_169

Expedition of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq Abu Bakr_section_16

Main article: Expedition of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq Abu Bakr_sentence_170

Abu Bakr led one military expedition, the Expedition of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, which took place in Nejd, in July 628 (third month 7AH in the Islamic calendar). Abu Bakr_sentence_171

Abu Bakr led a large company in Nejd on the order of Muhammad. Abu Bakr_sentence_172

Many were killed and taken prisoner. Abu Bakr_sentence_173

The Sunni Hadith collection Sunan Abu Dawud mentions the event. Abu Bakr_sentence_174

Expedition of Usama bin Zayd Abu Bakr_section_17

Main article: Expedition of Usama bin Zayd Abu Bakr_sentence_175

In 632, during the final weeks of his life, Muhammad ordered an expedition into Syria to avenge the defeat of the Muslims in the Battle of Mu'tah some years previously. Abu Bakr_sentence_176

Leading the campaign was Usama ibn Zayd, whose father, Muhammad's erstwhile adopted son Zayd ibn Harithah, had been killed in the earlier conflict. Abu Bakr_sentence_177

No more than twenty years old, inexperienced and untested, Usama's appointment was controversial, becoming especially problematic when veterans such as Abu Bakr, Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah and Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas were placed under his command. Abu Bakr_sentence_178

Nevertheless, the expedition was dispatched, though soon after setting off, news was received of Muhammad's death, forcing the army to return to Medina. Abu Bakr_sentence_179

The campaign was not reengaged until after Abu Bakr's ascension to the caliphate, at which point he chose to reaffirm Usama's command, which ultimately led to its success. Abu Bakr_sentence_180

Death of Muhammad Abu Bakr_section_18

There are a number of traditions regarding Muhammad's final days which have been used to reinforce the idea of the great friendship and trust which is said to have existed between him and Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr_sentence_181

In one such episode, as Muhammad was nearing death, he found himself unable to lead prayers as he usually would. Abu Bakr_sentence_182

He instructed Abu Bakr to take his place, ignoring concerns from Aisha that her father was too emotionally delicate for the role. Abu Bakr_sentence_183

Abu Bakr subsequently took up the position, and when Muhammad entered the prayer hall one morning during Fajr prayers, Abu Bakr attempted to step back to let him to take up his normal place and lead. Abu Bakr_sentence_184

Muhammad however, allowed him to continue. Abu Bakr_sentence_185

In a related incident, around this time, Muhammad ascended the pulpit and addressed the congregation, saying "God has given his servant the choice between this world and that which is with God and he has chosen the latter." Abu Bakr_sentence_186

Abu Bakr, understanding this to mean that Muhammad did not have long to live, responded "Nay, we and our children will be your ransom." Abu Bakr_sentence_187

Muhammad consoled his friend and ordered that all the doors leading to the mosque be closed aside from that which led from Abu Bakr's house, "for I know no one who is a better friend to me than he." Abu Bakr_sentence_188

Upon Muhammad's death, the Muslim community was unprepared for the loss of its leader and many experienced a profound shock. Abu Bakr_sentence_189

Umar was particularly effected, instead declaring that Muhammad had gone to consult with God and would soon return, threatening anyone who would say that Muhammad was dead. Abu Bakr_sentence_190

Abu Bakr, having returned to Medina, calmed Umar by showing him Muhammad's body, convincing him of his death. Abu Bakr_sentence_191

He then addressed those who had gathered at the mosque, saying "If anyone worships Muhammad, Muhammad is dead. Abu Bakr_sentence_192

If anyone worships God, God is alive, immortal", thus putting an end to any idolising impulse in the population. Abu Bakr_sentence_193

He then concluded with a verse from the Quran: "Muhammad is no more than an apostle, and many apostles have passed away before him." Abu Bakr_sentence_194

Saqifa Abu Bakr_section_19

Main articles: Succession to Muhammad and Saqifa Abu Bakr_sentence_195

See also: List of Sahaba not giving bay'ah to Abu Bakr Abu Bakr_sentence_196

In the immediate aftermath of the death of Muhammad, a gathering of the Ansar (natives of Medina) took place in the Saqifah (courtyard) of the Banu Sa'ida clan. Abu Bakr_sentence_197

The general belief at the time was that the purpose of the meeting was for the Ansar to decide on a new leader of the Muslim community among themselves, with the intentional exclusion of the Muhajirun (migrants from Mecca), though this has later become the subject of debate. Abu Bakr_sentence_198

Nevertheless, Abu Bakr and Umar, upon learning of the meeting, became concerned of a potential coup and hastened to the gathering. Abu Bakr_sentence_199

Upon arriving, Abu Bakr addressed the assembled men with a warning that an attempt to elect a leader outside of Muhammad's own tribe, the Quraysh, would likely result in dissension, as only they can command the necessary respect among the community. Abu Bakr_sentence_200

He then took Umar and another companion, Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, by the hand and offered them to the Ansar as potential choices. Abu Bakr_sentence_201

Habab ibn Mundhir, a veteran from the Battle of Badr, countered with his own suggestion that the Quraysh and the Ansar choose a leader each from among themselves, who would then rule jointly. Abu Bakr_sentence_202

The group grew heated upon hearing this proposal and began to argue amongst themselves. Abu Bakr_sentence_203

The orientalist William Muir gives the following observation of the situation: Abu Bakr_sentence_204

Umar hastily took Abu Bakr's hand and swore his own allegiance to the latter, an example followed by the gathered men. Abu Bakr_sentence_205

The meeting broke up when a violent scuffle erupted between Umar and the chief of the Banu Sa'ida, Sa'd ibn Ubadah. Abu Bakr_sentence_206

This may indicate that the choice of Abu Bakr may not have been unanimous, with emotions running high as a result of the disagreement. Abu Bakr_sentence_207

Abu Bakr was near-universally accepted as head of the Muslim community (under the title of Caliph) as a result of Saqifah, though he did face contention because of the rushed nature of the event. Abu Bakr_sentence_208

Several companions, most prominent among them being Ali ibn Abi Talib, initially refused to acknowledge his authority. Abu Bakr_sentence_209

Among Shi'ites, it is also argued that Ali had previously been appointed as Muhammad's heir, with the election being seen as in contravention to the latter's wishes. Abu Bakr_sentence_210

Abu Bakr later sent Umar to confront Ali, resulting in an altercation which may have involved violence. Abu Bakr_sentence_211

However, after six months the group made peace with Abu Bakr and Ali offered him his allegiance. Abu Bakr_sentence_212

Reign Abu Bakr_section_20

After assuming the office of Caliph, Abu Bakr's first address was as follows: Abu Bakr_sentence_213

Abu Bakr's reign lasted for 27 months, during which he crushed the rebellion of the Arab tribes throughout the Arabian Peninsula in the successful Ridda Wars. Abu Bakr_sentence_214

In the last months of his rule, he sent Khalid ibn al-Walid on conquests against the Sassanid Empire in Mesopotamia and against the Byzantine Empire in Syria. Abu Bakr_sentence_215

This would set in motion a historical trajectory (continued later on by Umar and Uthman ibn Affan) that in just a few short decades would lead to one of the largest empires in history. Abu Bakr_sentence_216

He had little time to pay attention to the administration of state, though state affairs remained stable during his Caliphate. Abu Bakr_sentence_217

On the advice of Umar and Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, he agreed to draw a salary from the state treasury and discontinue his cloth trade. Abu Bakr_sentence_218

Ridda wars Abu Bakr_section_21

Main article: Ridda wars Abu Bakr_sentence_219

Troubles emerged soon after Abu Bakr's succession, with several Arab tribes launching revolts, threatening the unity and stability of the new community and state. Abu Bakr_sentence_220

These insurgencies and the caliphate's responses to them are collectively referred to as the Ridda wars ("Wars of Apostasy"). Abu Bakr_sentence_221

The opposition movements came in two forms. Abu Bakr_sentence_222

One type challenged the political power of the nascent caliphate as well as the religious authority of Islam with the acclamation of rival ideologies, headed by political leaders who claimed the mantle of prophethood in the manner that Muhammad had done. Abu Bakr_sentence_223

These rebellions include: Abu Bakr_sentence_224

Abu Bakr_unordered_list_4

These leaders are all denounced in Islamic histories as "false prophets". Abu Bakr_sentence_225

The second form of opposition movement was more strictly political in character. Abu Bakr_sentence_226

Some of the revolts of this type took the form of tax rebellions in Najd among tribes such as the Banu Fazara and Banu Tamim. Abu Bakr_sentence_227

Other dissenters, while initially allied to the Muslims, used Muhammad's death as an opportunity to attempt to restrict the growth of the new Islamic state. Abu Bakr_sentence_228

They include some of the Rabīʿa in Bahrayn, the Azd in Oman, as well as among the Kindah and Khawlan in Yemen. Abu Bakr_sentence_229

Abu Bakr, likely understanding that maintaining firm control over the disparate tribes of Arabia was crucial to ensuring the survival of the state, suppressed the insurrections with military force. Abu Bakr_sentence_230

He dispatched Khalid ibn Walid and a body of troops to subdue the uprisings in Najd as well as that of Musaylimah, who posed the most serious threat. Abu Bakr_sentence_231

Concurrent to this, Shurahbil ibn Hasana and Al-Ala'a Al-Hadrami were sent to Bahrayn, while Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl, Hudhayfah al-Bariqi and Arfaja al-Bariqi were instructed to conquer Oman. Abu Bakr_sentence_232

Finally, Al-Muhajir ibn Abi Umayya and Khalid ibn Asid were sent to Yemen to aid the local governor in re-establishing control. Abu Bakr_sentence_233

Abu Bakr also made use of diplomatic means in addition to military measures. Abu Bakr_sentence_234

Like Muhammad before him, he utilised marriage alliances and financial incentives to bind former enemies to the caliphate. Abu Bakr_sentence_235

For instance, a member of the Banu Hanifa who had sided with the Muslims was rewarded with the granting of a land estate. Abu Bakr_sentence_236

Similarly, a Kindah rebel named Al-Ash'ath ibn Qays, after repenting and re-joining Islam, was later given land in Medina as well as the hand of Abu Bakr's sister Umm Farwa in marriage. Abu Bakr_sentence_237

At their heart, the Ridda movements were challenges to the political and religious supremacy of the Islamic state. Abu Bakr_sentence_238

Through his success in suppressing the insurrections, Abu Bakr had in effect continued the political consolidation which had begun under Muhammad's leadership with relatively little interruption. Abu Bakr_sentence_239

By wars' end, he had established an Islamic hegemony over the entirety of the Arabian peninsula. Abu Bakr_sentence_240

Expeditions into Persia and Syria Abu Bakr_section_22

With Arabia having united under a single centralised state with a formidable military, the region could now be viewed as a potential threat to the neighbouring Byzantine and Sasanian empires. Abu Bakr_sentence_241

It may be that Abu Bakr, reasoning that it was inevitable that one of these powers would launch a pre-emptive strike against the youthful caliphate, decided that it was better to deliver the first blow himself. Abu Bakr_sentence_242

Regardless of the caliph's motivations, in 633, small forces were dispatched into Iraq and Palestine, capturing several towns. Abu Bakr_sentence_243

Though the Byzantines and Sassanians were certain to retaliate, Abu Bakr had reason to be confident; the two empires were militarily exhausted after centuries of war against each other, making it likely that any forces sent to Arabia would be diminished and weakened. Abu Bakr_sentence_244

A more pressing advantage though was the effectiveness of the Muslim fighters as well as their zeal, the latter of which was partially based on their certainty of the righteousness of their cause. Abu Bakr_sentence_245

Additionally, the general belief among the Muslims was that the community must be defended at all costs. Abu Bakr_sentence_246

Historian Theodor Nöldeke gives the somewhat controversial opinion that this religious fervour was intentionally used to maintain the enthusiasm and momentum of the ummah: Abu Bakr_sentence_247

Though Abu Bakr had started these initial conflicts which eventually resulted in the Islamic conquests of Persia and the Levant, he did not live to see any real fighting, instead leaving the task to his successors. Abu Bakr_sentence_248

Preservation of the Quran Abu Bakr_section_23

Main article: History of the Quran Abu Bakr_sentence_249

Abu Bakr was instrumental in preserving the Quran in written form. Abu Bakr_sentence_250

It is said that after the hard-won victory over Musaylimah in the Battle of Yamama in 632, Umar saw that some five hundred of the Muslims who had memorised the Quran had been killed. Abu Bakr_sentence_251

Fearing that it may become lost or corrupted, Umar requested that Abu Bakr authorise the compilation and preservation of the scriptures in written format. Abu Bakr_sentence_252

The caliph was initially hesitant, being quoted as saying "how can we do that which the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless and keep him, did not himself do?" Abu Bakr_sentence_253

He eventually relented however, and appointed Zayd ibn Thabit, who had previously served as Muhammad's secretary, for the task of gathering the scattered verses. Abu Bakr_sentence_254

The fragments were recovered from every quarter, including from the ribs of palm branches, scraps of leather, stone tablets and "from the hearts of men". Abu Bakr_sentence_255

The collected work was transcribed onto sheets and verified through comparison with Quran memorisers. Abu Bakr_sentence_256

The finished codex, termed the Mus'haf, was presented to Abu Bakr, who prior to his death, bequeathed it to his successor Umar. Abu Bakr_sentence_257

Upon Umar's own death, the Mus'haf was left to his daughter Hafsa, who had been one of the wives of Muhammad. Abu Bakr_sentence_258

It was this volume, borrowed from Hafsa, which formed the basis of Uthman's legendary prototype, which became the definitive text of the Quran. Abu Bakr_sentence_259

All later editions are derived from this original. Abu Bakr_sentence_260

Death Abu Bakr_section_24

On 23 August 634, Abu Bakr fell sick and did not recover. Abu Bakr_sentence_261

He developed a high fever and was confined to bed. Abu Bakr_sentence_262

His illness was prolonged, and when his condition worsened, he felt that his end was near. Abu Bakr_sentence_263

Realising this, he sent for Ali and requested him to perform his ghusl since Ali had also done it for Muhammad. Abu Bakr_sentence_264

Abu Bakr felt that he should nominate his successor so that the issue should not be a cause of dissension among the Muslims after his death, though there was already controversy over Ali not having been appointed. Abu Bakr_sentence_265

He appointed Umar for this role after discussing the matter with some companions. Abu Bakr_sentence_266

Some of them favoured the nomination and others disliked it, due to the tough nature of Umar. Abu Bakr_sentence_267

Abu Bakr thus dictated his last testament to Uthman ibn Affan as follows: Abu Bakr_sentence_268

Umar led the funeral prayer for him and he was buried beside the grave of Muhammad. Abu Bakr_sentence_269

Appearance Abu Bakr_section_25

The historian Al-Tabari, in regards to Abu Bakr's appearance, records the following interaction between Aisha and her paternal nephew, Abdullah ibn Abdul-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr: Abu Bakr_sentence_270

Referencing another source, Al-Tabari further describes him as being "white mixed with yellowness, of good build, slight, bowed, thin, tall like a male palm tree, hook-nosed, lean-faced, sunken-eyed, thin-shanked, and strong-thighed. Abu Bakr_sentence_271

He used to dye himself with henna and black dye." Abu Bakr_sentence_272

Legacy Abu Bakr_section_26

Though the period of his caliphate covers only two years, two months and fifteen days, it included successful invasions of the two most powerful empires of the time: the Sassanid Empire and Byzantine Empire. Abu Bakr_sentence_273

Abu Bakr had the distinction of being the first Caliph in the history of Islam and also the first Caliph to nominate a successor. Abu Bakr_sentence_274

He was the only Caliph in the history of Islam who refunded to the state treasury at the time of his death the entire amount of the allowance that he had drawn during the period of his caliphate. Abu Bakr_sentence_275

He has the distinction of purchasing the land for Al-Masjid al-Nabawi. Abu Bakr_sentence_276

Sunni view Abu Bakr_section_27

Sunni Muslims believe that Abu Bakr is the best man of all the human beings after the prophets. Abu Bakr_sentence_277

They also consider Abu Bakr as one of The Ten Promised Paradise (al-‘Ashara al-Mubashshara) whom Muhammad had testified were destined for Paradise. Abu Bakr_sentence_278

He is regarded as the "Successor of Allah's Messenger" (Khalifa Rasulullah), and first of the Rightly Guided Caliphs – i.e. Rashidun—and as the rightful successor to Muhammad. Abu Bakr_sentence_279

Abu Bakr had always been the closest friend and confidant of Muhammad throughout his life, being beside Muhammad at every major event. Abu Bakr_sentence_280

It was Abu Bakr's wisdom that Muhammad always honored. Abu Bakr_sentence_281

Abu Bakr is regarded among the best of Muhammad's followers; as Umar ibn Khattab stated, "If the faith of Abu Bakr was weighed against the faith of the people of the earth, the faith of Abu Bakr would outweigh the others." Abu Bakr_sentence_282

Shia view Abu Bakr_section_28

See also: Umar at Fatimah's house and Succession to Muhammad Abu Bakr_sentence_283

The Twelver Shia (as the main branch of Shia Islam, with 85% of all Shias) believe that Ali ibn Abi Talib was supposed to assume the Caliphate, and that he had been publicly and unambiguously appointed by Muhammad as his successor at Ghadir Khumm. Abu Bakr_sentence_284

It is also believed that Abu Bakr and Umar conspired to take over power in the Muslim nation after Muhammad's death, in a coup d'état against Ali. Abu Bakr_sentence_285

The Twelver Shi'a do not believe that Abu Bakr's being with Muhammad in the cave when the two fled Mecca was a meritorious act, and, indeed, find significant criticism of Abu Bakr in the Qur'anic verse of the cave. Abu Bakr_sentence_286

Most Twelver Shia criticize Abu Bakr because, after Muhammad's death, Abu Bakr refused to grant Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah, the lands of the village of Fadak which she claimed her father had given to her as a gift before his death. Abu Bakr_sentence_287

He refused to accept the testimony of her witnesses, so she claimed the land would still belong to her as inheritance from her deceased father. Abu Bakr_sentence_288

However, Abu Bakr replied by saying that Muhammad had told him that the prophets of God do not leave as inheritance any worldly possessions and on this basis he refused to give her the lands of Fadak. Abu Bakr_sentence_289

However, as Sayed Ali Asgher Razwy notes in his book A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims, Muhammad inherited a maid servant, five camels, and ten sheep. Abu Bakr_sentence_290

This proves that prophets can receive inheritance, and can pass on inheritance to others as well. Abu Bakr_sentence_291

In addition, Shias claim that Muhammad had given Fadak to Fatimah during his lifetime, and Fadak was therefore a gift to Fatimah, not inheritance. Abu Bakr_sentence_292

This view has also been supported some Sunnis, such as the Abbasid ruler Al-Ma'mun. Abu Bakr_sentence_293

The Twelver Shia accuse him of participating in the burning of the house of Ali and Fatima. Abu Bakr_sentence_294

The Twelver Shia believe that Abu Bakr sent Khalid ibn Walid to crush those who were in favour of Ali's caliphate (see Ridda Wars). Abu Bakr_sentence_295

The Twelver Shia strongly refute the idea that Abu Bakr or Umar were instrumental in the collection or preservation of the Qur'an, claiming that they should have accepted the copy of the book in the possession of Ali. Abu Bakr_sentence_296

After the death of Abu Bakr, Ali raised Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr. Abu Bakr_sentence_297

The Twelver Shia view Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr as one of the companions of Ali. Abu Bakr_sentence_298

When Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr was killed by the Ummayads, Aisha, the wife of Muhammad and also a renowned scholar of her time, raised and taught her nephew Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr_sentence_299

Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr's mother was from Ali's family and Qasim's daughter Farwah bint al-Qasim was married to Muhammad al-Baqir and was the mother of Jafar al-Sadiq. Abu Bakr_sentence_300

Therefore, Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr was the grandson of Abu Bakr and the grandfather of Jafar al-Sadiq. Abu Bakr_sentence_301

Zaydis, the largest group amongst the Shia before the Safavid Dynasty and currently the second-largest group (although its population is only about 5% of all Shia Muslims), believe that on the last hour of Zayd ibn Ali (the uncle of Jafar al-Sadiq), he was betrayed by the people in Kufa who said to him: "May God have mercy on you! Abu Bakr_sentence_302

What do you have to say on the matter of Abu Bakr and Umar ibn al-Khattab?" Abu Bakr_sentence_303

Zayd ibn Ali said, "I have not heard anyone in my family renouncing them both nor saying anything but good about them...when they were entrusted with government they behaved justly with the people and acted according to the Qur'an and the Sunnah". Abu Bakr_sentence_304

See also Abu Bakr_section_29

Abu Bakr_unordered_list_5

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abu Bakr.