Academy Awards

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"Oscars" and "The Oscar" redirect here. Academy Awards_sentence_0

For other uses, see Oscar. Academy Awards_sentence_1

Academy Awards_table_infobox_0

Academy AwardsAcademy Awards_header_cell_0_0_0
Awarded forAcademy Awards_header_cell_0_1_0 Excellence in the American film industryAcademy Awards_cell_0_1_1
CountryAcademy Awards_header_cell_0_2_0 United StatesAcademy Awards_cell_0_2_1
Presented byAcademy Awards_header_cell_0_3_0 Academy of Motion Picture Arts and SciencesAcademy Awards_cell_0_3_1
First awardedAcademy Awards_header_cell_0_4_0 May 16, 1929; 91 years ago (1929-05-16)Academy Awards_cell_0_4_1
WebsiteAcademy Awards_header_cell_0_5_0 Academy Awards_cell_0_5_1

The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry. Academy Awards_sentence_2

It is regarded as the most famous and prestigious awards in the entertainment industry. Academy Awards_sentence_3

Given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), the awards are an international recognition of excellence in cinematic achievements, as assessed by the Academy's voting membership. Academy Awards_sentence_4

The various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette as a trophy, officially called the "Academy Award of Merit", although more commonly referred to by its nickname, the "Oscar". Academy Awards_sentence_5

The statuette depicts a knight rendered in the Art Deco style. Academy Awards_sentence_6

The award was originally sculpted by George Stanley from a design sketch by Cedric Gibbons. Academy Awards_sentence_7

AMPAS first presented it in 1929 at a private dinner hosted by Douglas Fairbanks in the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel in what would become known as the 1st Academy Awards. Academy Awards_sentence_8

The Academy Awards ceremony was first broadcast by radio in 1930 and was televised for the first time in 1953. Academy Awards_sentence_9

It is the oldest worldwide entertainment awards ceremony and is now televised live worldwide. Academy Awards_sentence_10

It is also the oldest of the four major annual American entertainment awards; its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, and the Grammy Awards for music – are modeled after the Academy Awards. Academy Awards_sentence_11

They are widely cited as the most famous and prestigious competitive awards in the field of entertainment. Academy Awards_sentence_12

The 92nd Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2019, was held on February 9, 2020. Academy Awards_sentence_13

As with the previous ceremony, there was no host. Academy Awards_sentence_14

The ceremony was broadcast on ABC. Academy Awards_sentence_15

It took place at the Dolby Theatre in Los Angeles, California, for the 18th consecutive year. Academy Awards_sentence_16

This ceremony marked the first time in Oscar history that more than three films had received ten or more nominations. Academy Awards_sentence_17

A total of 3,140 Oscar statuettes have been awarded since its inception in 1929. Academy Awards_sentence_18

History Academy Awards_section_0

The first Academy Awards presentation was held on May 16, 1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people. Academy Awards_sentence_19

The post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel. Academy Awards_sentence_20

The cost of guest tickets for that night's ceremony was $5 ($74 in 2020 dollars). Academy Awards_sentence_21

Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists, directors and other participants in the film-making industry of the time, for their works during the 1927–28 period. Academy Awards_sentence_22

The ceremony ran for 15 minutes. Academy Awards_sentence_23

Winners were announced to media three months earlier. Academy Awards_sentence_24

That was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Academy Awards_sentence_25

Since then, for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11:00 pm on the night of the awards. Academy Awards_sentence_26

This method was used until 1940, when the Los Angeles Times announced the winners before the ceremony began; as a result, the Academy has, since 1941, used a sealed envelope to reveal the names of the winners. Academy Awards_sentence_27

Milestones Academy Awards_section_1

The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. Academy Awards_sentence_28

He had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier; this made him the first Academy Award winner in history. Academy Awards_sentence_29

At that time, winners were recognized for the entirety of their work done in a certain category during the qualifying period; for example, Jannings received the award for two movies in which he starred during that period, and Janet Gaynor later won a single Oscar for performances in three films. Academy Awards_sentence_30

With the fourth ceremony, however, the system changed, and professionals were honored for a specific performance in a single film. Academy Awards_sentence_31

For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. Academy Awards_sentence_32

At the 29th ceremony, held in 1957, the Best Foreign Language Film category, now known as Best International Feature Film, was introduced. Academy Awards_sentence_33

Until then, foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. Academy Awards_sentence_34

Perhaps the most widely seen streaker in history was 34-year-old Robert Opel, who streaked across the stage of The Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in Los Angeles flashing a peace sign on national US television at the 46th Academy Awards in 1974. Academy Awards_sentence_35

Bemused host David Niven quipped, "Isn't it fascinating to think that probably the only laugh that man will ever get in his life is by stripping off and showing his shortcomings?" Academy Awards_sentence_36

Later, evidence arose suggesting that Opel's appearance was facilitated as a publicity stunt by the show's producer Jack Haley Jr. Robert Metzler, the show's business manager, believed that the incident had been planned in some way; during the dress rehearsal Niven had asked Metzler's wife to borrow a pen so he could write down the famous line, which was thus not the ad-lib it appeared to be. Academy Awards_sentence_37

The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. Academy Awards_sentence_38

Since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies have ended with the Academy Award for Best Picture. Academy Awards_sentence_39

Traditionally, the previous year's winner for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor present the awards for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress, while the previous year's winner for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress present the awards for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor. Academy Awards_sentence_40

Parasite became the first foreign-language film to win Best Picture at the February 9, 2020 award ceremony. Academy Awards_sentence_41

Tom Hanks announced at the 2020 Oscar Ceremony, the opening of the Academy Museum of Motion Pictures on December 14, 2020. Academy Awards_sentence_42

The museum development started in 2017 under Kerry Brougher, but is now led by Bill Kramer. Academy Awards_sentence_43

The industry curated exhibits will be geared toward the history of motion picture, the art & science of film making, exhibiting trailblazing directors, actors, film makers, sound editors and more, and will house famous artifacts from acclaimed movies like Dorothy's Ruby Red Slippers. Academy Awards_sentence_44

Because of COVID-19, Academy president David Rubin and CEO Dawn Hudson announced that for the 2021 Oscar Ceremony, streaming movies not shown in theaters would be eligible, though at some point the requirement that movies be shown in theaters would return. Academy Awards_sentence_45

Oscar statuette Academy Awards_section_2

Academy Award of Merit (Oscar statuette) Academy Awards_section_3

See also: § Awards of Merit categories Academy Awards_sentence_46

The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. Academy Awards_sentence_47

Made of gold-plated bronze on a black metal base, it is 13.5 in (34.3 cm) tall, weighs 8.5 lb (3.856 kg), and depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style holding a crusader's sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. Academy Awards_sentence_48

The five spokes represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Writers, Directors, Producers, and Technicians. Academy Awards_sentence_49

Sculptor George Stanley (who also did the Muse Fountain at the Hollywood Bowl) sculpted Cedric Gibbons' design. Academy Awards_sentence_50

The statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze. Academy Awards_sentence_51

Within a few years, the bronze was abandoned in favor of Britannia metal, a pewter-like alloy which is then plated in copper, nickel silver, and finally, 24-karat gold. Academy Awards_sentence_52

Due to a metal shortage during World War II, Oscars were made of painted plaster for three years. Academy Awards_sentence_53

Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated metal ones. Academy Awards_sentence_54

The only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base. Academy Awards_sentence_55

The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C.W. Academy Awards_sentence_56 Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, Illinois, which also contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Award's statuettes. Academy Awards_sentence_57

From 1983 to 2015, approximately 50 Oscars in a tin alloy with gold plating were made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R.S. Academy Awards_sentence_58 Owens & Company. Academy Awards_sentence_59

It would take between three and four weeks to manufacture 50 statuettes. Academy Awards_sentence_60

In 2016, the Academy returned to bronze as the core metal of the statuettes, handing manufacturing duties to Walden, New York-based Polich Tallix Fine Art Foundry. Academy Awards_sentence_61

While based on a digital scan of an original 1929 Oscar, the statuettes retain their modern-era dimensions and black pedestal. Academy Awards_sentence_62

Cast in liquid bronze from 3D-printed ceramic molds and polished, they are then electroplated in 24-karat gold by Brooklyn, New York–based Epner Technology. Academy Awards_sentence_63

The time required to produce 50 such statuettes is roughly three months. Academy Awards_sentence_64

R.S. Owens is expected to continue producing other awards for the Academy and service existing Oscars that need replating. Academy Awards_sentence_65

Naming Academy Awards_section_4

The Academy officially adopted the name "Oscar" for the trophies in 1939. Academy Awards_sentence_66

However, the origin of the nickname is disputed. Academy Awards_sentence_67

One biography of Bette Davis, who was a president of the Academy in 1941, claims she named the award after her first husband, band leader Harmon Oscar Nelson. Academy Awards_sentence_68

A frequently mentioned originator is Margaret Herrick, the Academy executive secretary, who, when she first saw the award in 1931, said the statuette reminded her of "Uncle Oscar", a nickname for her cousin Oscar Pierce. Academy Awards_sentence_69

Columnist Sidney Skolsky, who was present during Herrick's naming in 1931, wrote that "Employees have affectionately dubbed their famous statuette 'Oscar.'" Academy Awards_sentence_70

The Academy credits Skolsky with "the first confirmed newspaper reference" to Oscar in his column on March 16, 1934, which was written about that year's 6th Academy Awards. Academy Awards_sentence_71

The 1934 awards appeared again in another early media mention of Oscar: a Time magazine story. Academy Awards_sentence_72

In the ceremonies that year, Walt Disney was the first to thank the Academy for his "Oscar" during his acceptance speech. Academy Awards_sentence_73

Engraving Academy Awards_section_5

To prevent information identifying the Oscar winners from leaking ahead of the ceremony, Oscar statuettes presented at the ceremony have blank baseplates. Academy Awards_sentence_74

Until 2010, winners returned their statuettes to the Academy and had to wait several weeks to have their names inscribed on their respective Oscars. Academy Awards_sentence_75

Since 2010, winners have had the option of having engraved nameplates applied to their statuettes at an inscription-processing station at the Governor's Ball, a party held immediately after the Oscar ceremony. Academy Awards_sentence_76

The R.S. Owens company has engraved nameplates made before the ceremony, bearing the name of every potential winner. Academy Awards_sentence_77

The nameplates for the non-winning nominees are later recycled. Academy Awards_sentence_78

Ownership of Oscar statuettes Academy Awards_section_6

Prior to 1950 Oscar statuettes were (and remain) the property of the recipient. Academy Awards_sentence_79

Since then the statuettes have been legally encumbered by the requirement that the statuette be first offered for sale back to the Academy for US$1. Academy Awards_sentence_80

If a winner refuses to agree to this stipulation, then the Academy keeps the statuette. Academy Awards_sentence_81

Academy Awards predating this agreement have been sold in public auctions and private deals for six-figure sums. Academy Awards_sentence_82

In 1989 Michael Todd's grandson tried to sell Todd's Best Picture Oscar for his 1956 production of Around the World in 80 Days to a movie prop collector. Academy Awards_sentence_83

The Academy earned enforcement of its statuette contract by gaining a permanent injunction against the sale. Academy Awards_sentence_84

In 1992, Harold Russell consigned his 1946 Oscar for Best Supporting Actor for The Best Years of Our Lives to auction in order to raise money for his wife's medical expenses. Academy Awards_sentence_85

Though his decision caused controversy, the first-ever Oscar to be sold passed to a private collector on August 6, 1992 for $60,500 ($110,200 today). Academy Awards_sentence_86

Russell defended his action, saying, "I don't know why anybody would be critical. Academy Awards_sentence_87

My wife's health is much more important than sentimental reasons. Academy Awards_sentence_88

The movie will be here, even if Oscar isn't." Academy Awards_sentence_89

. Academy Awards_sentence_90

In December 2011, Orson Welles' 1941 Oscar for Citizen Kane (Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay) was put up for auction, after his heirs won a 2004 court decision contending that Welles did not sign any agreement to return the statue to the Academy. Academy Awards_sentence_91

On December 20, 2011, it sold in an online auction for US$861,542 ($0.98 million today). Academy Awards_sentence_92

Some buyers have subsequently returned the statuettes to the Academy, which keeps them in its treasury. Academy Awards_sentence_93

Other awards presented by the Academy Academy Awards_section_7

See also: § Special categories Academy Awards_sentence_94

In addition to the Academy Award of Merit (Oscar award), there are nine honorary (non-competitive) awards presented by the Academy from time to time (except for the Academy Honorary Award, the Technical Achievement Award, and the Student Academy Awards, which are presented annually): Academy Awards_sentence_95

Academy Awards_unordered_list_0

The Academy also awards Nicholl Fellowships in Screenwriting. Academy Awards_sentence_96

Nomination Academy Awards_section_8

Since 2004, Academy Award nomination results have been announced to the public in mid-January. Academy Awards_sentence_97

Prior to that, the results were announced in early February. Academy Awards_sentence_98

Voters Academy Awards_section_9

The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), a professional honorary organization, maintains a voting membership of over 7,000 as of 2018. Academy Awards_sentence_99

Academy membership is divided into different branches, with each representing a different discipline in film production. Academy Awards_sentence_100

Actors constitute the largest voting bloc, numbering 1,311 members (22 percent) of the Academy's composition. Academy Awards_sentence_101

Votes have been certified by the auditing firm PricewaterhouseCoopers (and its predecessor Price Waterhouse) since the 7th Academy Awards in 1935. Academy Awards_sentence_102

The firm mails the ballots of eligible nominees to members of the Academy in December to reflect the previous eligible year with a due date sometime in January of the next year, then tabulates the votes in a process that takes thousands of hours. Academy Awards_sentence_103

All AMPAS members must be invited to join by the Board of Governors, on behalf of Academy Branch Executive Committees. Academy Awards_sentence_104

Membership eligibility may be achieved by a competitive nomination or a member may submit a name based on other significant contributions to the field of motion pictures. Academy Awards_sentence_105

New membership proposals are considered annually. Academy Awards_sentence_106

The Academy does not publicly disclose its membership, although as recently as 2007 press releases have announced the names of those who have been invited to join. Academy Awards_sentence_107

The 2007 release also stated that it has just under 6,000 voting members. Academy Awards_sentence_108

While the membership had been growing, stricter policies have kept its size steady since then. Academy Awards_sentence_109

In 2012, the results of a study conducted by the Los Angeles Times were published describing the demographic breakdown of approximately 88% of AMPAS' voting membership. Academy Awards_sentence_110

Of the 5,100+ active voters confirmed, 94% were Caucasian, 77% were male, and 54% were found to be over the age of 60. Academy Awards_sentence_111

33% of voting members are former nominees (14%) and winners (19%). Academy Awards_sentence_112

In May 2011, the Academy sent a letter advising its 6,000 or so voting members that an online system for Oscar voting would be implemented in 2013. Academy Awards_sentence_113

Rules Academy Awards_section_10

According to Rules 2 and 3 of the official Academy Awards Rules, a film must open in the previous calendar year, from midnight at the start of January 1 to midnight at the end of December 31, in Los Angeles County, California, and play for seven consecutive days, to qualify (except for the Best International Feature Film, Best Documentary Feature, and awards in short film categories). Academy Awards_sentence_114

Additionally, the film must be shown at least three times on each day of its qualifying run, with at least one of the daily showings starting between 6 pm and 10 pm local time. Academy Awards_sentence_115

The Best International Feature Film award does not require a U.S. release. Academy Awards_sentence_116

It requires the film to be submitted as its country's official selection. Academy Awards_sentence_117

The Best Documentary Feature award requires either week-long releases in both Los Angeles County and New York City during the previous calendar year, or a qualifying award at a competitive film festival from the Documentary Feature Qualifying Festival list (regardless of any public exhibition or distribution), or a submission in the International Feature Film category as its country's official selection. Academy Awards_sentence_118

The qualifying theatrical runs must meet the same requirements as those for non-documentary films regarding numbers and times of screenings. Academy Awards_sentence_119

Additionally, a film must have been reviewed by a critic from The New York Times, Time Out New York, the Los Angeles Times, or LA Weekly. Academy Awards_sentence_120

Awards in short film categories (Best Documentary Short Subject, Best Animated Short Film, and Best Live Action Short Film) have noticeably different eligibility rules from most other competitive awards. Academy Awards_sentence_121

First, the qualifying period for release does not coincide with a calendar year, instead covering a one-year period starting on October 1 and ending on September 30 of the calendar year before the ceremony. Academy Awards_sentence_122

Second, there are multiple methods of qualification. Academy Awards_sentence_123

The main method is a week-long theatrical release in either Los Angeles County or New York City during the eligibility period. Academy Awards_sentence_124

Films also can qualify by winning specified awards at one of a number of competitive film festivals designated by the Academy, also without regard to prior public distribution. Academy Awards_sentence_125

Finally, a film that is selected as a gold, silver, or bronze medal winner in an appropriate category of the immediately previous Student Academy Awards is also eligible (Documentary category for that award, and Animation, Narrative, Alternative, or International for the other awards). Academy Awards_sentence_126

The requirements for the qualifying theatrical run are also different from those for other awards. Academy Awards_sentence_127

Only one screening per day is required. Academy Awards_sentence_128

For the Documentary award, the screening must start between noon and 10 pm local time; for other awards, no specific start time is required, but the film must appear in regular theater listings with dates and screening times. Academy Awards_sentence_129

For example, the 2009 Best Picture winner, The Hurt Locker, was actually first released in 2008, but did not qualify for the 2008 awards, as it did not play its Oscar-qualifying run in Los Angeles until mid-2009, thus qualifying for the 2009 awards. Academy Awards_sentence_130

Foreign films must include English subtitles, and each country can submit only one film for consideration in the International Feature Film category per year. Academy Awards_sentence_131

Rule 2 states that a film must be feature-length, defined as a minimum of 40 minutes, except for short-subject awards, and it must exist either on a 35 mm or 70 mm film print or in 24 frame/s or 48 frame/s progressive scan digital cinema format with a minimum projector resolution of 2048 by 1080 pixels. Academy Awards_sentence_132

Since the 90th Academy Awards, presented in 2018, multi-part and limited series have been ineligible for the Best Documentary Feature award. Academy Awards_sentence_133

This followed the win of O.J.: Made in America, an eight-hour presentation that was screened in a limited release before being broadcast in five parts on ABC and ESPN, in that category in 2017. Academy Awards_sentence_134

The Academy's announcement of the new rule made no direct mention of that film. Academy Awards_sentence_135

Producers must submit an Official Screen Credits online form before the deadline; in case it is not submitted by the defined deadline, the film will be ineligible for Academy Awards in any year. Academy Awards_sentence_136

The form includes the production credits for all related categories. Academy Awards_sentence_137

Then, each form is checked and put in a Reminder List of Eligible Releases. Academy Awards_sentence_138

In late December, ballots, and copies of the Reminder List of Eligible Releases are mailed to around 6,000 active members. Academy Awards_sentence_139

For most categories, members from each of the branches vote to determine the nominees only in their respective categories (i.e. only directors vote for directors, writers for writers, actors for actors, etc.). Academy Awards_sentence_140

In the special case of Best Picture, all voting members are eligible to select the nominees. Academy Awards_sentence_141

In all major categories, a variant of the single transferable vote is used, with each member casting a ballot with up to five nominees (ten for Best Picture) ranked preferentially. Academy Awards_sentence_142

In certain categories, including International Feature Film, Documentary and Animated Feature, nominees are selected by special screening committees made up of members from all branches. Academy Awards_sentence_143

In most categories, the winner is selected from among the nominees by plurality voting of all members. Academy Awards_sentence_144

Since 2009, the Best Picture winner has been chosen by instant runoff voting. Academy Awards_sentence_145

Since 2013, re-weighted range voting has been used to select the nominees for the Best Visual Effects. Academy Awards_sentence_146

Film companies will spend as much as several million dollars on marketing to awards voters for a movie in the running for Best Picture, in attempts to improve chances of receiving Oscars and other movie awards conferred in Oscar season. Academy Awards_sentence_147

The Academy enforces rules to limit overt campaigning by its members so as to try to eliminate excesses and prevent the process from becoming undignified. Academy Awards_sentence_148

It has an awards czar on staff who advises members on allowed practices and levies penalties on offenders. Academy Awards_sentence_149

For example, a producer of the 2009 Best Picture nominee The Hurt Locker was disqualified as a producer in the category when he contacted associates urging them to vote for his film and not another that was seen as the front-runner (The Hurt Locker eventually won). Academy Awards_sentence_150

Awards ceremonies Academy Awards_section_11

See also: List of Academy Awards ceremonies Academy Awards_sentence_151

Telecast Academy Awards_section_12

The major awards are presented at a live televised ceremony, commonly in late February or early March following the relevant calendar year, and six weeks after the announcement of the nominees. Academy Awards_sentence_152

It is the culmination of the film awards season, which usually begins during November or December of the previous year. Academy Awards_sentence_153

This is an elaborate extravaganza, with the invited guests walking up the red carpet in the creations of the most prominent fashion designers of the day. Academy Awards_sentence_154

Black tie dress is the most common outfit for men, although fashion may dictate not wearing a bow-tie, and musical performers sometimes do not adhere to this. Academy Awards_sentence_155

(The artists who recorded the nominees for Best Original Song quite often perform those songs live at the awards ceremony, and the fact that they are performing is often used to promote the television broadcast.) Academy Awards_sentence_156

The Academy Awards is the world's longest-running awards show televised live from the U.S. to all time zones in North America and worldwide, and gathers billions of viewers elsewhere throughout the world. Academy Awards_sentence_157

The Oscars were first televised in 1953 by NBC, which continued to broadcast the event until 1960, when ABC took over, televising the festivities (including the first color broadcast of the event in 1966) through 1970. Academy Awards_sentence_158

NBC regained the rights for five years (1971–75), then ABC resumed broadcast duties in 1976 and its current contract with the Academy runs through 2028. Academy Awards_sentence_159

The Academy has also produced condensed versions of the ceremony for broadcast in international markets (especially those outside of the Americas) in more desirable local timeslots. Academy Awards_sentence_160

The ceremony was broadcast live internationally for the first time via satellite since 1970, but only two South American countries, Chile and Brazil, purchased the rights to air the broadcast. Academy Awards_sentence_161

By that time, the television rights to the Academy Awards had been sold in 50 countries. Academy Awards_sentence_162

A decade later, the rights were already being sold to 60 countries, and by 1984, the TV rights to the Awards were licensed in 76 countries. Academy Awards_sentence_163

The ceremonies were moved up from late March/early April to late February, since 2004, to help disrupt and shorten the intense lobbying and ad campaigns associated with Oscar season in the film industry. Academy Awards_sentence_164

Another reason was because of the growing TV ratings success coinciding with the NCAA Basketball Tournament, which would cut into the Academy Awards audience. Academy Awards_sentence_165

(In 1976 and 1977, ABC's regained Oscars were moved from Tuesday to Monday and went directly opposite NBC's NCAA title game.) Academy Awards_sentence_166

The earlier date is also to the advantage of ABC, as it now usually occurs during the highly profitable and important February sweeps period. Academy Awards_sentence_167

Some years, the ceremony is moved into the first Sunday of March to avoid a clash with the Winter Olympic Games. Academy Awards_sentence_168

Another reason for the move to late February and early March is also to avoid the awards ceremony occurring so close to the religious holidays of Passover and Easter, which for decades had been a grievance from members and the general public. Academy Awards_sentence_169

Advertising is somewhat restricted, however, as traditionally no movie studios or competitors of official Academy Award sponsors may advertise during the telecast. Academy Awards_sentence_170

The production of the Academy Awards telecast currently holds the distinction of winning the most Emmys in history, with 47 wins and 195 nominations overall since that award's own launch in 1949. Academy Awards_sentence_171

After many years of being held on Mondays at 9:00 pm Eastern/6:00 p.m Pacific, since the 1999 ceremonies, it was moved to Sundays at 8:30 pm ET/5:30 pm PT. Academy Awards_sentence_172

The reasons given for the move were that more viewers would tune in on Sundays, that Los Angeles rush-hour traffic jams could be avoided, and an earlier start time would allow viewers on the East Coast to go to bed earlier. Academy Awards_sentence_173

For many years the film industry opposed a Sunday broadcast because it would cut into the weekend box office. Academy Awards_sentence_174

In 2010, the Academy contemplated moving the ceremony even further back into January, citing TV viewers' fatigue with the film industry's long awards season. Academy Awards_sentence_175

However, such an accelerated schedule would dramatically decrease the voting period for its members, to the point where some voters would only have time to view the contending films streamed on their computers (as opposed to traditionally receiving the films and ballots in the mail). Academy Awards_sentence_176

Furthermore, a January ceremony on Sunday would clash with National Football League playoff games. Academy Awards_sentence_177

In 2018, the Academy announced that the ceremony would be moved from late February to mid February beginning with the 92nd Academy Awards in 2020. Academy Awards_sentence_178

Originally scheduled for April 8, 1968, the 40th Academy Awards ceremony was postponed for two days, because of the assassination of Dr. Academy Awards_sentence_179 Martin Luther King, Jr.. Academy Awards_sentence_180

On March 30, 1981, the 53rd Academy Awards was postponed for one day, after the shooting of President Ronald Reagan and others in Washington, D.C. Academy Awards_sentence_181

In 1993, an In Memoriam segment was introduced, honoring those who had made a significant contribution to cinema who had died in the preceding 12 months, a selection compiled by a small committee of Academy members. Academy Awards_sentence_182

This segment has drawn criticism over the years for the omission of some names. Academy Awards_sentence_183

Criticism was also levied for many years regarding another aspect, with the segment having a "popularity contest" feel as the audience varied their applause to those who had died by the subject's cultural impact; the applause has since been muted during the telecast, and the audience is discouraged from clapping during the segment and giving silent reflection instead. Academy Awards_sentence_184

This segment was later followed by a commercial break. Academy Awards_sentence_185

In terms of broadcast length, the ceremony generally averages three and a half hours. Academy Awards_sentence_186

The first Oscars, in 1929, lasted 15 minutes. Academy Awards_sentence_187

At the other end of the spectrum, the 2002 ceremony lasted four hours and twenty-three minutes. Academy Awards_sentence_188

In 2010, the organizers of the Academy Awards announced winners' acceptance speeches must not run past 45 seconds. Academy Awards_sentence_189

This, according to organizer Bill Mechanic, was to ensure the elimination of what he termed "the single most hated thing on the show" – overly long and embarrassing displays of emotion. Academy Awards_sentence_190

In 2016, in a further effort to streamline speeches, winners' dedications were displayed on an on-screen ticker. Academy Awards_sentence_191

During the 2018 ceremony, host Jimmy Kimmel acknowledged how long the ceremony had become, by announcing that he would give a brand-new jet ski to whoever gave the shortest speech of the night (a reward won by Mark Bridges when accepting his Best Costume Design award for Phantom Thread). Academy Awards_sentence_192

The Wall Street Journal analyzed the average minutes spent across the 2014–2018 telecasts as follows: 14 on song performances; 25 on the hosts' speeches; 38 on prerecorded clips; and 78 on the awards themselves, broken into 24 on the introduction and announcement, 24 on winners walking to the stage, and 30 on their acceptance speeches. Academy Awards_sentence_193

Although still dominant in ratings, the viewership of the Academy Awards has steadily dropped; the 88th Academy Awards were the lowest-rated in the past eight years (although with increases in male and 18–49 viewership), while the show itself also faced mixed reception. Academy Awards_sentence_194

Following the show, Variety reported that ABC was, in negotiating an extension to its contract to broadcast the Oscars, seeking to have more creative control over the broadcast itself. Academy Awards_sentence_195

Currently and nominally, AMPAS is responsible for most aspects of the telecast, including the choice of production staff and hosting, although ABC is allowed to have some input on their decisions. Academy Awards_sentence_196

In August 2016, AMPAS extended its contract with ABC through 2028: the contract neither contains any notable changes nor gives ABC any further creative control over the telecast. Academy Awards_sentence_197

TV ratings Academy Awards_section_13

Historically, the telecast's viewership is higher when box-office hits are favored to win the Best Picture award. Academy Awards_sentence_198

More than 57.25 million viewers tuned to the telecast for the 70th Academy Awards in 1998, the year of Titanic, which generated a box office haul during its initial 1997–98 run of US$600.8 million in the US, a box office record that would remain unsurpassed for years. Academy Awards_sentence_199

The 76th Academy Awards ceremony, in which The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (pre-telecast box office earnings of US$368 million) received 11 Awards including Best Picture, drew 43.56 million viewers. Academy Awards_sentence_200

The most watched ceremony based on Nielsen ratings to date, however, was the 42nd Academy Awards (Best Picture Midnight Cowboy) which drew a 43.4% household rating on April 7, 1970. Academy Awards_sentence_201

By contrast, ceremonies honoring films that have not performed well at the box office tend to show weaker ratings, despite how much critically acclaimed those films have been. Academy Awards_sentence_202

The 78th Academy Awards which awarded low-budget independent film Crash (with a pre-Oscar gross of US$53.4 million) generated an audience of 38.64 million with a household rating of 22.91%. Academy Awards_sentence_203

In 2008, the 80th Academy Awards telecast was watched by 31.76 million viewers on average with an 18.66% household rating, the lowest-rated and least-watched ceremony at the time, in spite of celebrating 80 years of the Academy Awards. Academy Awards_sentence_204

The Best Picture winner of that particular ceremony was another independent film (No Country for Old Men). Academy Awards_sentence_205

The 92nd Academy Awards drew an average of 23.6 million viewers—a new low. Academy Awards_sentence_206

Archive Academy Awards_section_14

The Academy Film Archive holds copies of every Academy Awards ceremony since the 1949 Oscars and material on many prior ceremonies, along with ancillary material related to more recent shows. Academy Awards_sentence_207

Copies are held on a variety of film, video, and digital formats. Academy Awards_sentence_208

Venues Academy Awards_section_15

In 1929, the first Academy Awards were presented at a banquet dinner at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel. Academy Awards_sentence_209

From 1930 to 1943, the ceremony alternated between two venues: the Ambassador Hotel on Wilshire Boulevard and the Biltmore Hotel in downtown Los Angeles. Academy Awards_sentence_210

Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Hollywood then hosted the awards from 1944 to 1946, followed by the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles from 1947 to 1948. Academy Awards_sentence_211

The 21st Academy Awards in 1949 were held at the Academy Award Theatre at what had been the Academy's headquarters on Melrose Avenue in Hollywood. Academy Awards_sentence_212

From 1950 to 1960, the awards were presented at Hollywood's Pantages Theatre. Academy Awards_sentence_213

With the advent of television, the awards from 1953 to 1957 took place simultaneously in Hollywood and New York, first at the NBC International Theatre (1953) and then at the NBC Century Theatre, after which the ceremony took place solely in Los Angeles. Academy Awards_sentence_214

The Oscars moved to the Santa Monica Civic Auditorium in Santa Monica, California, in 1961. Academy Awards_sentence_215

By 1969, the Academy decided to move the ceremonies back to Downtown Los Angeles, this time to the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion at the Los Angeles County Music Center. Academy Awards_sentence_216

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the ceremony returned to the Shrine. Academy Awards_sentence_217

In 2002, Hollywood's Dolby Theatre (previously known as the Kodak Theatre) became the presentation's current venue. Academy Awards_sentence_218

Awards of Merit categories Academy Awards_section_16

Current categories Academy Awards_section_17

In the first year of the awards, the Best Directing award was split into two categories (Drama and Comedy). Academy Awards_sentence_219

At times, the Best Original Score award has also been split into separate categories (Drama and Comedy/Musical). Academy Awards_sentence_220

From the 1930s through the 1960s, the Art Direction (now Production Design), Cinematography, and Costume Design awards were likewise split into two categories (black-and-white films and color films). Academy Awards_sentence_221

Prior to 2012, the Production Design award was called Art Direction, while the Makeup and Hairstyling award was called Makeup. Academy Awards_sentence_222

In August 2018, the Academy announced that several categories would not be televised live, but rather be recorded during commercial breaks and aired later in the ceremony. Academy Awards_sentence_223

Following dissent from Academy members, they announced that they would indeed air all 24 categories live. Academy Awards_sentence_224

This followed a number of proposals (among them, the introduction of a Popular Film category) that the Academy had announced but did not implement. Academy Awards_sentence_225

Discontinued categories Academy Awards_section_18

Proposed categories Academy Awards_section_19

The Board of Governors meets each year and considers new award categories. Academy Awards_sentence_226

To date, the following categories have been proposed: Academy Awards_sentence_227

Academy Awards_unordered_list_1

  • Best Casting: rejected in 1999Academy Awards_item_1_11
  • Best Popular Film: proposed in 2018 for presentation at the 2019 ceremony; postponed until the 2020 ceremony at the earliestAcademy Awards_item_1_12
  • Best Stunt Coordination: rejected every year from 1991 to 2012Academy Awards_item_1_13
  • Best Title Design: rejected in 1999Academy Awards_item_1_14

Special categories Academy Awards_section_20

The Special Academy Awards are voted on by special committees, rather than by the Academy membership as a whole. Academy Awards_sentence_228

They are not always presented on an annual basis. Academy Awards_sentence_229

Current special categories Academy Awards_section_21

For a list of all nine awards, see § Other awards presented by the Academy. Academy Awards_sentence_230

Academy Awards_unordered_list_2

Discontinued special categories Academy Awards_section_22

Academy Awards_unordered_list_3

Criticism Academy Awards_section_23

Accusations of commercialism Academy Awards_section_24

Due to the positive exposure and prestige of the Academy Awards, many studios spend millions of dollars and hire publicists specifically to promote their films during what is typically called the "Oscar season". Academy Awards_sentence_231

This has generated accusations of the Academy Awards being influenced more by marketing than by quality. Academy Awards_sentence_232

William Friedkin, an Academy Award-winning film director and former producer of the ceremony, expressed this sentiment at a conference in New York in 2009, describing it as "the greatest promotion scheme that any industry ever devised for itself". Academy Awards_sentence_233

Tim Dirks, editor of AMC's, has written of the Academy Awards: Academy Awards_sentence_234

A recent technique that has been claimed to be used during the Oscar season is the whisper campaign. Academy Awards_sentence_235

These campaigns are intended to spread negative perceptions of other movies nominated and are believed to be perpetrated by those that were involved in creating the movie. Academy Awards_sentence_236

Examples of whisper campaigns include the allegations against Zero Dark Thirty suggesting that it justifies torture and the claim that Lincoln distorts history. Academy Awards_sentence_237

Accusations of bias Academy Awards_section_25

Further information: Oscar bait Academy Awards_sentence_238

Typical criticism of the Academy Awards for Best Picture is that among the winners and nominees there is an over-representation of romantic historical epics, biographical dramas, romantic dramedies and family melodramas, most of which are released in the U.S. the last three months of the calendar year. Academy Awards_sentence_239

The Oscars have been infamously known for selecting specific genres of movies to be awarded. Academy Awards_sentence_240

The term 'Oscar bait' was coined to describe such movies. Academy Awards_sentence_241

This has led, at times, to more specific criticisms that the Academy is disconnected from the audience, e.g., by favoring 'Oscar bait' over audience favorites, or favoring historical melodramas over critically acclaimed movies that depict current life issues. Academy Awards_sentence_242

Allegations of a lack of diversity Academy Awards_section_26

The Academy Awards have long received criticism over its lack of diversity among the nominees. Academy Awards_sentence_243

This criticism is based on the statistics from every Academy Awards since 1929, which shows us that only 6.4% of academy award nominees have been non-white and since 1991, 11.2% of nominees have been non-white, with the rate of winners being even more polarizing. Academy Awards_sentence_244

More white actresses have won Oscars for yellowface portrayals of Asian characters than actual Asian actresses. Academy Awards_sentence_245

The 88th awards ceremony became the target of a boycott, popularized on social media with the hashtag #OscarsSoWhite, based on critics' perception that its all-white acting nominee list reflected bias. Academy Awards_sentence_246

In response, the Academy initiated "historic" changes in membership by the year 2020. Academy Awards_sentence_247

Symbolism or sentimentalization Academy Awards_section_27

Acting prizes in certain years have been criticized for not recognizing superior performances so much as being awarded for personal popularity, to make up for a "snub" for a work that proved in time to be more popular or renowned than the one actually awarded, or presented as a "career honor" to recognize a distinguished nominee's entire body of work. Academy Awards_sentence_248

Recognition of streaming media film Academy Awards_section_28

Following the 91st Academy Awards in February 2019 in which the Netflix-broadcast film Roma had been nominated for ten awards including the Best Picture category, Steven Spielberg and other members of the Academy discussed changing the requirements through the Board of Governors for films as to exclude those from Netflix and other media streaming services. Academy Awards_sentence_249

Spielberg had been concerned that Netflix as a movie production and distribution studio could spend much more than typical Oscar-winning films and have much wider and earlier distribution than other Best Picture-nominated films, while still being able to meet the minimal theatrical-run status to qualify for an Oscar. Academy Awards_sentence_250

The United States Department of Justice, having heard of this potential rule change, wrote a letter to the Academy in March 2019, cautioning them that placing additional restrictions on films that originate from streaming media services without proper justification could raise anti-trust concerns against the Academy. Academy Awards_sentence_251

Following its April 2019 board meeting, the Academy Board of Governors agreed to retain the current rules that allow for streaming media films to be eligible for Oscars as long as they enjoy limited theatrical runs. Academy Awards_sentence_252

Refusals of the award Academy Awards_section_29

Some winners critical of the Academy Awards have boycotted the ceremonies and refused to accept their Oscars. Academy Awards_sentence_253

The first to do so was screenwriter Dudley Nichols (Best Writing in 1935 for The Informer). Academy Awards_sentence_254

Nichols boycotted the 8th Academy Awards ceremony because of conflicts between the Academy and the Writers' Guild. Academy Awards_sentence_255

Nichols eventually accepted the 1935 award three years later, at the 1938 ceremony. Academy Awards_sentence_256

Nichols was nominated for three further Academy Awards during his career. Academy Awards_sentence_257

George C. Scott became the second person to refuse his award (Best Actor in 1970 for Patton) at the 43rd Academy Awards ceremony. Academy Awards_sentence_258

Scott described it as a "meat parade", saying, "I don't want any part of it." Academy Awards_sentence_259

The third person to refuse the award was Marlon Brando, who refused his award (Best Actor for 1972's The Godfather), citing the film industry's discrimination and mistreatment of Native Americans. Academy Awards_sentence_260

At the 45th Academy Awards ceremony, Brando sent actress and civil rights activist Sacheen Littlefeather to read a 15-page speech, detailing his criticisms, which was booed by the audience. Academy Awards_sentence_261

Incidents Academy Awards_section_30

At the 89th Academy Awards ceremony, Warren Beatty and Faye Dunaway mistakenly announced La La Land as the recipient of the Best Picture award, instead of Moonlight, the actual winner. Academy Awards_sentence_262

Beatty had been given the wrong envelope and after hesitating during the announcement, handed the envelope to Dunaway, which listed Emma Stone as Best Actress for La La Land and led to the confusion. Academy Awards_sentence_263

The proper winner was announced after the acceptance speeches by La La Land producers Fred Berger, Jordan Horowitz and Marc Platt. Academy Awards_sentence_264

The following year, Beatty and Dunaway were invited back as presenters of the Best Picture award, which they accomplished without error. Academy Awards_sentence_265

Plagiarism controversies Academy Awards_section_31

Academy Awards_unordered_list_4

  • Zootopia: On March 21, 2017, a copyright infringement lawsuit was filed against Disney by Esplanade Productions, a company owned by Gary L. Goldman, co-screenwriter of Total Recall. The lawsuit claims that Goldman (in 2000 and 2009) pitched a concept to Disney for a live-action film titled Looney, which was about a socially awkward animator who creates a self-inspired TV cartoon called Zootopia. Disney twice rejected the pitch, but Goldman accused the company of copying the name, themes, settings and character tropes. Filed with the lawsuit was a graphic of early concept artwork of characters that are claimed to appear similar to major characters from the film, including Nick Wilde, Judy Hopps, Flash and Chief Bogo. A Disney spokesperson described the lawsuit as being "ridden with patently false allegations." U.S. District Judge Michael W. Fitzgerald dismissed the infringement claims on November 8, 2017.Academy Awards_item_4_22
  • The Shape of Water: In February 2018, the estate of Paul Zindel initiated a lawsuit in United States District Court for the Central District of California against director Guillermo del Toro and associate producer Daniel Kraus, alleging that The Shape of Water "brazenly copies the story, elements, characters, and themes" of Zindel's 1969 work Let Me Hear You Whisper, which depicts a cleaning lady bonding with a dolphin and attempting to rescue it from a secret research laboratory's nefarious uses. In July 2018, Judge Percy Anderson dismissed the suit.Academy Awards_item_4_23
  • Parasite: On February 6, 2020, Indian film producer P. L. Thenappan threatened to take legal action against the makers of Parasite for "story theft" against his 1999 Tamil film Minsara Kanna. Thenappan and his lawyer had sent a letter seeking an explanation to Bong Joon-ho and the production company that made Parasite. Easwar Kuppusamy, a Madras High Court advocate who is appearing for Thenappan, said, "They can't deny that they have lifted the basic plot [of Minsara Kanna]. There are several films which have similar ideas, but an entire family going to a rich family's house and deceiving them is Minsara Kanna's plot. The only difference is that Parasite doesn't belong to the romantic genre." Some Tamil netizens agreed that the plot of the film is similar to Minsara Kanna.Academy Awards_item_4_24

Disqualifications Academy Awards_section_32

Nine films have been disqualified before an official award ceremony because they violated the regulations: Academy Awards_sentence_266

Academy Awards_unordered_list_5

  • The Circus (1928) – The film was voluntarily removed by the Academy from competitive categories, to award Charlie Chaplin a special award.Academy Awards_item_5_25
  • Hondo (1953) – Removed from the Best Story ballot after letters from the producer and nominee questioned its inclusion in the category.Academy Awards_item_5_26
  • High Society (1955) – Withdrawn from screenwriting ballot after being mistaken for the 1956 movie of the same title.Academy Awards_item_5_27
  • The Godfather (1972) – Initially nominated for eleven awards, its nomination for Best Original Score was revoked after it was discovered that its main theme was very similar to music that the score's composer had written for an earlier film. None of its other nominations were revoked, and it received three Oscars, including Best Picture.Academy Awards_item_5_28
  • A Place in the World (1992) – Removed from the Best Foreign Language Film ballot after it was discovered that the country who submitted the film exercised insufficient artistic control.Academy Awards_item_5_29
  • Tuba Atlantic (2012) – Removed from the Best Live Action Short Film ballot when it was discovered that the film aired on television before its theatrical release.Academy Awards_item_5_30
  • Alone Yet Not Alone (2014) – The film's title song, "Alone Yet Not Alone", was removed from the Best Original Song ballot after Bruce Broughton was found to have improperly contacted other members of the academy's musical branch; this was the first time that a film was removed from a ballot for ethical reasons.Academy Awards_item_5_31

One film was disqualified after winning the award, and had the winner return the Oscar: Academy Awards_sentence_267

Academy Awards_unordered_list_6

  • Young Americans (1969) – Initially won the award for Best Documentary Feature, but was later revoked after it was revealed that it had opened theatrically prior to the eligibility period.Academy Awards_item_6_32

Associated events Academy Awards_section_33

The following events are closely associated with the annual Academy Awards: Academy Awards_sentence_268

Academy Awards_unordered_list_7

Presenter and performer gifts Academy Awards_section_34

It has become a tradition to give out gift bags to the presenters and performers at the Oscars. Academy Awards_sentence_269

In recent years, these gifts have also been extended to award nominees and winners. Academy Awards_sentence_270

The value of each of these gift bags can reach into the tens of thousands of dollars. Academy Awards_sentence_271

In 2014, the value was reported to be as high as US$80,000. Academy Awards_sentence_272

The value has risen to the point where the U.S. Internal Revenue Service issued a statement regarding the gifts and their taxable status. Academy Awards_sentence_273

Oscar gift bags have included vacation packages to Hawaii and Mexico and Japan, a private dinner party for the recipient and friends at a restaurant, videophones, a four-night stay at a hotel, watches, bracelets, spa treatments, bottles of vodka, maple salad dressing, weight-loss gummie candy and up to $25,000 worth of cosmetic treatments and rejuvenation procedures such as lip fillers and chemical peels from New York City facial plastic surgeon Konstantin Vasyukevich. Academy Awards_sentence_274

Some of the gifts have even had a "risque" element to them; in 2014, the adult products retailer Adam & Eve had a "Secret Room Gifting Suite". Academy Awards_sentence_275

Celebrities visiting the gifting suite included Judith Hoag, Carolyn Hennesy, Kate Linder, Chris Mulkey, Jim O'Heir, and John Salley. Academy Awards_sentence_276

Television ratings and advertisement prices Academy Awards_section_35

From 2006 onwards, results are Live+SD; all previous years are live viewing. Academy Awards_sentence_277

Academy Awards_table_general_1

YearAcademy Awards_header_cell_1_0_0 Viewers,

millionsAcademy Awards_header_cell_1_0_1

Ad price,

USD, millionsAcademy Awards_header_cell_1_0_2

Adjusted price,

USD, millionsAcademy Awards_header_cell_1_0_3

2020Academy Awards_cell_1_1_0 23.6Academy Awards_cell_1_1_1 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_1_2 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_1_3
2019Academy Awards_cell_1_2_0 29.6Academy Awards_cell_1_2_1 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_2_2 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_2_3
2018Academy Awards_cell_1_3_0 26.5Academy Awards_cell_1_3_1 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_3_2 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_3_3
2017Academy Awards_cell_1_4_0 32.9Academy Awards_cell_1_4_1 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_4_2 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_4_3
2016Academy Awards_cell_1_5_0 34.3Academy Awards_cell_1_5_1 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_5_2 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_5_3
2015Academy Awards_cell_1_6_0 37.260Academy Awards_cell_1_6_1 1.95Academy Awards_cell_1_6_2 2.1Academy Awards_cell_1_6_3
2014Academy Awards_cell_1_7_0 43.740Academy Awards_cell_1_7_1 1.8 – 1.9Academy Awards_cell_1_7_2 1.94 – 2.05Academy Awards_cell_1_7_3
2013Academy Awards_cell_1_8_0 40.376Academy Awards_cell_1_8_1 1.65 – 1.8Academy Awards_cell_1_8_2 1.81 – 1.98Academy Awards_cell_1_8_3
2012Academy Awards_cell_1_9_0 39.460Academy Awards_cell_1_9_1 1.610Academy Awards_cell_1_9_2 1.79Academy Awards_cell_1_9_3
2011Academy Awards_cell_1_10_0 37.919Academy Awards_cell_1_10_1 1.3684Academy Awards_cell_1_10_2 1.56Academy Awards_cell_1_10_3
2010Academy Awards_cell_1_11_0 41.699Academy Awards_cell_1_11_1 1.1267Academy Awards_cell_1_11_2 1.32Academy Awards_cell_1_11_3
2009Academy Awards_cell_1_12_0 36.310Academy Awards_cell_1_12_1 1.3Academy Awards_cell_1_12_2 1.55Academy Awards_cell_1_12_3
2008Academy Awards_cell_1_13_0 32.006Academy Awards_cell_1_13_1 1.82Academy Awards_cell_1_13_2 2.16Academy Awards_cell_1_13_3
2007Academy Awards_cell_1_14_0 40.172Academy Awards_cell_1_14_1 1.6658Academy Awards_cell_1_14_2 2.05Academy Awards_cell_1_14_3
2006Academy Awards_cell_1_15_0 38.939Academy Awards_cell_1_15_1 1.6468Academy Awards_cell_1_15_2 2.09Academy Awards_cell_1_15_3
2005Academy Awards_cell_1_16_0 42.139Academy Awards_cell_1_16_1 1.503Academy Awards_cell_1_16_2 1.97Academy Awards_cell_1_16_3
2004Academy Awards_cell_1_17_0 43.531Academy Awards_cell_1_17_1 1.5031Academy Awards_cell_1_17_2 2.03Academy Awards_cell_1_17_3
2003Academy Awards_cell_1_18_0 33.043Academy Awards_cell_1_18_1 1.3458Academy Awards_cell_1_18_2 1.87Academy Awards_cell_1_18_3
2002Academy Awards_cell_1_19_0 41.782Academy Awards_cell_1_19_1 1.29Academy Awards_cell_1_19_2 1.83Academy Awards_cell_1_19_3
2001Academy Awards_cell_1_20_0 42.944Academy Awards_cell_1_20_1 1.45Academy Awards_cell_1_20_2 2.09Academy Awards_cell_1_20_3
2000Academy Awards_cell_1_21_0 46.333Academy Awards_cell_1_21_1 1.305Academy Awards_cell_1_21_2 1.94Academy Awards_cell_1_21_3
1999Academy Awards_cell_1_22_0 45.615Academy Awards_cell_1_22_1 1Academy Awards_cell_1_22_2 1.53Academy Awards_cell_1_22_3
1998Academy Awards_cell_1_23_0 57.249Academy Awards_cell_1_23_1 0.95Academy Awards_cell_1_23_2 1.49Academy Awards_cell_1_23_3
1997Academy Awards_cell_1_24_0 40.075Academy Awards_cell_1_24_1 0.85Academy Awards_cell_1_24_2 1.35Academy Awards_cell_1_24_3
1996Academy Awards_cell_1_25_0 44.867Academy Awards_cell_1_25_1 0.795Academy Awards_cell_1_25_2 1.3Academy Awards_cell_1_25_3
1995Academy Awards_cell_1_26_0 48.279Academy Awards_cell_1_26_1 0.7Academy Awards_cell_1_26_2 1.17Academy Awards_cell_1_26_3
1994Academy Awards_cell_1_27_0 45.083Academy Awards_cell_1_27_1 0.6435Academy Awards_cell_1_27_2 1.11Academy Awards_cell_1_27_3
1993Academy Awards_cell_1_28_0 45.735Academy Awards_cell_1_28_1 0.6078Academy Awards_cell_1_28_2 1.08Academy Awards_cell_1_28_3
1992Academy Awards_cell_1_29_0 44.406Academy Awards_cell_1_29_1 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_29_2 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_29_3
1991Academy Awards_cell_1_30_0 42.727Academy Awards_cell_1_30_1 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_30_2 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_30_3
1990Academy Awards_cell_1_31_0 40.375Academy Awards_cell_1_31_1 0.45Academy Awards_cell_1_31_2 0.88Academy Awards_cell_1_31_3
1989Academy Awards_cell_1_32_0 42.619Academy Awards_cell_1_32_1 0.375Academy Awards_cell_1_32_2 0.77Academy Awards_cell_1_32_3
1988Academy Awards_cell_1_33_0 42.227Academy Awards_cell_1_33_1 0.36Academy Awards_cell_1_33_2 0.78Academy Awards_cell_1_33_3
1987Academy Awards_cell_1_34_0 37.190Academy Awards_cell_1_34_1 0.335Academy Awards_cell_1_34_2 0.75Academy Awards_cell_1_34_3
1986Academy Awards_cell_1_35_0 37.757Academy Awards_cell_1_35_1 0.32Academy Awards_cell_1_35_2 0.75Academy Awards_cell_1_35_3
1985Academy Awards_cell_1_36_0 38.855Academy Awards_cell_1_36_1 0.315Academy Awards_cell_1_36_2 0.75Academy Awards_cell_1_36_3
1984Academy Awards_cell_1_37_0 42.051Academy Awards_cell_1_37_1 0.275Academy Awards_cell_1_37_2 0.68Academy Awards_cell_1_37_3
1983Academy Awards_cell_1_38_0 53.235Academy Awards_cell_1_38_1 0.245Academy Awards_cell_1_38_2 0.63Academy Awards_cell_1_38_3
1982Academy Awards_cell_1_39_0 46.245Academy Awards_cell_1_39_1 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_39_2 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_39_3
1981Academy Awards_cell_1_40_0 39.919Academy Awards_cell_1_40_1 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_40_2 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_40_3
1980Academy Awards_cell_1_41_0 48.978Academy Awards_cell_1_41_1 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_41_2 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_41_3
1979Academy Awards_cell_1_42_0 46.301Academy Awards_cell_1_42_1 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_42_2 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_42_3
1978Academy Awards_cell_1_43_0 48.501Academy Awards_cell_1_43_1 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_43_2 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_43_3
1977Academy Awards_cell_1_44_0 39.719Academy Awards_cell_1_44_1 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_44_2 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_44_3
1976Academy Awards_cell_1_45_0 46.751Academy Awards_cell_1_45_1 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_45_2 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_45_3
1975Academy Awards_cell_1_46_0 48.127Academy Awards_cell_1_46_1 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_46_2 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_46_3
1974Academy Awards_cell_1_47_0 44.712Academy Awards_cell_1_47_1 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_47_2 Not availableAcademy Awards_cell_1_47_3

Trademark Academy Awards_section_36

The term "Oscar" is a registered trademark of the AMPAS; however, in the Italian language, it is used generically to refer to any award or award ceremony, regardless of which field. Academy Awards_sentence_278

See also Academy Awards_section_37

Academy Awards_unordered_list_8

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Awards.