Adobe Flash

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This article is about the multimedia software platform. Adobe Flash_sentence_0

For the application/animation software, see Adobe Animate. Adobe Flash_sentence_1

For the player, see Adobe Flash Player. Adobe Flash_sentence_2

"Shockwave Flash" redirects here. Adobe Flash_sentence_3

It is not to be confused with Adobe Shockwave. Adobe Flash_sentence_4

Adobe Flash_table_infobox_0

Adobe FlashAdobe Flash_table_caption_0
Developer(s)Adobe Flash_header_cell_0_0_0 Adobe Flash_cell_0_0_1
Target platform(s)Adobe Flash_header_cell_0_1_0 Web browsers, iOS (via third-party software), Android, Microsoft Windows, macOS, LinuxAdobe Flash_cell_0_1_1
Editor softwareAdobe Flash_header_cell_0_2_0 Adobe Flash_cell_0_2_1
Player softwareAdobe Flash_header_cell_0_3_0 Adobe Flash_cell_0_3_1
Format(s)Adobe Flash_header_cell_0_4_0 Adobe Flash_cell_0_4_1
Programming language(s)Adobe Flash_header_cell_0_5_0 ActionScriptAdobe Flash_cell_0_5_1
Application(s)Adobe Flash_header_cell_0_6_0 Adobe Flash_cell_0_6_1
StatusAdobe Flash_header_cell_0_7_0 Active; EOL at the end of 2020Adobe Flash_cell_0_7_1
LicenseAdobe Flash_header_cell_0_8_0 ProprietaryAdobe Flash_cell_0_8_1

Adobe Flash is a multimedia software platform used for production of animations, Rich web applications, desktop applications, mobile apps, mobile games, and embedded web browser video players. Adobe Flash_sentence_5

Flash displays text, vector graphics and raster graphics to provide animations, video games and applications. Adobe Flash_sentence_6

It allows streaming of audio and video, and can capture mouse, keyboard, microphone, and camera input. Adobe Flash_sentence_7

Adobe has announced it will no longer update or maintain Flash after December 2020. Adobe Flash_sentence_8

Related development platform Adobe AIR continues to be supported. Adobe Flash_sentence_9

Artists may produce Flash graphics and animations using Adobe Animate (formerly known as Adobe Flash Professional). Adobe Flash_sentence_10

Software developers may produce applications and video games using Adobe Flash Builder, FlashDevelop, Flash Catalyst, or any text editor when used with the Apache Flex SDK. Adobe Flash_sentence_11

End users can view Flash content via Flash Player (for web browsers), Adobe AIR (for desktop or mobile apps), or third-party players such as Scaleform (for video games). Adobe Flash_sentence_12

Adobe Flash Player (supported on Microsoft Windows, macOS, and Linux) enables end users to view Flash content using web browsers. Adobe Flash_sentence_13

Adobe Flash Lite enabled viewing Flash content on older smartphones, but has been discontinued and superseded by Adobe AIR. Adobe Flash_sentence_14

The ActionScript programming language allows the development of interactive animations, video games, web applications, desktop applications, and mobile applications. Adobe Flash_sentence_15

Programmers can implement Flash software using an IDE such as Adobe Animate, Adobe Flash Builder, Adobe Director, FlashDevelop, and Powerflasher FDT. Adobe Flash_sentence_16

Adobe AIR enables full-featured desktop and mobile applications to be developed with Flash and published for Windows, macOS, Android, iOS, Xbox One, PlayStation 4, Wii U, and Nintendo Switch. Adobe Flash_sentence_17

Although Flash was previously a dominant platform for online multimedia content, it is slowly being abandoned as Adobe favors a transition to HTML5, Unity, or other platforms. Adobe Flash_sentence_18

Flash Player has been deprecated and has an official end-of-life on December 31, 2020, while it has already been dropped from Apple Safari on macOS. Adobe Flash_sentence_19

However, Adobe will continue to develop Adobe Animate, which will focus on supporting web standards such as HTML5 instead of the Flash format. Adobe Flash_sentence_20

Applications Adobe Flash_section_0

Websites Adobe Flash_section_1

In the early 2000s, Flash was widely installed on desktop computers, and was often used to display interactive web pages and online games, and to play video and audio content. Adobe Flash_sentence_21

In 2005, YouTube was founded by former PayPal employees, and it used Flash Player as a means to display compressed video content on the web. Adobe Flash_sentence_22

Between 2000 and 2010, numerous businesses used Flash-based websites to launch new products, or to create interactive company portals. Adobe Flash_sentence_23

Notable users include Nike, Hewlett-Packard (more commonly known as HP), Nokia, General Electric, World Wildlife Fund, HBO, Cartoon Network, Disney, and Motorola. Adobe Flash_sentence_24

After Adobe introduced hardware-accelerated 3D for Flash (Stage3D), Flash websites saw a growth of 3D content for product demonstrations and virtual tours. Adobe Flash_sentence_25

In 2007, YouTube offered videos in HTML5 format to support the iPhone and iPad, which did not support Flash Player. Adobe Flash_sentence_26

After a controversy with Apple, Adobe stopped developing Flash Player for Mobile, focusing its efforts on Adobe AIR applications and HTML5 animation. Adobe Flash_sentence_27

In 2015, Google introduced Google Swiffy to convert Flash animation to HTML5, a tool Google would use to automatically convert Flash web ads for mobile devices. Adobe Flash_sentence_28

In 2016, Google discontinued Swiffy and its support. Adobe Flash_sentence_29

In 2015, YouTube switched to HTML5 technology on all devices; however, it would preserve the Flash-based video player for older web browsers. Adobe Flash_sentence_30

RIAs Adobe Flash_section_2

After Flash 5 introduced ActionScript in 2000, developers combined the visual and programming capabilities of Flash to produce interactive experiences and applications for the Web. Adobe Flash_sentence_31

Such Web-based applications eventually came to be known as "Rich Internet Applications" (RIAs). Adobe Flash_sentence_32

In 2004, Macromedia Flex was released, and specifically targeted the application development market. Adobe Flash_sentence_33

Flex introduced new user interface components, advanced data visualization components, data remoting, and a modern IDE (Flash Builder). Adobe Flash_sentence_34

Flex competed with Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) and Microsoft Silverlight during its tenure. Adobe Flash_sentence_35

Flex was upgraded to support integration with remote data sources, using AMF, BlazeDS, Adobe LiveCycle, Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud, and others. Adobe Flash_sentence_36

As of 2015, Flex applications can be published for desktop platforms using Adobe AIR. Adobe Flash_sentence_37

Between 2006 and 2016, the web service conducted over 9.0 billion speed tests using an RIA built with Adobe Flash. Adobe Flash_sentence_38

In 2016, the service shifted to HTML5 due to the decreasing availability of Adobe Flash Player on PCs. Adobe Flash_sentence_39

As of 2016, Web applications and RIAs can be developed with Flash using the ActionScript 3.0 programming language and related tools such as Adobe Flash Builder. Adobe Flash_sentence_40

Third-party IDEs such as FlashDevelop and Powerflasher FDT also enable developers to create Flash games and applications and are generally similar to Microsoft Visual Studio. Adobe Flash_sentence_41

Flex applications are typically built using Flex frameworks such as PureMVC. Adobe Flash_sentence_42

Video games Adobe Flash_section_3

Flash video games are popular on the Internet, with portals like Newgrounds, Miniclip, and Armor Games dedicated to hosting of Flash-based games. Adobe Flash_sentence_43

Popular games developed with Flash include Angry Birds, Clash of Clans, FarmVille, AdventureQuest, Machinarium, Hundreds, N, QWOP, and Solipskier. Adobe Flash_sentence_44

Adobe introduced various technologies to help build video games, including Adobe AIR (to release games for desktop or mobile platforms), Adobe Scout (to improve performance), CrossBridge (to convert C++-based games to run in Flash), and Stage3D (to support GPU-accelerated video games). Adobe Flash_sentence_45

3D frameworks like Away3D and Flare3D simplified creation of 3D content for Flash. Adobe Flash_sentence_46

Adobe AIR allows the creation of Flash-based mobile games, which may be published to the Google Play and Apple app stores. Adobe Flash_sentence_47

Flash is also used to build interfaces and HUDs for 3D video games using Scaleform GFx, a technology that renders Flash content within non-Flash video games. Adobe Flash_sentence_48

Scaleform is supported by more than 10 major video game engines including Unreal Engine and UDK, CryEngine, and PhyreEngine, and has been used to provide 3D interfaces for more than 150 major video game titles since its launch in 2003. Adobe Flash_sentence_49

Film and animation Adobe Flash_section_4

Main articles: List of Flash animated films and List of Flash animated television series Adobe Flash_sentence_50

Adobe Animate is one of the common animation programs for low-cost 2D television and commercial animation, in competition with Anime Studio and Toon Boom Animation. Adobe Flash_sentence_51

Notable users of Flash include DHX Media Vancouver for productions including Pound Puppies, Littlest Pet Shop and My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic, Fresh TV for Total Drama, Nelvana for 6teen and Clone High, Williams Street for Metalocalypse and Squidbillies, Nickelodeon Animation Studio for El Tigre: The Adventures of Manny Rivera, Starz Media for Wow! Adobe Flash_sentence_52 Wow! Adobe Flash_sentence_53 Wubbzy! Adobe Flash_sentence_54 , among others. Adobe Flash_sentence_55

Flash is less commonly used for feature-length animated films; however, 2009's The Secret of Kells, an Irish film, is animated primarily in Adobe Flash, and was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Animated Feature at the 82nd Academy Awards. Adobe Flash_sentence_56

Several popular online series are currently produced in Flash, such as the Emmy Award-winning Off-Mikes, produced by ESPN and Animax Entertainment; Happy Tree Friends; Gotham Girls, produced by Warner Bros.; Crime Time, produced by Future Thought Productions; and Homestar Runner produced by Mike and Matt Chapman. Adobe Flash_sentence_57

Various third-party software packages designed for traditionally trained cartoonists and animators can publish animations in the SWF format. Adobe Flash_sentence_58

History Adobe Flash_section_5

FutureWave Adobe Flash_section_6

The precursor to Flash was a product named SmartSketch, published by FutureWave Software in 1993. Adobe Flash_sentence_59

The company was founded by Charlie Jackson, Jonathan Gay, and Michelle Welsh. Adobe Flash_sentence_60

SmartSketch was a vector drawing application for pen computers running the PenPoint OS. Adobe Flash_sentence_61

When PenPoint failed in the marketplace, SmartSketch was ported to Microsoft Windows and Mac OS. Adobe Flash_sentence_62

As the Internet became more popular, FutureWave realized the potential for a vector-based web animation tool that might challenge Macromedia Shockwave technology. Adobe Flash_sentence_63

In 1995, FutureWave modified SmartSketch by adding frame-by-frame animation features and released this new product as FutureSplash Animator on Macintosh and PC. Adobe Flash_sentence_64

FutureWave approached Adobe Systems with an offer to sell them FutureSplash in 1995, but Adobe turned down the offer at that time. Adobe Flash_sentence_65

Microsoft wanted to create an "online TV network" (MSN 2.0) and adopted FutureSplash animated content as a central part of it. Adobe Flash_sentence_66

Disney Online used FutureSplash animations for their subscription-based service Disney's Daily Blast. Adobe Flash_sentence_67

Fox Broadcasting Company launched The Simpsons using FutureSplash. Adobe Flash_sentence_68

Macromedia Adobe Flash_section_7

In November 1996, FutureSplash was acquired by Macromedia, and Macromedia re-branded and released FutureSplash Animator as Macromedia Flash 1.0. Adobe Flash_sentence_69

Flash was a two-part system, a graphics and animation editor known as Macromedia Flash, and a player known as Macromedia Flash Player. Adobe Flash_sentence_70

FutureSplash Animator was an animation tool originally developed for pen-based computing devices. Adobe Flash_sentence_71

Due to the small size of the FutureSplash Viewer, it was particularly suited for download on the Web. Adobe Flash_sentence_72

Macromedia distributed Flash Player as a free browser plugin in order to quickly gain market share. Adobe Flash_sentence_73

By 2005, more computers worldwide had Flash Player installed than any other Web media format, including Java, QuickTime, RealNetworks, and Windows Media Player. Adobe Flash_sentence_74

Macromedia upgraded the Flash system between 1996 and 1999 adding MovieClips, Actions (the precursor to ActionScript), Alpha transparency, and other features. Adobe Flash_sentence_75

As Flash matured, Macromedia's focus shifted from marketing it as a graphics and media tool to promoting it as a Web application platform, adding scripting and data access capabilities to the player while attempting to retain its small footprint. Adobe Flash_sentence_76

In 2000, the first major version of ActionScript was developed, and released with Flash 5. Adobe Flash_sentence_77

Actionscript 2.0 was released with Flash MX 2004 and supported object-oriented programming, improved UI components and other programming features. Adobe Flash_sentence_78

The last version of Flash released by Macromedia was Flash 8, which focused on graphical upgrades such as filters (blur, drop shadow, etc.), blend modes (similar to Adobe Photoshop), and advanced features for FLV video. Adobe Flash_sentence_79

Adobe Adobe Flash_section_8

Macromedia was acquired by Adobe Systems on December 3, 2005, and the entire Macromedia product line including Flash, Dreamweaver, Director/Shockwave, Fireworks (which has since been discontinued), and Authorware is now handled by Adobe. Adobe Flash_sentence_80

In 2007, Adobe's first version release was Adobe Flash CS3 Professional, the ninth major version of Flash. Adobe Flash_sentence_81

It introduced the ActionScript 3.0 programming language, which supported modern programming practices and enabled business applications to be developed with Flash. Adobe Flash_sentence_82

Adobe Flex Builder (built on Eclipse) targeted the enterprise application development market, and was also released the same year. Adobe Flash_sentence_83

Flex Builder included the Flex SDK, a set of components that included charting, advanced UI, and data services (Flex Data Services). Adobe Flash_sentence_84

In 2008, Adobe released the tenth version of Flash, Adobe Flash CS4. Adobe Flash_sentence_85

Flash 10 improved animation capabilities within the Flash editor, adding a motion editor panel (similar to Adobe After Effects), inverse kinematics (bones), basic 3D object animation, object-based animation, and other text and graphics features. Adobe Flash_sentence_86

Flash Player 10 included an in-built 3D engine (without GPU acceleration) that allowed basic object transformations in 3D space (position, rotation, scaling). Adobe Flash_sentence_87

Also in 2008, Adobe released the first version of Adobe Integrated Runtime (later re-branded as Adobe AIR), a runtime engine that replaced Flash Player, and provided additional capabilities to the ActionScript 3.0 language to build desktop and mobile applications. Adobe Flash_sentence_88

With AIR, developers could access the file system (the user's files and folders), and connected devices such as a joystick, gamepad, and sensors for the first time. Adobe Flash_sentence_89

In 2011, Adobe Flash Player 11 was released, and with it the first version of Stage3D, allowing GPU-accelerated 3D rendering for Flash applications and games on desktop platforms such as Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. Adobe Flash_sentence_90

Adobe further improved 3D capabilities from 2011 to 2013, adding support for 3D rendering on Android and iOS platforms, alpha-channels, compressed textures, texture atlases, and other features. Adobe Flash_sentence_91

Adobe AIR was upgraded to support 64-bit computers, and to allow developers to add additional functionality to the AIR runtime using AIR Native Extensions (ANE). Adobe Flash_sentence_92

In 2014, Adobe AIR reached a milestone with over 100,000 unique applications built, and over 1 billion installations logged across the world (May 2014). Adobe Flash_sentence_93

Adobe AIR was voted the Best Mobile Application Development product at the Consumer Electronics Show on two consecutive years (CES 2014 and CES 2015). Adobe Flash_sentence_94

In 2016, Adobe renamed Flash Professional, the primary authoring software for Flash content, to Adobe Animate to reflect its growing use for authoring HTML5 content in favor of Flash content. Adobe Flash_sentence_95

Open Screen Project Adobe Flash_section_9

On May 1, 2008, Adobe announced the Open Screen Project, with the intent of providing a consistent application interface across devices such as personal computers, mobile devices, and consumer electronics. Adobe Flash_sentence_96

When the project was announced, seven goals were outlined: the abolition of licensing fees for Adobe Flash Player and Adobe AIR, the removal of restrictions on the use of the Shockwave Flash (SWF) and Flash Video (FLV) , the publishing of application programming interfaces for porting Flash to new devices, and the publishing of The Flash Cast protocol and Action Message Format (AMF), which let Flash applications receive information from remote databases. Adobe Flash_sentence_97

As of February 2009, the specifications removing the restrictions on the use of SWF and FLV/F4V specs have been published. Adobe Flash_sentence_98

The Flash Cast protocol—now known as the Mobile Content Delivery Protocol—and AMF protocols have also been made available, with AMF available as an open source implementation, BlazeDS. Adobe Flash_sentence_99

The list of mobile device providers who have joined the project includes Palm, Motorola, and Nokia, who, together with Adobe, have announced a $10 million Open Screen Project fund. Adobe Flash_sentence_100

As of 2012, the Open Screen Project is no longer accepting new applications according to partner BSQuare. Adobe Flash_sentence_101

However, paid licensing is still an option for device makers who want to use Adobe software. Adobe Flash_sentence_102

End of life (EOL) Adobe Flash_section_10

One of Flash's primary uses on the Internet when it was first released was for building fully immersive, interactive websites. Adobe Flash_sentence_103

These were typically highly creative site designs that provided more flexibility over what the current HTML standards could provide. Adobe Flash_sentence_104

However, these sites also limited accessibility and often were seen as a form of elitism as they typically required paying a design firm to create and maintain the site compared to those that could be developed in HTML. Adobe Flash_sentence_105

Fully Flash-run sites fell out of favor for more strategic use of Flash plugins for video and other interactive features among standard HTML conventions, corresponding with the availability of HTML features like cascading style-sheets in the mid-00's. Adobe Flash_sentence_106

At the same time, this also led to Flash being used for new apps, including the aforementioned video games and animations. Adobe Flash_sentence_107

Around 2007 and 2008, smartphones with browsing capabilities were released, corresponding with development of Dynamic HTML and the HTML5 standard that included more support for interactive and video elements. Adobe Flash_sentence_108

Support for Flash in these mobile browsers was not included. Adobe Flash_sentence_109

Apple's Steve Jobs famously wrote an open letter to Adobe in 2010 criticizing the closed nature of the Flash platform and the inherent security problems with the application for why Flash was not supported on iOS. Adobe Flash_sentence_110

Adobe created the Adobe AIR environment as a means to appease Apple's concerns, and spent time legally fighting Apple over terms of its App Store to allow AIR to be used on the iOS. Adobe Flash_sentence_111

While Adobe eventually won, allowing for other third-party development environments to get access to the iOS, Apple's decision to block Flash itself was considered the "death blow" to the Flash application. Adobe Flash_sentence_112

In 2015, Adobe rebranded its Flash authoring environment as Adobe Animate to emphasize its expanded support for HTML5 authoring, and stated that it would "encourage content creators to build with new web standards" rather than using Flash. Adobe Flash_sentence_113

In July 2017, Adobe announced that it would declare Flash to be End-Of-Life (EOL) at the end of 2020, and will cease support, distribution, and security updates for Flash Player. Adobe Flash_sentence_114

After the announcement, developers have started a petition to turn Flash into an open-source project, leading to controversy. Adobe Flash_sentence_115

The Flash Platform will continue in the form of Adobe AIR, which Adobe will continue to develop, and OpenFL, a multi-target open-source implementation of the Flash API. Adobe Flash_sentence_116

Additionally, Adobe Animate will continue to be developed by Adobe even after 2020. Adobe Flash_sentence_117

Starting from Chrome 76 and Firefox 85, Flash is disabled by default and browsers do not even show a prompt to activate Flash content. Adobe Flash_sentence_118

Users who want to play Flash content need to manually set a browser to prompt for Flash content, and then during each browser session enable Flash plugin for every site individually. Adobe Flash_sentence_119

Furthermore, browsers show warnings about the removal of Flash entirely after December 2020. Adobe Flash_sentence_120

Microsoft Edge based on Chromium will follow the same plan as Google Chrome. Adobe Flash_sentence_121

Google Chrome will block the Flash plugin as "out of date" in January 2021 and eventually remove it from the source code. Adobe Flash_sentence_122

Also in December 2020 Flash support will be completely removed from Firefox. Adobe Flash_sentence_123

Apple dropped Flash Player support from Safari 14 alongside the release of macOS Big Sur. Adobe Flash_sentence_124

In a move to further reduce the number of Flash Player installations, Adobe announced plans to add a "time bomb" to Flash to disable existing installations after the EOL date, to prompt users to uninstall Flash, and to remove all existing download links for Flash installers. Adobe Flash_sentence_125

Because of the creative use of Flash for websites, video games, and animations from its early days, there have been several efforts to try to preserve these works following Flash's EOL. Adobe Flash_sentence_126

The Internet Archive introduced a new emulator to run Flash animations without the security holes in November 2020, opening a new collection for creators and users to save existing animations. Adobe Flash_sentence_127

The Flashpoint project had collected more then 38,000 Flash applications, excluding those that were commercial products, and offered as a large freely available archive for users to download. Adobe Flash_sentence_128

Format Adobe Flash_section_11

FLA Adobe Flash_section_12

Flash source files are in the and contain graphics and animation, as well as embedded assets such as bitmap images, audio files, and FLV video files. Adobe Flash_sentence_129

The Flash source file format is a proprietary format and Adobe Animate and Adobe Flash Pro are the only available authoring tools capable of editing such files. Adobe Flash_sentence_130

Flash source files (.fla) may be compiled into Flash movie files (.swf) using Adobe Animate. Adobe Flash_sentence_131

Note that FLA files can be edited, but output (.swf) files cannot. Adobe Flash_sentence_132

SWF Adobe Flash_section_13

Main article: SWF Adobe Flash_sentence_133

Flash movie files are in the SWF format, traditionally called "ShockWave Flash" movies, "Flash movies", or "Flash applications", usually have a .swf , and may be used in the form of a web page plug-in, strictly "played" in a standalone Flash Player, or incorporated into a self-executing Projector movie (with the .exe extension in Microsoft Windows). Adobe Flash_sentence_134

Flash Video files have a .flv file extension and are either used from within .swf files or played through a flv-aware player, such as VLC, or QuickTime and Windows Media Player with external codecs added. Adobe Flash_sentence_135

The use of vector graphics combined with program code allows Flash files to be smaller—and thus allows streams to use less bandwidth—than the corresponding bitmaps or video clips. Adobe Flash_sentence_136

For content in a single format (such as just text, video, or audio), other alternatives may provide better performance and consume less CPU power than the corresponding Flash movie, for example, when using transparency or making large screen updates such as photographic or text fades. Adobe Flash_sentence_137

In addition to a vector-rendering engine, the Flash Player includes a virtual machine called the ActionScript Virtual Machine (AVM) for scripting interactivity at run-time, with video, MP3-based audio, and bitmap graphics. Adobe Flash_sentence_138

As of Flash Player 8, it offers two video codecs: On2 Technologies VP6 and Sorenson Spark, and run-time JPEG, Progressive JPEG, PNG, and GIF capability. Adobe Flash_sentence_139

3D Adobe Flash_section_14

Main article: Stage3D Adobe Flash_sentence_140

Flash Player 11 introduced a full 3D shader API, called Stage3D, which is fairly similar to WebGL. Adobe Flash_sentence_141

Stage3D enables GPU-accelerated rendering of 3D graphics within Flash games and applications, and has been used to build Angry Birds, and a couple of other notable games. Adobe Flash_sentence_142

Various 3D frameworks have been built for Flash using Stage3D, such as Away3D 4, CopperCube, Flare3D, and Starling. Adobe Flash_sentence_143

Professional game engines like Unreal Engine and Unity also export Flash versions which use Stage3D to render 3D graphics. Adobe Flash_sentence_144

Flash Video Adobe Flash_section_15

Main article: Flash Video Adobe Flash_sentence_145

Virtually all browser plugins for video are free of charge and cross-platform, including Adobe's offering of Flash Video, which was introduced with Flash version 6. Adobe Flash_sentence_146

Flash Video has been a popular choice for websites due to the large installed user base and programmability of Flash. Adobe Flash_sentence_147

In 2010, Apple publicly criticized Adobe Flash, including its implementation of video playback for not taking advantage of hardware acceleration, one reason Flash is not to be found on Apple's mobile devices. Adobe Flash_sentence_148

Soon after Apple's criticism, Adobe demoed and released a beta version of Flash 10.1, which uses available GPU hardware acceleration even on a Mac. Adobe Flash_sentence_149

Flash 10.2 beta, released December 2010, adds hardware acceleration for the whole video rendering pipeline. Adobe Flash_sentence_150

Flash Player supports two distinct modes of video playback, and hardware accelerated video decoding may not be used for older video content. Adobe Flash_sentence_151

Such content causes excessive CPU usage compared to comparable content played with other players. Adobe Flash_sentence_152

Adobe Flash_description_list_0

  • Software Rendered Video: Flash Player supports software rendered video since version 6. Such video supports vector animations displayed above the video content. This obligation may, depending on graphic APIs exposed by the operating system, prohibit using a video overlay, like a traditional multimedia player would use, with the consequence that color space conversion and scaling must happen in software.Adobe Flash_item_0_0
  • Hardware Accelerated Video: Flash Player supports hardware accelerated video playback since version 10.2, for H.264, F4V, and FLV video formats. Such video is displayed above all Flash content and takes advantage of video codec chipsets installed on the user's device. Developers must specifically use the "StageVideo" technology within Flash Player in order for hardware decoding to be enabled. Flash Player internally uses technologies such as DirectX Video Acceleration and OpenGL to do so.Adobe Flash_item_0_1

In tests done by Ars Technica in 2008 and 2009, Adobe Flash Player performed better on Windows than Mac OS X and Linux with the same hardware. Adobe Flash_sentence_153

Performance has later improved for the latter two, on Mac OS X with Flash Player 10.1, and on Linux with Flash Player 11. Adobe Flash_sentence_154

Flash Audio Adobe Flash_section_16

Flash Audio is most commonly encoded in MP3 or AAC (Advanced Audio Coding) however it can also use ADPCM, Nellymoser (Nellymoser Asao Codec) and Speex audio codecs. Adobe Flash_sentence_155

Flash allows sample rates of 11, 22 and 44.1 kHz. Adobe Flash_sentence_156

It cannot have 48 kHz audio sample rate, which is the standard TV and DVD sample rate. Adobe Flash_sentence_157

On August 20, 2007, Adobe announced on its blog that with Update 3 of Flash Player 9, Flash Video will also implement some parts of the MPEG-4 international standards. Adobe Flash_sentence_158

Specifically, Flash Player will work with video compressed in H.264 (MPEG-4 Part 10), audio compressed using AAC (MPEG-4 Part 3), the F4V, MP4 (MPEG-4 Part 14), M4V, M4A, 3GP, and MOV multimedia container formats, 3GPP Timed Text specification (MPEG-4 Part 17), which is a standardized subtitle format and partial parsing capability for the "ilst" atom, which is the ID3 equivalent iTunes uses to store metadata. Adobe Flash_sentence_159

MPEG-4 Part 2 and H.263 will not work in F4V file format. Adobe Flash_sentence_160

Adobe also announced that it will be gradually moving away from the FLV format to the standard ISO base media file format (MPEG-4 Part 12) owing to functional limits with the FLV structure when streaming H.264. Adobe Flash_sentence_161

The final release of the Flash Player implementing some parts of MPEG-4 standards had become available in Fall 2007. Adobe Flash_sentence_162

Adobe Flash Player 10.1 does not have acoustic echo cancellation, unlike the VoIP offerings of Skype and Google Voice, making this and earlier versions of Flash less suitable for group calling or meetings. Adobe Flash_sentence_163

Flash Player 10.3 Beta incorporates acoustic echo cancellation. Adobe Flash_sentence_164

Scripting language Adobe Flash_section_17

Further information: ActionScript Adobe Flash_sentence_165

ActionScript is the programming language used by Flash. Adobe Flash_sentence_166

It is an enhanced superset of the ECMAScript programming language, with a classical Java-style class model, rather than JavaScript's prototype model. Adobe Flash_sentence_167

Specifications Adobe Flash_section_18

In October 1998, Macromedia disclosed the Flash Version 3 Specification on its website. Adobe Flash_sentence_168

It did this in response to many new and often semi-open formats competing with SWF, such as Xara's Flare and Sharp's Extended Vector Animation formats. Adobe Flash_sentence_169

Several developers quickly created a C library for producing SWF. Adobe Flash_sentence_170

In February 1999, MorphInk 99 was introduced, the first third-party program to create SWF files. Adobe Flash_sentence_171

Macromedia also hired Middlesoft to create a freely available developers' kit for the SWF file format versions 3 to 5. Adobe Flash_sentence_172

Macromedia made the Flash Files specifications for versions 6 and later available only under a non-disclosure agreement, but they are widely available from various sites. Adobe Flash_sentence_173

In April 2006, the Flash SWF file format specification was released with details on the then newest version format (Flash 8). Adobe Flash_sentence_174

Although still lacking specific information on the incorporated video compression formats (On2, Sorenson Spark, etc.), this new documentation covered all the new features offered in Flash v8 including new ActionScript commands, expressive filter controls, and so on. Adobe Flash_sentence_175

The file format specification document is offered only to developers who agree to a license agreement that permits them to use the specifications only to develop programs that can export to the Flash file format. Adobe Flash_sentence_176

The license does not allow the use of the specifications to create programs that can be used for playback of Flash files. Adobe Flash_sentence_177

The Flash 9 specification was made available under similar restrictions. Adobe Flash_sentence_178

In June 2009, Adobe launched the Open Screen Project (), which made the SWF specification available without restrictions. Adobe Flash_sentence_179

Previously, developers could not use the specification for making SWF-compatible players, but only for making SWF-exporting authoring software. Adobe Flash_sentence_180

The specification still omits information on codecs such as Sorenson Spark, however. Adobe Flash_sentence_181

Animation tools Adobe Flash_section_19

Official tools Adobe Flash_section_20

Main article: Adobe Animate Adobe Flash_sentence_182

The Adobe Animate authoring program is primarily used to design graphics and animation and publish the same for websites, web applications, and video games. Adobe Flash_sentence_183

The program also offers limited support for audio and video embedding and ActionScript scripting. Adobe Flash_sentence_184

Adobe released Adobe LiveMotion, designed to create interactive animation content and export it to a variety of formats, including SWF. Adobe Flash_sentence_185

LiveMotion failed to gain any notable user base. Adobe Flash_sentence_186

In February 2003, Macromedia purchased Presedia, which had developed a Flash authoring tool that automatically converted PowerPoint files into Flash. Adobe Flash_sentence_187

Macromedia subsequently released the new product as Breeze, which included many new enhancements. Adobe Flash_sentence_188

Third-party tools Adobe Flash_section_21

Main article: Comparison of vector graphics editors Adobe Flash_sentence_189

Various free and commercial software packages can output animations into the Flash SWF format, suitable for display on the web, including: Adobe Flash_sentence_190

Adobe Flash_unordered_list_1

  • Ajax Animator aims to create a Flash development environmentAdobe Flash_item_1_2
  • Alligator Flash DesignerAdobe Flash_item_1_3
  • Amara WebAdobe Flash_item_1_4
  • Apple Keynote allows users to export presentations to Flash SWF animationsAdobe Flash_item_1_5
  • CelAction2DAdobe Flash_item_1_6
  • ClashAdobe Flash_item_1_7
  • Express AnimatorAdobe Flash_item_1_8
  • KoolMovesAdobe Flash_item_1_9
  • KToon can edit vectors and generate SWF, but its interface is very different from Macromedia'sAdobe Flash_item_1_10
  • Anime Studio is a 2D animation software package specialized for character animation, that creates Flash animationsAdobe Flash_item_1_11
  • OpenOffice ImpressAdobe Flash_item_1_12
  • Question Writer publishes its quizzes to Flash animationsAdobe Flash_item_1_13
  • SalasagaAdobe Flash_item_1_14
  • Screencast and Screencam, produces demos or tutorials by capturing the screen and generating a Flash animation of the sameAdobe Flash_item_1_15
  • SWiSH Max is an animation editor with preset animation, developed by an ex-employee of Macromedia, that can output Flash animationsAdobe Flash_item_1_16
  • SynfigAdobe Flash_item_1_17
  • Toon Boom is a traditional animation tool that can output Flash animationsAdobe Flash_item_1_18
  • ToufeeAdobe Flash_item_1_19
  • Vyond is a software as a service tool to create animated videos.Adobe Flash_item_1_20
  • Xara Photo & Graphic Designer can output Flash animationsAdobe Flash_item_1_21

The Flash 4 Linux project was an initiative to develop an open source Linux application as an alternative to Adobe Animate. Adobe Flash_sentence_191

Development plans included authoring capacity for 2D animation, and tweening, as well as outputting SWF file formats. Adobe Flash_sentence_192

F4L evolved into an editor that was capable of authoring 2D animation and publishing of SWF files. Adobe Flash_sentence_193

Flash 4 Linux was renamed UIRA. Adobe Flash_sentence_194

UIRA intended to combine the resources and knowledge of the F4L project and the Qflash project, both of which were Open Source applications that aimed to provide an alternative to the proprietary Adobe Flash. Adobe Flash_sentence_195

Programming tools Adobe Flash_section_22

Official tools Adobe Flash_section_23

Adobe provides a series of tools to develop software applications and video games for Flash: Adobe Flash_sentence_196

Adobe Flash_unordered_list_2

  • Apache Flex SDK – a free, open source SDK to compile Flash-based rich Internet applications from source code. The Apache Flex ActionScript 3.0 compiler generates SWF files from ActionScript 3 files. Flex was the primary ActionScript 3 compiler and was actively developed by Adobe before it was donated to Apache Software Foundation in 2011.Adobe Flash_item_2_22
  • Adobe Animate – primarily used to design graphics and animation, but supports ActionScript scripting and debugging.Adobe Flash_item_2_23
  • Adobe Flash Builder – enterprise application development & debugging, contains the Flex SDK with UI and charting components.Adobe Flash_item_2_24
  • Adobe Scout – a visual profiler to optimize the performance of Flash content.Adobe Flash_item_2_25
  • CrossBridge – a free SDK to cross-compile C++ code to run in Flash Player.Adobe Flash_item_2_26

Third-party tools Adobe Flash_section_24

Third-party development tools have been created to assist developers in creating software applications and video games with Flash. Adobe Flash_sentence_197

Adobe Flash_unordered_list_3

  • FlashDevelop is a free and open source Flash ActionScript IDE, which includes a project manager and debugger for building applications on Flash Player and Adobe AIR.Adobe Flash_item_3_27
  • Powerflasher FDT is a commercial ActionScript IDE similar to FlashDevelop.Adobe Flash_item_3_28
  • Haxe is an open source, high-level object-oriented programming language geared towards web-content creation that can compile SWF files from Haxe programs. As of 2012, Haxe can build programs for Flash Player that perform faster than the same application built with the Adobe Flex SDK compiler, due to additional compiler optimizations supported in Haxe.Adobe Flash_item_3_29
  • SWFTools (specifically, swfc) is an open-source ActionScript 3.0 compiler which generates SWF files from script files, which includes SVG tags.Adobe Flash_item_3_30
  • swfmill and MTASC also provide tools to create SWF files by compiling text, ActionScript or XML files into Flash animationsAdobe Flash_item_3_31
  • Ming library, to create SWF files programmatically, has interfaces for C, PHP, C++, Perl, Python, and Ruby. It is able to import and export graphics from XML into SWF.Adobe Flash_item_3_32

Players Adobe Flash_section_25

Proprietary Adobe Flash_section_26

Adobe Flash Player is the multimedia and application player originally developed by Macromedia and acquired by Adobe Systems. Adobe Flash_sentence_198

It plays SWF files, which can be created by Adobe Animate, Apache Flex, or a number of other Adobe Systems and 3rd party tools. Adobe Flash_sentence_199

It has support for a scripting language called ActionScript, which can be used to display Flash Video from an SWF file. Adobe Flash_sentence_200

Scaleform GFx is a commercial alternative Flash player that features fully hardware-accelerated 2D graphics rendering using the GPU. Adobe Flash_sentence_201

Scaleform has high conformance with both Flash 10 ActionScript 3 and Flash 8 ActionScript 2. Adobe Flash_sentence_202

Scaleform GFx is a game development middleware solution that helps create graphical user interfaces or HUDs within 3D video games. Adobe Flash_sentence_203

It does not work with web browsers. Adobe Flash_sentence_204

IrfanView, an image viewer, uses Flash Player to display SWF files. Adobe Flash_sentence_205

Open source Adobe Flash_section_27

OpenFL is an open-source implementation of the Adobe Flash API. Adobe Flash_sentence_206

It allows developers to build a single application against the OpenFL APIs and simultaneously target multiple platforms including iOS, Android, HTML5 (choice of Canvas, WebGL, SVG or DOM), Windows, macOS, Linux, WebAssembly, Flash, AIR, PlayStation 4, PlayStation 3, PlayStation Vita, Xbox One, Wii U, TiVo, Raspberry Pi, and Node.js. Adobe Flash_sentence_207

OpenFL mirrors the Flash API for graphical operations. Adobe Flash_sentence_208

OpenFL applications can be written in Haxe, JavaScript (EcmaScript 5 or 6+), or TypeScript. Adobe Flash_sentence_209

Lightspark is a free and open-source SWF player that supports most of ActionScript 3.0 and has a Mozilla-compatible plug-in. Adobe Flash_sentence_210

It will fall back on Gnash, a free SWF player supporting ActionScript 1.0 and 2.0 (AVM1) code. Adobe Flash_sentence_211

Lightspark supports OpenGL-based rendering for 3D content. Adobe Flash_sentence_212

The player is also compatible with H.264 Flash videos on YouTube. Adobe Flash_sentence_213

Gnash aims to create a software player and browser plugin replacement for the Adobe Flash Player. Adobe Flash_sentence_214

Gnash can play SWF files up to version 7, and 80% of ActionScript 2.0. Adobe Flash_sentence_215

Gnash runs on Windows, Linux and other platforms for the 32-bit, 64-bit, and other operating systems, but development has slowed significantly in recent years. Adobe Flash_sentence_216

Shumway was an open source Flash Player released by Mozilla in November 2012. Adobe Flash_sentence_217

It was built in JavaScript and is thus compatible with modern web browsers. Adobe Flash_sentence_218

In early October 2013, Shumway was included by default in the Firefox nightly branch. Adobe Flash_sentence_219

Shumway rendered Flash contents by translating contents inside Flash files to HTML5 elements, and running an ActionScript interpreter in JavaScript. Adobe Flash_sentence_220

It supported both AVM1 and AVM2, and ActionScript versions 1, 2, and 3. Adobe Flash_sentence_221

Development of Shumway ceased in early 2016. Adobe Flash_sentence_222

In the same year that Shumway was abandoned, work began on Ruffle, a flash emulator written in Rust. Adobe Flash_sentence_223

It also runs in web browsers, by compiling down to WebAssembly and using HTML5 Canvas. Adobe Flash_sentence_224

In 2020, the Internet Archive added support for emulating SWF by adding Ruffle to its emulation scheme. Adobe Flash_sentence_225

Availability Adobe Flash_section_28

Desktop computers Adobe Flash_section_29

Flash Player Adobe Flash_section_30

Adobe Flash has been deprecated. Adobe Flash_sentence_226

The latest version of Adobe Flash Player is available for three major desktop platforms, including Windows, macOS, and Linux. Adobe Flash_sentence_227

On Linux the PPAPI plug-in is available; the NPAPI version wasn't updated to new major versions for a while until Adobe changed its mind on stopping support and its former plan to discontinue "in 2017". Adobe Flash_sentence_228

Adobe Flash Player is available in four flavors: Adobe Flash_sentence_229

Adobe Flash_unordered_list_4

  • ActiveX-based Plug-inAdobe Flash_item_4_33
  • NPAPI-based Plug-inAdobe Flash_item_4_34
  • PPAPI-based Plug-inAdobe Flash_item_4_35
  • ProjectorAdobe Flash_item_4_36

The ActiveX version is an ActiveX control for use in Internet Explorer and any other Windows applications that support ActiveX technology. Adobe Flash_sentence_230

The Plug-in versions are available for browsers supporting either NPAPI or PPAPI plug-ins on Microsoft Windows, macOS, and Linux. Adobe Flash_sentence_231

The projector version is a standalone player that can open SWF files directly. Adobe Flash_sentence_232

The following table documents Flash Player and Adobe AIR support on desktop operating systems: Adobe Flash_sentence_233

Adobe Flash_table_general_1

Operating SystemAdobe Flash_header_cell_1_0_0 PrerequisitesAdobe Flash_header_cell_1_0_1 UsageAdobe Flash_header_cell_1_0_2 Latest Adobe Flash PlayerAdobe Flash_header_cell_1_0_3 Browser SupportAdobe Flash_header_cell_1_0_4
Microsoft WindowsAdobe Flash_cell_1_1_0 Windows XP (32-bit, AIR only) / Vista (32-bit, AIR only) / 7 / 8.1 / 10Adobe Flash_cell_1_1_1 Internet Browser, Standalone ApplicationsAdobe Flash_cell_1_1_2 Flash Player 32.0, AIR 32.0Adobe Flash_cell_1_1_3 Internet Explorer, Edge, Firefox, Chrome, Chromium, OperaAdobe Flash_cell_1_1_4
macOSAdobe Flash_cell_1_2_0 OS X 10.10 or newer (Flash Player) / Mac OS X 10.10 or newer (AIR)Adobe Flash_cell_1_2_1 Internet Browser, Standalone ApplicationsAdobe Flash_cell_1_2_2 Flash Player 32.0, AIR 32.0Adobe Flash_cell_1_2_3 Safari, Firefox, Chrome, Chromium, OperaAdobe Flash_cell_1_2_4
LinuxAdobe Flash_cell_1_3_0 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.6 or newer / openSUSE 11.3 or newer / Ubuntu 10.04 or newerAdobe Flash_cell_1_3_1 Internet BrowserAdobe Flash_cell_1_3_2 Flash Player (NPAPI), Flash Player (PPAPI)Adobe Flash_cell_1_3_3 Firefox (NPAPI) / Chrome, Chromium, Opera (PPAPI)Adobe Flash_cell_1_3_4

Adobe AIR Adobe Flash_section_31

Adobe AIR, version 18, contains Adobe Flash Player 18, and is available for Windows XP and later, as well as macOS. Adobe Flash_sentence_234

Official support for desktop Linux distributions ceased in June 2011 with version 2.6. Adobe Flash_sentence_235

The latest Adobe AIR is AIR 32, while HARMAN supplies AIR 33. Adobe Flash_sentence_236

Adobe Flash_table_general_2

PlatformAdobe Flash_header_cell_2_0_0 Installer file supportAdobe Flash_header_cell_2_0_1 App Store supportAdobe Flash_header_cell_2_0_2
Microsoft WindowsAdobe Flash_cell_2_1_0 .air, .exe and .msiAdobe Flash_cell_2_1_1 NoneAdobe Flash_cell_2_1_2
macOSAdobe Flash_cell_2_2_0 .air and .dmgAdobe Flash_cell_2_2_1 With captive runtimeAdobe Flash_cell_2_2_2
AndroidAdobe Flash_cell_2_3_0 .apkAdobe Flash_cell_2_3_1 Google PlayAdobe Flash_cell_2_3_2
iOSAdobe Flash_cell_2_4_0 .ipaAdobe Flash_cell_2_4_1 iTunes StoreAdobe Flash_cell_2_4_2
PlayBookAdobe Flash_cell_2_5_0 .barAdobe Flash_cell_2_5_1 BlackBerry App WorldAdobe Flash_cell_2_5_2

Mobile devices Adobe Flash_section_32

Flash Player Adobe Flash_section_33

Adobe Flash Player was available for a variety of mobile operating systems, including Android (between versions 2.2 and 4.0.4), Pocket PC/Windows CE, QNX (e.g. on BlackBerry PlayBook), Symbian, Palm OS, and webOS (since version 2.0). Adobe Flash_sentence_237

Flash Player for smart phones was made available to handset manufacturers at the end of 2009. Adobe Flash_sentence_238

However, in November 2011, Adobe announced the withdrawal of support for Flash Player on mobile devices. Adobe Flash_sentence_239

Adobe continues to support deploying Flash-based content as mobile applications via Adobe AIR. Adobe Flash_sentence_240

Adobe is reaffirming its commitment to "aggressively contribute" to HTML5. Adobe Flash_sentence_241

Adobe announced the end of Flash for mobile platforms or TV, instead focusing on HTML5 for browser content and Adobe AIR for the various mobile application stores and described it as "the beginning of the end". Adobe Flash_sentence_242

BlackBerry LTD (formerly known as RIM) announced that it would continue to develop Flash Player for the PlayBook. Adobe Flash_sentence_243

There is no Adobe Flash Player for iOS devices (iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch). Adobe Flash_sentence_244

However, Flash content can be made to run on iOS devices in a variety of ways: Adobe Flash_sentence_245

Adobe Flash_unordered_list_5

  • Flash content can be bundled inside an Adobe AIR app, which will then run on iOS devices. (Apple did not allow this for a while, but they relaxed those restrictions in September 2010.)Adobe Flash_item_5_37
  • On March 8, 2011, Techradar reported that Adobe provides an experimental server side tool () to convert Flash programs (as far as possible) to HTML5 code, thus allowing iOS devices to display the content.Adobe Flash_item_5_38
  • If the content is Flash video being served by Adobe Flash Media Server 4.5, the server will translate and send the video as HTTP Dynamic Streaming or HTTP Live Streaming, both of which can be played by iOS devices.Adobe Flash_item_5_39
  • Some specialized mobile browsers manage to accommodate Flash via streaming content from the cloud directly to a user's device. Some examples are Photon Browser and Puffin Web Browser.Adobe Flash_item_5_40

The mobile version of Internet Explorer for Windows Phone cannot play Flash content, however Flash support is still present on the tablet version of Windows. Adobe Flash_sentence_246

Adobe AIR Adobe Flash_section_34

Main article: Adobe AIR Adobe Flash_sentence_247

Adobe AIR was released in 2008, and allows the creation of mobile applications and mobile games using Flash and ActionScript. Adobe Flash_sentence_248

Notable mobile games built with Flash include Angry Birds, Machinarium, and Defend Your Castle. Adobe Flash_sentence_249

Using AIR, developers can access the full Adobe Flash functionality, including , vector graphics, raster graphics, video, audio, camera, and microphone capability. Adobe Flash_sentence_250

Adobe AIR also includes additional features such as file system integration, native client extensions, desktop integration and access to connected devices and sensors. Adobe Flash_sentence_251

AIR applications can be published as native phone applications on certain mobile operating systems, such as Android (ARM Cortex-A8 and above) and Apple iOS. Adobe Flash_sentence_252

The following table explains to what extent Adobe AIR can run on various mobile operating systems: Adobe Flash_sentence_253

Adobe Flash_table_general_3

Operating SystemAdobe Flash_header_cell_3_0_0 PrerequisitesAdobe Flash_header_cell_3_0_1 Latest Adobe Flash PlayerAdobe Flash_header_cell_3_0_2 AIR FrameworkAdobe Flash_header_cell_3_0_3
AndroidAdobe Flash_cell_3_1_0 Android 2.3+, ARM Cortex-A8+ or Android x86Adobe Flash_cell_3_1_1 AIR (uses Flash Player 11.6)Adobe Flash_cell_3_1_2 Option 1: The AIR player can be embedded as a 'captive' runtime, which increases APK size but makes the application standalone.

Option 2: The runtime is not included with the app, and must installed as a separate app from the app market.Adobe Flash_cell_3_1_3

Apple iOSAdobe Flash_cell_3_2_0 iOS 4.3 or laterAdobe Flash_cell_3_2_1 AIR (uses Flash Player 11.6)Adobe Flash_cell_3_2_2 Not applicable: each app includes its own 'captive' runtime.Adobe Flash_cell_3_2_3
BlackBerry Tablet OSAdobe Flash_cell_3_3_0 NoneAdobe Flash_cell_3_3_1 AIR 3.1 (uses Flash Player 11.1)Adobe Flash_cell_3_3_2 Already pre-installed on each device.Adobe Flash_cell_3_3_3
BlackBerry 10Adobe Flash_cell_3_4_0 Blackberry 10.2 and lower (no longer supported from 10.3)Adobe Flash_cell_3_4_1 AIR 3.5 (uses Flash Player 11.1)Adobe Flash_cell_3_4_2 Already pre-installed on each device.Adobe Flash_cell_3_4_3

Portable electronic devices Adobe Flash_section_35

Adobe Flash Lite is a lightweight version of Adobe Flash Player intended for mobile phones and other portable electronic devices like Chumby and iRiver. Adobe Flash_sentence_254

On the emerging single-board enthusiast market, as substantially popularized by the Raspberry Pi, support from Adobe is lacking. Adobe Flash_sentence_255

However, the open-source player Gnash has been ported and found to be useful. Adobe Flash_sentence_256

Alternatives Adobe Flash_section_36

OpenFL Adobe Flash_section_37

Main article: OpenFL Adobe Flash_sentence_257

OpenFL is an open-source implementation of the Adobe Flash technology. Adobe Flash_sentence_258

It allows developers to build a single application against the OpenFL APIs, and simultaneously target multiple platforms including Flash/AIR, HTML5, Windows, Android, Tizen, Neko, BlackBerry, and webOS. Adobe Flash_sentence_259

OpenFL mirrors the Flash API for graphical operations. Adobe Flash_sentence_260

OpenFL applications are written in Haxe, a modern multi-platform programming language. Adobe Flash_sentence_261

More than 500 video games have been developed with OpenFL, including the BAFTA-award-winning game Papers, Please, Rymdkapsel, Lightbot, and Madden NFL Mobile. Adobe Flash_sentence_262

HTML5 Adobe Flash_section_38

Main article: Comparison of HTML5 and Flash Adobe Flash_sentence_263

HTML5 is often cited as an alternative to Adobe Flash technology usage on web pages. Adobe Flash_sentence_264

Adobe released a tool that converts Flash to HTML5, and in June 2011, Google released an experimental tool that does the same. Adobe Flash_sentence_265

In January 2015, YouTube defaulted to HTML5 players to better support more devices. Adobe Flash_sentence_266

Flash to HTML5 Adobe Flash_section_39

The following tools allow running Flash content in web browsers using HTML5: Adobe Flash_sentence_267

Adobe Flash_unordered_list_6

  • Adobe Edge Animate was designed to produce HTML5 animations directly.Adobe Flash_item_6_41
  • Adobe Animate now allows Flash animations to be published into HTML5 content directly.Adobe Flash_item_6_42
  • Google Swiffy was a web-based tool developed by Google that converts SWF files into HTML5, using SVG for graphics and JavaScript for animation.Adobe Flash_item_6_43
  • Shumway, developed by Mozilla, is a Flash virtual machine written in JavaScript.Adobe Flash_item_6_44
  • CreateJS is a library that while available separately was also adopted by Adobe as a replacement for Wallaby in CS6. Unlike Wallaby, which was a standalone program, the "Toolkit for CreateJS" only works as a plug-in inside Flash Professional; it generates output for the HTML5 canvas, animated with JavaScript. Around December 2013, the toolkit was integrated directly into Flash Professional CC.Adobe Flash_item_6_45

Criticisms Adobe Flash_section_40

Mobile support Adobe Flash_section_41

Websites built with Adobe Flash will not function on most modern mobile devices running Google Android or iOS (iPhone, iPad). Adobe Flash_sentence_268

The only alternative is using HTML5 and responsive web design to build websites that support both desktop and mobile devices. Adobe Flash_sentence_269

However, Flash is still used to build mobile games using Adobe AIR. Adobe Flash_sentence_270

Such games will not work in mobile web browsers but must be installed via the appropriate app store. Adobe Flash_sentence_271

Vendor dependence Adobe Flash_section_42

See also: Vendor lock-in Adobe Flash_sentence_272

The reliance on Adobe for decoding Flash makes its use on the World Wide Web a concern—the completeness of its public specifications are debated, and no complete implementation of Flash is publicly available in source code form with a license that permits reuse. Adobe Flash_sentence_273

Generally, public specifications are what makes a format re-implementable (see future proofing data storage), and reusable codebases can be ported to new platforms without the endorsement of the format creator. Adobe Flash_sentence_274

Adobe's restrictions on the use of the SWF/FLV specifications were lifted in February 2009 (see Adobe's Open Screen Project). Adobe Flash_sentence_275

However, despite efforts of projects like Gnash, Swfdec, and Lightspark, a complete free Flash player is yet to be seen, as of September 2011. Adobe Flash_sentence_276

For example, Gnash cannot use SWF v10 yet. Adobe Flash_sentence_277

Notably, Gnash was listed on the Free Software Foundation's high priority list, from at least 2007, to its removal in January 2017. Adobe Flash_sentence_278

Notable advocates of free software, open standards, and the World Wide Web have warned against the use of Flash: Adobe Flash_sentence_279

The founder of Mozilla Europe, Tristan Nitot, stated in 2008: Adobe Flash_sentence_280

Representing open standards, inventor of CSS and co-author of HTML5, Håkon Wium Lie explained in a Google tech talk of 2007, entitled "the <video> element", the proposal of Theora as the format for HTML5 video: Adobe Flash_sentence_281

Representing the free software movement, Richard Stallman stated in a speech in 2004 that: "The use of Flash in websites is a major problem for our community." Adobe Flash_sentence_282

Accessibility Adobe Flash_section_43

Usability consultant Jakob Nielsen published an Alertbox in 2000 entitled, Flash: 99% Bad, stating that "Flash tends to degrade websites for three reasons: it encourages design abuse, it breaks with the Web's fundamental interaction principles, and it distracts attention from the site's core value." Adobe Flash_sentence_283

Some problems have been at least partially fixed since Nielsen's complaints: Text size can be controlled using full page zoom and it has been possible for authors to include alternative text in Flash since Flash Player 6. Adobe Flash_sentence_284

Flash blocking in web browsers Adobe Flash_section_44

Flash content is usually embedded using the object or embed HTML element. Adobe Flash_sentence_285

A web browser that does not fully implement one of these elements displays the replacement text, if supplied by the web page. Adobe Flash_sentence_286

Often, a plugin is required for the browser to fully implement these elements, though some users cannot or will not install it. Adobe Flash_sentence_287

Since Flash can be used to produce content (such as advertisements) that some users find obnoxious or take a large amount of bandwidth to download, some web browsers, by default, do not play Flash content until the user clicks on it, e.g. Konqueror, K-Meleon. Adobe Flash_sentence_288

Most current browsers have a feature to block plugins, playing one only when the user clicks it. Adobe Flash_sentence_289

Opera versions since 10.5 feature native Flash blocking. Adobe Flash_sentence_290

Opera Turbo requires the user to click to play Flash content, and the browser also allows the user to enable this option permanently. Adobe Flash_sentence_291

Both Chrome and Firefox have an option to enable "click to play plugins". Adobe Flash_sentence_292

Equivalent "Flash blocker" extensions are also available for many popular browsers: Firefox has Flashblock and NoScript, Internet Explorer has Foxie, which contains a number of features, one of them named Flashblock. Adobe Flash_sentence_293

WebKit-based browsers under macOS, such as Apple's Safari, have ClickToFlash. Adobe Flash_sentence_294

In June 2015, Google announced that Chrome will "pause" advertisements and "non-central" Flash content by default. Adobe Flash_sentence_295

Firefox (from version 46) rewrites old Flash-only YouTube embed code into YouTube's modern embedded player that is capable of using either HTML5 or Flash. Adobe Flash_sentence_296

Such embed code is used by non-YouTube sites to embed YouTube's videos, and can still be encountered, for example, on old blogs and forums. Adobe Flash_sentence_297

Security Adobe Flash_section_45

See also: Adobe Flash Player § Security, and Browser security § Plugins and extensions Adobe Flash_sentence_298

For many years Adobe Flash Player's security record has led many security experts to recommend against installing the player, or to block Flash content. Adobe Flash_sentence_299

The US-CERT has recommended blocking Flash, and security researcher Charlie Miller recommended "not to install Flash"; however, for people still using Flash, Intego recommended that users get trusted updates "only directly from the vendor that publishes them." Adobe Flash_sentence_300

As of February 12, 2015, Adobe Flash Player has over 400 CVE entries, of which over 300 lead to arbitrary code execution, and past vulnerabilities have enabled spying via web cameras. Adobe Flash_sentence_301

Security experts have long predicted the demise of Flash, saying that with the rise of HTML5 "...the need for browser plugins such as Flash is diminishing", as only 7 to 10 percent of websites still use it. Adobe Flash_sentence_302

Active moves by third parties to limit the risk began with Steve Jobs in 2010 saying that Apple would not allow Flash on the iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad – citing abysmal security as one reason. Adobe Flash_sentence_303

Flash often used the ability to dynamically change parts of the runtime on languages on OSX to improve their own performance, but caused general instability. Adobe Flash_sentence_304

In July 2015, a series of newly discovered vulnerabilities resulted in Facebook's chief security officer, Alex Stamos, issuing a call to Adobe to discontinue the software entirely and the Mozilla Firefox web browser, Google Chrome, and Apple Safari to blacklist all earlier versions of Flash Player. Adobe Flash_sentence_305

As a result, "Adobe has essentially stopped trying to do anything new and innovative with Flash." Adobe Flash_sentence_306

Flash cookies Adobe Flash_section_46

Main article: Local shared object Adobe Flash_sentence_307

Like the HTTP cookie, a flash cookie (also known as a "Local Shared Object") can be used to save application data. Adobe Flash_sentence_308

Flash cookies are not shared across domains. Adobe Flash_sentence_309

An August 2009 study by the Ashkan Soltani and a team of researchers at UC Berkeley found that 50% of websites using Flash were also employing flash cookies, yet privacy policies rarely disclosed them, and user controls for privacy preferences were lacking. Adobe Flash_sentence_310

Most browsers' cache and history suppress or delete functions did not affect Flash Player's writing Local Shared Objects to its own cache in version 10.2 and earlier, at which point the user community was much less aware of the existence and function of Flash cookies than HTTP cookies. Adobe Flash_sentence_311

Thus, users with those versions, having deleted HTTP cookies and purged browser history files and caches, may believe that they have purged all tracking data from their computers when in fact Flash browsing history remains. Adobe Flash_sentence_312

Adobe's own Flash , a submenu of Adobe's Flash , and other editors and toolkits can manage settings for and delete Flash Local Shared Objects. Adobe Flash_sentence_313

See also Adobe Flash_section_47

Adobe Flash_unordered_list_7

Explanatory footnotes Adobe Flash_section_48

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Flash.