Adobe Inc.

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Not to be confused with Adobe. Adobe Inc._sentence_0

Adobe Inc._table_infobox_0

Adobe Inc.Adobe Inc._table_caption_0
FormerlyAdobe Inc._header_cell_0_0_0 Adobe Systems Incorporated (1982–2018)Adobe Inc._cell_0_0_1
TypeAdobe Inc._header_cell_0_1_0 PublicAdobe Inc._cell_0_1_1
Traded asAdobe Inc._header_cell_0_2_0 Adobe Inc._cell_0_2_1
IndustryAdobe Inc._header_cell_0_3_0 SoftwareAdobe Inc._cell_0_3_1
FoundedAdobe Inc._header_cell_0_4_0 December 1982; 38 years ago (1982-12)

Mountain View, California, U.S.Adobe Inc._cell_0_4_1

FoundersAdobe Inc._header_cell_0_5_0 John Warnock

Charles GeschkeAdobe Inc._cell_0_5_1

HeadquartersAdobe Inc._header_cell_0_6_0 Adobe World Headquarters, San Jose, California, U.SAdobe Inc._cell_0_6_1
Area servedAdobe Inc._header_cell_0_7_0 WorldwideAdobe Inc._cell_0_7_1
Key peopleAdobe Inc._header_cell_0_8_0 Adobe Inc._cell_0_8_1
ProductsAdobe Inc._header_cell_0_9_0 List of Adobe productsAdobe Inc._cell_0_9_1
RevenueAdobe Inc._header_cell_0_10_0 US$11.17 billion (2019)Adobe Inc._cell_0_10_1
Operating incomeAdobe Inc._header_cell_0_11_0 US$3.27 billion (2019)Adobe Inc._cell_0_11_1
Net incomeAdobe Inc._header_cell_0_12_0 US$2.95 billion (2019)Adobe Inc._cell_0_12_1
Total assetsAdobe Inc._header_cell_0_13_0 US$20.76 billion (2019)Adobe Inc._cell_0_13_1
Total equityAdobe Inc._header_cell_0_14_0 US$10.53 billion (2019)Adobe Inc._cell_0_14_1
Number of employeesAdobe Inc._header_cell_0_15_0 22,635 (2020)Adobe Inc._cell_0_15_1
WebsiteAdobe Inc._header_cell_0_16_0 Adobe Inc._cell_0_16_1

Adobe Inc. (/əˈdoʊbiː/ ə-DOH-bee) is an American multinational computer software company. Adobe Inc._sentence_1

Incorporated in Delaware and headquartered in San Jose, California, it has historically focused upon the creation of multimedia and creativity software products, with a more recent foray into digital marketing software. Adobe Inc._sentence_2

Adobe is best known for its Adobe Flash web software ecosystem, Photoshop image editing software, Adobe Illustrator vector graphics editor, Acrobat Reader, the Portable Document Format (PDF), and Adobe Creative Suite, as well as its successor Adobe Creative Cloud. Adobe Inc._sentence_3

Adobe was founded in December 1982 by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who established the company after leaving Xerox PARC to develop and sell the PostScript page description language. Adobe Inc._sentence_4

In 1985, Apple Computer licensed PostScript for use in its LaserWriter printers, which helped spark the desktop publishing revolution. Adobe Inc._sentence_5

As of 2019, Adobe has more than 21,000 employees worldwide, about 40% of whom work in San Jose. Adobe Inc._sentence_6

Adobe also has major development operations in the United States in Newton, New York City, Minneapolis, Lehi, Seattle, Austin and San Francisco. Adobe Inc._sentence_7

It also has major development operations in Noida and Bangalore in India. Adobe Inc._sentence_8

History Adobe Inc._section_0

The company was started in John Warnock's garage. Adobe Inc._sentence_9

The name of the company, Adobe, comes from Adobe Creek in Los Altos, California, which ran behind Warnock's house. Adobe Inc._sentence_10

That creek is so named because of the type of clay found there, which alludes to the creative nature of the company's software. Adobe Inc._sentence_11

Adobe's corporate logo features a stylized "A" and was designed by Marva Warnock, a graphic designer who is also John Warnock's wife. Adobe Inc._sentence_12

Steve Jobs attempted to buy the company for $5 million in 1982, but Warnock and Geschke refused. Adobe Inc._sentence_13

Their investors urged them to work something out with Jobs, so they agreed to sell him shares worth 19 percent of the company. Adobe Inc._sentence_14

Jobs paid a five-times multiple of their company's valuation at the time, plus a five-year license fee for PostScript, in advance. Adobe Inc._sentence_15

The purchase and advance made Adobe the first company in the history of Silicon Valley to become profitable in its first year. Adobe Inc._sentence_16

Warnock and Geschke considered various business options including a copy-service business and a turnkey system for office printing. Adobe Inc._sentence_17

Then they chose to focus on developing specialized printing software and created the Adobe PostScript page description language. Adobe Inc._sentence_18

PostScript was the first truly international standard for computer printing as it included algorithms describing the letter-forms of many languages. Adobe Inc._sentence_19

Adobe added kanji printer products in 1988. Adobe Inc._sentence_20

Warnock and Geschke were also able to bolster the credibility of PostScript by connecting with a typesetting manufacturer. Adobe Inc._sentence_21

They weren't able to work with Compugraphic, but then worked with Linotype to license the Helvetica and Times Roman fonts (through the Linotron 100). Adobe Inc._sentence_22

By 1987, PostScript had become the industry-standard printer language with more than 400 third-party software programs and licensing agreements with 19 printer companies. Adobe Inc._sentence_23

Warnock described the language as "extensible", in its ability to apply graphic arts standards to office printing. Adobe Inc._sentence_24

Adobe's first products after PostScript were digital fonts, which they released in a proprietary format called Type 1, worked on by Bill Paxton after he left Stanford. Adobe Inc._sentence_25

Apple subsequently developed a competing standard, TrueType, which provided full scalability and precise control of the pixel pattern created by the font's outlines, and licensed it to Microsoft. Adobe Inc._sentence_26

In the mid-1980s, Adobe entered the consumer software market with Illustrator, a vector-based drawing program for the Apple Macintosh. Adobe Inc._sentence_27

Illustrator, which grew from the firm's in-house font-development software, helped popularize PostScript-enabled laser printers. Adobe Inc._sentence_28

Adobe entered the NASDAQ Composite index in August 1986. Adobe Inc._sentence_29

Its revenue has grown from roughly $1 billion in 1999 to $4 billion in 2012. Adobe Inc._sentence_30

Adobe's fiscal years run from December to November. Adobe Inc._sentence_31

For example, the 2007 fiscal year ended on November 30, 2007. Adobe Inc._sentence_32

In 1989, Adobe introduced what was to become its flagship product, a graphics editing program for the Macintosh called Photoshop. Adobe Inc._sentence_33

Stable and full-featured, Photoshop 1.0 was ably marketed by Adobe and soon dominated the market. Adobe Inc._sentence_34

In 1993, Adobe introduced PDF, the Portable Document Format, and its Adobe Acrobat and Reader software. Adobe Inc._sentence_35

PDF is now an International Standard: ISO 32000-1:2008. Adobe Inc._sentence_36

In December 1991, Adobe released Adobe Premiere, which Adobe rebranded as Adobe Premiere Pro in 2003. Adobe Inc._sentence_37

In 1992, Adobe acquired OCR Systems, Inc. Adobe Inc._sentence_38

In 1994, Adobe acquired Aldus and added PageMaker and After Effects to its product line later in the year; it also controls the TIFF file format. Adobe Inc._sentence_39

In the same year, Adobe acquired LaserTools Corp and Compution Inc. Adobe Inc._sentence_40

In 1995, Adobe added FrameMaker, the long-document DTP application, to its product line after Adobe acquired Frame Technology Corp. Adobe Inc._sentence_41

In 1996, Adobe acquired Ares Software Corp. Adobe Inc._sentence_42

In 2002, Adobe acquired Canadian company Accelio (also known as JetForm). Adobe Inc._sentence_43

In May 2003 Adobe purchased audio editing and multitrack recording software Cool Edit Pro from Syntrillium Software for $16.5 million, as well as a large loop library called "Loopology". Adobe Inc._sentence_44

Adobe then renamed Cool Edit Pro to "Adobe Audition" and included it in the Creative Suite. Adobe Inc._sentence_45

On December 3, 2005, Adobe acquired its main rival, Macromedia, in a stock swap valued at about $3.4 billion, adding ColdFusion, Contribute, Captivate, Breeze (rebranded as Adobe Connect), Director, Dreamweaver, Fireworks, Flash, FlashPaper, Flex, FreeHand, HomeSite, JRun, Presenter, and Authorware to Adobe's product line. Adobe Inc._sentence_46

Adobe released Adobe Media Player in April 2008. Adobe Inc._sentence_47

On April 27, Adobe discontinued development and sales of its older HTML/web development software, GoLive, in favor of Dreamweaver. Adobe Inc._sentence_48

Adobe offered a discount on Dreamweaver for GoLive users and supports those who still use GoLive with online tutorials and migration assistance. Adobe Inc._sentence_49

On June 1, Adobe launched, a series of web applications geared for collaborative work. Adobe Inc._sentence_50

Creative Suite 4, which includes Design, Web, Production Premium, and Master Collection came out in October 2008 in six configurations at prices from about US$1,700 to $2,500 or by individual application. Adobe Inc._sentence_51

The Windows version of Photoshop includes 64-bit processing. Adobe Inc._sentence_52

On December 3, 2008, Adobe laid off 600 of its employees (8% of the worldwide staff) citing the weak economic environment. Adobe Inc._sentence_53

On September 15, 2009, Adobe Systems announced that it would acquire online marketing and web analytics company Omniture for $1.8 billion. Adobe Inc._sentence_54

The deal was completed on October 23, 2009. Adobe Inc._sentence_55

Former Omniture products were integrated into the Adobe Marketing Cloud. Adobe Inc._sentence_56

On November 10, 2009, the company laid off a further 680 employees. Adobe Inc._sentence_57

Adobe's 2010 was marked by continuing front-and-back arguments with Apple over the latter's non-support for Adobe Flash on its iPhone, iPad and other products. Adobe Inc._sentence_58

Former Apple CEO Steve Jobs claimed that Flash was not reliable or secure enough, while Adobe executives have argued that Apple wish to maintain control over the iOS platform. Adobe Inc._sentence_59

In April 2010, Steve Jobs published a post titled "Thoughts on Flash" where he outlined his thoughts on Flash and the rise of HTML 5. Adobe Inc._sentence_60

In July 2010, Adobe bought Day Software integrating their line of CQ Products: WCM, DAM, SOCO, and Mobile Adobe Inc._sentence_61

In January 2011, Adobe acquired DemDex, Inc. with the intent of adding DemDex's audience-optimization software to its online marketing suite. Adobe Inc._sentence_62

At Photoshop World 2011, Adobe unveiled a new mobile photo service. Adobe Inc._sentence_63

Carousel is a new application for iPhone, iPad, and Mac that uses Photoshop Lightroom technology for users to adjust and fine-tune images on all platforms. Adobe Inc._sentence_64

Carousel will also allow users to automatically sync, share and browse photos. Adobe Inc._sentence_65

The service was later renamed to "Adobe Revel". Adobe Inc._sentence_66

In October 2011, Adobe acquired Nitobi Software, the makers of the mobile application development framework PhoneGap. Adobe Inc._sentence_67

As part of the acquisition, the source code of PhoneGap was submitted to the Apache Foundation, where it became Apache Cordova. Adobe Inc._sentence_68

In November 2011, Adobe announced that they would cease development of Flash for mobile devices following version 11.1. Adobe Inc._sentence_69

Instead, it would focus on HTML 5 for mobile devices. Adobe Inc._sentence_70

In December 2011, Adobe announced that it entered into a definitive agreement to acquire privately held Efficient Frontier. Adobe Inc._sentence_71

In December 2012, Adobe opened a new 280,000-square-foot (26,000 m) corporate campus in Lehi, Utah. Adobe Inc._sentence_72

In 2013, Adobe endured a major security breach. Adobe Inc._sentence_73

Vast portions of the source code for the company's software were stolen and posted online and over 150 million records of Adobe's customers have been made readily available for download. Adobe Inc._sentence_74

In 2012, about 40 million sets of payment card information were compromised by a hack of Adobe. Adobe Inc._sentence_75

A class-action lawsuit alleging that the company suppressed employee compensation was filed against Adobe, and three other Silicon Valley-based companies in a California federal district court in 2013. Adobe Inc._sentence_76

In May 2014, it was revealed the four companies, Adobe, Apple, Google, and Intel had reached agreement with the plaintiffs, 64,000 employees of the four companies, to pay a sum of $324.5 million to settle the suit. Adobe Inc._sentence_77

In March 2018, at Adobe Summit, the company and NVIDIA publicized a key association to quickly upgrade their industry-driving AI and profound learning innovations. Adobe Inc._sentence_78

Expanding on years of coordinated effort, the organizations will work to streamline the Adobe Sensei AI and machine learning structure for NVIDIA GPUs. Adobe Inc._sentence_79

The joint effort will speed time to showcase and enhance the execution of new Sensei-powered services for Adobe Creative Cloud and Experience Cloud clients and engineers. Adobe Inc._sentence_80

Adobe and NVIDIA have co-operated for over 10 years on empowering GPU quickening for a wide arrangement of Adobe's creative and computerized encounter items. Adobe Inc._sentence_81

This incorporates Sensei-powered features, for example, auto lip-sync in Adobe Character Animator CC and face-aware editing in Photoshop CC, and also cloud-based AI/ML items and features, for example, picture investigation for Adobe Stock and Lightroom CC and auto-labeling in Adobe Experience Supervisor. Adobe Inc._sentence_82

In May 2018, Adobe stated they would buy e-commerce services provider Magento Commerce from private equity firm Permira for $1.68 billion. Adobe Inc._sentence_83

This deal will help bolster its Experience Cloud business, which provides services including analytics, advertising, and marketing. Adobe Inc._sentence_84

The deal is expected to close during Adobe's fiscal third quarter in 2018. Adobe Inc._sentence_85

In September 2018, Adobe announced its acquisition of marketing automation software company Marketo. Adobe Inc._sentence_86

In October 2018, Adobe officially changed its name from Adobe Systems Incorporated to Adobe Inc. Adobe Inc._sentence_87

In January 2019, Adobe announced its acquisition of 3D texturing company Allegorithmic. Adobe Inc._sentence_88

In 2020, the annual Adobe Summit was canceled due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Adobe Inc._sentence_89

The event is said to take place online this year. Adobe Inc._sentence_90

The software giant has imposed a ban on the political ads features on its digital advert sales platform as the United States presidential elections approach. Adobe Inc._sentence_91

On November 9, 2020, Adobe announced it will spend $1.5 billion USD to acquire Workfront, a provider of marketing collaboration software. Adobe Inc._sentence_92

Finances Adobe Inc._section_1

Adobe Inc._table_general_1

Development since 2005Adobe Inc._table_caption_1
YearAdobe Inc._header_cell_1_0_0 Revenue

in mil. US-$Adobe Inc._header_cell_1_0_1

Growth Rate

%Adobe Inc._header_cell_1_0_2

Net Income

in mil. US-$Adobe Inc._header_cell_1_0_3

Price per Share

in US-$Adobe Inc._header_cell_1_0_4

EmployeesAdobe Inc._header_cell_1_0_5
2005Adobe Inc._cell_1_1_0 1,966Adobe Inc._cell_1_1_1 Adobe Inc._cell_1_1_2 603Adobe Inc._cell_1_1_3 30.77Adobe Inc._cell_1_1_4 Adobe Inc._cell_1_1_5
2006Adobe Inc._cell_1_2_0 2,575Adobe Inc._cell_1_2_1 23.65%Adobe Inc._cell_1_2_2 506Adobe Inc._cell_1_2_3 35.60Adobe Inc._cell_1_2_4 Adobe Inc._cell_1_2_5
2007Adobe Inc._cell_1_3_0 3,158Adobe Inc._cell_1_3_1 18.46%Adobe Inc._cell_1_3_2 724Adobe Inc._cell_1_3_3 41.97Adobe Inc._cell_1_3_4 Adobe Inc._cell_1_3_5
2008Adobe Inc._cell_1_4_0 3,580Adobe Inc._cell_1_4_1 11.79%Adobe Inc._cell_1_4_2 872Adobe Inc._cell_1_4_3 35.33Adobe Inc._cell_1_4_4 Adobe Inc._cell_1_4_5
2009Adobe Inc._cell_1_5_0 2,946Adobe Inc._cell_1_5_1 Minus 21.52%Adobe Inc._cell_1_5_2 387Adobe Inc._cell_1_5_3 28.63Adobe Inc._cell_1_5_4 Adobe Inc._cell_1_5_5
2010Adobe Inc._cell_1_6_0 3,800Adobe Inc._cell_1_6_1 22.47%Adobe Inc._cell_1_6_2 775Adobe Inc._cell_1_6_3 31.21Adobe Inc._cell_1_6_4 Adobe Inc._cell_1_6_5
2011Adobe Inc._cell_1_7_0 4,216Adobe Inc._cell_1_7_1 9.87%Adobe Inc._cell_1_7_2 833Adobe Inc._cell_1_7_3 31.12Adobe Inc._cell_1_7_4 Adobe Inc._cell_1_7_5
2012Adobe Inc._cell_1_8_0 4,404Adobe Inc._cell_1_8_1 4.27%Adobe Inc._cell_1_8_2 833Adobe Inc._cell_1_8_3 32.67Adobe Inc._cell_1_8_4 Adobe Inc._cell_1_8_5
2013Adobe Inc._cell_1_9_0 4,055Adobe Inc._cell_1_9_1 Minus 8.61%Adobe Inc._cell_1_9_2 290Adobe Inc._cell_1_9_3 46.80Adobe Inc._cell_1_9_4 11,847Adobe Inc._cell_1_9_5
2014Adobe Inc._cell_1_10_0 4,147Adobe Inc._cell_1_10_1 2.22%Adobe Inc._cell_1_10_2 268Adobe Inc._cell_1_10_3 67.45Adobe Inc._cell_1_10_4 12,499Adobe Inc._cell_1_10_5
2015Adobe Inc._cell_1_11_0 4,796Adobe Inc._cell_1_11_1 13.53%Adobe Inc._cell_1_11_2 630Adobe Inc._cell_1_11_3 80.97Adobe Inc._cell_1_11_4 13,893Adobe Inc._cell_1_11_5
2016Adobe Inc._cell_1_12_0 5,854Adobe Inc._cell_1_12_1 18.07%Adobe Inc._cell_1_12_2 1,169Adobe Inc._cell_1_12_3 97.32Adobe Inc._cell_1_12_4 15,706Adobe Inc._cell_1_12_5
2017Adobe Inc._cell_1_13_0 7,302Adobe Inc._cell_1_13_1 19.83%Adobe Inc._cell_1_13_2 1,694Adobe Inc._cell_1_13_3 144.00Adobe Inc._cell_1_13_4 17,973Adobe Inc._cell_1_13_5
2018Adobe Inc._cell_1_14_0 9,030Adobe Inc._cell_1_14_1 19.14%Adobe Inc._cell_1_14_2 2,591Adobe Inc._cell_1_14_3 226.24Adobe Inc._cell_1_14_4 21,357Adobe Inc._cell_1_14_5
2019Adobe Inc._cell_1_15_0 11,17Adobe Inc._cell_1_15_1 19.16%Adobe Inc._cell_1_15_2 2,951Adobe Inc._cell_1_15_3 490.564Adobe Inc._cell_1_15_4 Adobe Inc._cell_1_15_5
2020Adobe Inc._cell_1_16_0 12,806*Adobe Inc._cell_1_16_1 12.8%*Adobe Inc._cell_1_16_2 3669*Adobe Inc._cell_1_16_3 Adobe Inc._cell_1_16_4 Adobe Inc._cell_1_16_5

Products Adobe Inc._section_2

Main article: List of Adobe software Adobe Inc._sentence_93

Adobe Inc._description_list_0

Adobe Inc._description_list_1

Adobe Stock Adobe Inc._sentence_94

A microstock agency that presently provides over 57 million high-resolution, royalty-free images and videos available to license (via subscription or credit purchase methods). Adobe Inc._sentence_95

On December 11, 2014, Adobe announced it was buying Fotolia for $800  million in cash, aiming at integrating the service to its Creative Cloud solution. Adobe Inc._sentence_96

The purchase was completed in January 2015. Adobe Inc._sentence_97

It is run as a stand-alone website. Adobe Inc._sentence_98

Adobe Experience Platform Adobe Inc._sentence_99

In March 2019, Adobe released its Adobe Experience Platform, which consists family of content, development, and customer relationship management products, with what it calls the "next generation" of its Sensei artificial intelligence and machine learning framework. Adobe Inc._sentence_100

Reception Adobe Inc._section_3

From 1995 to 2013, Fortune ranked Adobe as "an outstanding place to work". Adobe Inc._sentence_101

Adobe was rated the 5th best U.S. company to work for in 2003, 6th in 2004, 31st in 2007, 40th in 2008, 11th in 2009, 42nd in 2010, 65th in 2011, 41st in 2012, and 83rd in 2013. Adobe Inc._sentence_102

In October 2008, Adobe Systems Canada Inc. was named one of "Canada's Top 100 Employers" by Mediacorp Canada Inc. and was featured in Maclean's newsmagazine. Adobe Inc._sentence_103

Adobe has a five-star privacy rating from the Electronic Frontier Foundation. Adobe Inc._sentence_104

Criticisms Adobe Inc._section_4

Pricing Adobe Inc._section_5

Adobe has been criticized for its pricing practices, with retail prices being up to twice as much in non-US countries. Adobe Inc._sentence_105

For example, it is significantly cheaper to pay for a return airfare ticket to the United States and purchase one particular collection of Adobe's software there than to buy it locally in Australia. Adobe Inc._sentence_106

After Adobe revealed the pricing for the Creative Suite 3 Master Collection, which was £1,000 higher for European customers, a petition to protest over "unfair pricing" was published and signed by 10,000 users. Adobe Inc._sentence_107

In June 2009, Adobe further increased its prices in the UK by 10% in spite of weakening of the pound against the dollar, and UK users were not allowed to buy from the US store. Adobe Inc._sentence_108

Adobe's Reader and Flash programs were listed on "The 10 most hated programs of all time" article by TechRadar. Adobe Inc._sentence_109

Security Adobe Inc._section_6

Hackers have exploited vulnerabilities in Adobe programs, such as Adobe Reader, to gain unauthorized access to computers. Adobe Inc._sentence_110

Adobe's Flash Player has also been criticized for, among other things, suffering from performance, memory usage and security problems (see criticism of Flash Player). Adobe Inc._sentence_111

A report by security researchers from Kaspersky Lab criticized Adobe for producing the products having top 10 security vulnerabilities. Adobe Inc._sentence_112

Observers noted that Adobe was spying on its customers by including spyware in the Creative Suite 3 software and quietly sending user data to a firm named Omniture. Adobe Inc._sentence_113

When users became aware, Adobe explained what the suspicious software did and admitted that they: "could and should do a better job taking security concerns into account". Adobe Inc._sentence_114

When a security flaw was later discovered in Photoshop CS5, Adobe sparked outrage by saying it would leave the flaw unpatched, so anyone who wanted to use the software securely would have to pay for an upgrade. Adobe Inc._sentence_115

Following a fierce backlash Adobe decided to provide the software patch. Adobe Inc._sentence_116

Adobe has been criticized for pushing unwanted software including third-party browser toolbars and free virus scanners, usually as part of the Flash update process, and for pushing a third-party scareware program designed to scare users into paying for unneeded system repairs. Adobe Inc._sentence_117

Customer data breach Adobe Inc._section_7

On October 3, 2013, the company initially revealed that 2.9 million customers' sensitive and personal data was stolen in security breach which included encrypted credit card information. Adobe Inc._sentence_118

Adobe later admitted that 38 million active users have been affected and the attackers obtained access to their IDs and encrypted passwords, as well as to many inactive Adobe accounts. Adobe Inc._sentence_119

The company did not make it clear if all the personal information was encrypted, such as email addresses and physical addresses, though data privacy laws in 44 states require this information to be encrypted. Adobe Inc._sentence_120

A 3.8 GB file stolen from Adobe and containing 152 million usernames, reversibly encrypted passwords and unencrypted password hints was posted on Adobe Inc._sentence_121

LastPass, a password security firm, said that Adobe failed to use best practices for securing the passwords and has not salted them. Adobe Inc._sentence_122

Another security firm, Sophos, showed that Adobe used a weak encryption method permitting the recovery of a lot of information with very little effort. Adobe Inc._sentence_123

According to IT expert Simon Bain, Adobe has failed its customers and 'should hang their heads in shame'. Adobe Inc._sentence_124

Many of the credit cards were tied to the Creative Cloud software-by-subscription service. Adobe Inc._sentence_125

Adobe offered its affected US customers a free membership in a credit monitoring service, but no similar arrangements have been made for non-US customers. Adobe Inc._sentence_126

When a data breach occurs in the US, penalties depend on the state where the victim resides, not where the company is based. Adobe Inc._sentence_127

After stealing the customers' data, cyber-thieves also accessed Adobe's source code repository, likely in mid-August 2013. Adobe Inc._sentence_128

Because hackers acquired copies of the source code of Adobe proprietary products, they could find and exploit any potential weaknesses in its security, computer experts warned. Adobe Inc._sentence_129

Security researcher Alex Holden, chief information security officer of Hold Security, characterized this Adobe breach, which affected Acrobat, ColdFusion and numerous other applications, as "one of the worst in US history". Adobe Inc._sentence_130

Adobe also announced that hackers stole parts of the source code of Photoshop, which according to commentators could allow programmers to copy its engineering techniques and would make it easier to pirate Adobe's expensive products. Adobe Inc._sentence_131

Published on a server of a Russian-speaking hacker group, the "disclosure of encryption algorithms, other security schemes, and software vulnerabilities can be used to bypass protections for individual and corporate data" and may have opened the gateway to new generation zero-day attacks. Adobe Inc._sentence_132

Hackers already used ColdFusion exploits to make off with usernames and encrypted passwords of PR Newswire's customers, which has been tied to the Adobe security breach. Adobe Inc._sentence_133

They also used a ColdFusion exploit to breach Washington state court and expose up to 200,000 Social Security numbers. Adobe Inc._sentence_134

See also: Adobe Creative Cloud § Criticism Adobe Inc._sentence_135

Anti-competitive practices Adobe Inc._section_8

In 1994, Adobe acquired Aldus Corp., a software vendor that sold FreeHand, a competing product. Adobe Inc._sentence_136

Freehand was direct competition to Adobe Illustrator, Adobe's flagship vector-graphics editor. Adobe Inc._sentence_137

The Federal Trade Commission intervened and forced Adobe to sell FreeHand back to Altsys, and also banned Adobe from buying back FreeHand or any similar program for the next 10 years (1994–2004). Adobe Inc._sentence_138

Altsys was then bought by Macromedia, which released versions 5 to 11. Adobe Inc._sentence_139

When Adobe acquired Macromedia in December 2005, it stalled development of Freehand in 2007, effectively rendering it obsolete. Adobe Inc._sentence_140

With FreeHand and Illustrator, Adobe controlled the only two products that compete in the professional illustration program market for Macintosh operating systems. Adobe Inc._sentence_141

In 2011, a group of 5,000 Freehand graphic designers convened under the banner Free Freehand, and filed a civil antitrust complaint in the US District Court for the Northern District of California against Adobe. Adobe Inc._sentence_142

The suit alleged that Adobe has violated federal and state antitrust laws by abusing its dominant position in the professional vector graphic illustration software market and that Adobe has engaged in a series of exclusionary and anti-competitive acts and strategies designed to kill FreeHand, the dominant competitor to Adobe's Illustrator software product, instead of competing on the basis of product merit according to the principals of free market capitalism. Adobe Inc._sentence_143

Adobe had no response to the claims and the lawsuit was eventually settled. Adobe Inc._sentence_144

The FreeHand community believes Adobe should release the product to an open-source community if it cannot update it internally. Adobe Inc._sentence_145

As of 2010, on its FreeHand product page, Adobe stated, "While we recognize FreeHand has a loyal customer base, we encourage users to migrate to the new Adobe Illustrator CS4 software which supports both PowerPC and Intel-based Macs and Microsoft Windows XP and Windows Vista." Adobe Inc._sentence_146

As of 2016, the Freehand page no longer exists; instead, it simply redirects to the Illustrator page. Adobe Inc._sentence_147

Adobe's software FTP server still contains a directory for FreeHand, but it is empty. Adobe Inc._sentence_148

See also Adobe Inc._section_9

Adobe Inc._unordered_list_2

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