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"Aesthetic" redirects here. Aesthetics_sentence_0

For the 19th century art movements, see Aestheticism. Aesthetics_sentence_1

For the cosmetology term, see Cosmetology § Esthetician. Aesthetics_sentence_2

For the music genre, see Vaporwave. Aesthetics_sentence_3

Aesthetics, or esthetics (/ɛsˈθɛtɪks, iːs-, æs-/), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area of philosophy that comes out of aesthetics). Aesthetics_sentence_4

It examines subjective and sensori-emotional values, or sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. Aesthetics_sentence_5

Aesthetics covers both natural and artificial sources of aesthetic experience and judgment. Aesthetics_sentence_6

It considers what happens in our minds when we engage with aesthetic objects or environments such as in viewing visual art, listening to music, reading poetry, experiencing a play, exploring nature, and so on. Aesthetics_sentence_7

The philosophy of art specifically studies how artists imagine, create, and perform works of art, as well as how people use, enjoy, and criticize their art. Aesthetics_sentence_8

It deals with how one feels about art in general, why they like some works of art and not others, and how art can affect our moods or even our beliefs. Aesthetics_sentence_9

Both aesthetics generally and philosophy of art especially ask questions like "What is art?," "What is a work of art?," and "What makes good art?" Aesthetics_sentence_10

Scholars in the field have defined aesthetics as "critical reflection on art, culture and nature". Aesthetics_sentence_11

In modern English, the term "aesthetic" can also refer to a set of principles underlying the works of a particular art movement or theory (one speaks, for example, of a Renaissance aesthetic). Aesthetics_sentence_12

Etymology Aesthetics_section_0

The word aesthetic is derived from the Greek αἰσθητικός (aisthetikos, meaning "aesthetic, sensitive, sentient, pertaining to sense perception"), which in turn was derived from αἰσθάνομαι (aisthanomai, meaning "I perceive, feel, sense" and related to αἴσθησις (aisthēsis, "sensation"). Aesthetics_sentence_13

Aesthetics in this central sense has been said to start with the series of articles on "The Pleasures of the Imagination" which the journalist Joseph Addison wrote in the early issues of the magazine The Spectator in 1712. Aesthetics_sentence_14

The term "aesthetics" was appropriated and coined with new meaning by the German philosopher Alexander Baumgarten in his dissertation Meditationes philosophicae de nonnullis ad poema pertinentibus ("Philosophical considerations of some matters pertaining the poem") in 1735; Baumgarten chose "aesthetics" because he wished to emphasize the experience of art as a means of knowing. Aesthetics_sentence_15

Aesthetics, a not very tidy intellectual discipline, is a heterogeneous collection of problems that concern the arts primarily but also relate to nature. Aesthetics_sentence_16

even though his later definition in the fragment Aesthetica (1750) is more often referred to as the first definition of modern aesthetics. Aesthetics_sentence_17

Aesthetics and the philosophy of art Aesthetics_section_1

Some separate aesthetics and philosophy of art, claiming that the former is the study of beauty and taste while the latter is the study of art proper, in the form of materialized works of artists. Aesthetics_sentence_18

However, most commonly Aesthetics encompasses both questions around beauty as well as questions about art. Aesthetics_sentence_19

It examines topics such as aesthetic objects, aesthetic experience, and aesthetic judgments. Aesthetics_sentence_20

For some, aesthetics is considered a synonym for the philosophy of art since Hegel, while others insist that there is a significant distinction between these closely related fields. Aesthetics_sentence_21

In practice, aesthetic judgement refers to the sensory contemplation or appreciation of an object (not necessarily an art object), while artistic judgement refers to the recognition, appreciation or criticism of art or an art work. Aesthetics_sentence_22

Philosophical aesthetics not only has to speak about art and to produce judgments about art works, but also has to give a definition of what art is. Aesthetics_sentence_23

Art is an autonomous entity for philosophy, because art deals with the senses (i.e. the etymology of aesthetics) and art is as such free of any moral or political purpose. Aesthetics_sentence_24

Hence, there are two different conceptions of art in aesthetics: art as knowledge or art as action, but aesthetics is neither epistemology nor ethics. Aesthetics_sentence_25

Aestheticians compare historical developments with theoretical approaches to the arts of many periods. Aesthetics_sentence_26

They study the varieties of art in relation to their physical, social, and culture environments. Aesthetics_sentence_27

Aestheticians also use psychology to understand how people see, hear, imagine, think, learn, and act in relation to the materials and problems of art. Aesthetics_sentence_28

Aesthetic psychology studies the creative process and the aesthetic experience. Aesthetics_sentence_29

Aesthetic judgment, universals and ethics Aesthetics_section_2

Aesthetic judgment Aesthetics_section_3

See also: Value judgment Aesthetics_sentence_30

Aesthetics examines affective domain response to an object or phenomenon. Aesthetics_sentence_31

Judgments of aesthetic value rely on the ability to discriminate at a sensory level. Aesthetics_sentence_32

However, aesthetic judgments usually go beyond sensory discrimination. Aesthetics_sentence_33

For David Hume, delicacy of taste is not merely "the ability to detect all the ingredients in a composition", but also the sensitivity "to pains as well as pleasures, which escape the rest of mankind." Aesthetics_sentence_34

Thus, the sensory discrimination is linked to capacity for pleasure. Aesthetics_sentence_35

For Immanuel Kant (Critique of Judgment, 1790), "enjoyment" is the result when pleasure arises from sensation, but judging something to be "beautiful" has a third requirement: sensation must give rise to pleasure by engaging reflective contemplation. Aesthetics_sentence_36

Judgments of beauty are sensory, emotional and intellectual all at once. Aesthetics_sentence_37

Kant (1790) observed of a man "If he says that canary wine is agreeable he is quite content if someone else corrects his terms and reminds him to say instead: It is agreeable to me," because "Everyone has his own (sense of) taste". Aesthetics_sentence_38

The case of "beauty" is different from mere "agreeableness" because, "If he proclaims something to be beautiful, then he requires the same liking from others; he then judges not just for himself but for everyone, and speaks of beauty as if it were a property of things." Aesthetics_sentence_39

Viewer interpretations of beauty may on occasion be observed to possess two concepts of value: aesthetics and taste. Aesthetics_sentence_40

Aesthetics is the philosophical notion of beauty. Aesthetics_sentence_41

Taste is a result of an education process and awareness of elite cultural values learned through exposure to mass culture. Aesthetics_sentence_42

Bourdieu examined how the elite in society define the aesthetic values like taste and how varying levels of exposure to these values can result in variations by class, cultural background, and education. Aesthetics_sentence_43

According to Kant, beauty is subjective and universal; thus certain things are beautiful to everyone. Aesthetics_sentence_44

In the opinion of Władysław Tatarkiewicz, there are six conditions for the presentation of art: beauty, form, representation, reproduction of reality, artistic expression and innovation. Aesthetics_sentence_45

However, one may not be able to pin down these qualities in a work of art. Aesthetics_sentence_46

The question whether there are facts about aesthetic judgments belongs to the branch of metaphilosophy known as meta-aesthetics. Aesthetics_sentence_47

Factors involved in aesthetic judgment Aesthetics_section_4

Judgments of aesthetical values seem often to involve many other kinds of issues as well. Aesthetics_sentence_48

Responses such as disgust show that sensory detection is linked in instinctual ways to facial expressions, and even behaviours like the gag reflex. Aesthetics_sentence_49

Yet disgust can often be a learned or cultural issue too; as Darwin pointed out, seeing a stripe of soup in a man's beard is disgusting even though neither soup nor beards are themselves disgusting. Aesthetics_sentence_50

Aesthetic judgments may be linked to emotions or, like emotions, partially embodied in physical reactions. Aesthetics_sentence_51

For example, the awe inspired by a sublime landscape might physically manifest with an increased heart-rate or pupil dilation; physiological reaction may express or even cause the initial awe. Aesthetics_sentence_52

As seen, emotions are conformed to 'cultural' reactions, therefore aesthetics is always characterized by 'regional responses', as Francis Grose was the first to affirm in his 'Rules for Drawing Caricaturas: With an Essay on Comic Painting' (1788), published in W. Hogarth, The Analysis of Beauty, Bagster, London s.d. (1791? Aesthetics_sentence_53

), pp. 1–24. Aesthetics_sentence_54

Francis Grose can therefore be claimed to be the first critical 'aesthetic regionalist' in proclaiming the anti-universality of aesthetics in contrast to the perilous and always resurgent dictatorship of beauty. Aesthetics_sentence_55

'Aesthetic Regionalism' can thus be seen as a political statement and stance which vies against any universal notion of beauty to safeguard the counter-tradition of aesthetics related to what has been considered and dubbed un-beautiful just because one's culture does not contemplate it, e.g. E. Burke's sublime, what is usually defined as 'primitive' art, or un-harmonious, non-cathartic art, camp art, which 'beauty' posits and creates, dichotomously, as its opposite, without even the need of formal statements, but which will be 'perceived' as ugly. Aesthetics_sentence_56

Likewise, aesthetic judgments may be culturally conditioned to some extent. Aesthetics_sentence_57

Victorians in Britain often saw African sculpture as ugly, but just a few decades later, Edwardian audiences saw the same sculptures as beautiful. Aesthetics_sentence_58

Evaluations of beauty may well be linked to desirability, perhaps even to sexual desirability. Aesthetics_sentence_59

Thus, judgments of aesthetic value can become linked to judgments of economic, political, or moral value. Aesthetics_sentence_60

In a current context, a Lamborghini might be judged to be beautiful partly because it is desirable as a status symbol, or it may be judged to be repulsive partly because it signifies over-consumption and offends political or moral values. Aesthetics_sentence_61

The context of its presentation also affects the perception of artwork; artworks presented in a classical museum context are liked more and rated more interesting than when presented in a sterile laboratory context. Aesthetics_sentence_62

While specific results depend heavily on the style of the presented artwork, overall, the effect of context proved to be more important for the perception of artwork then the effect of genuineness (whether the artwork was being presented as original or as a facsimile/copy). Aesthetics_sentence_63

Aesthetic judgments can often be very fine-grained and internally contradictory. Aesthetics_sentence_64

Likewise aesthetic judgments seem often to be at least partly intellectual and interpretative. Aesthetics_sentence_65

What a thing means or symbolize is often what is being judged. Aesthetics_sentence_66

Modern aestheticians have asserted that will and desire were almost dormant in aesthetic experience, yet preference and choice have seemed important aesthetics to some 20th-century thinkers. Aesthetics_sentence_67

The point is already made by Hume, but see Mary Mothersill, "Beauty and the Critic's Judgment", in The Blackwell Guide to Aesthetics, 2004. Aesthetics_sentence_68

Thus aesthetic judgments might be seen to be based on the senses, emotions, intellectual opinions, will, desires, culture, preferences, values, subconscious behaviour, conscious decision, training, instinct, sociological institutions, or some complex combination of these, depending on exactly which theory is employed. Aesthetics_sentence_69

A third major topic in the study of aesthetic judgments is how they are unified across art forms. Aesthetics_sentence_70

For instance, the source of a painting's beauty has a different character to that of beautiful music, suggesting their aesthetics differ in kind. Aesthetics_sentence_71

The distinct inability of language to express aesthetic judgment and the role of Social construction further cloud this issue. Aesthetics_sentence_72

Aesthetic universals Aesthetics_section_5

The philosopher Denis Dutton identified six universal signatures in human aesthetics: Aesthetics_sentence_73


  1. Expertise or virtuosity. Humans cultivate, recognize, and admire technical artistic skills.Aesthetics_item_0_0
  2. Nonutilitarian pleasure. People enjoy art for art's sake, and do not demand that it keep them warm or put food on the table.Aesthetics_item_0_1
  3. Style. Artistic objects and performances satisfy rules of composition that place them in a recognizable style.Aesthetics_item_0_2
  4. Criticism. People make a point of judging, appreciating, and interpreting works of art.Aesthetics_item_0_3
  5. Imitation. With a few important exceptions like abstract painting, works of art simulate experiences of the world.Aesthetics_item_0_4
  6. Special focus. Art is set aside from ordinary life and made a dramatic focus of experience.Aesthetics_item_0_5

Artists such as Thomas Hirschhorn have indicated that there are too many exceptions to Dutton's categories. Aesthetics_sentence_74

For example, Hirschhorn's installations deliberately eschew technical virtuosity. Aesthetics_sentence_75

People can appreciate a Renaissance Madonna for aesthetic reasons, but such objects often had (and sometimes still have) specific devotional functions. Aesthetics_sentence_76

"Rules of composition" that might be read into Duchamp's Fountain or John Cage's 4′33″ do not locate the works in a recognizable style (or certainly not a style recognizable at the time of the works' realization). Aesthetics_sentence_77

Moreover, some of Dutton's categories seem too broad: a physicist might entertain hypothetical worlds in his/her imagination in the course of formulating a theory. Aesthetics_sentence_78

Another problem is that Dutton's categories seek to universalize traditional European notions of aesthetics and art forgetting that, as André Malraux and others have pointed out, there have been large numbers of cultures in which such ideas (including the idea "art" itself) were non-existent. Aesthetics_sentence_79

Aesthetic ethics Aesthetics_section_6

Aesthetic ethics refers to the idea that human conduct and behaviour ought to be governed by that which is beautiful and attractive. Aesthetics_sentence_80

John Dewey has pointed out that the unity of aesthetics and ethics is in fact reflected in our understanding of behaviour being "fair"—the word having a double meaning of attractive and morally acceptable. Aesthetics_sentence_81

More recently, James Page has suggested that aesthetic ethics might be taken to form a philosophical rationale for peace education. Aesthetics_sentence_82

New Criticism and "The Intentional Fallacy" Aesthetics_section_7

During the first half of the twentieth century, a significant shift to general aesthetic theory took place which attempted to apply aesthetic theory between various forms of art, including the literary arts and the visual arts, to each other. Aesthetics_sentence_83

This resulted in the rise of the New Criticism school and debate concerning the intentional fallacy. Aesthetics_sentence_84

At issue was the question of whether the aesthetic intentions of the artist in creating the work of art, whatever its specific form, should be associated with the criticism and evaluation of the final product of the work of art, or, if the work of art should be evaluated on its own merits independent of the intentions of the artist. Aesthetics_sentence_85

In 1946, William K. Wimsatt and Monroe Beardsley published a classic and controversial New Critical essay entitled "The Intentional Fallacy", in which they argued strongly against the relevance of an author's intention, or "intended meaning" in the analysis of a literary work. Aesthetics_sentence_86

For Wimsatt and Beardsley, the words on the page were all that mattered; importation of meanings from outside the text was considered irrelevant, and potentially distracting. Aesthetics_sentence_87

In another essay, "The Affective Fallacy," which served as a kind of sister essay to "The Intentional Fallacy" Wimsatt and Beardsley also discounted the reader's personal/emotional reaction to a literary work as a valid means of analyzing a text. Aesthetics_sentence_88

This fallacy would later be repudiated by theorists from the reader-response school of literary theory. Aesthetics_sentence_89

One of the leading theorists from this school, Stanley Fish, was himself trained by New Critics. Aesthetics_sentence_90

Fish criticizes Wimsatt and Beardsley in his essay "Literature in the Reader" (1970). Aesthetics_sentence_91

As summarized by Berys Gaut and Livingston in their essay "The Creation of Art": "Structuralist and post-structuralists theorists and critics were sharply critical of many aspects of New Criticism, beginning with the emphasis on aesthetic appreciation and the so-called autonomy of art, but they reiterated the attack on biographical criticisms' assumption that the artist's activities and experience were a privileged critical topic." Aesthetics_sentence_92

These authors contend that: "Anti-intentionalists, such as formalists, hold that the intentions involved in the making of art are irrelevant or peripheral to correctly interpreting art. Aesthetics_sentence_93

So details of the act of creating a work, though possibly of interest in themselves, have no bearing on the correct interpretation of the work." Aesthetics_sentence_94

Gaut and Livingston define the intentionalists as distinct from formalists stating that: "Intentionalists, unlike formalists, hold that reference to intentions is essential in fixing the correct interpretation of works." Aesthetics_sentence_95

They quote Richard Wollheim as stating that, "The task of criticism is the reconstruction of the creative process, where the creative process must in turn be thought of as something not stopping short of, but terminating on, the work of art itself." Aesthetics_sentence_96

Derivative forms of aesthetics Aesthetics_section_8

A large number of derivative forms of aesthetics have developed as contemporary and transitory forms of inquiry associated with the field of aesthetics which include the post-modern, psychoanalytic, scientific, and mathematical among others. Aesthetics_sentence_97

Post-modern aesthetics and psychoanalysis Aesthetics_section_9

Early-twentieth-century artists, poets and composers challenged existing notions of beauty, broadening the scope of art and aesthetics. Aesthetics_sentence_98

In 1941, Eli Siegel, American philosopher and poet, founded Aesthetic Realism, the philosophy that reality itself is aesthetic, and that "The world, art, and self explain each other: each is the aesthetic oneness of opposites." Aesthetics_sentence_99

Various attempts have been made to define Post-Modern Aesthetics. Aesthetics_sentence_100

The challenge to the assumption that beauty was central to art and aesthetics, thought to be original, is actually continuous with older aesthetic theory; Aristotle was the first in the Western tradition to classify "beauty" into types as in his theory of drama, and Kant made a distinction between beauty and the sublime. Aesthetics_sentence_101

What was new was a refusal to credit the higher status of certain types, where the taxonomy implied a preference for tragedy and the sublime to comedy and the Rococo. Aesthetics_sentence_102

Croce suggested that "expression" is central in the way that beauty was once thought to be central. Aesthetics_sentence_103

George Dickie suggested that the sociological institutions of the art world were the glue binding art and sensibility into unities. Aesthetics_sentence_104

Marshall McLuhan suggested that art always functions as a "counter-environment" designed to make visible what is usually invisible about a society. Aesthetics_sentence_105

Theodor Adorno felt that aesthetics could not proceed without confronting the role of the culture industry in the commodification of art and aesthetic experience. Aesthetics_sentence_106

Hal Foster attempted to portray the reaction against beauty and Modernist art in The Anti-Aesthetic: Essays on Postmodern Culture. Aesthetics_sentence_107

Arthur Danto has described this reaction as "kalliphobia" (after the Greek word for beauty, κάλλος kallos). Aesthetics_sentence_108

André Malraux explains that the notion of beauty was connected to a particular conception of art that arose with the Renaissance and was still dominant in the eighteenth century (but was supplanted later). Aesthetics_sentence_109

The discipline of aesthetics, which originated in the eighteenth century, mistook this transient state of affairs for a revelation of the permanent nature of art. Aesthetics_sentence_110

Brian Massumi suggests to reconsider beauty following the aesthetical thought in the philosophy of Deleuze and Guattari. Aesthetics_sentence_111

Walter Benjamin echoed Malraux in believing aesthetics was a comparatively recent invention, a view proven wrong in the late 1970s, when Abraham Moles and Frieder Nake analyzed links between beauty, information processing, and information theory. Aesthetics_sentence_112

Denis Dutton in "The Art Instinct" also proposed that an aesthetic sense was a vital evolutionary factor. Aesthetics_sentence_113

Jean-François Lyotard re-invokes the Kantian distinction between taste and the sublime. Aesthetics_sentence_114

Sublime painting, unlike kitsch realism, "... will enable us to see only by making it impossible to see; it will please only by causing pain." Aesthetics_sentence_115

Sigmund Freud inaugurated aesthetical thinking in Psychoanalysis mainly via the "Uncanny" as aesthetical affect. Aesthetics_sentence_116

Following Freud and Merleau-Ponty, Jacques Lacan theorized aesthetics in terms of sublimation and the Thing. Aesthetics_sentence_117

The relation of Marxist aesthetics to post-modern aesthetics is still a contentious area of debate. Aesthetics_sentence_118

Recent aesthetics Aesthetics_section_10

Guy Sircello has pioneered efforts in analytic philosophy to develop a rigorous theory of aesthetics, focusing on the concepts of beauty, love and sublimity. Aesthetics_sentence_119

In contrast to romantic theorists, Sircello argued for the objectivity of beauty and formulated a theory of love on that basis. Aesthetics_sentence_120

British philosopher and theorist of conceptual art aesthetics, Peter Osborne, makes the point that "'post-conceptual art' aesthetic does not concern a particular type of contemporary art so much as the historical-ontological condition for the production of contemporary art in general ...". Aesthetics_sentence_121

Osborne noted that in a public lecture delivered in 2010. Aesthetics_sentence_122

Gary Tedman has put forward a theory of a subjectless aesthetics derived from Karl Marx's concept of alienation, and Louis Althusser's antihumanism, using elements of Freud's group psychology, defining a concept of the 'aesthetic level of practice'. Aesthetics_sentence_123

Gregory Loewen has suggested that the subject is key in the interaction with the aesthetic object. Aesthetics_sentence_124

The work of art serves as a vehicle for the projection of the individual's identity into the world of objects, as well as being the irruptive source of much of what is uncanny in modern life. Aesthetics_sentence_125

As well, art is used to memorialize individuated biographies in a manner that allows persons to imagine that they are part of something greater than themselves. Aesthetics_sentence_126

Aesthetics and science Aesthetics_section_11

The field of experimental aesthetics was founded by Gustav Theodor Fechner in the 19th century. Aesthetics_sentence_127

Experimental aesthetics in these times had been characterized by a subject-based, inductive approach. Aesthetics_sentence_128

The analysis of individual experience and behaviour based on experimental methods is a central part of experimental aesthetics. Aesthetics_sentence_129

In particular, the perception of works of art, music, or modern items such as websites or other IT products is studied. Aesthetics_sentence_130

Experimental aesthetics is strongly oriented towards the natural sciences. Aesthetics_sentence_131

Modern approaches mostly come from the fields of cognitive psychology or neuroscience (neuroaesthetics). Aesthetics_sentence_132

In the 1970s, Abraham Moles and Frieder Nake were among the first to analyze links between aesthetics, information processing, and information theory. Aesthetics_sentence_133

In the 1990s, Jürgen Schmidhuber described an algorithmic theory of beauty which takes the subjectivity of the observer into account and postulates: among several observations classified as comparable by a given subjective observer, the aesthetically most pleasing one is the one with the shortest description, given the observer's previous knowledge and his particular method for encoding the data. Aesthetics_sentence_134

This is closely related to the principles of algorithmic information theory and minimum description length. Aesthetics_sentence_135

One of his examples: mathematicians enjoy simple proofs with a short description in their formal language. Aesthetics_sentence_136

Another very concrete example describes an aesthetically pleasing human face whose proportions can be described by very few bits of information, drawing inspiration from less detailed 15th century proportion studies by Leonardo da Vinci and Albrecht Dürer. Aesthetics_sentence_137

Schmidhuber's theory explicitly distinguishes between what's beautiful and what's interesting, stating that interestingness corresponds to the first derivative of subjectively perceived beauty. Aesthetics_sentence_138

Here the premise is that any observer continually tries to improve the predictability and compressibility of the observations by discovering regularities such as repetitions and symmetries and fractal self-similarity. Aesthetics_sentence_139

Whenever the observer's learning process (which may be a predictive artificial neural network; see also Neuroesthetics) leads to improved data compression such that the observation sequence can be described by fewer bits than before, the temporary interestingness of the data corresponds to the number of saved bits. Aesthetics_sentence_140

This compression progress is proportional to the observer's internal reward, also called curiosity reward. Aesthetics_sentence_141

A reinforcement learning algorithm is used to maximize future expected reward by learning to execute action sequences that cause additional interesting input data with yet unknown but learnable predictability or regularity. Aesthetics_sentence_142

The principles can be implemented on artificial agents which then exhibit a form of artificial curiosity. Aesthetics_sentence_143

Truth in beauty and mathematics Aesthetics_section_12

Mathematical considerations, such as symmetry and complexity, are used for analysis in theoretical aesthetics. Aesthetics_sentence_144

This is different from the aesthetic considerations of applied aesthetics used in the study of mathematical beauty. Aesthetics_sentence_145

Aesthetic considerations such as symmetry and simplicity are used in areas of philosophy, such as ethics and theoretical physics and cosmology to define truth, outside of empirical considerations. Aesthetics_sentence_146

Beauty and Truth have been argued to be nearly synonymous, as reflected in the statement "Beauty is truth, truth beauty" in the poem Ode on a Grecian Urn by John Keats, or by the Hindu motto "Satyam Shivam Sundaram" (Satya (Truth) is Shiva (God), and Shiva is Sundaram (Beautiful)). Aesthetics_sentence_147

The fact that judgments of beauty and judgments of truth both are influenced by processing fluency, which is the ease with which information can be processed, has been presented as an explanation for why beauty is sometimes equated with truth. Aesthetics_sentence_148

Recent research found that people use beauty as an indication for truth in mathematical pattern tasks. Aesthetics_sentence_149

However, scientists including the mathematician David Orrell and physicist Marcelo Gleiser have argued that the emphasis on aesthetic criteria such as symmetry is equally capable of leading scientists astray. Aesthetics_sentence_150

Computational approaches Aesthetics_section_13

Computational approaches to aesthetics emerged amid efforts to use computer science methods "to predict, convey, and evoke emotional response to a piece of art. Aesthetics_sentence_151

It this field, aesthetics is not considered to be dependent on taste but is a matter of cognition, and, consequently, learning. Aesthetics_sentence_152

In 1928, the mathematician George David Birkhoff created an aesthetic measure M = O/C as the ratio of order to complexity. Aesthetics_sentence_153

Since about 2005, computer scientists have attempted to develop automated methods to infer aesthetic quality of images. Aesthetics_sentence_154

Typically, these approaches follow a machine learning approach, where large numbers of manually rated photographs are used to "teach" a computer about what visual properties are of relevance to aesthetic quality. Aesthetics_sentence_155

A study by Y. Li and C.J. Hu employed Birkhoff's measurement in their statistical learning approach where order and complexity of an image determined aesthetic value. Aesthetics_sentence_156

The image complexity was computed using information theory while the order was determined using fractal compression. Aesthetics_sentence_157

There is also the case of the Acquine engine, developed at Penn State University, that rates natural photographs uploaded by users. Aesthetics_sentence_158

There have also been relatively successful attempts with regard to chess and music. Aesthetics_sentence_159

Computational approaches have also been attempted in film making as demonstrated by a software model developed by Chitra Dorai and a group of researchers at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center. Aesthetics_sentence_160

The tool predicted aesthetics based on the values of narrative elements. Aesthetics_sentence_161

A relation between Max Bense's mathematical formulation of aesthetics in terms of "redundancy" and "complexity" and theories of musical anticipation was offered using the notion of Information Rate. Aesthetics_sentence_162

Evolutionary aesthetics Aesthetics_section_14

Main article: Evolutionary aesthetics Aesthetics_sentence_163

Evolutionary aesthetics refers to evolutionary psychology theories in which the basic aesthetic preferences of Homo sapiens are argued to have evolved in order to enhance survival and reproductive success. Aesthetics_sentence_164

One example being that humans are argued to find beautiful and prefer landscapes which were good habitats in the ancestral environment. Aesthetics_sentence_165

Another example is that body symmetry and proportion are important aspects of physical attractiveness which may be due to this indicating good health during body growth. Aesthetics_sentence_166

Evolutionary explanations for aesthetical preferences are important parts of evolutionary musicology, Darwinian literary studies, and the study of the evolution of emotion. Aesthetics_sentence_167

Applied aesthetics Aesthetics_section_15

Main article: Applied aesthetics Aesthetics_sentence_168

As well as being applied to art, aesthetics can also be applied to cultural objects, such as crosses or tools. Aesthetics_sentence_169

For example, aesthetic coupling between art-objects and medical topics was made by speakers working for the US Information Agency. Aesthetics_sentence_170

Art slides were linked to slides of pharmacological data, which improved attention and retention by simultaneous activation of intuitive right brain with rational left. Aesthetics_sentence_171

It can also be used in topics as diverse as cartography, mathematics, gastronomy, fashion and website design. Aesthetics_sentence_172

Criticism Aesthetics_section_16

The philosophy of aesthetics as a practice has been criticized by some sociologists and writers of art and society. Aesthetics_sentence_173

Raymond Williams, for example, argues that there is no unique and or individual aesthetic object which can be extrapolated from the art world, but rather that there is a continuum of cultural forms and experience of which ordinary speech and experiences may signal as art. Aesthetics_sentence_174

By "art" we may frame several artistic "works" or "creations" as so though this reference remains within the institution or special event which creates it and this leaves some works or other possible "art" outside of the frame work, or other interpretations such as other phenomenon which may not be considered as "art". Aesthetics_sentence_175

Pierre Bourdieu disagrees with Kant's idea of the "aesthetic". Aesthetics_sentence_176

He argues that Kant's "aesthetic" merely represents an experience that is the product of an elevated class habitus and scholarly leisure as opposed to other possible and equally valid "aesthetic" experiences which lay outside Kant's narrow definition. Aesthetics_sentence_177

Timothy Laurie argues that theories of musical aesthetics "framed entirely in terms of appreciation, contemplation or reflection risk idealizing an implausibly unmotivated listener defined solely through musical objects, rather than seeing them as a person for whom complex intentions and motivations produce variable attractions to cultural objects and practices". Aesthetics_sentence_178

See also Aesthetics_section_17


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