Africa

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For other uses, see Africa (disambiguation). Africa_sentence_0

Africa_table_infobox_0

AfricaAfrica_table_caption_0
AreaAfrica_header_cell_0_0_0 30,370,000 km (11,730,000 sq mi)  (2nd)Africa_cell_0_0_1
PopulationAfrica_header_cell_0_1_0 1,275,920,972 (2018; 2nd)Africa_cell_0_1_1
Population densityAfrica_header_cell_0_2_0 36.4/km (94/sq mi)Africa_cell_0_2_1
GDP (PPP)Africa_header_cell_0_3_0 $7.16 trillion (2019; 5th)Africa_cell_0_3_1
GDP (nominal)Africa_header_cell_0_4_0 $2.45 trillion (2019; 5th)Africa_cell_0_4_1
GDP per capitaAfrica_header_cell_0_5_0 $1,930 (2019; 6th)Africa_cell_0_5_1
DemonymAfrica_header_cell_0_6_0 AfricanAfrica_cell_0_6_1
CountriesAfrica_header_cell_0_7_0 54+2 (disputed)Africa_cell_0_7_1
DependenciesAfrica_header_cell_0_8_0 External (3)


Internal (9+1 disputed)Africa_cell_0_8_1

LanguagesAfrica_header_cell_0_9_0 1250–3000 native languagesAfrica_cell_0_9_1
Time zonesAfrica_header_cell_0_10_0 UTC-1 to UTC+4Africa_cell_0_10_1
Largest citiesAfrica_header_cell_0_11_0 Largest urban areas:Africa_cell_0_11_1

Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. Africa_sentence_1

At about 30.3 million km (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. Africa_sentence_2

With 1.3 billion people as of 2018, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. Africa_sentence_3

Africa's population is the youngest amongst all the continents; the median age in 2012 was 19.7, when the worldwide median age was 30.4. Africa_sentence_4

Despite a wide range of natural resources, Africa is the least wealthy continent per capita, in part due to geographic impediments, legacies of European colonization in Africa and the Cold War, undemocratic rule and deleterious policies. Africa_sentence_5

Despite this low concentration of wealth, recent economic expansion and the large and young population make Africa an important economic market in the broader global context. Africa_sentence_6

The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Africa_sentence_7

The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos. Africa_sentence_8

It contains 54 fully recognised sovereign states (countries), eight territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition. Africa_sentence_9

Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, and Nigeria is its largest by population. Africa_sentence_10

African nations cooperate through the establishment of the African Union, which is headquartered in Addis Ababa. Africa_sentence_11

Africa straddles the Equator and encompasses numerous climate areas; it is the only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones. Africa_sentence_12

The majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere. Africa_sentence_13

Africa is home to much biodiversity; it is the continent with the largest number of megafauna species, as it was least affected by the extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna. Africa_sentence_14

However, Africa also is heavily affected by a wide range of environmental issues, including desertification, deforestation, water scarcity, and other issues. Africa_sentence_15

These entrenched environmental concerns are expected to worsen as climate change impacts Africa. Africa_sentence_16

The UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has identified Africa as the continent most vulnerable to climate change. Africa_sentence_17

Africa, particularly Eastern Africa, is widely accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade (great apes), meaning that Africa has a long and complex history. Africa_sentence_18

The earliest hominids and their ancestors have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. Africa_sentence_19 afarensis, Homo erectus, H. Africa_sentence_20 habilis and H. Africa_sentence_21 ergaster— the earliest Homo sapiens (modern human) remains, found in Ethiopia, South Africa, and Morocco, date to circa 200,000, 259,000, and 300,000 years ago respectively, and Homo sapiens is believed to have originated in Africa around 350,000–260,000 years ago. Africa_sentence_22

Early human civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Phoenicia emerged in North Africa. Africa_sentence_23

Following a subsequent long and complex history of civilizations, migration and trade, Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities, cultures and languages. Africa_sentence_24

The last 400 years have witnessed an increasing European influence on the continent. Africa_sentence_25

Starting in the 16th century, this was driven by trade, including the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, which created large African diaspora populations in the Americas. Africa_sentence_26

In the late 19th century, European countries colonized almost all of Africa, extracting resources from the continent and exploiting local communities; most present states in Africa emerged from a process of decolonisation in the 20th century. Africa_sentence_27

Etymology Africa_section_0

Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of then-known northern Africa to the west of the Nile river, and in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean (Ancient Libya). Africa_sentence_28

This name seems to have originally referred to a native Libyan tribe, an ancestor of modern Berbers; see Terence for discussion. Africa_sentence_29

The name had usually been connected with the Phoenician word ʿafar meaning "dust", but a 1981 hypothesis has asserted that it stems from the Berber word ifri (plural ifran) meaning "cave", in reference to cave dwellers. Africa_sentence_30

The same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, a Berber tribe originally from Yafran (also known as Ifrane) in northwestern Libya. Africa_sentence_31

Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province it then named Africa Proconsularis, following its defeat of the Carthaginians in the Third Punic War in 146 BC, which also included the coastal part of modern Libya. Africa_sentence_32

The Latin suffix can sometimes be used to denote a land (e.g., in Celtica from Celtae, as used by Julius Caesar). Africa_sentence_33

The later Muslim region of Ifriqiya, following its conquest of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire's Exarchatus Africae, also preserved a form of the name. Africa_sentence_34

According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while "Asia" was used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east. Africa_sentence_35

A definite line was drawn between the two continents by the geographer Ptolemy (85–165 AD), indicating Alexandria along the Prime Meridian and making the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between Asia and Africa. Africa_sentence_36

As Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of "Africa" expanded with their knowledge. Africa_sentence_37

Other etymological hypotheses have been postulated for the ancient name "Africa": Africa_sentence_38

Africa_unordered_list_0

  • The 1st-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus (Ant. 1.15) asserted that it was named for Epher, grandson of Abraham according to Gen. 25:4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya.Africa_item_0_0
  • Isidore of Seville in his 7th-century Etymologiae XIV.5.2. suggests "Africa comes from the Latin aprica, meaning "sunny".Africa_item_0_1
  • Massey, in 1881, stated that Africa is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning "to turn toward the opening of the Ka." The Ka is the energetic double of every person and the "opening of the Ka" refers to a womb or birthplace. Africa would be, for the Egyptians, "the birthplace."Africa_item_0_2
  • Michèle Fruyt in 1976 proposed linking the Latin word with africus "south wind", which would be of Umbrian origin and mean originally "rainy wind".Africa_item_0_3
  • Robert R. Stieglitz of Rutgers University in 1984 proposed: "The name Africa, derived from the Latin *Aphir-ic-a, is cognate to Hebrew Ophir."Africa_item_0_4
  • Ibn Khallikan and some other historians claim that the name of Africa came from a Himyarite king called Afrikin ibn Kais ibn Saifi also called "Afrikus son of Abrahah" who subdued Ifriqiya.Africa_item_0_5

History Africa_section_1

Main article: History of Africa Africa_sentence_39

Further information: History of North Africa, History of West Africa, History of Central Africa, History of East Africa, and History of Southern Africa Africa_sentence_40

Prehistory Africa_section_2

Main article: Recent African origin of modern humans Africa_sentence_41

Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the human species originating from the continent. Africa_sentence_42

During the mid-20th century, anthropologists discovered many fossils and evidence of human occupation perhaps as early as 7 million years ago (BP=before present). Africa_sentence_43

Fossil remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis (radiometrically dated to approximately 3.9–3.0 million years BP, Paranthropus boisei (c. 2.3–1.4 million years BP) and Homo ergaster (c. 1.9 million–600,000 years BP) have been discovered. Africa_sentence_44

After the evolution of Homo sapiens approximately 350,000 to 260,000 years BP in Africa, the continent was mainly populated by groups of hunter-gatherers. Africa_sentence_45

These first modern humans left Africa and populated the rest of the globe during the Out of Africa II migration dated to approximately 50,000 years BP, exiting the continent either across Bab-el-Mandeb over the Red Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar in Morocco, or the Isthmus of Suez in Egypt. Africa_sentence_46

Other migrations of modern humans within the African continent have been dated to that time, with evidence of early human settlement found in Southern Africa, Southeast Africa, North Africa, and the Sahara. Africa_sentence_47

Emergence of civilization Africa_section_3

Further information: Cradle of civilization § Ancient Egypt Africa_sentence_48

The size of the Sahara has historically been extremely variable, with its area rapidly fluctuating and at times disappearing depending on global climatic conditions. Africa_sentence_49

At the end of the Ice ages, estimated to have been around 10,500 BC, the Sahara had again become a green fertile valley, and its African populations returned from the interior and coastal highlands in Sub-Saharan Africa, with rock art paintings depicting a fertile Sahara and large populations discovered in Tassili n'Ajjer dating back perhaps 10 millennia. Africa_sentence_50

However, the warming and drying climate meant that by 5000 BC, the Sahara region was becoming increasingly dry and hostile. Africa_sentence_51

Around 3500 BC, due to a tilt in the earth's orbit, the Sahara experienced a period of rapid desertification. Africa_sentence_52

The population trekked out of the Sahara region towards the Nile Valley below the Second Cataract where they made permanent or semi-permanent settlements. Africa_sentence_53

A major climatic recession occurred, lessening the heavy and persistent rains in Central and Eastern Africa. Africa_sentence_54

Since this time, dry conditions have prevailed in Eastern Africa and, increasingly during the last 200 years, in Ethiopia. Africa_sentence_55

The domestication of cattle in Africa preceded agriculture and seems to have existed alongside hunter-gatherer cultures. Africa_sentence_56

It is speculated that by 6000 BC, cattle were domesticated in North Africa. Africa_sentence_57

In the Sahara-Nile complex, people domesticated many animals, including the donkey and a small screw-horned goat which was common from Algeria to Nubia. Africa_sentence_58

Between the 10,000–9,000 BC, pottery was independently invented in the region of Mali in the savannah of West Africa. Africa_sentence_59

In the steppes and savannahs of the Sahara and Sahel in Northern West Africa, the Nilo-Saharan speakers and Mandé peoples started to collect and domesticate wild millet, African rice and sorghum between 8,000 and 6,000 BC. Africa_sentence_60

Later, gourds, watermelons, castor beans, and cotton were also collected and domesticated. Africa_sentence_61

They also started making pottery and built stone settlements (e.g., Tichitt, Oualata). Africa_sentence_62

Fishing, using bone-tipped harpoons, became a major activity in the numerous streams and lakes formed from the increased rains. Africa_sentence_63

Mande peoples have been credited with the independent development of agriculture by about 3,000–4,000 BC. Africa_sentence_64

In West Africa, the wet phase ushered in an expanding rainforest and wooded savanna from Senegal to Cameroon. Africa_sentence_65

Between 9,000 and 5,000 BC, Niger–Congo speakers domesticated the oil palm and raffia palm. Africa_sentence_66

Black-eyed peas and voandzeia (African groundnuts), were domesticated, followed by okra and kola nuts. Africa_sentence_67

Since most of the plants grew in the forest, the Niger–Congo speakers invented polished stone axes for clearing forest. Africa_sentence_68

Around 4000 BC, the Saharan climate started to become drier at an exceedingly fast pace. Africa_sentence_69

This climate change caused lakes and rivers to shrink significantly and caused increasing desertification. Africa_sentence_70

This, in turn, decreased the amount of land conducive to settlements and helped to cause migrations of farming communities to the more tropical climate of West Africa. Africa_sentence_71

By the first millennium BC, ironworking had been introduced in Northern Africa. Africa_sentence_72

Around that time it also became established in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, either through independent invention there or diffusion from the north and vanished under unknown circumstances around 500 AD, having lasted approximately 2,000 years. Africa_sentence_73

and by 500 BC, metalworking began to become commonplace in West Africa. Africa_sentence_74

Ironworking was fully established by roughly 500 BC in many areas of East and West Africa, although other regions didn't begin ironworking until the early centuries AD. Africa_sentence_75

Copper objects from Egypt, North Africa, Nubia, and Ethiopia dating from around 500 BC have been excavated in West Africa, suggesting that Trans-Saharan trade networks had been established by this date. Africa_sentence_76

Early civilizations Africa_section_4

Main article: Ancient African history Africa_sentence_77

At about 3300 BC, the historical record opens in Northern Africa with the rise of literacy in the Pharaonic civilization of Ancient Egypt. Africa_sentence_78

One of the world's earliest and longest-lasting civilizations, the Egyptian state continued, with varying levels of influence over other areas, until 343 BC. Africa_sentence_79

Egyptian influence reached deep into modern-day Libya and Nubia, and, according to Martin Bernal, as far north as Crete. Africa_sentence_80

An independent centre of civilization with trading links to Phoenicia was established by Phoenicians from Tyre on the north-west African coast at Carthage. Africa_sentence_81

European exploration of Africa began with Ancient Greeks and Romans. Africa_sentence_82

In 332 BC, Alexander the Great was welcomed as a liberator in Persian-occupied Egypt. Africa_sentence_83

He founded Alexandria in Egypt, which would become the prosperous capital of the Ptolemaic dynasty after his death. Africa_sentence_84

Following the conquest of North Africa's Mediterranean coastline by the Roman Empire, the area was integrated economically and culturally into the Roman system. Africa_sentence_85

Roman settlement occurred in modern Tunisia and elsewhere along the coast. Africa_sentence_86

The first Roman emperor native to North Africa was Septimius Severus, born in Leptis Magna in present-day Libya—his mother was Italian Roman and his father was Punic. Africa_sentence_87

Christianity spread across these areas at an early date, from Judaea via Egypt and beyond the borders of the Roman world into Nubia; by AD 340 at the latest, it had become the state religion of the Aksumite Empire. Africa_sentence_88

Syro-Greek missionaries, who arrived by way of the Red Sea, were responsible for this theological development. Africa_sentence_89

In the early 7th century, the newly formed Arabian Islamic Caliphate expanded into Egypt, and then into North Africa. Africa_sentence_90

In a short while, the local Berber elite had been integrated into Muslim Arab tribes. Africa_sentence_91

When the Umayyad capital Damascus fell in the 8th century, the Islamic centre of the Mediterranean shifted from Syria to Qayrawan in North Africa. Africa_sentence_92

Islamic North Africa had become diverse, and a hub for mystics, scholars, jurists, and philosophers. Africa_sentence_93

During the above-mentioned period, Islam spread to sub-Saharan Africa, mainly through trade routes and migration. Africa_sentence_94

In West Africa, Dhar Tichitt and Oualata in present-day Mauritania figure prominently among the early urban centers, dated to 2,000 BC. Africa_sentence_95

About 500 stone settlements litter the region in the former savannah of the Sahara. Africa_sentence_96

Its inhabitants fished and grew millet. Africa_sentence_97

It has been found by Augustin Holl that the Soninke of the Mandé peoples were likely responsible for constructing such settlements. Africa_sentence_98

Around 300 BC the region became more desiccated and the settlements began to decline, most likely relocating to Koumbi Saleh. Africa_sentence_99

Architectural evidence and the comparison of pottery styles suggest that Dhar Tichitt was related to the subsequent Ghana Empire. Africa_sentence_100

Djenné-Djenno (in present-day Mali) was settled around 300 BC, and the town grew to house a sizable Iron Age population, as evidenced by crowded cemeteries. Africa_sentence_101

Living structures were made of sun-dried mud. Africa_sentence_102

By 250 BC Djenné-Djenno had become a large, thriving market town. Africa_sentence_103

Farther south, in central Nigeria, around 1,500 BC, the Nok culture developed on the Jos Plateau. Africa_sentence_104

It was a highly centralized community. Africa_sentence_105

The Nok people produced lifelike representations in terracotta, including human heads and human figures, elephants, and other animals. Africa_sentence_106

By 500 BC, and possibly earlier, they were smelting iron. Africa_sentence_107

By 200 AD the Nok culture had vanished. Africa_sentence_108

and vanished under unknown circumstances around 500 AD, having lasted approximately 2,000 years. Africa_sentence_109

Based on stylistic similarities with the Nok terracottas, the bronze figurines of the Yoruba kingdom of Ife and those of the Bini kingdom of Benin are suggested to be continuations of the traditions of the earlier Nok culture. Africa_sentence_110

Ninth to eighteenth centuries Africa_section_5

Pre-colonial Africa possessed perhaps as many as 10,000 different states and polities characterized by many different sorts of political organization and rule. Africa_sentence_111

These included small family groups of hunter-gatherers such as the San people of southern Africa; larger, more structured groups such as the family clan groupings of the Bantu-speaking peoples of central, southern, and eastern Africa; heavily structured clan groups in the Horn of Africa; the large Sahelian kingdoms; and autonomous city-states and kingdoms such as those of the Akan; Edo, Yoruba, and Igbo people in West Africa; and the Swahili coastal trading towns of Southeast Africa. Africa_sentence_112

By the ninth century AD, a string of dynastic states, including the earliest Hausa states, stretched across the sub-Saharan savannah from the western regions to central Sudan. Africa_sentence_113

The most powerful of these states were Ghana, Gao, and the Kanem-Bornu Empire. Africa_sentence_114

Ghana declined in the eleventh century, but was succeeded by the Mali Empire which consolidated much of western Sudan in the thirteenth century. Africa_sentence_115

Kanem accepted Islam in the eleventh century. Africa_sentence_116

In the forested regions of the West African coast, independent kingdoms grew with little influence from the Muslim north. Africa_sentence_117

The Kingdom of Nri was established around the ninth century and was one of the first. Africa_sentence_118

It is also one of the oldest kingdoms in present-day Nigeria and was ruled by the Eze Nri. Africa_sentence_119

The Nri kingdom is famous for its elaborate bronzes, found at the town of Igbo-Ukwu. Africa_sentence_120

The bronzes have been dated from as far back as the ninth century. Africa_sentence_121

The Kingdom of Ife, historically the first of these Yoruba city-states or kingdoms, established government under a priestly oba ('king' or 'ruler' in the Yoruba language), called the Ooni of Ife. Africa_sentence_122

Ife was noted as a major religious and cultural centre in West Africa, and for its unique naturalistic tradition of bronze sculpture. Africa_sentence_123

The Ife model of government was adapted at the Oyo Empire, where its obas or kings, called the Alaafins of Oyo, once controlled a large number of other Yoruba and non-Yoruba city-states and kingdoms; the Fon Kingdom of Dahomey was one of the non-Yoruba domains under Oyo control. Africa_sentence_124

The Almoravids were a Berber dynasty from the Sahara that spread over a wide area of northwestern Africa and the Iberian peninsula during the eleventh century. Africa_sentence_125

The Banu Hilal and Banu Ma'qil were a collection of Arab Bedouin tribes from the Arabian Peninsula who migrated westwards via Egypt between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries. Africa_sentence_126

Their migration resulted in the fusion of the Arabs and Berbers, where the locals were Arabized, and Arab culture absorbed elements of the local culture, under the unifying framework of Islam. Africa_sentence_127

Following the breakup of Mali, a local leader named Sonni Ali (1464–1492) founded the Songhai Empire in the region of middle Niger and the western Sudan and took control of the trans-Saharan trade. Africa_sentence_128

Sonni Ali seized Timbuktu in 1468 and Jenne in 1473, building his regime on trade revenues and the cooperation of Muslim merchants. Africa_sentence_129

His successor Askia Mohammad I (1493–1528) made Islam the official religion, built mosques, and brought to Gao Muslim scholars, including al-Maghili (d.1504), the founder of an important tradition of Sudanic African Muslim scholarship. Africa_sentence_130

By the eleventh century, some Hausa states – such as Kano, jigawa, Katsina, and Gobir – had developed into walled towns engaging in trade, servicing caravans, and the manufacture of goods. Africa_sentence_131

Until the fifteenth century, these small states were on the periphery of the major Sudanic empires of the era, paying tribute to Songhai to the west and Kanem-Borno to the east. Africa_sentence_132

Height of the slave trade Africa_section_6

See also: Arab slave trade and Atlantic slave trade Africa_sentence_133

Slavery had long been practiced in Africa. Africa_sentence_134

Between the 7th and 20th centuries, the Arab slave trade (also known as "slavery in the east") took 18 million slaves from Africa via trans-Saharan and Indian Ocean routes. Africa_sentence_135

Between the 15th and the 19th centuries, the Atlantic slave trade took an estimated 7–12 million slaves to the New World. Africa_sentence_136

In addition, more than 1 million Europeans were captured by Barbary pirates and sold as slaves in North Africa between the 16th and 19th centuries. Africa_sentence_137

In West Africa, the decline of the Atlantic slave trade in the 1820s caused dramatic economic shifts in local polities. Africa_sentence_138

The gradual decline of slave-trading, prompted by a lack of demand for slaves in the New World, increasing anti-slavery legislation in Europe and America, and the British Royal Navy's increasing presence off the West African coast, obliged African states to adopt new economies. Africa_sentence_139

Between 1808 and 1860, the British West Africa Squadron seized approximately 1,600 slave ships and freed 150,000 Africans who were aboard. Africa_sentence_140

Action was also taken against African leaders who refused to agree to British treaties to outlaw the trade, for example against "the usurping King of Lagos", deposed in 1851. Africa_sentence_141

Anti-slavery treaties were signed with over 50 African rulers. Africa_sentence_142

The largest powers of West Africa (the Asante Confederacy, the Kingdom of Dahomey, and the Oyo Empire) adopted different ways of adapting to the shift. Africa_sentence_143

Asante and Dahomey concentrated on the development of "legitimate commerce" in the form of palm oil, cocoa, timber and gold, forming the bedrock of West Africa's modern export trade. Africa_sentence_144

The Oyo Empire, unable to adapt, collapsed into civil wars. Africa_sentence_145

Colonialism Africa_section_7

Main article: Colonisation of Africa Africa_sentence_146

Independence struggles Africa_section_8

Imperial rule by Europeans would continue until after the conclusion of World War II, when almost all remaining colonial territories gradually obtained formal independence. Africa_sentence_147

Independence movements in Africa gained momentum following World War II, which left the major European powers weakened. Africa_sentence_148

In 1951, Libya, a former Italian colony, gained independence. Africa_sentence_149

In 1956, Tunisia and Morocco won their independence from France. Africa_sentence_150

Ghana followed suit the next year (March 1957), becoming the first of the sub-Saharan colonies to be granted independence. Africa_sentence_151

Most of the rest of the continent became independent over the next decade. Africa_sentence_152

Portugal's overseas presence in Sub-Saharan Africa (most notably in Angola, Cape Verde, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau and São Tomé and Príncipe) lasted from the 16th century to 1975, after the Estado Novo regime was overthrown in a military coup in Lisbon. Africa_sentence_153

Rhodesia unilaterally declared independence from the United Kingdom in 1965, under the white minority government of Ian Smith, but was not internationally recognized as an independent state (as Zimbabwe) until 1980, when black nationalists gained power after a bitter guerrilla war. Africa_sentence_154

Although South Africa was one of the first African countries to gain independence, the state remained under the control of the country's white minority through a system of racial segregation known as apartheid until 1994. Africa_sentence_155

Post-colonial Africa Africa_section_9

Further information: Decolonisation of Africa Africa_sentence_156

Today, Africa contains 54 sovereign countries, most of which have borders that were drawn during the era of European colonialism. Africa_sentence_157

Since colonialism, African states have frequently been hampered by instability, corruption, violence, and authoritarianism. Africa_sentence_158

The vast majority of African states are republics that operate under some form of the presidential system of rule. Africa_sentence_159

However, few of them have been able to sustain democratic governments on a permanent basis, and many have instead cycled through a series of coups, producing military dictatorships. Africa_sentence_160

Great instability was mainly the result of marginalization of ethnic groups, and graft under these leaders. Africa_sentence_161

For political gain, many leaders fanned ethnic conflicts, some of which had been exacerbated, or even created, by colonial rule. Africa_sentence_162

In many countries, the military was perceived as being the only group that could effectively maintain order, and it ruled many nations in Africa during the 1970s and early 1980s. Africa_sentence_163

During the period from the early 1960s to the late 1980s, Africa had more than 70 coups and 13 presidential assassinations. Africa_sentence_164

Border and territorial disputes were also common, with the European-imposed borders of many nations being widely contested through armed conflicts. Africa_sentence_165

Cold War conflicts between the United States and the Soviet Union, as well as the policies of the International Monetary Fund, also played a role in instability. Africa_sentence_166

When a country became independent for the first time, it was often expected to align with one of the two superpowers. Africa_sentence_167

Many countries in Northern Africa received Soviet military aid, while others in Central and Southern Africa were supported by the United States, France or both. Africa_sentence_168

The 1970s saw an escalation of Cold War intrigues, as newly independent Angola and Mozambique aligned themselves with the Soviet Union, and the West and South Africa sought to contain Soviet influence by supporting friendly regimes or insurgency movements. Africa_sentence_169

In Rhodesia, Soviet and Chinese-backed leftist guerrillas of the Zimbabwe Patriotic Front waged a brutal guerrilla war against the country's white government. Africa_sentence_170

There was a major famine in Ethiopia, when hundreds of thousands of people starved. Africa_sentence_171

Some claimed that Marxist economic policies made the situation worse. Africa_sentence_172

The most devastating military conflict in modern independent Africa has been the Second Congo War; this conflict and its aftermath has killed an estimated 5.5 million people. Africa_sentence_173

Since 2003 there has been an ongoing conflict in Darfur which has become a humanitarian disaster. Africa_sentence_174

Another notable tragic event is the 1994 Rwandan genocide in which an estimated 800,000 people were murdered. Africa_sentence_175

In the 21st century, however, the number of armed conflicts in Africa has steadily declined. Africa_sentence_176

For instance, the civil war in Angola came to an end in 2002 after nearly 30 years. Africa_sentence_177

This coincided with many countries abandoning communist-style command economies and opening up for market reforms. Africa_sentence_178

The improved stability and economic reforms have led to a great increase in foreign investment into many African nations, mainly from China, which has spurred quick economic growth in many countries, seemingly ending decades of stagnation and decline. Africa_sentence_179

Several African economies are among the world's fastest growing as of 2016. Africa_sentence_180

A significant part of this growth, which is sometimes referred to as Africa Rising, can also be attributed to the facilitated diffusion of information technologies and specifically the mobile telephone. Africa_sentence_181

Migration from African nations has increased dramatically in the last decade. Africa_sentence_182

Geology, geography, ecology and environment Africa_section_10

Main article: Geography of Africa Africa_sentence_183

Africa is the largest of the three great southward projections from the largest landmass of the Earth. Africa_sentence_184

Separated from Europe by the Mediterranean Sea, it is joined to Asia at its northeast extremity by the Isthmus of Suez (transected by the Suez Canal), 163 km (101 mi) wide. Africa_sentence_185

(Geopolitically, Egypt's Sinai Peninsula east of the Suez Canal is often considered part of Africa, as well.) Africa_sentence_186

The coastline is 26,000 km (16,000 mi) long, and the absence of deep indentations of the shore is illustrated by the fact that Europe, which covers only 10,400,000 km (4,000,000 sq mi) – about a third of the surface of Africa – has a coastline of 32,000 km (20,000 mi). Africa_sentence_187

From the most northerly point, Ras ben Sakka in Tunisia (37°21' N), to the most southerly point, Cape Agulhas in South Africa (34°51'15" S), is a distance of approximately 8,000 km (5,000 mi). Africa_sentence_188

Cape Verde, 17°33'22" W, the westernmost point, is a distance of approximately 7,400 km (4,600 mi) to Ras Hafun, 51°27'52" E, the most easterly projection that neighbours Cape Guardafui, the tip of the Horn of Africa. Africa_sentence_189

Africa's largest country is Algeria, and its smallest country is Seychelles, an archipelago off the east coast. Africa_sentence_190

The smallest nation on the continental mainland is The Gambia. Africa_sentence_191

African plate Africa_section_11

Main article: African Plate Africa_sentence_192

The African Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator as well as the prime meridian. Africa_sentence_193

It includes much of the continent of Africa, as well as oceanic crust which lies between the continent and various surrounding ocean ridges. Africa_sentence_194

Between  million years ago and  million years ago, the Somali Plate began rifting from the African Plate along the East African Rift. Africa_sentence_195

Since the continent of Africa consists of crust from both the African and the Somali plates, some literature refers to the African Plate as the Nubian Plate to distinguish it from the continent as a whole. Africa_sentence_196

Geologically, Africa includes the Arabian Peninsula; the Zagros Mountains of Iran and the Anatolian Plateau of Turkey mark where the African Plate collided with Eurasia. Africa_sentence_197

The Afrotropical realm and the Saharo-Arabian desert to its north unite the region biogeographically, and the Afro-Asiatic language family unites the north linguistically. Africa_sentence_198

Climate Africa_section_12

Main article: Climate of Africa Africa_sentence_199

The climate of Africa ranges from tropical to subarctic on its highest peaks. Africa_sentence_200

Its northern half is primarily desert, or arid, while its central and southern areas contain both savanna plains and dense jungle (rainforest) regions. Africa_sentence_201

In between, there is a convergence, where vegetation patterns such as sahel and steppe dominate. Africa_sentence_202

Africa is the hottest continent on Earth and 60% of the entire land surface consists of drylands and deserts. Africa_sentence_203

The record for the highest-ever recorded temperature, in Libya in 1922 (58 °C (136 °F)), was discredited in 2013. Africa_sentence_204

Ecology and biodiversity Africa_section_13

Africa has over 3,000 protected areas, with 198 marine protected areas, 50 biosphere reserves, and 80 wetlands reserves. Africa_sentence_205

Significant habitat destruction, increases in human population and poaching are reducing Africa's biological diversity and arable land. Africa_sentence_206

Human encroachment, civil unrest and the introduction of non-native species threaten biodiversity in Africa. Africa_sentence_207

This has been exacerbated by administrative problems, inadequate personnel and funding problems. Africa_sentence_208

Deforestation is affecting Africa at twice the world rate, according to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Africa_sentence_209

According to the University of Pennsylvania African Studies Center, 31% of Africa's pasture lands and 19% of its forests and woodlands are classified as degraded, and Africa is losing over four million hectares of forest per year, which is twice the average deforestation rate for the rest of the world. Africa_sentence_210

Some sources claim that approximately 90% of the original, virgin forests in West Africa have been destroyed. Africa_sentence_211

Over 90% of Madagascar's original forests have been destroyed since the arrival of humans 2000 years ago. Africa_sentence_212

About 65% of Africa's agricultural land suffers from soil degradation. Africa_sentence_213

See also: Afrotropical realm and Palearctic realm Africa_sentence_214

Environmental issues Africa_section_14

Water Africa_section_15

Climate change Africa_section_16

Fauna Africa_section_17

Main article: Fauna of Africa Africa_sentence_215

Africa boasts perhaps the world's largest combination of density and "range of freedom" of wild animal populations and diversity, with wild populations of large carnivores (such as lions, hyenas, and cheetahs) and herbivores (such as buffalo, elephants, camels, and giraffes) ranging freely on primarily open non-private plains. Africa_sentence_216

It is also home to a variety of "jungle" animals including snakes and primates and aquatic life such as crocodiles and amphibians. Africa_sentence_217

In addition, Africa has the largest number of megafauna species, as it was least affected by the extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna. Africa_sentence_218

Politics Africa_section_18

See also: List of political parties in Africa by country Africa_sentence_219

African Union Africa_section_19

Main article: African Union Africa_sentence_220

The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of 55 member states. Africa_sentence_221

The union was formed, with Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, as its headquarters, on 26 June 2001. Africa_sentence_222

The union was officially established on 9 July 2002 as a successor to the Organisation of African Unity (OAU). Africa_sentence_223

In July 2004, the African Union's Pan-African Parliament (PAP) was relocated to Midrand, in South Africa, but the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights remained in Addis Ababa. Africa_sentence_224

The African Union, not to be confused with the AU Commission, is formed by the Constitutive Act of the African Union, which aims to transform the African Economic Community, a federated commonwealth, into a state under established international conventions. Africa_sentence_225

The African Union has a parliamentary government, known as the African Union Government, consisting of legislative, judicial and executive organs. Africa_sentence_226

It is led by the African Union President and Head of State, who is also the President of the Pan-African Parliament. Africa_sentence_227

A person becomes AU President by being elected to the PAP, and subsequently gaining majority support in the PAP. Africa_sentence_228

The powers and authority of the President of the African Parliament derive from the Constitutive Act and the Protocol of the Pan-African Parliament, as well as the inheritance of presidential authority stipulated by African treaties and by international treaties, including those subordinating the Secretary General of the OAU Secretariat (AU Commission) to the PAP. Africa_sentence_229

The government of the AU consists of all-union, regional, state, and municipal authorities, as well as hundreds of institutions, that together manage the day-to-day affairs of the institution. Africa_sentence_230

Extensive human rights abuses still occur in several parts of Africa, often under the oversight of the state. Africa_sentence_231

Most of such violations occur for political reasons, often as a side effect of civil war. Africa_sentence_232

Countries where major human rights violations have been reported in recent times include the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Sudan, Zimbabwe, and Côte d'Ivoire. Africa_sentence_233

Boundary conflicts Africa_section_20

Further information: List of conflicts in Africa Africa_sentence_234

Economy Africa_section_21

Main articles: Economy of Africa, List of African countries by GDP (nominal), and List of African countries by GDP (PPP) Africa_sentence_235

See also: Economy of the African Union Africa_sentence_236

Although it has abundant natural resources, Africa remains the world's poorest and least-developed continent, the result of a variety of causes that may include corrupt governments that have often committed serious human rights violations, failed central planning, high levels of illiteracy, lack of access to foreign capital, and frequent tribal and military conflict (ranging from guerrilla warfare to genocide). Africa_sentence_237

Its total nominal GDP remains behind that of the United States, China, Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom, India and France. Africa_sentence_238

According to the United Nations' Human Development Report in 2003, the bottom 24 ranked nations (151st to 175th) were all African. Africa_sentence_239

Poverty, illiteracy, malnutrition and inadequate water supply and sanitation, as well as poor health, affect a large proportion of the people who reside in the African continent. Africa_sentence_240

In August 2008, the World Bank announced revised global poverty estimates based on a new international poverty line of $1.25 per day (versus the previous measure of $1.00). Africa_sentence_241

81% of the Sub-Saharan Africa population was living on less than $2.50 (PPP) per day in 2005, compared with 86% for India. Africa_sentence_242

Sub-Saharan Africa is the least successful region of the world in reducing poverty ($1.25 per day); some 50% of the population living in poverty in 1981 (200 million people), a figure that rose to 58% in 1996 before dropping to 50% in 2005 (380 million people). Africa_sentence_243

The average poor person in sub-Saharan Africa is estimated to live on only 70 cents per day, and was poorer in 2003 than in 1973, indicating increasing poverty in some areas. Africa_sentence_244

Some of it is attributed to unsuccessful economic liberalization programmes spearheaded by foreign companies and governments, but other studies have cited bad domestic government policies more than external factors. Africa_sentence_245

Africa is now at risk of being in debt once again, particularly in Sub-Saharan African countries. Africa_sentence_246

The last debt crisis in 2005 was resolved with help from the heavily indebted poor countries scheme (HIPC). Africa_sentence_247

The HIPC resulted in some positive and negative effects on the economy in Africa. Africa_sentence_248

About ten years after the 2005 debt crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa was resolved, Zambia fell back into debt. Africa_sentence_249

A small reason was due to the fall in copper prices in 2011, but the bigger reason was that a large amount of the money Zambia borrowed was wasted or pocketed by the elite. Africa_sentence_250

From 1995 to 2005, Africa's rate of economic growth increased, averaging 5% in 2005. Africa_sentence_251

Some countries experienced still higher growth rates, notably Angola, Sudan and Equatorial Guinea, all of which had recently begun extracting their petroleum reserves or had expanded their oil extraction capacity. Africa_sentence_252

In a recently published analysis based on World Values Survey data, the Austrian political scientist Arno Tausch maintained that several African countries, most notably Ghana, perform quite well on scales of mass support for democracy and the market economy. Africa_sentence_253

Tausch's global value comparison based on the World Values Survey derived the following factor analytical scales: 1. Africa_sentence_254

The non-violent and law-abiding society 2. Africa_sentence_255

Democracy movement 3. Africa_sentence_256

Climate of personal non-violence 4. Africa_sentence_257

Trust in institutions 5. Africa_sentence_258

Happiness, good health 6. Africa_sentence_259

No redistributive religious fundamentalism 7. Africa_sentence_260

Accepting the market 8. Africa_sentence_261

Feminism 9. Africa_sentence_262

Involvement in politics 10. Africa_sentence_263

Optimism and engagement 11. Africa_sentence_264

No welfare mentality, acceptancy of the Calvinist work ethics. Africa_sentence_265

The spread in the performance of African countries with complete data, Tausch concluded "is really amazing". Africa_sentence_266

While one should be especially hopeful about the development of future democracy and the market economy in Ghana, the article suggests pessimistic tendencies for Egypt and Algeria, and especially for Africa's leading economy, South Africa. Africa_sentence_267

High Human Inequality, as measured by the UNDP's Human Development Report's Index of Human Inequality, further impairs the development of Human Security. Africa_sentence_268

Tausch also maintains that the certain recent optimism, corresponding to economic and human rights data, emerging from Africa, is reflected in the development of a civil society. Africa_sentence_269

The continent is believed to hold 90% of the world's cobalt, 90% of its platinum, 50% of its gold, 98% of its chromium, 70% of its tantalite, 64% of its manganese and one-third of its uranium. Africa_sentence_270

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has 70% of the world's coltan, a mineral used in the production of tantalum capacitors for electronic devices such as cell phones. Africa_sentence_271

The DRC also has more than 30% of the world's diamond reserves. Africa_sentence_272

Guinea is the world's largest exporter of bauxite. Africa_sentence_273

As the growth in Africa has been driven mainly by services and not manufacturing or agriculture, it has been growth without jobs and without reduction in poverty levels. Africa_sentence_274

In fact, the food security crisis of 2008 which took place on the heels of the global financial crisis pushed 100 million people into food insecurity. Africa_sentence_275

In recent years, the People's Republic of China has built increasingly stronger ties with African nations and is Africa's largest trading partner. Africa_sentence_276

In 2007, Chinese companies invested a total of US$1 billion in Africa. Africa_sentence_277

A Harvard University study led by professor Calestous Juma showed that Africa could feed itself by making the transition from importer to self-sufficiency. Africa_sentence_278

"African agriculture is at the crossroads; we have come to the end of a century of policies that favoured Africa's export of raw materials and importation of food. Africa_sentence_279

Africa is starting to focus on agricultural innovation as its new engine for regional trade and prosperity." Africa_sentence_280

Demographics Africa_section_22

Main articles: Demographics of Africa and Child marriage in Africa Africa_sentence_281

Africa's population has rapidly increased over the last 40 years, and consequently, it is relatively young. Africa_sentence_282

In some African states, more than half the population is under 25 years of age. Africa_sentence_283

The total number of people in Africa increased from 229 million in 1950 to 630 million in 1990. Africa_sentence_284

As of 2018, the population of Africa is estimated at 1.3 billion . Africa_sentence_285

Africa's total population surpassing other continents is fairly recent; African population surpassed Europe in the 1990s, while the Americas was overtaken sometime around the year 2000; Africa's rapid population growth is expected to overtake the only two nations currently larger than its population, at roughly the same time – India and China's 1.4 billion people each will swap ranking around the year 2022. Africa_sentence_286

This increase in number of babies born in Africa compared to the rest of the world is expected to reach approximately 37% in the year 2050, an increase of 21% since 1990 alone. Africa_sentence_287

Speakers of Bantu languages (part of the Niger–Congo family) are the majority in southern, central and southeast Africa. Africa_sentence_288

The Bantu-speaking peoples from the Sahel progressively expanded over most of Sub-Saharan Africa. Africa_sentence_289

But there are also several Nilotic groups in South Sudan and East Africa, the mixed Swahili people on the Swahili Coast, and a few remaining indigenous Khoisan ("San" or "Bushmen") and Pygmy peoples in southern and central Africa, respectively. Africa_sentence_290

Bantu-speaking Africans also predominate in Gabon and Equatorial Guinea, and are found in parts of southern Cameroon. Africa_sentence_291

In the Kalahari Desert of Southern Africa, the distinct people known as the Bushmen (also "San", closely related to, but distinct from "Hottentots") have long been present. Africa_sentence_292

The San are physically distinct from other Africans and are the indigenous people of southern Africa. Africa_sentence_293

Pygmies are the pre-Bantu indigenous peoples of central Africa. Africa_sentence_294

The peoples of West Africa primarily speak Niger–Congo languages, belonging mostly to its non-Bantu branches, though some Nilo-Saharan and Afro-Asiatic speaking groups are also found. Africa_sentence_295

The Niger–Congo-speaking Yoruba, Igbo, Fulani, Akan and Wolof ethnic groups are the largest and most influential. Africa_sentence_296

In the central Sahara, Mandinka or Mande groups are most significant. Africa_sentence_297

Chadic-speaking groups, including the Hausa, are found in more northerly parts of the region nearest to the Sahara, and Nilo-Saharan communities, such as the Songhai, Kanuri and Zarma, are found in the eastern parts of West Africa bordering Central Africa. Africa_sentence_298

The peoples of North Africa consist of three main indigenous groups: Berbers in the northwest, Egyptians in the northeast, and Nilo-Saharan-speaking peoples in the east. Africa_sentence_299

The Arabs who arrived in the 7th century AD introduced the Arabic language and Islam to North Africa. Africa_sentence_300

The Semitic Phoenicians (who founded Carthage) and Hyksos, the Indo-Iranian Alans, the Indo- European Greeks, Romans, and Vandals settled in North Africa as well. Africa_sentence_301

Significant Berber communities remain within Morocco and Algeria in the 21st century, while, to a lesser extent, Berber speakers are also present in some regions of Tunisia and Libya. Africa_sentence_302

The Berber-speaking Tuareg and other often-nomadic peoples are the principal inhabitants of the Saharan interior of North Africa. Africa_sentence_303

In Mauritania, there is a small but near-extinct Berber community in the north and Niger–Congo-speaking peoples in the south, though in both regions Arabic and Arab culture predominates. Africa_sentence_304

In Sudan, although Arabic and Arab culture predominate, it is mostly inhabited by groups that originally spoke Nilo-Saharan, such as the Nubians, Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa, who, over the centuries, have variously intermixed with migrants from the Arabian peninsula. Africa_sentence_305

Small communities of Afro-Asiatic-speaking Beja nomads can also be found in Egypt and Sudan. Africa_sentence_306

In the Horn of Africa, some Ethiopian and Eritrean groups (like the Amhara and Tigrayans, collectively known as Habesha) speak languages from the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family, while the Oromo and Somali speak languages from the Cushitic branch of Afro-Asiatic. Africa_sentence_307

Prior to the decolonization movements of the post-World War II era, Europeans were represented in every part of Africa. Africa_sentence_308

Decolonization during the 1960s and 1970s often resulted in the mass emigration of white settlers – especially from Algeria and Morocco (1.6 million pieds-noirs in North Africa), Kenya, Congo, Rhodesia, Mozambique and Angola. Africa_sentence_309

Between 1975 and 1977, over a million colonials returned to Portugal alone. Africa_sentence_310

Nevertheless, white Africans remain an important minority in many African states, particularly Zimbabwe, Namibia, Réunion, and the Republic of South Africa. Africa_sentence_311

The country with the largest white African population is South Africa. Africa_sentence_312

Dutch and British diasporas represent the largest communities of European ancestry on the continent today. Africa_sentence_313

European colonization also brought sizable groups of Asians, particularly from the Indian subcontinent, to British colonies. Africa_sentence_314

Large Indian communities are found in South Africa, and smaller ones are present in Kenya, Tanzania, and some other southern and southeast African countries. Africa_sentence_315

The large Indian community in Uganda was expelled by the dictator Idi Amin in 1972, though many have since returned. Africa_sentence_316

The islands in the Indian Ocean are also populated primarily by people of Asian origin, often mixed with Africans and Europeans. Africa_sentence_317

The Malagasy people of Madagascar are an Austronesian people, but those along the coast are generally mixed with Bantu, Arab, Indian and European origins. Africa_sentence_318

Malay and Indian ancestries are also important components in the group of people known in South Africa as Cape Coloureds (people with origins in two or more races and continents). Africa_sentence_319

During the 20th century, small but economically important communities of Lebanese and Chinese have also developed in the larger coastal cities of West and East Africa, respectively. Africa_sentence_320

Religion Africa_section_23

Main article: Religion in Africa Africa_sentence_321

See also: African divination Africa_sentence_322

Africans profess a wide variety of religious beliefs, and statistics on religious affiliation are difficult to come by since they are often a sensitive topic for governments with mixed religious populations. Africa_sentence_323

According to the World Book Encyclopedia, Islam and Christianity are the two largest religions in Africa. Africa_sentence_324

According to Encyclopædia Britannica, 45% of the population are Christians, 40% are Muslims, and 10% follow traditional religions. Africa_sentence_325

A small number of Africans are Hindu, Buddhist, Confucianist, Baháʼí, or Jewish. Africa_sentence_326

There is also a minority of people in Africa who are irreligious. Africa_sentence_327

Languages Africa_section_24

Main article: Languages of Africa Africa_sentence_328

See also: Writing systems of Africa § Indigenous writing systems Africa_sentence_329

By most estimates, well over a thousand languages (UNESCO has estimated around two thousand) are spoken in Africa. Africa_sentence_330

Most are of African origin, though some are of European or Asian origin. Africa_sentence_331

Africa is the most multilingual continent in the world, and it is not rare for individuals to fluently speak not only multiple African languages, but one or more European ones as well. Africa_sentence_332

There are four major language families indigenous to Africa: Africa_sentence_333

Africa_unordered_list_1

  • The Afroasiatic languages are a language family of about 240 languages and 285 million people widespread throughout the Horn of Africa, North Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia.Africa_item_1_6
  • The Nilo-Saharan language family consists of more than a hundred languages spoken by 30 million people. Nilo-Saharan languages are spoken by ethnic groups in Chad, Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, Sudan, South Sudan, Uganda, and northern Tanzania.Africa_item_1_7
  • The Niger-Congo language family covers much of Sub-Saharan Africa. In terms of number of languages, it is the largest language family in Africa and perhaps one of the largest in the world.Africa_item_1_8
  • The Khoisan languages number about fifty and are spoken in Southern Africa by approximately 400,000 people. Many of the Khoisan languages are endangered. The Khoi and San peoples are considered the original inhabitants of this part of Africa.Africa_item_1_9

Following the end of colonialism, nearly all African countries adopted official languages that originated outside the continent, although several countries also granted legal recognition to indigenous languages (such as Swahili, Yoruba, Igbo and Hausa). Africa_sentence_334

In numerous countries, English and French (see African French) are used for communication in the public sphere such as government, commerce, education and the media. Africa_sentence_335

Arabic, Portuguese, Afrikaans and Spanish are examples of languages that trace their origin to outside of Africa, and that are used by millions of Africans today, both in the public and private spheres. Africa_sentence_336

Italian is spoken by some in former Italian colonies in Africa. Africa_sentence_337

German is spoken in Namibia, as it was a former German protectorate. Africa_sentence_338

Health Africa_section_25

More than 85% of individuals in Africa use traditional medicine as an alternative to often expensive allopathic medical health care and costly pharmaceutical products. Africa_sentence_339

The Organization of African Unity (OAU) Heads of State and Government declared the 2000s decade as the African Decade on African Traditional Medicine in an effort to promote The WHO African Region’s adopted resolution for institutionalizing traditional medicine in health care systems across the continent. Africa_sentence_340

Public policy makers in the region are challenged with consideration of the importance of traditional/indigenous health systems and whether their coexistence with the modern medical and health sub-sector would improve the equitability and accessibility of health care distribution, the health status of populations, and the social-economic development of nations within sub-Saharan Africa. Africa_sentence_341

AIDS in post-colonial Africa is a prevalent issue. Africa_sentence_342

Although the continent is home to about 15.2 percent of the world's population, more than two-thirds of the total infected worldwide – some 35 million people – were Africans, of whom 15 million have already died. Africa_sentence_343

Sub-Saharan Africa alone accounted for an estimated 69 percent of all people living with HIV and 70 percent of all AIDS deaths in 2011. Africa_sentence_344

In the countries of sub-Saharan Africa most affected, AIDS has raised death rates and lowered life expectancy among adults between the ages of 20 and 49 by about twenty years. Africa_sentence_345

Furthermore, the life expectancy in many parts of Africa is declining, largely as a result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic with life-expectancy in some countries reaching as low as thirty-four years. Africa_sentence_346

Culture Africa_section_26

Main article: Culture of Africa Africa_sentence_347

Some aspects of traditional African cultures have become less practised in recent years as a result of neglect and suppression by colonial and post-colonial regimes. Africa_sentence_348

For example, African customs were discouraged, and African languages were prohibited in mission schools. Africa_sentence_349

Leopold II of Belgium attempted to "civilize" Africans by discouraging polygamy and witchcraft. Africa_sentence_350

Obidoh Freeborn posits that colonialism is one element that has created the character of modern African art. Africa_sentence_351

According to authors Douglas Fraser and Herbert M. Cole, "The precipitous alterations in the power structure wrought by colonialism were quickly followed by drastic iconographic changes in the art." Africa_sentence_352

Fraser and Cole assert that, in Igboland, some art objects "lack the vigor and careful craftsmanship of the earlier art objects that served traditional functions. Africa_sentence_353

Author Chika Okeke-Agulu states that "the racist infrastructure of British imperial enterprise forced upon the political and cultural guardians of empire a denial and suppression of an emergent sovereign Africa and modernist art." Africa_sentence_354

Editors F. Abiola Irele and Simon Gikandi comment that the current identity of African literature had its genesis in the "traumatic encounter between Africa and Europe." Africa_sentence_355

On the other hand, Mhoze Chikowero believes that Africans deployed music, dance, spirituality, and other performative cultures to (re)asset themselves as active agents and indigenous intellectuals, to unmake their colonial marginalization and reshape their own destinies." Africa_sentence_356

There is now a resurgence in the attempts to rediscover and revalue African traditional cultures, under such movements as the African Renaissance, led by Thabo Mbeki, Afrocentrism, led by a group of scholars, including Molefi Asante, as well as the increasing recognition of traditional spiritualism through decriminalization of Vodou and other forms of spirituality. Africa_sentence_357

Visual art Africa_section_27

Architecture Africa_section_28

Music Africa_section_29

Dance Africa_section_30

Sports Africa_section_31

Fifty-four African countries have football teams in the Confederation of African Football. Africa_sentence_358

Egypt has won the African Cup seven times, and a record-making three times in a row. Africa_sentence_359

Cameroon, Nigeria, Senegal, Ghana, and Algeria have advanced to the knockout stage of recent FIFA World Cups. Africa_sentence_360

South Africa hosted the 2010 World Cup tournament, becoming the first African country to do so. Africa_sentence_361

In recent years, the continent has made major progress in terms of state of the art basketball facilities which have been built in cites as diverse as Cairo, Dakar, Johannesburg, Kigali, Luanda and Rades. Africa_sentence_362

Cricket is popular in some African nations. Africa_sentence_363

South Africa and Zimbabwe have Test status, while Kenya is the leading non-test team and previously had One-Day International cricket (ODI) status (from 10 October 1997, until 30 January 2014). Africa_sentence_364

The three countries jointly hosted the 2003 Cricket World Cup. Africa_sentence_365

Namibia is the other African country to have played in a World Cup. Africa_sentence_366

Morocco in northern Africa has also hosted the 2002 Morocco Cup, but the national team has never qualified for a major tournament. Africa_sentence_367

Rugby is a popular sport in South Africa, Namibia, and Zimbabwe. Africa_sentence_368

Territories and regions Africa_section_32

Main articles: List of regions of Africa and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa Africa_sentence_369

The countries in this table are categorized according to the scheme for geographic subregions used by the United Nations, and data included are per sources in cross-referenced articles. Africa_sentence_370

Where they differ, provisos are clearly indicated. Africa_sentence_371

Africa_table_general_1

ArmsAfrica_header_cell_1_0_0 FlagAfrica_header_cell_1_0_1 Name of region and

territory, with flagAfrica_header_cell_1_0_2

Area

(km²)Africa_header_cell_1_0_3

PopulationAfrica_header_cell_1_0_4 YearAfrica_header_cell_1_0_5 Density

(per km²)Africa_header_cell_1_0_6

CapitalAfrica_header_cell_1_0_7
North AfricaAfrica_cell_1_1_0
Africa_cell_1_2_0 AlgeriaAfrica_cell_1_2_1 AlgeriaAfrica_cell_1_2_2 2,381,740Africa_cell_1_2_3 34,178,188Africa_cell_1_2_4 2009Africa_cell_1_2_5 14Africa_cell_1_2_6 AlgiersAfrica_cell_1_2_7
Canary_IslandsAfrica_cell_1_3_0 Canary_IslandsAfrica_cell_1_3_1 Canary Islands (Spain)Africa_cell_1_3_2 7,492Africa_cell_1_3_3 2,154,905Africa_cell_1_3_4 2017Africa_cell_1_3_5 226Africa_cell_1_3_6 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria,

Santa Cruz de TenerifeAfrica_cell_1_3_7

CeutaAfrica_cell_1_4_0 CeutaAfrica_cell_1_4_1 Ceuta (Spain)Africa_cell_1_4_2 20Africa_cell_1_4_3 85,107Africa_cell_1_4_4 2017Africa_cell_1_4_5 3,575Africa_cell_1_4_6 Africa_cell_1_4_7
EgyptAfrica_cell_1_5_0 EgyptAfrica_cell_1_5_1 EgyptAfrica_cell_1_5_2 1,001,450Africa_cell_1_5_3 82,868,000Africa_cell_1_5_4 2012Africa_cell_1_5_5 83Africa_cell_1_5_6 CairoAfrica_cell_1_5_7
Africa_cell_1_6_0 LibyaAfrica_cell_1_6_1 LibyaAfrica_cell_1_6_2 1,759,540Africa_cell_1_6_3 6,310,434Africa_cell_1_6_4 2009Africa_cell_1_6_5 4Africa_cell_1_6_6 TripoliAfrica_cell_1_6_7
MadeiraAfrica_cell_1_7_0 MadeiraAfrica_cell_1_7_1 Madeira (Portugal)Africa_cell_1_7_2 797Africa_cell_1_7_3 245,000Africa_cell_1_7_4 2001Africa_cell_1_7_5 307Africa_cell_1_7_6 FunchalAfrica_cell_1_7_7
MelillaAfrica_cell_1_8_0 MelillaAfrica_cell_1_8_1 Melilla (Spain)Africa_cell_1_8_2 12Africa_cell_1_8_3 85,116Africa_cell_1_8_4 2017Africa_cell_1_8_5 5,534Africa_cell_1_8_6 Africa_cell_1_8_7
MoroccoAfrica_cell_1_9_0 MoroccoAfrica_cell_1_9_1 MoroccoAfrica_cell_1_9_2 446,550Africa_cell_1_9_3 35,740,000Africa_cell_1_9_4 2017Africa_cell_1_9_5 78Africa_cell_1_9_6 RabatAfrica_cell_1_9_7
TunisiaAfrica_cell_1_10_0 TunisiaAfrica_cell_1_10_1 TunisiaAfrica_cell_1_10_2 163,610Africa_cell_1_10_3 10,486,339Africa_cell_1_10_4 2009Africa_cell_1_10_5 64Africa_cell_1_10_6 TunisAfrica_cell_1_10_7
Africa_cell_1_11_0 Western_SaharaAfrica_cell_1_11_1 Western SaharaAfrica_cell_1_11_2 266,000Africa_cell_1_11_3 405,210Africa_cell_1_11_4 2009Africa_cell_1_11_5 2Africa_cell_1_11_6 El AaiúnAfrica_cell_1_11_7
East AfricaAfrica_cell_1_12_0
BurundiAfrica_cell_1_13_0 BurundiAfrica_cell_1_13_1 BurundiAfrica_cell_1_13_2 27,830Africa_cell_1_13_3 8,988,091Africa_cell_1_13_4 2009Africa_cell_1_13_5 323Africa_cell_1_13_6 GitegaAfrica_cell_1_13_7
Africa_cell_1_14_0 ComorosAfrica_cell_1_14_1 ComorosAfrica_cell_1_14_2 2,170Africa_cell_1_14_3 752,438Africa_cell_1_14_4 2009Africa_cell_1_14_5 347Africa_cell_1_14_6 MoroniAfrica_cell_1_14_7
DjiboutiAfrica_cell_1_15_0 DjiboutiAfrica_cell_1_15_1 DjiboutiAfrica_cell_1_15_2 23,000Africa_cell_1_15_3 828,324Africa_cell_1_15_4 2015Africa_cell_1_15_5 22Africa_cell_1_15_6 DjiboutiAfrica_cell_1_15_7
EritreaAfrica_cell_1_16_0 EritreaAfrica_cell_1_16_1 EritreaAfrica_cell_1_16_2 121,320Africa_cell_1_16_3 5,647,168Africa_cell_1_16_4 2009Africa_cell_1_16_5 47Africa_cell_1_16_6 AsmaraAfrica_cell_1_16_7
EthiopiaAfrica_cell_1_17_0 EthiopiaAfrica_cell_1_17_1 EthiopiaAfrica_cell_1_17_2 1,127,127Africa_cell_1_17_3 84,320,987Africa_cell_1_17_4 2012Africa_cell_1_17_5 75Africa_cell_1_17_6 Addis AbabaAfrica_cell_1_17_7
French_Southern_and_Antarctic_LandsAfrica_cell_1_18_0 French_Southern_and_Antarctic_LandsAfrica_cell_1_18_1 French Southern Territories (France)Africa_cell_1_18_2 439,781Africa_cell_1_18_3 100Africa_cell_1_18_4 2019Africa_cell_1_18_5 Africa_cell_1_18_6 Saint PierreAfrica_cell_1_18_7
KenyaAfrica_cell_1_19_0 KenyaAfrica_cell_1_19_1 KenyaAfrica_cell_1_19_2 582,650Africa_cell_1_19_3 39,002,772Africa_cell_1_19_4 2009Africa_cell_1_19_5 66Africa_cell_1_19_6 NairobiAfrica_cell_1_19_7
Africa_cell_1_20_0 MadagascarAfrica_cell_1_20_1 MadagascarAfrica_cell_1_20_2 587,040Africa_cell_1_20_3 20,653,556Africa_cell_1_20_4 2009Africa_cell_1_20_5 35Africa_cell_1_20_6 AntananarivoAfrica_cell_1_20_7
MalawiAfrica_cell_1_21_0 MalawiAfrica_cell_1_21_1 MalawiAfrica_cell_1_21_2 118,480Africa_cell_1_21_3 14,268,711Africa_cell_1_21_4 2009Africa_cell_1_21_5 120Africa_cell_1_21_6 LilongweAfrica_cell_1_21_7
MauritiusAfrica_cell_1_22_0 MauritiusAfrica_cell_1_22_1 MauritiusAfrica_cell_1_22_2 2,040Africa_cell_1_22_3 1,284,264Africa_cell_1_22_4 2009Africa_cell_1_22_5 630Africa_cell_1_22_6 Port LouisAfrica_cell_1_22_7
MayotteAfrica_cell_1_23_0 MayotteAfrica_cell_1_23_1 Mayotte (France)Africa_cell_1_23_2 374Africa_cell_1_23_3 223,765Africa_cell_1_23_4 2009Africa_cell_1_23_5 490Africa_cell_1_23_6 MamoudzouAfrica_cell_1_23_7
Africa_cell_1_24_0 MozambiqueAfrica_cell_1_24_1 MozambiqueAfrica_cell_1_24_2 801,590Africa_cell_1_24_3 21,669,278Africa_cell_1_24_4 2009Africa_cell_1_24_5 27Africa_cell_1_24_6 MaputoAfrica_cell_1_24_7
RéunionAfrica_cell_1_25_0 RéunionAfrica_cell_1_25_1 Réunion (France)Africa_cell_1_25_2 2,512Africa_cell_1_25_3 743,981Africa_cell_1_25_4 2002Africa_cell_1_25_5 296Africa_cell_1_25_6 Saint DenisAfrica_cell_1_25_7
RwandaAfrica_cell_1_26_0 RwandaAfrica_cell_1_26_1 RwandaAfrica_cell_1_26_2 26,338Africa_cell_1_26_3 10,473,282Africa_cell_1_26_4 2009Africa_cell_1_26_5 398Africa_cell_1_26_6 KigaliAfrica_cell_1_26_7
SeychellesAfrica_cell_1_27_0 SeychellesAfrica_cell_1_27_1 SeychellesAfrica_cell_1_27_2 455Africa_cell_1_27_3 87,476Africa_cell_1_27_4 2009Africa_cell_1_27_5 192Africa_cell_1_27_6 VictoriaAfrica_cell_1_27_7
SomaliaAfrica_cell_1_28_0 SomaliaAfrica_cell_1_28_1 SomaliaAfrica_cell_1_28_2 637,657Africa_cell_1_28_3 9,832,017Africa_cell_1_28_4 2009Africa_cell_1_28_5 15Africa_cell_1_28_6 MogadishuAfrica_cell_1_28_7
Africa_cell_1_29_0 SomalilandAfrica_cell_1_29_1 SomalilandAfrica_cell_1_29_2 176,120Africa_cell_1_29_3 3,508,180Africa_cell_1_29_4 2012Africa_cell_1_29_5 25Africa_cell_1_29_6 HargeisaAfrica_cell_1_29_7
South_SudanAfrica_cell_1_30_0 South_SudanAfrica_cell_1_30_1 South SudanAfrica_cell_1_30_2 619,745Africa_cell_1_30_3 8,260,490Africa_cell_1_30_4 2008Africa_cell_1_30_5 13Africa_cell_1_30_6 JubaAfrica_cell_1_30_7
SudanAfrica_cell_1_31_0 SudanAfrica_cell_1_31_1 SudanAfrica_cell_1_31_2 1,861,484Africa_cell_1_31_3 30,894,000Africa_cell_1_31_4 2008Africa_cell_1_31_5 17Africa_cell_1_31_6 KhartoumAfrica_cell_1_31_7
TanzaniaAfrica_cell_1_32_0 TanzaniaAfrica_cell_1_32_1 TanzaniaAfrica_cell_1_32_2 945,087Africa_cell_1_32_3 44,929,002Africa_cell_1_32_4 2009Africa_cell_1_32_5 43Africa_cell_1_32_6 DodomaAfrica_cell_1_32_7
UgandaAfrica_cell_1_33_0 UgandaAfrica_cell_1_33_1 UgandaAfrica_cell_1_33_2 236,040Africa_cell_1_33_3 32,369,558Africa_cell_1_33_4 2009Africa_cell_1_33_5 137Africa_cell_1_33_6 KampalaAfrica_cell_1_33_7
ZambiaAfrica_cell_1_34_0 ZambiaAfrica_cell_1_34_1 ZambiaAfrica_cell_1_34_2 752,614Africa_cell_1_34_3 11,862,740Africa_cell_1_34_4 2009Africa_cell_1_34_5 16Africa_cell_1_34_6 LusakaAfrica_cell_1_34_7
ZimbabweAfrica_cell_1_35_0 ZimbabweAfrica_cell_1_35_1 ZimbabweAfrica_cell_1_35_2 390,580Africa_cell_1_35_3 11,392,629Africa_cell_1_35_4 2009Africa_cell_1_35_5 29Africa_cell_1_35_6 HarareAfrica_cell_1_35_7
Central AfricaAfrica_cell_1_36_0
Africa_cell_1_37_0 AngolaAfrica_cell_1_37_1 AngolaAfrica_cell_1_37_2 1,246,700Africa_cell_1_37_3 12,799,293Africa_cell_1_37_4 2009Africa_cell_1_37_5 10Africa_cell_1_37_6 LuandaAfrica_cell_1_37_7
CameroonAfrica_cell_1_38_0 CameroonAfrica_cell_1_38_1 CameroonAfrica_cell_1_38_2 475,440Africa_cell_1_38_3 18,879,301Africa_cell_1_38_4 2009Africa_cell_1_38_5 40Africa_cell_1_38_6 YaoundéAfrica_cell_1_38_7
Central_African_RepublicAfrica_cell_1_39_0 Central_African_RepublicAfrica_cell_1_39_1 Central African RepublicAfrica_cell_1_39_2 622,984Africa_cell_1_39_3 4,511,488Africa_cell_1_39_4 2009Africa_cell_1_39_5 7Africa_cell_1_39_6 BanguiAfrica_cell_1_39_7
ChadAfrica_cell_1_40_0 ChadAfrica_cell_1_40_1 ChadAfrica_cell_1_40_2 1,284,000Africa_cell_1_40_3 10,329,208Africa_cell_1_40_4 2009Africa_cell_1_40_5 8Africa_cell_1_40_6 N'DjamenaAfrica_cell_1_40_7
Republic_of_the_CongoAfrica_cell_1_41_0 Republic_of_the_CongoAfrica_cell_1_41_1 Republic of the CongoAfrica_cell_1_41_2 342,000Africa_cell_1_41_3 4,012,809Africa_cell_1_41_4 2009Africa_cell_1_41_5 12Africa_cell_1_41_6 BrazzavilleAfrica_cell_1_41_7
Democratic_Republic_of_the_CongoAfrica_cell_1_42_0 Democratic_Republic_of_the_CongoAfrica_cell_1_42_1 Democratic Republic of the CongoAfrica_cell_1_42_2 2,345,410Africa_cell_1_42_3 69,575,000Africa_cell_1_42_4 2012Africa_cell_1_42_5 30Africa_cell_1_42_6 KinshasaAfrica_cell_1_42_7
Africa_cell_1_43_0 Equatorial_GuineaAfrica_cell_1_43_1 Equatorial GuineaAfrica_cell_1_43_2 28,051Africa_cell_1_43_3 633,441Africa_cell_1_43_4 2009Africa_cell_1_43_5 23Africa_cell_1_43_6 MalaboAfrica_cell_1_43_7
GabonAfrica_cell_1_44_0 GabonAfrica_cell_1_44_1 GabonAfrica_cell_1_44_2 267,667Africa_cell_1_44_3 1,514,993Africa_cell_1_44_4 2009Africa_cell_1_44_5 6Africa_cell_1_44_6 LibrevilleAfrica_cell_1_44_7
Africa_cell_1_45_0 São_Tomé_and_PríncipeAfrica_cell_1_45_1 São Tomé and PríncipeAfrica_cell_1_45_2 1,001Africa_cell_1_45_3 212,679Africa_cell_1_45_4 2009Africa_cell_1_45_5 212Africa_cell_1_45_6 São ToméAfrica_cell_1_45_7
Southern AfricaAfrica_cell_1_46_0
BotswanaAfrica_cell_1_47_0 BotswanaAfrica_cell_1_47_1 BotswanaAfrica_cell_1_47_2 600,370Africa_cell_1_47_3 1,990,876Africa_cell_1_47_4 2009Africa_cell_1_47_5 3Africa_cell_1_47_6 GaboroneAfrica_cell_1_47_7
EswatiniAfrica_cell_1_48_0 EswatiniAfrica_cell_1_48_1 EswatiniAfrica_cell_1_48_2 17,363Africa_cell_1_48_3 1,123,913Africa_cell_1_48_4 2009Africa_cell_1_48_5 65Africa_cell_1_48_6 MbabaneAfrica_cell_1_48_7
LesothoAfrica_cell_1_49_0 LesothoAfrica_cell_1_49_1 LesothoAfrica_cell_1_49_2 30,355Africa_cell_1_49_3 2,130,819Africa_cell_1_49_4 2009Africa_cell_1_49_5 70Africa_cell_1_49_6 MaseruAfrica_cell_1_49_7
NamibiaAfrica_cell_1_50_0 NamibiaAfrica_cell_1_50_1 NamibiaAfrica_cell_1_50_2 825,418Africa_cell_1_50_3 2,108,665Africa_cell_1_50_4 2009Africa_cell_1_50_5 3Africa_cell_1_50_6 WindhoekAfrica_cell_1_50_7
Africa_cell_1_51_0 South_AfricaAfrica_cell_1_51_1 South AfricaAfrica_cell_1_51_2 1,219,912Africa_cell_1_51_3 51,770,560Africa_cell_1_51_4 2011Africa_cell_1_51_5 42Africa_cell_1_51_6 Bloemfontein, Cape Town, PretoriaAfrica_cell_1_51_7
West AfricaAfrica_cell_1_52_0
BeninAfrica_cell_1_53_0 BeninAfrica_cell_1_53_1 BeninAfrica_cell_1_53_2 112,620Africa_cell_1_53_3 8,791,832Africa_cell_1_53_4 2009Africa_cell_1_53_5 78Africa_cell_1_53_6 Porto-NovoAfrica_cell_1_53_7
Burkina_FasoAfrica_cell_1_54_0 Burkina_FasoAfrica_cell_1_54_1 Burkina FasoAfrica_cell_1_54_2 274,200Africa_cell_1_54_3 15,746,232Africa_cell_1_54_4 2009Africa_cell_1_54_5 57Africa_cell_1_54_6 OuagadougouAfrica_cell_1_54_7
Africa_cell_1_55_0 Cape_VerdeAfrica_cell_1_55_1 Cape VerdeAfrica_cell_1_55_2 4,033Africa_cell_1_55_3 429,474Africa_cell_1_55_4 2009Africa_cell_1_55_5 107Africa_cell_1_55_6 PraiaAfrica_cell_1_55_7
The_GambiaAfrica_cell_1_56_0 The_GambiaAfrica_cell_1_56_1 The GambiaAfrica_cell_1_56_2 11,300Africa_cell_1_56_3 1,782,893Africa_cell_1_56_4 2009Africa_cell_1_56_5 158Africa_cell_1_56_6 BanjulAfrica_cell_1_56_7
GhanaAfrica_cell_1_57_0 GhanaAfrica_cell_1_57_1 GhanaAfrica_cell_1_57_2 239,460Africa_cell_1_57_3 23,832,495Africa_cell_1_57_4 2009Africa_cell_1_57_5 100Africa_cell_1_57_6 AccraAfrica_cell_1_57_7
Africa_cell_1_58_0 GuineaAfrica_cell_1_58_1 GuineaAfrica_cell_1_58_2 245,857Africa_cell_1_58_3 10,057,975Africa_cell_1_58_4 2009Africa_cell_1_58_5 41Africa_cell_1_58_6 ConakryAfrica_cell_1_58_7
Guinea-BissauAfrica_cell_1_59_0 Guinea-BissauAfrica_cell_1_59_1 Guinea-BissauAfrica_cell_1_59_2 36,120Africa_cell_1_59_3 1,533,964Africa_cell_1_59_4 2009Africa_cell_1_59_5 43Africa_cell_1_59_6 BissauAfrica_cell_1_59_7
Ivory_CoastAfrica_cell_1_60_0 Ivory_CoastAfrica_cell_1_60_1 Ivory CoastAfrica_cell_1_60_2 322,460Africa_cell_1_60_3 20,617,068Africa_cell_1_60_4 2009Africa_cell_1_60_5 64Africa_cell_1_60_6 Abidjan, YamoussoukroAfrica_cell_1_60_7
LiberiaAfrica_cell_1_61_0 LiberiaAfrica_cell_1_61_1 LiberiaAfrica_cell_1_61_2 111,370Africa_cell_1_61_3 3,441,790Africa_cell_1_61_4 2009Africa_cell_1_61_5 31Africa_cell_1_61_6 MonroviaAfrica_cell_1_61_7
MaliAfrica_cell_1_62_0 MaliAfrica_cell_1_62_1 MaliAfrica_cell_1_62_2 1,240,000Africa_cell_1_62_3 12,666,987Africa_cell_1_62_4 2009Africa_cell_1_62_5 10Africa_cell_1_62_6 BamakoAfrica_cell_1_62_7
Africa_cell_1_63_0 MauritaniaAfrica_cell_1_63_1 MauritaniaAfrica_cell_1_63_2 1,030,700Africa_cell_1_63_3 3,129,486Africa_cell_1_63_4 2009Africa_cell_1_63_5 3Africa_cell_1_63_6 NouakchottAfrica_cell_1_63_7
NigerAfrica_cell_1_64_0 NigerAfrica_cell_1_64_1 NigerAfrica_cell_1_64_2 1,267,000Africa_cell_1_64_3 15,306,252Africa_cell_1_64_4 2009Africa_cell_1_64_5 12Africa_cell_1_64_6 NiameyAfrica_cell_1_64_7
NigeriaAfrica_cell_1_65_0 NigeriaAfrica_cell_1_65_1 NigeriaAfrica_cell_1_65_2 923,768Africa_cell_1_65_3 166,629,000Africa_cell_1_65_4 2012Africa_cell_1_65_5 180Africa_cell_1_65_6 AbujaAfrica_cell_1_65_7
United_KingdomAfrica_cell_1_66_0 Saint_Helena,_Ascension_and_Tristan_da_CunhaAfrica_cell_1_66_1 Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (United Kingdom)Africa_cell_1_66_2 420Africa_cell_1_66_3 7,728Africa_cell_1_66_4 2012Africa_cell_1_66_5 13Africa_cell_1_66_6 JamestownAfrica_cell_1_66_7
SenegalAfrica_cell_1_67_0 SenegalAfrica_cell_1_67_1 SenegalAfrica_cell_1_67_2 196,190Africa_cell_1_67_3 13,711,597Africa_cell_1_67_4 2009Africa_cell_1_67_5 70Africa_cell_1_67_6 DakarAfrica_cell_1_67_7
Sierra_LeoneAfrica_cell_1_68_0 Sierra_LeoneAfrica_cell_1_68_1 Sierra LeoneAfrica_cell_1_68_2 71,740Africa_cell_1_68_3 6,440,053Africa_cell_1_68_4 2009Africa_cell_1_68_5 90Africa_cell_1_68_6 FreetownAfrica_cell_1_68_7
TogoAfrica_cell_1_69_0 TogoAfrica_cell_1_69_1 TogoAfrica_cell_1_69_2 56,785Africa_cell_1_69_3 6,019,877Africa_cell_1_69_4 2009Africa_cell_1_69_5 106Africa_cell_1_69_6 LoméAfrica_cell_1_69_7
Africa TotalAfrica_cell_1_70_0 30,368,609Africa_cell_1_70_3 1,001,320,281Africa_cell_1_70_4 2009Africa_cell_1_70_5 33Africa_cell_1_70_6 Africa_cell_1_70_7

See also Africa_section_33

Africa_unordered_list_2


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Africa.