African Americans

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See also: African diaspora in the Americas and African immigration to the United States African Americans_sentence_0

African Americans_table_infobox_0

African AmericansAfrican Americans_table_caption_0
Total populationAfrican Americans_header_cell_0_0_0
Regions with significant populationsAfrican Americans_header_cell_0_1_0
LanguagesAfrican Americans_header_cell_0_2_0
ReligionAfrican Americans_header_cell_0_3_0
Related ethnic groupsAfrican Americans_header_cell_0_4_0

African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. African Americans_sentence_1

The term African American generally denotes descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States, while some recent black immigrants or their children may also come to identify as African-American or may identify differently. African Americans_sentence_2

African Americans constitute the third largest ethnic group and the second largest racial group in the US, after White Americans and Hispanic and Latino Americans. African Americans_sentence_3

Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. African Americans_sentence_4

On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, and some also have Native American ancestry. African Americans_sentence_5

According to U.S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants generally do not self-identify as African American. African Americans_sentence_6

The overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities (≈95%). African Americans_sentence_7

Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American, and South American nations and their descendants may or may not also self-identify with the term. African Americans_sentence_8

African-American history began in the 17th century, with Africans from West Africa being sold to European slave traders and transported across the Atlantic to the Thirteen Colonies. African Americans_sentence_9

After arriving in the Americas, they were sold as slaves to European colonists and put to work on plantations, particularly in the southern colonies. African Americans_sentence_10

A few were able to achieve freedom through manumission or escape and founded independent communities before and during the American Revolution. African Americans_sentence_11

After the United States was founded in 1783, most black people continued to be enslaved, being mostly concentrated in the American South, with four million enslaved only liberated during and at the end of the Civil War in 1865. African Americans_sentence_12

Due to white supremacy, most were treated as second-class citizens. African Americans_sentence_13

The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U.S. citizenship to whites only, and only white men who owned property could vote. African Americans_sentence_14

These circumstances changed in Reconstruction, further development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, substantial migration out of the South, the elimination of legal racial segregation, and the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. African Americans_sentence_15

In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States. African Americans_sentence_16

History African Americans_section_0

Main article: African-American history African Americans_sentence_17

Colonial era African Americans_section_1

Main articles: Slavery in the colonial United States and Atlantic slave trade African Americans_sentence_18

The vast majority of those who were enslaved and transported in the transatlantic slave trade were people from Central and West Africa, who had been sold by other West Africans, or by half-European "merchant princes" to European slave traders (with a small number being captured directly by the slave traders in coastal raids), who brought them to the Americas. African Americans_sentence_19

The first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony (most likely located in the Winyah Bay area of present-day South Carolina), founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. African Americans_sentence_20

The ill-fated colony was almost immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. African Americans_sentence_21

De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned. African Americans_sentence_22

The settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence they had come. African Americans_sentence_23

The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. African Americans_sentence_24 Augustine (Spanish Florida), is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States. African Americans_sentence_25

The first recorded Africans in English America (including most of the future United States) were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants. African Americans_sentence_26

As many Virginian settlers began to die from harsh conditions, more and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. African Americans_sentence_27

An indentured servant (who could be white or black) would work for several years (usually four to seven) without wages. African Americans_sentence_28

The status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. African Americans_sentence_29

Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. African Americans_sentence_30

Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, and on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", and a small cash payment called "freedom dues". African Americans_sentence_31

Africans could legally raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. African Americans_sentence_32

They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or European settlers. African Americans_sentence_33

By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. African Americans_sentence_34

In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. African Americans_sentence_35

In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, and their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos. African Americans_sentence_36

The Spanish encouraged slaves from the colony of Georgia to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. African Americans_sentence_37

King Charles II issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism. African Americans_sentence_38

Most went to the area around St. African Americans_sentence_39 Augustine, but escaped slaves also reached Pensacola. African Americans_sentence_40

St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spanish Florida as early as 1683. African Americans_sentence_41

One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would later own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case. African Americans_sentence_42

The popular conception of a race-based slave system did not fully develop until the 18th century. African Americans_sentence_43

The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam (present-day New York City). African Americans_sentence_44

All the colony's slaves, however, were freed upon its surrender to the English. African Americans_sentence_45

Massachusetts was the first English colony to legally recognize slavery in 1641. African Americans_sentence_46

In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under common law. African Americans_sentence_47

This legal principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. African Americans_sentence_48

By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported, virtually defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the colony. African Americans_sentence_49

In 1670, the colonial assembly passed a law prohibiting free and baptized blacks (and Indians) from purchasing Christians (in this act meaning White Europeans) but allowing them to buy people "of their owne nation". African Americans_sentence_50

In the Spanish Louisiana although there was no movement toward abolition of the African slave trade, Spanish rule introduced a new law called coartación, which allowed slaves to buy their freedom, and that of others. African Americans_sentence_51

Although some did not have the money to buy their freedom that government measures on slavery allowed a high number of free blacks. African Americans_sentence_52

That brought problems to the Spaniards with the French Creoles who also populated Spanish Louisiana, French creoles cited that measure as one of the system's worst elements. African Americans_sentence_53

In spite of that, there was a greater number of slaves as the years passed, as also the entire Spanish Louisiana population increased. African Americans_sentence_54

The earliest African-American congregations and churches were organized before 1800 in both northern and southern cities following the Great Awakening. African Americans_sentence_55

By 1775, Africans made up 20% of the population in the American colonies, which made them the second largest ethnic group after English Americans. African Americans_sentence_56

From the American Revolution to the Civil War African Americans_section_2

Main article: Slavery in the United States African Americans_sentence_57

During the 1770s, Africans, both enslaved and free, helped rebellious American colonists secure their independence by defeating the British in the American Revolutionary War. African Americans_sentence_58

African-Americans and European Americans fought side by side and were fully integrated. African Americans_sentence_59

Blacks played a role in both sides in the American Revolution. African Americans_sentence_60

Activists in the Patriot cause included James Armistead, Prince Whipple and Oliver Cromwell. African Americans_sentence_61

In the Spanish Louisiana, Governor Bernardo de Gálvez organized Spanish free black men into two militia companies to defend New Orleans during the American Revolution. African Americans_sentence_62

They fought in the 1779 battle in which Spain captured Baton Rouge from the British. African Americans_sentence_63

Gálvez also commanded them in campaigns against the British outposts in Mobile, Alabama, and Pensacola, Florida, he recruited slaves for the militia by pledging to free anyone who was seriously wounded and promised to secure a low price for coartación (buy their freedom and that of others) for those who received lesser wounds. African Americans_sentence_64

During the 1790s, Governor Francisco Luis Héctor, baron of Carondelet reinforced local fortifications and recruit even more free blackmen for the militia. African Americans_sentence_65

Carondelet doubled the number of free blackmen who served, creating two more militia companies—one made up of black members and the other of pardo (mixed race). African Americans_sentence_66

Serving in the militia brought free blackmen one step closer to equality with whites, allowing them, for example, the right to carry arms and boosting their earning power. African Americans_sentence_67

However actually these privileges distanced free blackmen from enslaved blacks and encouraged them to identify with whites. African Americans_sentence_68

Slavery had been tacitly enshrined in the U.S. African Americans_sentence_69 Constitution through provisions such as Article I, Section 2, Clause 3, commonly known as the 3/5 compromise. African Americans_sentence_70

Slavery, which by then meant almost exclusively black people, was the most important political issue in the antebellum United States, leading to one crisis after another. African Americans_sentence_71

Among these were the Missouri Compromise, the Compromise of 1850, the Fugitive Slave Act, and the Dred Scott decision. African Americans_sentence_72

Prior to the Civil War, eight serving presidents owned slaves, a practice protected by the U.S. Constitution. African Americans_sentence_73

By 1860, there were 3.5 to 4.4 million enslaved black people in the U.S. due to the Atlantic slave trade, and another 488,000–500,000 blacks lived free (with legislated limits) across the country. African Americans_sentence_74

With legislated limits imposed upon them in addition to "unconquerable prejudice" from whites according to Henry Clay, some black people who weren't enslaved left the U.S. for Liberia in Africa. African Americans_sentence_75

Liberia began as a settlement of the American Colonization Society (ACS) in 1821, with the abolitionist members of the ACS believing blacks would face better chances for freedom and equality in Africa. African Americans_sentence_76

The slaves not only constituted a large investment, they produced America's most valuable product and export: cotton. African Americans_sentence_77

They not only helped build the U.S. African Americans_sentence_78 Capitol, they built the White House and other District of Columbia buildings. African Americans_sentence_79

(Washington was a slave trading center.) African Americans_sentence_80

Similar building projects existed in slaveholding states. African Americans_sentence_81

In 1863, during the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation. African Americans_sentence_82

The proclamation declared that all slaves in Confederate-held territory were free. African Americans_sentence_83

Advancing Union troops enforced the proclamation with Texas being the last state to be emancipated, in 1865. African Americans_sentence_84

Slavery in Union-held Confederate territory continued, at least on paper, until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment in 1865. African Americans_sentence_85

Prior to the Civil War, only white men of property could vote, and the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U.S. citizenship to whites only. African Americans_sentence_86

The 14th Amendment (1868) gave black people citizenship, and the 15th Amendment (1870) gave black males the right to vote (only males could vote in the U.S. at the time). African Americans_sentence_87

Reconstruction Era and Jim Crow African Americans_section_3

Main articles: Reconstruction Era and Jim Crow laws African Americans_sentence_88

African Americans quickly set up congregations for themselves, as well as schools and community/civic associations, to have space away from white control or oversight. African Americans_sentence_89

While the post-war Reconstruction era was initially a time of progress for African Americans, that period ended in 1876. African Americans_sentence_90

By the late 1890s, Southern states enacted Jim Crow laws to enforce racial segregation and disenfranchisement. African Americans_sentence_91

Segregation, which began with slavery, continued with Jim Crow laws, with signs used to show blacks where they could legally walk, talk, drink, rest, or eat. African Americans_sentence_92

For those places that were racially mixed, non-whites had to wait until all white customers were dealt with. African Americans_sentence_93

Most African Americans obeyed the Jim Crow laws, to avoid racially motivated violence. African Americans_sentence_94

To maintain self-esteem and dignity, African Americans such as Anthony Overton and Mary McLeod Bethune continued to build their own schools, churches, banks, social clubs, and other businesses. African Americans_sentence_95

In the last decade of the 19th century, racially discriminatory laws and racial violence aimed at African Americans began to mushroom in the United States, a period often referred to as the "nadir of American race relations". African Americans_sentence_96

These discriminatory acts included racial segregation—upheld by the United States Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896—which was legally mandated by southern states and nationwide at the local level of government, voter suppression or disenfranchisement in the southern states, denial of economic opportunity or resources nationwide, and private acts of violence and mass racial violence aimed at African Americans unhindered or encouraged by government authorities. African Americans_sentence_97

Great migration and civil rights movement African Americans_section_4

Main articles: Great Migration and civil rights movement African Americans_sentence_98

The desperate conditions of African Americans in the South sparked the Great Migration during the first half of the 20th century which led to a growing African-American community in Northern and Western United States. African Americans_sentence_99

The rapid influx of blacks disturbed the racial balance within Northern and Western cities, exacerbating hostility between both blacks and whites in the two regions. African Americans_sentence_100

The Red Summer of 1919 was marked by hundreds of deaths and higher casualties across the U.S. as a result of race riots that occurred in more than three dozen cities, such as the Chicago race riot of 1919 and the Omaha race riot of 1919. African Americans_sentence_101

Overall, blacks in Northern and Western cities experienced systemic discrimination in a plethora of aspects of life. African Americans_sentence_102

Within employment, economic opportunities for blacks were routed to the lowest-status and restrictive in potential mobility. African Americans_sentence_103

At the 1900 Hampton Negro Conference, Reverend Matthew Anderson said, "...the lines along most of the avenues of wage earning are more rigidly drawn in the North than in the South." African Americans_sentence_104

Within the housing market, stronger discriminatory measures were used in correlation to the influx, resulting in a mix of "targeted violence, restrictive covenants, redlining and racial steering". African Americans_sentence_105

While many whites defended their space with violence, intimidation, or legal tactics toward African Americans, many other whites migrated to more racially homogeneous suburban or exurban regions, a process known as white flight. African Americans_sentence_106

Despite discrimination, drawing cards for leaving the hopelessness in the South were the growth of African American institutions and communities in Northern cities. African Americans_sentence_107

Institutions included black oriented organizations (e.g., Urban League, NAACP), churches, businesses, and newspapers, as well as successes in the development in African American intellectual culture, music, and popular culture (e.g., Harlem Renaissance, Chicago Black Renaissance). African Americans_sentence_108

The Cotton Club in Harlem was a whites-only establishment, with blacks (such as Duke Ellington) allowed to perform, but to a white audience. African Americans_sentence_109

Black Americans also found a new ground for political power in Northern cities, without the enforced disabilities of Jim Crow. African Americans_sentence_110

By the 1950s, the civil rights movement was gaining momentum. African Americans_sentence_111

A 1955 lynching that sparked public outrage about injustice was that of Emmett Till, a 14-year-old boy from Chicago. African Americans_sentence_112

Spending the summer with relatives in Money, Mississippi, Till was killed for allegedly having wolf-whistled at a white woman. African Americans_sentence_113

Till had been badly beaten, one of his eyes was gouged out, and he was shot in the head. African Americans_sentence_114

The visceral response to his mother's decision to have an open-casket funeral mobilized the black community throughout the U.S. Vann R. Newkirk| wrote "the trial of his killers became a pageant illuminating the tyranny of white supremacy". African Americans_sentence_115

The state of Mississippi tried two defendants, but they were speedily acquitted by an all-white jury. African Americans_sentence_116

One hundred days after Emmett Till's murder, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus in Alabama—indeed, Parks told Emmett's mother Mamie Till that "the photograph of Emmett's disfigured face in the casket was set in her mind when she refused to give up her seat on the Montgomery bus." African Americans_sentence_117

The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom and the conditions which brought it into being are credited with putting pressure on presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. African Americans_sentence_118

Johnson put his support behind passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that banned discrimination in public accommodations, employment, and labor unions, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which expanded federal authority over states to ensure black political participation through protection of voter registration and elections. African Americans_sentence_119

By 1966, the emergence of the Black Power movement, which lasted from 1966 to 1975, expanded upon the aims of the civil rights movement to include economic and political self-sufficiency, and freedom from white authority. African Americans_sentence_120

During the postwar period, many African Americans continued to be economically disadvantaged relative to other Americans. African Americans_sentence_121

Average black income stood at 54 percent of that of white workers in 1947, and 55 percent in 1962. African Americans_sentence_122

In 1959, median family income for whites was $5,600, compared with $2,900 for nonwhite families. African Americans_sentence_123

In 1965, 43 percent of all black families fell into the poverty bracket, earning under $3,000 a year. African Americans_sentence_124

The Sixties saw improvements in the social and economic conditions of many black Americans. African Americans_sentence_125

From 1965 to 1969, black family income rose from 54 to 60 percent of white family income. African Americans_sentence_126

In 1968, 23 percent of black families earned under $3,000 a year, compared with 41 percent in 1960. African Americans_sentence_127

In 1965, 19 percent of black Americans had incomes equal to the national median, a proportion that rose to 27 percent by 1967. African Americans_sentence_128

In 1960, the median level of education for blacks had been 10.8 years, and by the late Sixties the figure rose to 12.2 years, half a year behind the median for whites. African Americans_sentence_129

Post–civil rights era African Americans_section_5

Main article: Post–civil rights era in African-American history African Americans_sentence_130

Politically and economically, African Americans have made substantial strides during the post–civil rights era. African Americans_sentence_131

In 1968, Shirley Chisholm became the first Black woman elected to the U.S. African Americans_sentence_132 Congress. African Americans_sentence_133

In 1989, Douglas Wilder became the first African American elected governor in U.S. history. African Americans_sentence_134

Clarence Thomas became the second African-American Supreme Court Justice. African Americans_sentence_135

In 1992, Carol Moseley-Braun of Illinois became the first African-American woman elected to the U.S. African Americans_sentence_136 Senate. African Americans_sentence_137

There were 8,936 black officeholders in the United States in 2000, showing a net increase of 7,467 since 1970. African Americans_sentence_138

In 2001, there were 484 black mayors. African Americans_sentence_139

In 2005, the number of Africans immigrating to the United States, in a single year, surpassed the peak number who were involuntarily brought to the United States during the Atlantic Slave Trade. African Americans_sentence_140

On November 4, 2008, Democratic Senator Barack Obama defeated Republican Senator John McCain to become the first African American to be elected president. African Americans_sentence_141

At least 95 percent of African-American voters voted for Obama. African Americans_sentence_142

He also received overwhelming support from young and educated whites, a majority of Asians, Hispanics, and Native Americans picking up a number of new states in the Democratic electoral column. African Americans_sentence_143

Obama lost the overall white vote, although he won a larger proportion of white votes than any previous nonincumbent Democratic presidential candidate since Jimmy Carter. African Americans_sentence_144

Obama was reelected for a second and final term, by a similar margin on November 6, 2012. African Americans_sentence_145

Demographics African Americans_section_6

Further information: Historical racial and ethnic demographics of the United States § Black population as a percentage of the total population by U.S. region and state (1790–2010), List of U.S. communities with African-American majority populations, List of U.S. counties with African-American majority populations, and List of U.S. states by African-American population African Americans_sentence_146

In 1790, when the first U.S. African Americans_sentence_147 Census was taken, Africans (including slaves and free people) numbered about 760,000—about 19.3% of the population. African Americans_sentence_148

In 1860, at the start of the Civil War, the African-American population had increased to 4.4 million, but the percentage rate dropped to 14% of the overall population of the country. African Americans_sentence_149

The vast majority were slaves, with only 488,000 counted as "freemen". African Americans_sentence_150

By 1900, the black population had doubled and reached 8.8 million. African Americans_sentence_151

In 1910, about 90% of African Americans lived in the South. African Americans_sentence_152

Large numbers began migrating north looking for better job opportunities and living conditions, and to escape Jim Crow laws and racial violence. African Americans_sentence_153

The Great Migration, as it was called, spanned the 1890s to the 1970s. African Americans_sentence_154

From 1916 through the 1960s, more than 6 million black people moved north. African Americans_sentence_155

But in the 1970s and 1980s, that trend reversed, with more African Americans moving south to the Sun Belt than leaving it. African Americans_sentence_156

The following table of the African-American population in the United States over time shows that the African-American population, as a percentage of the total population, declined until 1930 and has been rising since then. African Americans_sentence_157

African Americans_table_general_1

African Americans in the United StatesAfrican Americans_table_caption_1
YearAfrican Americans_header_cell_1_0_0 NumberAfrican Americans_header_cell_1_0_1 % of total

populationAfrican Americans_header_cell_1_0_2

% Change

(10 yr)African Americans_header_cell_1_0_3

SlavesAfrican Americans_header_cell_1_0_4 % in slaveryAfrican Americans_header_cell_1_0_5
1790African Americans_cell_1_1_0 757,208African Americans_cell_1_1_1 19.3% (highest)African Americans_cell_1_1_2 African Americans_cell_1_1_3 697,681African Americans_cell_1_1_4 92%African Americans_cell_1_1_5
1800African Americans_cell_1_2_0 1,002,037African Americans_cell_1_2_1 18.9%African Americans_cell_1_2_2 32.3%African Americans_cell_1_2_3 893,602African Americans_cell_1_2_4 89%African Americans_cell_1_2_5
1810African Americans_cell_1_3_0 1,377,808African Americans_cell_1_3_1 19.0%African Americans_cell_1_3_2 37.5%African Americans_cell_1_3_3 1,191,362African Americans_cell_1_3_4 86%African Americans_cell_1_3_5
1820African Americans_cell_1_4_0 1,771,656African Americans_cell_1_4_1 18.4%African Americans_cell_1_4_2 28.6%African Americans_cell_1_4_3 1,538,022African Americans_cell_1_4_4 87%African Americans_cell_1_4_5
1830African Americans_cell_1_5_0 2,328,642African Americans_cell_1_5_1 18.1%African Americans_cell_1_5_2 31.4%African Americans_cell_1_5_3 2,009,043African Americans_cell_1_5_4 86%African Americans_cell_1_5_5
1840African Americans_cell_1_6_0 2,873,648African Americans_cell_1_6_1 16.8%African Americans_cell_1_6_2 23.4%African Americans_cell_1_6_3 2,487,355African Americans_cell_1_6_4 87%African Americans_cell_1_6_5
1850African Americans_cell_1_7_0 3,638,808African Americans_cell_1_7_1 15.7%African Americans_cell_1_7_2 26.6%African Americans_cell_1_7_3 3,204,287African Americans_cell_1_7_4 88%African Americans_cell_1_7_5
1860African Americans_cell_1_8_0 4,441,830African Americans_cell_1_8_1 14.1%African Americans_cell_1_8_2 22.1%African Americans_cell_1_8_3 3,953,731African Americans_cell_1_8_4 89%African Americans_cell_1_8_5
1870African Americans_cell_1_9_0 4,880,009African Americans_cell_1_9_1 12.7%African Americans_cell_1_9_2 9.9%African Americans_cell_1_9_3 African Americans_cell_1_9_4 African Americans_cell_1_9_5
1880African Americans_cell_1_10_0 6,580,793African Americans_cell_1_10_1 13.1%African Americans_cell_1_10_2 34.9%African Americans_cell_1_10_3 African Americans_cell_1_10_4 African Americans_cell_1_10_5
1890African Americans_cell_1_11_0 7,488,788African Americans_cell_1_11_1 11.9%African Americans_cell_1_11_2 13.8%African Americans_cell_1_11_3 African Americans_cell_1_11_4 African Americans_cell_1_11_5
1900African Americans_cell_1_12_0 8,833,994African Americans_cell_1_12_1 11.6%African Americans_cell_1_12_2 18.0%African Americans_cell_1_12_3 African Americans_cell_1_12_4 African Americans_cell_1_12_5
1910African Americans_cell_1_13_0 9,827,763African Americans_cell_1_13_1 10.7%African Americans_cell_1_13_2 11.2%African Americans_cell_1_13_3 African Americans_cell_1_13_4 African Americans_cell_1_13_5
1920African Americans_cell_1_14_0 10.5 millionAfrican Americans_cell_1_14_1 9.9%African Americans_cell_1_14_2 6.8%African Americans_cell_1_14_3 African Americans_cell_1_14_4 African Americans_cell_1_14_5
1930African Americans_cell_1_15_0 11.9 millionAfrican Americans_cell_1_15_1 9.7% (lowest)African Americans_cell_1_15_2 13%African Americans_cell_1_15_3 African Americans_cell_1_15_4 African Americans_cell_1_15_5
1940African Americans_cell_1_16_0 12.9 millionAfrican Americans_cell_1_16_1 9.8%African Americans_cell_1_16_2 8.4%African Americans_cell_1_16_3 African Americans_cell_1_16_4 African Americans_cell_1_16_5
1950African Americans_cell_1_17_0 15.0 millionAfrican Americans_cell_1_17_1 10.0%African Americans_cell_1_17_2 16%African Americans_cell_1_17_3 African Americans_cell_1_17_4 African Americans_cell_1_17_5
1960African Americans_cell_1_18_0 18.9 millionAfrican Americans_cell_1_18_1 10.5%African Americans_cell_1_18_2 26%African Americans_cell_1_18_3 African Americans_cell_1_18_4 African Americans_cell_1_18_5
1970African Americans_cell_1_19_0 22.6 millionAfrican Americans_cell_1_19_1 11.1%African Americans_cell_1_19_2 20%African Americans_cell_1_19_3 African Americans_cell_1_19_4 African Americans_cell_1_19_5
1980African Americans_cell_1_20_0 26.5 millionAfrican Americans_cell_1_20_1 11.7%African Americans_cell_1_20_2 17%African Americans_cell_1_20_3 African Americans_cell_1_20_4 African Americans_cell_1_20_5
1990African Americans_cell_1_21_0 30.0 millionAfrican Americans_cell_1_21_1 12.1%African Americans_cell_1_21_2 13%African Americans_cell_1_21_3 African Americans_cell_1_21_4 African Americans_cell_1_21_5
2000African Americans_cell_1_22_0 34.6 millionAfrican Americans_cell_1_22_1 12.3%African Americans_cell_1_22_2 15%African Americans_cell_1_22_3 African Americans_cell_1_22_4 African Americans_cell_1_22_5
2010African Americans_cell_1_23_0 38.9 millionAfrican Americans_cell_1_23_1 12.6%African Americans_cell_1_23_2 12%African Americans_cell_1_23_3 African Americans_cell_1_23_4 African Americans_cell_1_23_5

By 1990, the African-American population reached about 30 million and represented 12% of the U.S. population, roughly the same proportion as in 1900. African Americans_sentence_158

At the time of the 2000 Census, 54.8% of African Americans lived in the South. African Americans_sentence_159

In that year, 17.6% of African Americans lived in the Northeast and 18.7% in the Midwest, while only 8.9% lived in the western states. African Americans_sentence_160

The west does have a sizable black population in certain areas, however. African Americans_sentence_161

California, the nation's most populous state, has the fifth largest African-American population, only behind New York, Texas, Georgia, and Florida. African Americans_sentence_162

According to the 2000 Census, approximately 2.05% of African Americans identified as Hispanic or Latino in origin, many of whom may be of Brazilian, Puerto Rican, Dominican, Cuban, Haitian, or other Latin American descent. African Americans_sentence_163

The only self-reported ancestral groups larger than African Americans are the Irish and Germans. African Americans_sentence_164

According to the 2010 U.S. Census, nearly 3% of people who self-identified as black had recent ancestors who immigrated from another country. African Americans_sentence_165

Self-reported non-Hispanic black immigrants from the Caribbean, mostly from Jamaica and Haiti, represented 0.9% of the U.S. population, at 2.6 million. African Americans_sentence_166

Self-reported black immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa also represented 0.9%, at about 2.8 million. African Americans_sentence_167

Additionally, self-identified Black Hispanics represented 0.4% of the United States population, at about 1.2 million people, largely found within the Puerto Rican and Dominican communities. African Americans_sentence_168

Self-reported black immigrants hailing from other countries in the Americas, such as Brazil and Canada, as well as several European countries, represented less than 0.1% of the population. African Americans_sentence_169

Mixed-Race Hispanic and non-Hispanic Americans who identified as being part black, represented 0.9% of the population. African Americans_sentence_170

Of the 12.6% of United States residents who identified as black, around 10.3% were "native black American" or ethnic African Americans, who are direct descendants of West/Central Africans brought to the U.S. as slaves. African Americans_sentence_171

These individuals make up well over 80% of all blacks in the country. African Americans_sentence_172

When including people of mixed-race origin, about 13.5% of the U.S. population self-identified as black or "mixed with black". African Americans_sentence_173

However, according to the U.S. census bureau, evidence from the 2000 Census indicates that many African and Caribbean immigrant ethnic groups do not identify as "Black, African Am., or Negro". African Americans_sentence_174

Instead, they wrote in their own respective ethnic groups in the "Some Other Race" write-in entry. African Americans_sentence_175

As a result, the census bureau devised a new, separate "African American" ethnic group category in 2010 for ethnic African Americans. African Americans_sentence_176

U.S. cities African Americans_section_7

Further information: List of U.S. cities with large African-American populations and List of U.S. metropolitan areas with large African-American populations African Americans_sentence_177

After 100 years of African-Americans leaving the south in large numbers seeking better opportunities and treatment in the west and north, a movement known as the Great Migration, there is now a reverse trend, called the New Great Migration. African Americans_sentence_178

As with the earlier Great Migration, the New Great Migration is primarily directed toward cities and large urban areas, such as Atlanta, Charlotte, Houston, Dallas, Raleigh, Tampa, San Antonio, Memphis, Nashville, Jacksonville, and so forth. African Americans_sentence_179

A growing percentage of African-Americans from the west and north are migrating to the southern region of the U.S. for economic and cultural reasons. African Americans_sentence_180

New York City, Chicago, and Los Angeles have the highest decline in African Americans, while Atlanta, Dallas, and Houston have the highest increase respectively. African Americans_sentence_181

Among cities of 100,000 or more, Detroit, Michigan had the highest percentage of black residents of any U.S. city in 2010, with 82%. African Americans_sentence_182

Other large cities with African-American majorities include Jackson, Mississippi (79.4%), Miami Gardens, Florida (76.3%), Baltimore, Maryland (63%), Birmingham, Alabama (62.5%), Memphis, Tennessee (61%), New Orleans, Louisiana (60%), Montgomery, Alabama (56.6%), Flint, Michigan (56.6%), Savannah, Georgia (55.0%), Augusta, Georgia (54.7%), Atlanta, Georgia (54%, see African Americans in Atlanta), Cleveland, Ohio (53.3%), Newark, New Jersey (52.35%), Washington, D.C. (50.7%), Richmond, Virginia (50.6%), Mobile, Alabama (50.6%), Baton Rouge, Louisiana (50.4%), and Shreveport, Louisiana (50.4%). African Americans_sentence_183

The nation's most affluent community with an African-American majority resides in View Park–Windsor Hills, California with an annual median household income of $159,618. African Americans_sentence_184

Other largely affluent predominantly African-American communities include Prince George's County in Maryland (namely Mitchellville, Woodmore, and Upper Marlboro), Dekalb County and South Fulton in Georgia, Charles City County in Virginia, Baldwin Hills in California, Hillcrest and Uniondale in New York, and Cedar Hill, DeSoto, and Missouri City in Texas. African Americans_sentence_185

Queens County, New York is the only county with a population of 65,000 or more where African Americans have a higher median household income than White Americans. African Americans_sentence_186

Seatack, Virginia is currently the oldest African-American community in the United States. African Americans_sentence_187

It survives today with a vibrant and active civic community. African Americans_sentence_188

Education African Americans_section_8

By 2012, African Americans had advanced greatly in education attainment. African Americans_sentence_189

Between 1995 and 2009, freshmen college enrollment for African Americans increased by 73 percent and only 15 percent for whites. African Americans_sentence_190

Black women are enrolled in college more than any other race and gender group, leading all with 9.7% enrolled according to the 2011 U.S. Census Bureau. African Americans_sentence_191

Predominantly black schools for kindergarten through twelfth grade students were common throughout the U.S. before the 1970s. African Americans_sentence_192

By 1972, however, desegregation efforts meant that only 25% of Black students were in schools with more than 90% non-white students. African Americans_sentence_193

However, since then, a trend towards re-segregation affected communities across the country: by 2011, 2.9 million African-American students were in such overwhelmingly minority schools, including 53% of Black students in school districts that were formerly under desegregation orders. African Americans_sentence_194

Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), which were originally set up when segregated colleges did not admit African Americans, continue to thrive and educate students of all races today. African Americans_sentence_195

The majority of HBCUs were established in the southeastern United States, Alabama has the most HBCUs of any state. African Americans_sentence_196

As late as 1947, about one third of African Americans over 65 were considered to lack the literacy to read and write their own names. African Americans_sentence_197

By 1969, illiteracy as it had been traditionally defined, had been largely eradicated among younger African Americans. African Americans_sentence_198

U.S. Census surveys showed that by 1998, 89 percent of African Americans aged 25 to 29 had completed a high-school education, less than whites or Asians, but more than Hispanics. African Americans_sentence_199

On many college entrance, standardized tests and grades, African Americans have historically lagged behind whites, but some studies suggest that the achievement gap has been closing. African Americans_sentence_200

Many policy makers have proposed that this gap can and will be eliminated through policies such as affirmative action, desegregation, and multiculturalism. African Americans_sentence_201

The average high school graduation rate of blacks in the United States has steadily increased to 71% in 2013. African Americans_sentence_202

Separating this statistic into component parts shows it varies greatly depending upon the state and the school district examined. African Americans_sentence_203

38% of black males graduated in the state of New York but in Maine 97% graduated and exceeded the white male graduation rate by 11 percentage points. African Americans_sentence_204

In much of the southeastern United States and some parts of the southwestern United States the graduation rate of white males was in fact below 70% such as in Florida where 62% of white males graduated from high school. African Americans_sentence_205

Examining specific school districts paints an even more complex picture. African Americans_sentence_206

In the Detroit school district the graduation rate of black males was 20% but 7% for white males. African Americans_sentence_207

In the New York City school district 28% of black males graduate from high school compared to 57% of white males. African Americans_sentence_208

In Newark County 76% of black males graduated compared to 67% for white males. African Americans_sentence_209

Further academic improvement has occurred in 2015. African Americans_sentence_210

Roughly 23% of all blacks have bachelor's degrees. African Americans_sentence_211

In 1988, 21% of whites had obtained a bachelor's degree versus 11% of blacks. African Americans_sentence_212

In 2015, 23% of blacks had obtained a bachelor's degree versus 36% of whites. African Americans_sentence_213

Foreign born blacks, 9% of the black population, made even greater strides. African Americans_sentence_214

They exceed native born blacks by 10 percentage points. African Americans_sentence_215

Economic status African Americans_section_9

Economically, African Americans have benefited from the advances made during the civil rights era, particularly among the educated, but not without the lingering effects of historical marginalisation when considered as a whole. African Americans_sentence_216

The racial disparity in poverty rates has narrowed. African Americans_sentence_217

The black middle class has grown substantially. African Americans_sentence_218

In 2010, 45% of African Americans owned their homes, compared to 67% of all Americans. African Americans_sentence_219

The poverty rate among African Americans has decreased from 26.5% in 1998 to 24.7% in 2004, compared to 12.7% for all Americans. African Americans_sentence_220

African Americans have a combined buying power of over $892 billion currently and likely over $1.1 trillion by 2012. African Americans_sentence_221

In 2002, African American-owned businesses accounted for 1.2 million of the US's 23 million businesses. African Americans_sentence_222

As of 2011 African American-owned businesses account for approximately 2 million US businesses. African Americans_sentence_223

Black-owned businesses experienced the largest growth in number of businesses among minorities from 2002 to 2011. African Americans_sentence_224

In 2004, African-American men had the third-highest earnings of American minority groups after Asian Americans and non-Hispanic whites. African Americans_sentence_225

Twenty-five percent of blacks had white-collar occupations (management, professional, and related fields) in 2000, compared with 33.6% of Americans overall. African Americans_sentence_226

In 2001, over half of African-American households of married couples earned $50,000 or more. African Americans_sentence_227

Although in the same year African Americans were over-represented among the nation's poor, this was directly related to the disproportionate percentage of African-American families headed by single women; such families are collectively poorer, regardless of ethnicity. African Americans_sentence_228

In 2006, the median earnings of African-American men was more than black and non-black American women overall, and in all educational levels. African Americans_sentence_229

At the same time, among American men, income disparities were significant; the median income of African-American men was approximately 76 cents for every dollar of their European American counterparts, although the gap narrowed somewhat with a rise in educational level. African Americans_sentence_230

Overall, the median earnings of African-American men were 72 cents for every dollar earned of their Asian American counterparts, and $1.17 for every dollar earned by Hispanic men. African Americans_sentence_231

On the other hand, by 2006, among American women with post-secondary education, African-American women have made significant advances; the median income of African-American women was more than those of their Asian-, European- and Hispanic American counterparts with at least some college education. African Americans_sentence_232

The U.S. public sector is the single most important source of employment for African Americans. African Americans_sentence_233

During 2008–2010, 21.2% of all Black workers were public employees, compared with 16.3% of non-Black workers. African Americans_sentence_234

Both before and after the onset of the Great Recession, African Americans were 30% more likely than other workers to be employed in the public sector. African Americans_sentence_235

The public sector is also a critical source of decent-paying jobs for Black Americans. African Americans_sentence_236

For both men and women, the median wage earned by Black employees is significantly higher in the public sector than in other industries. African Americans_sentence_237

In 1999, the median income of African-American families was $33,255 compared to $53,356 of European Americans. African Americans_sentence_238

In times of economic hardship for the nation, African Americans suffer disproportionately from job loss and underemployment, with the black underclass being hardest hit. African Americans_sentence_239

The phrase "last hired and first fired" is reflected in the Bureau of Labor Statistics unemployment figures. African Americans_sentence_240

Nationwide, the October 2008 unemployment rate for African Americans was 11.1%, while the nationwide rate was 6.5%. African Americans_sentence_241

The income gap between black and white families is also significant. African Americans_sentence_242

In 2005, employed blacks earned 65% of the wages of whites, down from 82% in 1975. African Americans_sentence_243

The New York Times reported in 2006 that in Queens, New York, the median income among African-American families exceeded that of white families, which the newspaper attributed to the growth in the number of two-parent black families. African Americans_sentence_244

It noted that Queens was the only county with more than 65,000 residents where that was true. African Americans_sentence_245

In 2011, it was reported that 72% of black babies were born to unwed mothers. African Americans_sentence_246

The poverty rate among single-parent black families was 39.5% in 2005, according to Williams, while it was 9.9% among married-couple black families. African Americans_sentence_247

Among white families, the respective rates were 26.4% and 6% in poverty. African Americans_sentence_248

Collectively, African Americans are more involved in the American political process than other minority groups in the United States, indicated by the highest level of voter registration and participation in elections among these groups in 2004. African Americans_sentence_249

African Americans collectively attain higher levels of education than immigrants to the United States. African Americans_sentence_250

African Americans also have the highest level of Congressional representation of any minority group in the U.S. African Americans_sentence_251

Politics African Americans_section_10

Since the mid 20th century, a large majority of African Americans support the Democratic Party. African Americans_sentence_252

In the 2004 Presidential Election, Democrat John Kerry received 88% of the African-American vote compared to 11% for Republican George W. Bush. African Americans_sentence_253

Although there is an African-American lobby in foreign policy, it has not had the impact that African-American organizations have had in domestic policy. African Americans_sentence_254

Many African Americans were excluded from electoral politics in the decades following the end of Reconstruction. African Americans_sentence_255

For those that could participate, until the New Deal, African Americans were supporters of the Republican Party because it was Republican President Abraham Lincoln who helped in granting freedom to American slaves; at the time, the Republicans and Democrats represented the sectional interests of the North and South, respectively, rather than any specific ideology, and both conservative and liberal were represented equally in both parties. African Americans_sentence_256

The African-American trend of voting for Democrats can be traced back to the 1930s during the Great Depression, when Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal program provided economic relief to African Americans. African Americans_sentence_257

Roosevelt's New Deal coalition turned the Democratic Party into an organization of the working class and their liberal allies, regardless of region. African Americans_sentence_258

The African-American vote became even more solidly Democratic when Democratic presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson pushed for civil rights legislation during the 1960s. African Americans_sentence_259

In 1960, nearly a third of African Americans voted for Republican Richard Nixon. African Americans_sentence_260

Sexuality African Americans_section_11

See also: African-American LGBT community African Americans_sentence_261

According to a Gallup survey, 4.6% of black or African-Americans self-identified as LGBT in 2016, while the total portion of American adults in all ethnic groups identifying as LGBT was 4.1% in 2016. African Americans_sentence_262

Health African Americans_section_12

General African Americans_section_13

Further information: Race and health in the United States § African-Americans African Americans_sentence_263

The life expectancy for black men in 2008 was 70.8 years. African Americans_sentence_264

Life expectancy for black women was 77.5 years in 2008. African Americans_sentence_265

In 1900, when information on black life expectancy started being collated, a black man could expect to live to 32.5 years and a black woman 33.5 years. African Americans_sentence_266

In 1900, white men lived an average of 46.3 years and white women lived an average of 48.3 years. African Americans_sentence_267

African-American life expectancy at birth is persistently five to seven years lower than European Americans. African Americans_sentence_268

Black men have shorter lifespans than any other group in the US besides Native American men. African Americans_sentence_269

Black people have higher rates of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension than the U.S. average. African Americans_sentence_270

For adult black men, the rate of obesity was 31.6% in 2010. African Americans_sentence_271

For adult black women, the rate of obesity was 41.2% in 2010. African Americans_sentence_272

African Americans have higher rates of mortality than any other racial or ethnic group for 8 of the top 10 causes of death. African Americans_sentence_273

In 2013, among men, black men had the highest rate of getting cancer, followed by white, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI), and American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) men. African Americans_sentence_274

Among women, white women had the highest rate of getting cancer, followed by black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native women. African Americans_sentence_275

Violence has an impact upon African-American life expectancy. African Americans_sentence_276

A report from the U.S. African Americans_sentence_277 Department of Justice states "In 2005, homicide victimization rates for blacks were 6 times higher than the rates for whites". African Americans_sentence_278

The report also found that "94% of black victims were killed by blacks." African Americans_sentence_279

Black boys and men age 15–44 are the only race/sex category for which homicide is a top-five cause of death. African Americans_sentence_280

Sexual health African Americans_section_14

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, African Americans have higher rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) compared to whites, with 5 times the rates of syphilis and chlamydia, and 7.5 times the rate of gonorrhea. African Americans_sentence_281

The disproportionately high incidence of HIV/AIDS among African-Americans has been attributed to homophobic influences and lack of access to proper healthcare. African Americans_sentence_282

The prevalence of HIV/AIDS among black men is seven times higher than the prevalence for white men, and black men are more than nine times as likely to die from HIV/AIDS-related illness than white men. African Americans_sentence_283

Washington, D.C. has the nation's highest rate of HIV/AIDS infection, at 3%. African Americans_sentence_284

This rate is comparable to what is seen in West Africa, and is considered a severe epidemic. African Americans_sentence_285

Ray Martins, Chief Medical Officer at the Whitman-Walker Clinic, the largest provider of HIV care in Washington D.C., estimated that the actual underlying percent with HIV/AIDS in the city is "closer to five percent". African Americans_sentence_286

Mental health African Americans_section_15

African Americans have several barriers for accessing mental health services. African Americans_sentence_287

Counseling has been frowned upon and distant in utility and proximity to many people in the African American community. African Americans_sentence_288

In 2004, a qualitative research study explored the disconnect with African Americans and mental health. African Americans_sentence_289

The study was conducted as a semi-structured discussion which allowed the focus group to express their opinions and life experiences. African Americans_sentence_290

The results revealed a couple key variables that create barriers for many African American communities to seek mental health services such as the stigma, lack of four important necessities; trust, affordability, cultural understanding and impersonal services. African Americans_sentence_291

Historically, many African American communities did not seek counseling because religion was a part of the family values. African Americans_sentence_292

African American who have a faith background are more likely to seek prayer as a coping mechanism for mental issues rather than seeking professional mental health services. African Americans_sentence_293

In 2015 a study concluded, African Americans with high value in religion are less likely to utilize mental health services compared to those who have low value in religion. African Americans_sentence_294

Most counseling approaches are westernized and do not fit within the African American culture. African Americans_sentence_295

African American families tend to resolve concerns within the family, and it is viewed by the family as a strength. African Americans_sentence_296

On the other hand, when African Americans seek counseling, they face a social backlash and are criticized. African Americans_sentence_297

They may be labeled "crazy", viewed as weak, and their pride is diminished. African Americans_sentence_298

Because of this, many African Americans instead seek mentorship within communities they trust. African Americans_sentence_299

Terminology is another barrier in relation to African Americans and mental health. African Americans_sentence_300

There is more stigma on the term psychotherapy versus counseling. African Americans_sentence_301

In one study, psychotherapy is associated with mental illness whereas counseling approaches problem-solving, guidance and help. African Americans_sentence_302

More African Americans seek assistance when it is called counseling and not psychotherapy because it is more welcoming within the cultural and community. African Americans_sentence_303

Counselors are encouraged to be aware of such barriers for the well-being of African American clients. African Americans_sentence_304

Without cultural competency training in health care, many African Americans go unheard and misunderstood. African Americans_sentence_305

Although suicide is a top-10 cause of death for men overall in the US, it is not a top-10 cause of death for black men. African Americans_sentence_306

Genetics African Americans_section_16

Genome-wide studies African Americans_section_17

Recent surveys of African Americans using a genetic testing service have found varied ancestries which show different tendencies by region and sex of ancestors. African Americans_sentence_307

These studies found that on average, African Americans have 73.2–82.1% West African, 16.7%–24% European, and 0.8–1.2% Native American genetic ancestry, with large variation between individuals. African Americans_sentence_308

Genetics websites themselves have reported similar ranges, with some finding 1 or 2 percent Native American ancestry and reporting an outlying percentage of European ancestry among African Americans, 29%. African Americans_sentence_309

According to a genome-wide study by Bryc et al. African Americans_sentence_310

(2009), the mixed ancestry of African Americans in varying ratios came about as the result of sexual contact between West/Central Africans (more frequently females) and Europeans (more frequently males). African Americans_sentence_311

Consequently, the 365 African Americans in their sample have a genome-wide average of 78.1% West African ancestry and 18.5% European ancestry, with large variation among individuals (ranging from 99% to 1% West African ancestry). African Americans_sentence_312

The West African ancestral component in African Americans is most similar to that in present-day speakers from the non-Bantu branches of the Niger-Congo (Niger-Kordofanian) family. African Americans_sentence_313

Correspondingly, Montinaro et al. African Americans_sentence_314

(2014) observed that around 50% of the overall ancestry of African Americans traces back to the Niger-Congo-speaking Yoruba of southwestern Nigeria and southern Benin, reflecting the centrality of this West African region in the Atlantic Slave Trade. African Americans_sentence_315

The next most frequent ancestral component found among African Americans was derived from Great Britain, in keeping with historical records. African Americans_sentence_316

It constitutes a little over 10% of their overall ancestry, and is most similar to the Northwest European ancestral component also carried by Barbadians. African Americans_sentence_317

Zakharaia et al. African Americans_sentence_318

(2009) found a similar proportion of Yoruba associated ancestry in their African-American samples, with a minority also drawn from Mandenka and Bantu populations. African Americans_sentence_319

Additionally, the researchers observed an average European ancestry of 21.9%, again with significant variation between individuals. African Americans_sentence_320

Bryc et al. African Americans_sentence_321

(2009) note that populations from other parts of the continent may also constitute adequate proxies for the ancestors of some African-American individuals; namely, ancestral populations from Guinea Bissau, Senegal and Sierra Leone in West Africa and Angola in Southern Africa. African Americans_sentence_322

Altogether, genetic studies suggest that African Americans are a multiracial people. African Americans_sentence_323

According to DNA analysis led in 2006 by Penn State geneticist Mark D. Shriver, around 58 percent of African Americans have at least 12.5% European ancestry (equivalent to one European great-grandparent and his/her forebears), 19.6 percent of African Americans have at least 25% European ancestry (equivalent to one European grandparent and his/her forebears), and 1 percent of African Americans have at least 50% European ancestry (equivalent to one European parent and his/her forebears). African Americans_sentence_324

According to Shriver, around 5 percent of African Americans also have at least 12.5% Native American ancestry (equivalent to one Native American great-grandparent and his/her forebears). African Americans_sentence_325

Research suggests that Native American ancestry among people who identify as African American is a result of relationships that occurred soon after slave ships arrived in the American colonies, and European ancestry is of more recent origin, often from the decades before the Civil War. African Americans_sentence_326

Y-DNA African Americans_section_18

Africans bearing the E-V38 (E1b1a) likely traversed across the Sahara, from east to west, approximately 19,000 years ago. African Americans_sentence_327

E-M2 (E1b1a1) likely originated in West Africa or Central Africa. African Americans_sentence_328

According to a Y-DNA study by Sims et al. African Americans_sentence_329

(2007), the majority (≈60%) of African Americans belong to various subclades of the E-M2 (E1b1a1, formerly E3a) paternal haplogroup. African Americans_sentence_330

This is the most common genetic paternal lineage found today among West/Central African males, and is also a signature of the historical Bantu migrations. African Americans_sentence_331

The next most frequent Y-DNA haplogroup observed among African Americans is the R1b clade, which around 15% of African Americans carry. African Americans_sentence_332

This lineage is most common today among Northwestern European males. African Americans_sentence_333

The remaining African Americans mainly belong to the paternal haplogroup I (≈7%), which is also frequent in Northwestern Europe. African Americans_sentence_334

mtDNA African Americans_section_19

According to an mtDNA study by Salas et al. African Americans_sentence_335

(2005), the maternal lineages of African Americans are most similar to haplogroups that are today especially common in West Africa (>55%), followed closely by West-Central Africa and Southwestern Africa (<41%). African Americans_sentence_336

The characteristic West African haplogroups L1b, L2b,c,d, and L3b,d and West-Central African haplogroups L1c and L3e in particular occur at high frequencies among African Americans. African Americans_sentence_337

As with the paternal DNA of African Americans, contributions from other parts of the continent to their maternal gene pool are insignificant. African Americans_sentence_338

Social status African Americans_section_20

See also: Income inequality in the United States African Americans_sentence_339

Formal political, economic and social discrimination against minorities has been present throughout American history. African Americans_sentence_340

Leland T. Saito, Associate Professor of Sociology and American Studies & Ethnicity at the University of Southern California, writes, "Political rights have been circumscribed by race, class and gender since the founding of the United States, when the right to vote was restricted to white men of property. African Americans_sentence_341

Throughout the history of the United States race has been used by whites for legitimizing and creating difference and social, economic and political exclusion." African Americans_sentence_342

African Americans have improved their social and economic standing significantly since the civil rights movement and recent decades have witnessed the expansion of a robust, African-American middle class across the United States. African Americans_sentence_343

Unprecedented access to higher education and employment in addition to representation in the highest levels of American government has been gained by African Americans in the post–civil rights era. African Americans_sentence_344

Nonetheless, widespread racism against African Americans remain an issue that undermines the development of their social status in the United States. African Americans_sentence_345

Economic issues African Americans_section_21

See also: Poverty in the United States and Income inequality in the United States African Americans_sentence_346

One of the most serious and long-standing issues within African-American communities is poverty. African Americans_sentence_347

Poverty is associated with higher rates of marital stress and dissolution, physical and mental health problems, disability, cognitive deficits, low educational attainment, and crime. African Americans_sentence_348

In 2004, almost 25% of African-American families lived below the poverty level. African Americans_sentence_349

In 2007, the average income for African Americans was approximately $34,000, compared to $55,000 for whites. African Americans_sentence_350

African Americans experience a higher rate of unemployment than the general population. African Americans_sentence_351

African Americans have a long and diverse history of business ownership. African Americans_sentence_352

Although the first African-American business is unknown, slaves captured from West Africa are believed to have established commercial enterprises as peddlers and skilled craftspeople as far back as the 17th century. African Americans_sentence_353

Around 1900, Booker T. Washington became the most famous proponent of African-American businesses. African Americans_sentence_354

His critic and rival W. E. B. DuBois also commended business as a vehicle for African-American advancement. African Americans_sentence_355

Policing and criminal justice African Americans_section_22

See also: Race and crime in the United States African Americans_sentence_356

Forty percent of prison inmates are African-American. African Americans_sentence_357

African American males are more likely to be killed by police when compared to other races killed by police. African Americans_sentence_358

This is one of the factors that led to the creation of the Black Lives Matter movement in 2013. African Americans_sentence_359

White women calling the police on black people also became a widely publicized issue in 2020. African Americans_sentence_360

Although in the last decade black youth have had lower rates of cannabis (marijuana) consumption than whites of the same age, they have disproportionately higher arrest rates than whites: in 2010, for example, blacks were 3.73 times as likely to get arrested for using cannabis than whites, despite not significantly more frequently being users. African Americans_sentence_361

Social issues African Americans_section_23

After over 50 years, marriage rates for all Americans began to decline while divorce rates and out-of-wedlock births have climbed. African Americans_sentence_362

These changes have been greatest among African Americans. African Americans_sentence_363

After more than 70 years of racial parity black marriage rates began to fall behind whites. African Americans_sentence_364

Single-parent households have become common, and according to U.S. census figures released in January 2010, only 38 percent of black children live with both their parents. African Americans_sentence_365

In 2008, Democrats overwhelmingly voted 70% against California Proposition 8, African Americans voted 58% in favor of it while 42% voted against Proposition 8. African Americans_sentence_366

On May 9, 2012, Barack Obama, the first black president, became the first U.S. president to support same-sex marriage. African Americans_sentence_367

Since Obama's endorsement there has been a rapid growth in support for same-sex marriage among African Americans. African Americans_sentence_368

As of 2012, 59% of African Americans support same-sex marriage, which is higher than support among the national average (53%) and white Americans (50%). African Americans_sentence_369

Polls in North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Missouri, Maryland, Ohio, Florida, and Nevada have also shown an increase in support for same sex marriage among African Americans. African Americans_sentence_370

On November 6, 2012, Maryland, Maine, and Washington all voted for approve of same-sex marriage, along with Minnesota rejecting a constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage. African Americans_sentence_371

Exit polls in Maryland show about 50% of African Americans voted for same-sex marriage, showing a vast evolution among African Americans on the issue and was crucial in helping pass same-sex marriage in Maryland. African Americans_sentence_372

Black Americans hold far more conservative opinions on abortion, extramarital sex, and raising children out of wedlock than Democrats as a whole. African Americans_sentence_373

On financial issues, however, African Americans are in line with Democrats, generally supporting a more progressive tax structure to provide more government spending on social services. African Americans_sentence_374

Political legacy African Americans_section_24

African Americans have fought in every war in the history of the United States. African Americans_sentence_375

The gains made by African Americans in the civil rights movement and in the Black Power movement not only obtained certain rights for African Americans, but changed American society in far-reaching and fundamentally important ways. African Americans_sentence_376

Prior to the 1950s, Black Americans in the South were subject to de jure discrimination, or Jim Crow laws. African Americans_sentence_377

They were often the victims of extreme cruelty and violence, sometimes resulting in deaths: by the post World War II era, African Americans became increasingly discontented with their long-standing inequality. African Americans_sentence_378

In the words of Martin Luther King Jr., African Americans and their supporters challenged the nation to "rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed that all men are created equal ..." African Americans_sentence_379

The civil rights movement marked an enormous change in American social, political, economic and civic life. African Americans_sentence_380

It brought with it boycotts, sit-ins, nonviolent demonstrations and marches, court battles, bombings and other violence; prompted worldwide media coverage and intense public debate; forged enduring civic, economic and religious alliances; and disrupted and realigned the nation's two major political parties. African Americans_sentence_381

Over time, it has changed in fundamental ways the manner in which blacks and whites interact with and relate to one another. African Americans_sentence_382

The movement resulted in the removal of codified, de jure racial segregation and discrimination from American life and law, and heavily influenced other groups and movements in struggles for civil rights and social equality within American society, including the Free Speech Movement, the disabled, the women's movement, Native Americans, and migrant workers. African Americans_sentence_383

Media and coverage African Americans_section_25

See also: Representation of African Americans in media and African-American newspapers African Americans_sentence_384

Some activists and academics contend that American news media coverage of African-American news, concerns, or dilemmas is inadequate, or that the news media present distorted images of African Americans. African Americans_sentence_385

To combat this, Robert L. Johnson founded Black Entertainment Television, a network that targets young African Americans and urban audiences in the United States. African Americans_sentence_386

Over the years, the network has aired such programming as rap and R&B music videos, urban-oriented movies and television series, and some public affairs programs. African Americans_sentence_387

On Sunday mornings, BET would broadcast Christian programming; the network would also broadcast non-affiliated Christian programs during the early morning hours daily. African Americans_sentence_388

BET is now a global network that reaches households in the United States, Caribbean, Canada, and the United Kingdom. African Americans_sentence_389

The network has gone on to spawn several spin-off channels, including BET Her (originally launched as BET on Jazz), which originally showcased jazz music-related programming, and later expanded to include general-interest urban programs as well as some R&B, soul, and world music. African Americans_sentence_390

Another network targeting African-Americans is TV One. African Americans_sentence_391

TV One's original programming was formally focused on lifestyle and entertainment-oriented shows, movies, fashion, and music programming. African Americans_sentence_392

The network also reruns classic series from as far back as the 1970s to current series such as Empire and Sister Circle. African Americans_sentence_393

TV One is owned by Urban One, founded and controlled by Catherine Hughes. African Americans_sentence_394

Urban One is one of the nation's largest radio broadcasting companies and the largest African-American-owned radio broadcasting company in the United States. African Americans_sentence_395

African-American networks that were scheduled to launch in 2009 include the Black Television News Channel founded by former Congressman J. African Americans_sentence_396 C. Watts and Better Black Television founded by Percy Miller. African Americans_sentence_397

In June 2009, NBC News launched a new website named The Grio in partnership with the production team that created the black documentary film Meeting David Wilson. African Americans_sentence_398

It is the first African-American video news site that focuses on underrepresented stories in existing national news. African Americans_sentence_399

The Grio consists of a broad spectrum of original video packages, news articles, and contributor blogs on topics including breaking news, politics, health, business, entertainment and Black History. African Americans_sentence_400

Other Black-owned and oriented media outlets include: African Americans_sentence_401

African Americans_unordered_list_0

  • The Africa Channel – Dedicated to programming representing the best in African culture.African Americans_item_0_0
  • aspireTV – a digital cable and satellite channel owned by businessman and former basketball player Magic Johnson.African Americans_item_0_1
  • ATTV – an independent public affairs and educational channel.African Americans_item_0_2
  • Bounce TV – a digital multicast network owned by E. W. Scripps Company.African Americans_item_0_3
  • Cleo TV – a sister network to TV One targeting African-American women.African Americans_item_0_4
  • Fox Soul – a digital streaming channel primarily airing original talk shows and syndicated programmingAfrican Americans_item_0_5
  • Oprah Winfrey Network – a cable and satellite network founded by Oprah Winfrey and jointly owned by Discovery, Inc. and Harpo Studios. While not exclusively targeting African Americans, much of its original programming is geared towards a similar demographic.African Americans_item_0_6
  • Revolt – a music channel owned by Sean "Puff Daddy" Combs.African Americans_item_0_7
  • Soul of the South Network – a regional broadcast network.African Americans_item_0_8
  • VH1 – A female-oriented general entertainment channel owned by Viacom. Originally focused on light genres of music, the network's programming became slanted towards African American culture in recent years.African Americans_item_0_9

Culture African Americans_section_26

Further information: African-American culture African Americans_sentence_402

From their earliest presence in North America, African Americans have significantly contributed literature, art, agricultural skills, cuisine, clothing styles, music, language, and social and technological innovation to American culture. African Americans_sentence_403

The cultivation and use of many agricultural products in the United States, such as yams, peanuts, rice, okra, sorghum, grits, watermelon, indigo dyes, and cotton, can be traced to West African and African-American influences. African Americans_sentence_404

Notable examples include George Washington Carver, who created 300 products from peanuts, 118 products from sweet potatoes, and 75 products from pecans; and George Crum, a local legend incorrectly associates him with the creation of the potato chip in 1853. African Americans_sentence_405

Soul food is a variety of cuisine popular among African Americans. African Americans_sentence_406

It is closely related to the cuisine of the Southern United States. African Americans_sentence_407

The descriptive terminology may have originated in the mid-1960s, when was a common definer used to describe African-American culture (for example, soul music). African Americans_sentence_408

African Americans were the first peoples in the United States to make fried chicken, along with Scottish immigrants to the South. African Americans_sentence_409

Although the Scottish had been frying chicken before they emigrated, they lacked the spices and flavor that African Americans had used when preparing the meal. African Americans_sentence_410

The Scottish American settlers therefore adopted the African-American method of seasoning chicken. African Americans_sentence_411

However, fried chicken was generally a rare meal in the African-American community, and was usually reserved for special events or celebrations. African Americans_sentence_412

Language African Americans_section_27

Main article: African-American English African Americans_sentence_413

African-American English is a variety (dialect, ethnolect, and sociolect) of American English, commonly spoken by urban working-class and largely middle-class African Americans. African Americans_sentence_414

African-American English evolved during the antebellum period through interaction between speakers of 16th- and 17th-century English of Great Britain and Ireland and various West African languages. African Americans_sentence_415

As a result, the variety shares parts of its grammar and phonology with the Southern American English dialect. African Americans_sentence_416

Where African-American English differs from Standard American English (SAE) is in certain pronunciation characteristics, tense usage and grammatical structures that were derived from West African languages, particularly those belonging to the Niger-Congo family. African Americans_sentence_417

Virtually all habitual speakers of African-American English can understand and communicate in Standard American English. African Americans_sentence_418

As with all linguistic forms, AAVE's usage is influenced by various factors, including geographical, educational and socioeconomic background, as well as formality of setting. African Americans_sentence_419

Additionally, there are many literary uses of this variety of English, particularly in African-American literature. African Americans_sentence_420

Traditional names African Americans_section_28

Main article: African-American names African Americans_sentence_421

African-American names are part of the cultural traditions of African Americans. African Americans_sentence_422

Prior to the 1950s, and 1960s, most African-American names closely resembled those used within European American culture. African Americans_sentence_423

Babies of that era were generally given a few common names, with children using nicknames to distinguish the various people with the same name. African Americans_sentence_424

With the rise of 1960s civil rights movement, there was a dramatic increase in names of various origins. African Americans_sentence_425

By the 1970s, and 1980s, it had become common among African Americans to invent new names for themselves, although many of these invented names took elements from popular existing names. African Americans_sentence_426

Prefixes such as La/Le, Da/De, Ra/Re and Ja/Je, and suffixes like -ique/iqua, -isha and -aun/-awn are common, as are inventive spellings for common names. African Americans_sentence_427

The book Baby Names Now: From Classic to Cool—The Very Last Word on First Names places the origins of "La" names in African-American culture in New Orleans. African Americans_sentence_428

Even with the rise of inventive names, it is still common for African Americans to use biblical, historical, or traditional European names. African Americans_sentence_429

Daniel, Christopher, Michael, David, James, Joseph, and Matthew were thus among the most frequent names for African-American boys in 2013. African Americans_sentence_430

The name LaKeisha is typically considered American in origin, but has elements that were drawn from both French and West/Central African roots. African Americans_sentence_431

Names such as LaTanisha, JaMarcus, DeAndre, and Shaniqua were created in the same way. African Americans_sentence_432

Punctuation marks are seen more often within African-American names than other American names, such as the names Mo'nique and D'Andre. African Americans_sentence_433

Religion African Americans_section_29

Main article: Religion of Black Americans African Americans_sentence_434

Further information: African-American Jews, African-American Muslims, Black church, Hoodoo (folk magic), and Louisiana Voodoo African Americans_sentence_435

The majority of African Americans are Protestant, many of whom follow the historically black churches. African Americans_sentence_436

The term Black church refers to churches which minister to predominantly African-American congregations. African Americans_sentence_437

Black congregations were first established by freed slaves at the end of the 17th century, and later when slavery was abolished more African Americans were allowed to create a unique form of Christianity that was culturally influenced by African spiritual traditions. African Americans_sentence_438

According to a 2007 survey, more than half of the African-American population are part of the historically black churches. African Americans_sentence_439

The largest Protestant denomination among African Americans are the Baptists, distributed mainly in four denominations, the largest being the National Baptist Convention, USA and the National Baptist Convention of America. African Americans_sentence_440

The second largest are the Methodists, the largest denominations are the African Methodist Episcopal Church and the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. African Americans_sentence_441

Pentecostals are distributed among several different religious bodies, with the Church of God in Christ as the largest among them by far. African Americans_sentence_442

About 16% of African-American Christians are members of white Protestant communions, these denominations (which include the United Church of Christ) mostly have a 2 to 3% African-American membership. African Americans_sentence_443

There are also large numbers of Catholics, constituting 5% of the African-American population. African Americans_sentence_444

Of the total number of Jehovah's Witnesses, 22% are black. African Americans_sentence_445

Some African Americans follow Islam. African Americans_sentence_446

Historically, between 15 and 30% of enslaved Africans brought to the Americas were Muslims, but most of these Africans were converted to Christianity during the era of American slavery. African Americans_sentence_447

During the twentieth century, some African Americans converted to Islam, mainly through the influence of black nationalist groups that preached with distinctive Islamic practices; including the Moorish Science Temple of America, and the largest organization, the Nation of Islam, founded in the 1930s, which attracted at least 20,000 people by 1963, prominent members included activist Malcolm X and boxer Muhammad Ali. African Americans_sentence_448

Malcolm X is considered the first person to start the movement among African Americans towards mainstream Islam, after he left the Nation and made the pilgrimage to Mecca. African Americans_sentence_449

In 1975, Warith Deen Mohammed, the son of Elijah Muhammad took control of the Nation after his father's death and guided the majority of its members to orthodox Islam. African Americans_sentence_450

African-American Muslims constitute 20% of the total U.S. African Americans_sentence_451 Muslim population, the majority are Sunni or orthodox Muslims, some of these identify under the community of W. African Americans_sentence_452 Deen Mohammed. African Americans_sentence_453

The Nation of Islam led by Louis Farrakhan has a membership ranging from 20,000–50,000 members. African Americans_sentence_454

There are relatively few African-American Jews; estimates of their number range from 20,000 to 200,000. African Americans_sentence_455

Most of these Jews are part of mainstream groups such as the Reform, Conservative, or Orthodox branches of Judaism; although there are significant numbers of people who are part of non-mainstream Jewish groups, largely the Black Hebrew Israelites, whose beliefs include the claim that African Americans are descended from the Biblical Israelites. African Americans_sentence_456

Confirmed atheists are less than one half of one-percent, similar to numbers for Hispanics. African Americans_sentence_457

Music African Americans_section_30

African-American music is one of the most pervasive African-American cultural influences in the United States today and is among the most dominant in mainstream popular music. African Americans_sentence_458

Hip hop, R&B, funk, rock and roll, soul, blues, and other contemporary American musical forms originated in black communities and evolved from other black forms of music, including blues, doo-wop, barbershop, ragtime, bluegrass, jazz, and gospel music. African Americans_sentence_459

African-American-derived musical forms have also influenced and been incorporated into virtually every other popular music genre in the world, including country and techno. African Americans_sentence_460

African-American genres are the most important ethnic vernacular tradition in America, as they have developed independent of African traditions from which they arise more so than any other immigrant groups, including Europeans; make up the broadest and longest lasting range of styles in America; and have, historically, been more influential, interculturally, geographically, and economically, than other American vernacular traditions. African Americans_sentence_461

Dance African Americans_section_31

African Americans have also had an important role in American dance. African Americans_sentence_462

Bill T. Jones, a prominent modern choreographer and dancer, has included historical African-American themes in his work, particularly in the piece "Last Supper at Uncle Tom's Cabin/The Promised Land". African Americans_sentence_463

Likewise, Alvin Ailey's artistic work, including his "Revelations" based on his experience growing up as an African American in the South during the 1930s, has had a significant influence on modern dance. African Americans_sentence_464

Another form of dance, Stepping, is an African-American tradition whose performance and competition has been formalized through the traditionally black fraternities and sororities at universities. African Americans_sentence_465

Literature and academics African Americans_section_32

Many African-American authors have written stories, poems, and essays influenced by their experiences as African Americans. African Americans_sentence_466

African-American literature is a major genre in American literature. African Americans_sentence_467

Famous examples include Langston Hughes, James Baldwin, Richard Wright, Zora Neale Hurston, Ralph Ellison, Nobel Prize winner Toni Morrison, and Maya Angelou. African Americans_sentence_468

African-American inventors have created many widely used devices in the world and have contributed to international innovation. African Americans_sentence_469

Norbert Rillieux created the technique for converting sugar cane juice into white sugar crystals. African Americans_sentence_470

Moreover, Rillieux left Louisiana in 1854 and went to France, where he spent ten years working with the Champollions deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphics from the Rosetta Stone. African Americans_sentence_471

Most slave inventors were nameless, such as the slave owned by the Confederate President Jefferson Davis who designed the ship propeller used by the Confederate navy. African Americans_sentence_472

By 1913, over 1,000 inventions were patented by black Americans. African Americans_sentence_473

Among the most notable inventors were Jan Matzeliger, who developed the first machine to mass-produce shoes, and Elijah McCoy, who invented automatic lubrication devices for steam engines. African Americans_sentence_474

Granville Woods had 35 patents to improve electric railway systems, including the first system to allow moving trains to communicate. African Americans_sentence_475

Garrett A. Morgan developed the first automatic traffic signal and gas mask. African Americans_sentence_476

Lewis Howard Latimer invented an improvement for the incandescent light bulb. African Americans_sentence_477

More recent inventors include Frederick McKinley Jones, who invented the movable refrigeration unit for food transport in trucks and trains. African Americans_sentence_478

Lloyd Quarterman worked with six other black scientists on the creation of the atomic bomb (code named the Manhattan Project.) African Americans_sentence_479

Quarterman also helped develop the first nuclear reactor, which was used in the atomically powered submarine called the Nautilus. African Americans_sentence_480

A few other notable examples include the first successful open heart surgery, performed by Dr. Daniel Hale Williams, and the air conditioner, patented by Frederick McKinley Jones. African Americans_sentence_481

Dr. Mark Dean holds three of the original nine patents on the computer on which all PCs are based. African Americans_sentence_482

More current contributors include Otis Boykin, whose inventions included several novel methods for manufacturing electrical components that found use in applications such as guided missile systems and computers, and Colonel Frederick Gregory, who was not only the first black astronaut pilot but the person who redesigned the cockpits for the last three space shuttles. African Americans_sentence_483

Gregory was also on the team that pioneered the microwave instrumentation landing system. African Americans_sentence_484

Terminology African Americans_section_33

General African Americans_section_34

The term African American carries important political overtones. African Americans_sentence_485

Earlier terms used to describe Americans of African ancestry referred more to skin color than to ancestry, and were conferred upon the group by colonists and Americans of European ancestry; people with dark skins were considered inferior in fact and in law. African Americans_sentence_486

Other terms (such as colored, person of color, or negro) were included in the wording of various laws and legal decisions which some thought were being used as tools of white supremacy and oppression. African Americans_sentence_487

A 16-page pamphlet entitled "A Sermon on the Capture of Lord Cornwallis" is notable for the attribution of its authorship to "An African American". African Americans_sentence_488

Published in 1782, the book's use of this phrase predates any other yet identified by more than 50 years. African Americans_sentence_489

In the 1980s, the term African American was advanced on the model of, for example, German American or Irish American, to give descendants of American slaves, and other American blacks who lived through the slavery era, a heritage and a cultural base. African Americans_sentence_490

The term was popularized in black communities around the country via word of mouth and ultimately received mainstream use after Jesse Jackson publicly used the term in front of a national audience in 1988. African Americans_sentence_491

Subsequently, major media outlets adopted its use. African Americans_sentence_492

Surveys show that the majority of Black Americans have no preference for African American versus Black American, although they have a slight preference for the latter in personal settings and the former in more formal settings. African Americans_sentence_493

Many African Americans have expressed a preference for the term African American because it was formed in the same way as the terms for the many other ethnic groups currently living in the United States. African Americans_sentence_494

Some argued further that, because of the historical circumstances surrounding the capture, enslavement, and systematic attempts to de-Africanize blacks in the United States under chattel slavery, most African Americans are unable to trace their ancestry to any specific African nation; hence, the entire continent serves as a geographic marker. African Americans_sentence_495

The term African American embraces pan-Africanism as earlier enunciated by prominent African thinkers such as Marcus Garvey, W. African Americans_sentence_496 E. B. African Americans_sentence_497 Du Bois, and George Padmore. African Americans_sentence_498

The term Afro-Usonian, and variations of such, are more rarely used. African Americans_sentence_499

Official identity African Americans_section_35

Since 1977, in an attempt to keep up with changing social opinion, the United States government has officially classified black people (revised to black or African American in 1997) as "having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa." African Americans_sentence_500

Other federal offices, such as the U.S. African Americans_sentence_501 Census Bureau, adhere to the Office of Management and Budget standards on race in their data collection and tabulation efforts. African Americans_sentence_502

In preparation for the 2010 U.S. Census, a marketing and outreach plan called 2010 Census Integrated Communications Campaign Plan (ICC) recognized and defined African Americans as black people born in the United States. African Americans_sentence_503

From the ICC perspective, African Americans are one of three groups of black people in the United States. African Americans_sentence_504

The ICC plan was to reach the three groups by acknowledging that each group has its own sense of community that is based on geography and ethnicity. African Americans_sentence_505

The best way to market the census process toward any of the three groups is to reach them through their own unique communication channels and not treat the entire black population of the U.S. as though they are all African Americans with a single ethnic and geographical background. African Americans_sentence_506

The Federal Bureau of Investigation of the U.S. African Americans_sentence_507 Department of Justice categorizes black or African American people as "[a] person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa" through racial categories used in the UCR Program adopted from the Statistical Policy Handbook (1978) and published by the Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards, U.S. African Americans_sentence_508 Department of Commerce, derived from the 1977 Office of Management and Budget classification. African Americans_sentence_509

Admixture African Americans_section_36

See also: Miscegenation § United States, Multiracial American, One-drop rule, and hypodescent African Americans_sentence_510

Historically, "race mixing" between black and white people was taboo in the United States. African Americans_sentence_511

So-called anti-miscegenation laws, barring blacks and whites from marrying or having sex, were established in colonial America as early as 1691, and endured in many Southern states until the Supreme Court ruled them unconstitutional in Loving v. Virginia (1967). African Americans_sentence_512

The taboo among American whites surrounding white-black relations is a historical consequence of the oppression and racial segregation of African Americans. African Americans_sentence_513

Historian David Brion Davis notes the racial mixing that occurred during slavery was frequently attributed by the planter class to the "lower-class white males" but Davis concludes that "there is abundant evidence that many slaveowners, sons of slaveowners, and overseers took black mistresses or in effect raped the wives and daughters of slave families." African Americans_sentence_514

A famous example was Thomas Jefferson's mistress, Sally Hemings. African Americans_sentence_515

Harvard University historian Henry Louis Gates Jr. wrote in 2009 that "African Americans…are a racially mixed or mulatto people—deeply and overwhelmingly so" (see genetics). African Americans_sentence_516

After the Emancipation Proclamation, Chinese American men married African American women in high proportions to their total marriage numbers due to few Chinese American women being in the United States. African Americans_sentence_517

African slaves and their descendants have also had a history of cultural exchange and intermarriage with Native Americans, although they did not necessarily retain social, cultural or linguistic ties to Native peoples. African Americans_sentence_518

There are also increasing intermarriages and offspring between non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics of any race, especially between Puerto Ricans and African Americans (American-born blacks). African Americans_sentence_519

According to author M.M. Drymon, many African Americans identify as having Scots-Irish ancestry. African Americans_sentence_520

Racially mixed marriages have become increasingly accepted in the United States since the civil rights movement and up to the present day. African Americans_sentence_521

Approval in national opinion polls has risen from 36% in 1978, to 48% in 1991, 65% in 2002, 77% in 2007. African Americans_sentence_522

A Gallup poll conducted in 2013 found that 84% of whites and 96% of blacks approved of interracial marriage, and 87% overall. African Americans_sentence_523

At the end of World War II, African American men married Japanese women in Japan and immigrated to the United States. African Americans_sentence_524

Terminology dispute African Americans_section_37

In her book The End of Blackness, as well as in an essay on the liberal website Salon, author Debra Dickerson has argued that the term black should refer strictly to the descendants of Africans who were brought to America as slaves, and not to the sons and daughters of black immigrants who lack that ancestry. African Americans_sentence_525

Thus, under her definition, President Barack Obama, who is the son of a Kenyan immigrant, is not black. African Americans_sentence_526

She makes the argument that grouping all people of African descent together regardless of their unique ancestral circumstances would inevitably deny the lingering effects of slavery within the American community of slave descendants, in addition to denying black immigrants recognition of their own unique ancestral backgrounds. African Americans_sentence_527

"Lumping us all together," Dickerson wrote, "erases the significance of slavery and continuing racism while giving the appearance of progress." African Americans_sentence_528

Similar viewpoints have been expressed by Stanley Crouch in a New York Daily News piece, Charles Steele, Jr. of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and African-American columnist David Ehrenstein of the Los Angeles Times, who accused white liberals of flocking to blacks who were Magic Negros, a term that refers to a black person with no past who simply appears to assist the mainstream white (as cultural protagonists/drivers) agenda. African Americans_sentence_529

Ehrenstein went on to say "He's there to assuage white 'guilt' they feel over the role of slavery and racial segregation in American history." African Americans_sentence_530

Former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice (who was famously mistaken for a "recent American immigrant" by French President Nicolas Sarkozy), said "descendants of slaves did not get much of a head start, and I think you continue to see some of the effects of that." African Americans_sentence_531

She has also rejected an immigrant designation for African Americans and instead prefers the term black or white to denote the African and European U.S. founding populations. African Americans_sentence_532

Terms no longer in common use African Americans_section_38

Before the independence of the Thirteen Colonies until the abolition of slavery in 1865, an African-American slave was commonly known as a negro. African Americans_sentence_533

Free negro was the legal status in the territory of an African-American person who was not a slave. African Americans_sentence_534

The term colored later also began to be used until the second quarter of the 20th century, when it was considered outmoded and generally gave way again to the exclusive use of negro. African Americans_sentence_535

By the 1940s, the term was commonly capitalized (Negro); but by the mid-1960s, it was considered disparaging. African Americans_sentence_536

By the end of the 20th century, negro had come to be considered inappropriate and was rarely used and perceived as a pejorative. African Americans_sentence_537

The term is rarely used by younger black people, but remained in use by many older African Americans who had grown up with the term, particularly in the southern U.S. African Americans_sentence_538

The term remains in use in some contexts, such as the United Negro College Fund, an American philanthropic organization that funds scholarships for black students and general scholarship funds for 39 private historically black colleges and universities. African Americans_sentence_539

There are many other deliberately insulting terms, many of which were in common use (e.g., nigger), but had become unacceptable in normal discourse before the end of the 20th century. African Americans_sentence_540

One exception is the use, among the black community, of the slur nigger rendered as nigga, representing the pronunciation of the word in African-American English. African Americans_sentence_541

This usage has been popularized by American rap and hip-hop music cultures and is used as part of an in-group lexicon and speech. African Americans_sentence_542

It is not necessarily derogatory and, when used among black people, the word is often used to mean "homie" or "friend." African Americans_sentence_543

Acceptance of intra-group usage of the word nigga is still debated, although it has established a foothold among younger generations. African Americans_sentence_544

The NAACP denounces the use of both nigga and nigger. African Americans_sentence_545

Mixed-race usage of nigga is still considered taboo, particularly if the speaker is white. African Americans_sentence_546

However, trends indicate that usage of the term in intragroup settings is increasing even among white youth due to the popularity of rap and hip hop culture. African Americans_sentence_547

See also African Americans_section_39

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Americans.