Afro-Brazilians

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
(Redirected from Afro-Brazilian)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Afro-Brazilians_table_infobox_0

Afro-BraziliansAfro-Brazilians_table_caption_0
Afro-BrasileirosAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_0_0_0
Total populationAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_0_1_0
Regions with significant populationsAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_0_2_0
LanguagesAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_0_3_0
ReligionAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_0_4_0

Afro-Brazilians (Portuguese: afro-brasileiros; Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈafɾu bɾɐziˈle(j)ɾuz) are Brazilians who have predominantly African ancestry (see "preto"). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_0

Most members of another group of people, multiracial Brazilians or pardos, may also have a range of degree of African ancestry. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_1

Depending on the circumstances (situation, locality, etc.), the ones whose African features are more evident are always or frequently seen by others as "africans" - consequently identifying themselves as such, while the ones whom this evidence is lesser may not be seen as such so regularly. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_2

It is important to note that the term pardo, such as preto, is rarely used outside the census spectrum. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_3

Brazilian society has a range of words, including negro itself, to describe multiracial people. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_4

Preto and pardo are among five ethnic categories used by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, along with branco ("white"), amarelo ("yellow", East Asian) and indígena (Native American). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_5

In 2010, 7.6% of the Brazilian population, some 15 million people, identified as preto, while 43% (86 million) identified as pardo. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_6

Brazilians have a complex classification system based on the prominence of skin and hair pigmentation, as well as other features associated with the concept of race (raça). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_7

Since the early 21st century, Brazilian government agencies such as the Special Secretariat for Policies to Promote Racial Equality (SEPPIR) and the Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA), have considered combining the categories preto and pardo (individual with varied racial ancestries), as a single category called negro (Black, capital initial), because both groups show socioeconomic indications of discrimination. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_8

They suggest doing so would make it easier to help people who have been closed out of opportunity. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_9

This decision has caused much controversy because there is no consensus about it in Brazilian society. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_10

Brazilians rarely use the American-style phrase "African Brazilian" as a term of ethnic identity and never in informal discourse: the IBGE's July 1998 PME shows that, of Black Brazilians, only about 10% identify as being of "African origin"; most identify as being of "Brazilian origin". Afro-Brazilians_sentence_11

In the July 1998 PME, the categories Afro-Brasileiro (Afro-Brazilian) and Africano Brasileiro (African Brazilian) were not chosen at all; the category Africano (African) was selected by 0.004% of the respondents. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_12

In the 1976 National Household Sample (PNAD), none of these terms was used even once. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_13

Brazilian geneticist Sérgio Pena has criticised American scholar Edward Telles for lumping pretos and pardos in the same category. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_14

According to him, "the autosomal genetic analysis that we have performed in non-related individuals from Rio de Janeiro shows that it does not make any sense to put pretos and pardos in the same category". Afro-Brazilians_sentence_15

As SOME pardos are primarily of European ancestry, Pena questioned studying them together with pretos, who are primarily of African ancestry. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_16

For example, an autosomal genetic study of students in a school in the poor periphery of Rio de Janeiro found that the pardos among the students were found to be on average more than 40% European in ancestry. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_17

Before testing, the students identified (when asked) as ⅓ European, ⅓ African and ⅓ Native American. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_18

According to Edward Telles, three different systems related to "racial classification" along the White-Black continuum are used in Brazil. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_19

The first is the Census System, which distinguishes three categories: branco (White), pardo, and preto. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_20

The second is the popular social system that uses many different categories, including the ambiguous term moreno (literally meaning "tanned", "brunette", or "with an olive complexion"). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_21

The third is the Black movement, which distinguishes only two categories, summing up pardos and pretos ("blacks", lowercase) as negros ("Blacks", with capital initial), and putting all others as "whites". Afro-Brazilians_sentence_22

More recently, the term afrodescendente has been adopted for use, but it is restricted to very formal discourse, such as governmental or academic discussions, being viewed by some as a cultural imposition from the "politically correct speech" common in the United States. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_23

Brazilian race/colour categories Afro-Brazilians_section_0

Main article: Race and ethnicity in Brazil Afro-Brazilians_sentence_24

The first system referred by Telles is that of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_25

In the Census, respondents may identify their ethnicity or color from five categories: branca (white), parda (brown), preta (black), amarela (yellow) or indígena (indigenous). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_26

The term parda needs further explanation; it has been systematically used since the Census of 1940. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_27

In that census, people were asked for their "colour or race"; if the answer was not "White", "preta" (black), or "Yellow", interviewers were instructed to fill the "colour or race" box with a slash. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_28

These slashes were later summed up in the category pardo. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_29

In practice this means answers such as pardo, moreno, mulato, caboclo etc., all indicating mixed race. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_30

In the following censuses, pardo was added as a category on its own, and included Amerindians. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_31

The latter were defined as a separate category only in 1991. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_32

It is a term for people of color who are lighter than blacks, and does not imply a black-white mixture, as there are some entirely indigenous persons. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_33

Telles' second system is that of popular classification. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_34

Two IBGE surveys made more than 20 years apart (the 1976 National Household Sample Survey (PNAD) and the July 1998 Monthly Employment Survey (PME) have been analyzed to assess how Brazilians think of themselves in racial terms. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_35

The IBGE thought the data might be used to adjust classifications on the census (neither survey, however, resulted in changes to the Census classifications). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_36

Data Folha has also conducted research on this subject. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_37

The results of these surveys are somewhat varied, but seem to coincide in some fundamental aspects. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_38

First, a great number of racial terms are in use in Brazil, indicating a flexibility in thinking about the topic. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_39

The 1976 PNAD found that people responded with a total of 136 different terms to the question about race; the July 1998 PME found 143. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_40

However, most of these terms are used by small numbers of people. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_41

Telles notes that 95% of the population used one of 6 different terms for people of color and at least some African ancestry (branco, moreno, pardo, moreno-claro, preto and negro). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_42

Petruccelli shows that the 7 most common responses (the above plus amarela) sum up 97% of responses, and the 10 most common (the previous plus mulata, clara, and morena-escura - dark brunette) make 99%. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_43

Petruccelli, analysing the July 98 PME, finds that 77 denominations were mentioned by only one person in the sample. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_44

Twelve are misunderstandings, as respondents used terms of national or regional origin (francesa, italiana, baiana, cearense). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_45

Many of the racial terms are (or could be) remarks about the relation between skin colour and exposure to sun (amorenada, bem morena, branca-morena, branca-queimada, corada, bronzeada, meio morena, morena-bronzeada, morena-trigueira, morenada, morenão, moreninha, pouco morena, queimada, queimada de sol, tostada, rosa queimada, tostada). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_46

Others are clearly variations of the same idea (preto, negro, escuro, crioulo, retinto, for black, alva, clara, cor-de-leite, galega, rosa, rosada, pálida, for White, parda, mulata, mestiça, mista, for parda), or refinements of the same concept (branca morena, branca clara), and can be grouped together with one of the chiefly used racial terms without falsifying the interpretation. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_47

Some responses seem to express an outright refusal of classification: azul-marinho ("navy blue"), azul ("blue"), verde ("green"), cor-de-burro-quando-foge. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_48

In the July 1998 PME, the categories Afro-Brasileiro ("Afro-Brazilian") and Africano Brasileiro ("African Brazilian") were not used at all; the category Africano ("African") was used by 0.004% of the respondents. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_49

In the 1976 PNAD, none of these terms was used even once. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_50

The notable difference in the popular system is the widespread use of the term moreno. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_51

This is difficult to translate into English, and carries a few different meanings. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_52

Derived from Latin maurus, meaning inhabitant of Mauritania, it has traditionally been used to distinguish White people with dark hair, as opposed to ruivo ("redhead") and loiro ("blonde"). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_53

It is also commonly used as a term for people with an olive complexion, a characteristic that is often found in connection with dark hair. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_54

In this connection, it is applied as a term for suntanned people, and is commonly opposed to pálido ("pale") and amarelo ("yellow"), which in this case refer to people who are not frequently exposed to sun. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_55

Finally, it is also often used as a euphemism for pardo and preto. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_56

Finally, the Black movement has combined the groups pardos and pretos as a single category of negro (it does not use Afro-brasileiro or any other hyphenated form). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_57

This appears to be similar to the Black Power movement in the United States, or, historically, the discriminatory one drop rule. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_58

But in Brazil, the Black movement understands that not everybody with some African ancestry is Black. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_59

It knows that many White Brazilians have African (or Amerindian, or both) ancestrys – so a "one drop rule" isn't what the Black movement envisages, as it would make affirmative actions impossible. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_60

Second, the main issue for the Black movement is not cultural, but rather economic: its members are not seeking a supposed cultural identification with Africa, but rather to rectify a situation of economic disadvantage, common to those who are non-White (with the exception of those of East Asian ancestry), that groups them into a negro category. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_61

However, this effort to divide Brazilians between brancos and negros is seen as influenced by American one-drop rule, and attracts much criticism. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_62

For instance, sociologist Demétrio Magnoli considers classifying all pretos and pardos as Blacks as an assault on the racial vision of Brazilians. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_63

He believes that scholars and activists of the Black movement misinterpret the ample variety of intermediate categories, characteristic of the popular system, to be a result of Brazilian racism, and that causes Blacks to refuse their identity and hide in euphemisms. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_64

Magnoli refers to a survey about race, conducted in the town of Rio de Contas, Bahia, in which the choice of pardo was replaced by moreno. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_65

The town has about 14,000 people, 58% of whom White. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_66

Not only pardos chose the moreno category, but also almost half of the people who previously had identified as white, and half the people previously identified as pretos also choose the moreno category. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_67

Afro-Brazilians_table_general_1

Self-reported ancestry of people from Rio de Janeiro, by race or skin color (2000 survey)Afro-Brazilians_table_caption_1
AncestryAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_1_0_0 brancosAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_1_0_1 pardosAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_1_0_2 pretosAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_1_0_3
European onlyAfro-Brazilians_cell_1_1_0 48%Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_1_1 6%Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_1_2 -Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_1_3
African onlyAfro-Brazilians_cell_1_2_0 Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_2_1 12%Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_2_2 25%Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_2_3
Amerindian onlyAfro-Brazilians_cell_1_3_0 Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_3_1 2%Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_3_2 -Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_3_3
African and EuropeanAfro-Brazilians_cell_1_4_0 23%Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_4_1 34%Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_4_2 31%Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_4_3
Amerindian and EuropeanAfro-Brazilians_cell_1_5_0 14%Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_5_1 6%Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_5_2 -Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_5_3
African and AmerindianAfro-Brazilians_cell_1_6_0 Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_6_1 4%Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_6_2 9%Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_6_3
African, Amerindian and EuropeanAfro-Brazilians_cell_1_7_0 15%Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_7_1 36%Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_7_2 35%Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_7_3
TotalAfro-Brazilians_cell_1_8_0 100%Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_8_1 100%Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_8_2 100%Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_8_3
Any AfricanAfro-Brazilians_cell_1_9_0 38%Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_9_1 86%Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_9_2 100%Afro-Brazilians_cell_1_9_3

According to a 2000 survey held in Rio de Janeiro, the entire self-reported preto population reported to have African ancestry. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_68

86% of the self-reported pardo and 38% of the self-reported White population reported to have African ancestors. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_69

It is notable that 14% of the pardos (brown) from Rio de Janeiro said they have no African ancestors. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_70

This percentage may be even higher in Northern Brazil, where there was a greater ethnic contribution from Amerindian populations. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_71

Racial classifications in Brazil are based on skin color and on other physical characteristics such as facial features, hair texture, etc. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_72

This is a poor scientific indication of ancestry, because only a few genes are responsible for someone's skin color: a person who is considered White may have more African ancestry than a person who is considered Black, and vice versa. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_73

But, as race is a social construct, these classifications relate to how people are perceived and perceive themselves in society. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_74

In Brazil, class and economic status also affect how individuals are perceived. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_75

Conception of Black and prejudice Afro-Brazilians_section_1

In Brazil, a person's race is based primarily on physical appearance. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_76

In Brazil it is possible for two siblings of different colors to be classified as people of different races. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_77

Children who are born to a black mother and a European father would be classified as black if their features read as African, and classified as white if their features appeared more European. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_78

With no strict criteria for racial classifications, lighter-skinned mulattoes (who obviously were descendants of some Europeans) were easily integrated into the white population. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_79

Historically, Europeans took African women as concubines or sexual partners, resulting in mulatto children. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_80

Through years of integration and racial assimilation, a white Brazilian population has developed with more historic African ancestry, as well as a black population with European ancestry. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_81

In the United States, slavery became a racial caste, and children of slave mothers were considered born into slavery. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_82

The efforts to enforce white supremacy after the Civil War and Reconstruction resulted in southern states adopting a one drop rule at the turn of the 20th century, so that people with any known African ancestry were automatically classified as Black, regardless of skin color. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_83

At the same time, the United States was receiving millions of European immigrants. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_84

In the 21st century, many Black Americans have some degree of European ancestry, while few white Americans have African ancestry. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_85

The Brazilian approach to classification by visible features is criticized by geneticist Sérgio Pena: "Only a few genes are responsible for someone's skin colour, which is a very poor indication of ancestry. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_86

A white person could have more African genes than a black one or vice versa, especially in a country like Brazil". Afro-Brazilians_sentence_87

Sociologist Simon Schwartzman points out that to "substitute negro for preto, suppressing the pardo alternative would mean to impose unto Brazil a vision of the racial issue as a dichotomy, similar to that of the United States, which would not be true." Afro-Brazilians_sentence_88

A 2007 study found that White workers received an average monthly income almost twice that of blacks and pardos (browns). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_89

The blacks and browns earned on average 1.8 minimum wages, while the whites had a yield of 3.4 minimum wages. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_90

Gilberto Freyre has described that few wealthy Brazilians admit to having African ancestry. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_91

People of darker complexion from the dominant classes usually associate their skin color with an Amerindian rather than African ancestry. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_92

Revaluation of Black identity Afro-Brazilians_section_2

In the last years, Brazil has been undergoing a process of redemption of its Black identity. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_93

This process was also reflected in national censuses. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_94

Each year the percentage of Brazilians who self-report to be non-Whites (pretos or pardos) is growing, while there is a decrease of the population that self-reports to be White. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_95

According to IBGE this is because of the "revaluation of the identity of historically discriminated ethnic groups". Afro-Brazilians_sentence_96

In the social context of Brazil, where Blacks are seen as suffering higher rates of poverty, disease, crime and violence, to claim Black identity was unusual. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_97

This trend is being changed for many reasons. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_98

First of all, it was because of the direct influence of African Americans, who are seen by Brazilians as the "race victory". Afro-Brazilians_sentence_99

It was also because of the social mobility of many Black Brazilians, through education and expansion of employment opportunities. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_100

If before only the very dark Blacks would be considered pretos by Brazilian standards of race, this ethnic revaluation is now also affecting many Mulattos. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_101

Brazilians in general may be willing to affirm their European ancestry, and any person with a significant amount of European ancestry was systematically classified as White. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_102

Thus, it was extremely difficult for the Mulattoes jump to the Black side of their dual nature, because they rarely wanted to be confused with the mass of poor Blacks that makes up the racial imaginary of Brazilians. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_103

. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_104

The Brazilian racism is peculiar, because the widespread miscegenation has not formed a racial democracy, due to the strong anti-Black oppression, prejudice and discrimination that it has. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_105

According to Darcy Ribeiro, the Brazilian racist assimilationism is perverse because it gives the impression that there is a greater social acceptance of people of color. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_106

He suggests that by dividing the African-descended population into ranges of skin colors, ethnic solidarity is reduced and they lose political power. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_107

He contrasts it with the racial segregation in the United States, which ultimately united all the population of African descent, regardless of skin color. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_108

He believes they developed a deep internal solidarity of the discriminated group, which enabled many to fight for their civil rights. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_109

But Ribeiro also says that what he describes as the US Apartheid model is worse than Brazilian assimilationism when other aspects are considered). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_110

The Government of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva created the "Ministry for racial equality," seeking to express work for civil rights in their policies. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_111

His administration established quotas in universities to encourage admission of Black students. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_112

These measures have been advocated by a part of Brazilian society that believes Blacks are socially disadvantaged and deserves government incentives. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_113

Encouraging a Black identity is a way to promote political unity of this population to fight against poverty and discrimination. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_114

Another portion is against such measures. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_115

Sociologist Demétrio Magnoli worries that to encourage the division of the Brazilian population in races and to privilege a certain segment of the society is dangerous, as it would promote racial rather than national identification, leading to more violence and segregation. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_116

Affirmative action issue Afro-Brazilians_section_3

In recent years, the Brazilian government has encouraged affirmative action programs for persons considered to be "African-descendant" and also for Amerindians. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_117

This is happening, in part, through the created systems of preferred admissions (quotas) for racial minorities. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_118

Other measures include priority in land reform for areas populated by remnants of quilombos. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_119

The government notes that these groups have historically been discriminated against because of slavery and the Portuguese conquest of the indigenous peoples. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_120

They became landless and are represented among the poorest segments of Brazilian society, while the European or White population dominates the upper classes. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_121

Such efforts in affirmative action have been criticized because of the ambiguity of racial classification in Brazil. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_122

Some people have tried to use this system for personal advantage. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_123

In 2007, the twin brothers Alex and Alan Teixeira applied for places in the University of Brasília through quotas reserved for "Black students". Afro-Brazilians_sentence_124

In the university, a team of specialists and professors used photos of the candidates to determine who was Black or not. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_125

The Teixeira brothers were identical twins, but in this process, only Alan was classified as Black, while his identical brother Alex, whose application was reviewed by different people, was not accepted in this program. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_126

Since that case, affirmative action has been widely criticized as a governmental program. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_127

Given the high degree of miscegenation of the Brazilian people, critics say the definition of who is Black or not is very subjective. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_128

Magnoli describes Brazilian society as not divided between races, but between the poor and the rich, while acknowledging that it is widely agreed that people of darker skin color have suffered an "additional discrimination". Afro-Brazilians_sentence_129

History Afro-Brazilians_section_4

Main article: Slavery in Brazil Afro-Brazilians_sentence_130

Slavery Afro-Brazilians_section_5

Iberian explorers and early slavery in the Americas Afro-Brazilians_section_6

The first Spaniards and Portuguese explorers in the Americas initially enslaved Amerindian populations. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_131

Sometimes this labor was available through existing Native American states that fell under the control of invading Europeans; in other cases, Native American states provided the labor force. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_132

In the case of the Portuguese, the weakness of the political systems of the Tupi-Guarani Amerindian groups they conquered on the Brazilian coastline, and the inexperience of these Amerindians with systematic peasant labor, made them easy to exploit through non-coercive labor arrangements. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_133

However, several factors prevented the system of Amerindian slavery from being sustained in Brazil. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_134

For example, Native American populations were not numerous or accessible enough to meet all demands of the settlers for labor. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_135

In many cases, exposure to European diseases caused high fatalities among the Amerindian population, to such an extent that workers became scarce. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_136

Historians estimate that about 30,000 Amerindians under the rule of the Portuguese died in a smallpox epidemic in the 1560s. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_137

The Iberian conquerors could not attract sufficient settlers from their own countries to the colonies and, after 1570, they began increasingly to import slaves from Africa as a primary labor force. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_138

African slavery in the Americas Afro-Brazilians_section_7

Over nearly three centuries from the late 1500s to the 1860s, Brazil was consistently the largest destination for African slaves in the Americas. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_139

In that period, approximately 4.9 million enslaved Africans were imported to Brazil. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_140

Brazilian slavery included a diverse range of labor roles. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_141

For example, gold mining in Brazil began to grow around 1690 in interior regions of Brazil, such as modern-day region of Minas Gerais. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_142

Slaves in Brazil also worked on sugar plantations, such as those found in the Captaincy of Pernambuco. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_143

Other products of slave labor in Brazil during that era in Brazilian history included tobacco, textiles, and cachaça, which were often vital items traded in exchange for slaves on the African continent. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_144

Slave life, Creole populations, and abolition Afro-Brazilians_section_8

The nature of the work that slaves did had a direct effect on aspects of slaves' lives such as life expectancy and family formation. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_145

An example from an early inventory of African slaves (1569–71) from the plantation of Sergipe do Conde in Bahia shows that he owned nineteen males and one female. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_146

These uneven gender-ratios combined with the high mortality rate related to the physical duress that working in a mine or on a sugar plantation (for example) could have on a slave's body. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_147

The effect was often that many New World slave economies, including Brazil, relied on a constant importation of new slaves to replace those who had died. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_148

Despite the changes in the slave population demographic related to the constant importation of slaves through the 1860s, a creole generation in the African population emerged in Brazil. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_149

By 1800, Brazil had the largest single population of African and creole slaves in any one colony in America. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_150

In 1888 Brazil abolished slavery. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_151

Afro-Brazilians_table_general_2

Estimated disembarkment of Africans in Brazil from 1781 to 1855Afro-Brazilians_table_caption_2
PeriodAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_2_0_0 Place of arrivalAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_2_0_1
Total in BrazilAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_2_1_0 South of

BahiaAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_2_1_1

BahiaAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_2_1_2 North of

BahiaAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_2_1_3

Total periodAfro-Brazilians_cell_2_2_0 2.113.900Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_2_1 1.314.900Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_2_2 409.000Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_2_3 390.000Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_2_4
1781–1785Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_3_0 63.100Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_3_1 34.800Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_3_2 ...Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_3_3 28.300Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_3_4
1786–1790Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_4_0 97.800Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_4_1 44.800Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_4_2 20.300Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_4_3 32.700Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_4_4
1791–1795Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_5_0 125.000Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_5_1 47.600Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_5_2 34.300Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_5_3 43.100Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_5_4
1796–1800Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_6_0 108.700Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_6_1 45.100Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_6_2 36.200Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_6_3 27.400Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_6_4
1801–1805Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_7_0 117.900Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_7_1 50.100Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_7_2 36.300Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_7_3 31.500Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_7_4
1806–1810Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_8_0 123.500Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_8_1 58.300Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_8_2 39.100Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_8_3 26.100Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_8_4
1811–1815Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_9_0 139.400Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_9_1 78.700Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_9_2 36.400Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_9_3 24.300Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_9_4
1816–1820Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_10_0 188.300Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_10_1 95.700Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_10_2 34.300Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_10_3 58.300Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_10_4
1821–1825Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_11_0 181.200Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_11_1 120.100Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_11_2 23.700Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_11_3 37.400Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_11_4
1826–1830Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_12_0 250.200Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_12_1 176.100Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_12_2 47.900Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_12_3 26.200Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_12_4
1831–1835Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_13_0 93.700Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_13_1 57.800Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_13_2 16.700Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_13_3 19.200Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_13_4
1836–1840Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_14_0 240.600Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_14_1 202.800Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_14_2 15.800Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_14_3 22.000Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_14_4
1841–1845Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_15_0 120.900Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_15_1 90.800Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_15_2 21.100Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_15_3 9.000Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_15_4
1846–1850Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_16_0 257.500Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_16_1 208.900Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_16_2 45.000Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_16_3 3.600Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_16_4
1851–1855Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_17_0 6.100Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_17_1 3.300Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_17_2 1.900Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_17_3 900Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_17_4
Note: "South of Bahia" means "from Espírito Santo to Rio Grande do Sul" States; "North of Bahia" means "from Sergipe to Amapá States"Afro-Brazilians_cell_2_18_0

Afro-Brazilians_table_general_3

African disembarkments in Brazil, from 1500 to 1855Afro-Brazilians_table_caption_3
PeriodAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_3_0_0 1500–1700Afro-Brazilians_cell_3_0_1 1701–1760Afro-Brazilians_cell_3_0_2 1761–1829Afro-Brazilians_cell_3_0_3 1830–1855Afro-Brazilians_cell_3_0_4
NumbersAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_3_1_0 510,000Afro-Brazilians_cell_3_1_1 958,000Afro-Brazilians_cell_3_1_2 1,720,000Afro-Brazilians_cell_3_1_3 618,000Afro-Brazilians_cell_3_1_4

Travel Afro-Brazilians_section_9

In Africa, about 40% of Blacks died on the route between the areas of capture and the African coast. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_152

Another 15% died in the ships crossing the Atlantic Ocean between Africa and Brazil. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_153

From the Atlantic coast, the journey could take from 33 to 43 days. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_154

From Mozambique it could take as many as 76 days. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_155

Once in Brazil, from 10 to 12% of the slaves also died in the places where they were taken to be bought by their future masters. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_156

In consequence, only 45% of the Africans captured in Africa to become slaves in Brazil survived. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_157

Darcy Ribeiro estimated that, in this process, some 12 million Africans were captured to be brought to Brazil, even though the majority of them died before becoming slaves in the country. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_158

Violence and resistance Afro-Brazilians_section_10

The African slaves in Brazil were known to have suffered various types of physical violence. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_159

Lashes on the back was the most common repressive measure. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_160

About 40 lashes per day were common and they prevented the mutilation of slaves. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_161

The colonial chroniclers recorded the extreme violence and sadism of White women against female slaves, usually due to jealousy or to prevent a relationship between their husbands and the slaves. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_162

Military service to the crown Afro-Brazilians_section_11

Blacks served in the militias and during the Dutch occupation of Brazil in the seventeenth century, Henrique Dias was a distinguished leader of black militiamen. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_163

For his service to the crown, he was accorded the knighthood of the Order of Christ. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_164

Dias gained the freedom for the enslaved men who served with him, and the military unit was given all the rights and privileges of white units. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_165

Origins of Blacks in Brazil Afro-Brazilians_section_12

The Africans brought to Brazil belonged to two major groups: the West African and the Bantu people. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_166

The West Africans mostly belong to the Yoruba people, who became known as the "nagô". Afro-Brazilians_sentence_167

The word derives from ànàgó, a derogatory term used by the Dahomey to refer to Yoruba-speaking people. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_168

The Dahomey enslaved and sold large numbers of Yoruba, large of Oyo heritage. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_169

Slaves descended from the Yoruba are strongly associated with the Candomblé religious tradition. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_170

Other slaves belonged to the Fon people and other neighboring ethnic groups. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_171

Bantu people were mostly brought from present-day Angola and the Congo, most belonging to the Bakongo or Ambundu ethnic groups. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_172

Bantu slaves were also taken from the Shona kingdoms of Zimbabwe and coastal Mozambique. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_173

They were sent in large scale to Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, and Northeastern Brazil. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_174

Gilberto Freyre noted the major differences between these groups. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_175

Some Sudanese peoples, such as Hausa, Fula and others, were Islamic and spoke Arabic and many of them could read and write in this language. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_176

Among Muslim slaves were brought from northern Mozambique. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_177

Freyre noted that many slaves were better educated than their masters, because many Muslim slaves were literate in Arabic, while many Portuguese Brazilian masters could not read or write in Portuguese. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_178

These slaves of greater Arab and Berber influence were largely sent to Bahia. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_179

These Muslim slaves, known as Malê in Brazil, produced one of the greatest slave revolts in the Americas, known as the Malê Revolt, when in 1835 they tried to take control of Salvador, until then the largest city of the American continent, and all of the New World. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_180

Despite the large influx of Islamic slaves, most of the slaves in Brazil were brought from the Bantu regions of the Atlantic coast of Africa where today Congo and Angola are located, and also from Mozambique. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_181

In general, these people lived in tribes, kingdoms or city-states. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_182

The people from Congo had developed agriculture, raised livestock, domesticated animals such as goat, pig, chicken and dog and produced sculpture in wood. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_183

Some groups from Angola were nomadic and did not know agriculture. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_184

Afro-Brazilians_unordered_list_0

  • Afro-Brazilians_item_0_0
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_0_1
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_0_2
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_0_3

Abolition of slavery Afro-Brazilians_section_13

According to Petrônio Domingues, by 1887 the slave struggles pointed to a real possibility of widespread insurrection. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_185

On 23 October, in São Paulo, for instance, there were violent confrontations between the police and rioting Blacks, who chanted "long life freedom" and "death to the slaveowners". Afro-Brazilians_sentence_186

The president of the province, Rodrigues Alves, reported the situation as following: Afro-Brazilians_sentence_187

Afro-Brazilians_description_list_1

  • The massive flight of slaves from several fazendas threatens, in some places in the province, public order, alarming the proprietaries and the productive classes.Afro-Brazilians_item_1_4

Uprisings erupted in Itu, Campinas, Indaiatuba, Amparo, Piracicaba and Capivari; ten thousand fugitive slaves grouped in Santos. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_188

Flights were happening in daylight, guns were spotted among the fugitives, who, instead of hiding from police, seemed ready to engage in confrontation. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_189

It was as a response to such situation that, on 13 May 1888, slavery was abolished, as a means to restore order and the control of the ruling class, in a situation in which the slave system was almost completely disorganised. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_190

As an abolitionist newspaper, O Rebate, put it, ten years later, Afro-Brazilians_sentence_191

Afro-Brazilians_description_list_2

  • Had the slaves not fled en masse from the plantations, rebelling against their masters ... Had they not, more than 20,000 of them, gone to the famous quilombo of Jabaquara (out of Santos, itself a center of abolitionist agitation), then maybe they would still be slaves today ... Slavery ended because slaves no longer wanted to be slaves, because slaves rebelled against their masters and against the law that enslaved them ... The law of 13 May was nothing more than the legal recognition – so as not to discredit public authority – of an act that had already been accomplished by the mass revolt of slaves.Afro-Brazilians_item_2_5

Evolution of the African population in Brazil Afro-Brazilians_section_14

Before abolition, the growth of the black population was mainly due to the acquisition of new slaves from Africa. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_192

In Brazil, the black population had a negative growth. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_193

This was due to the low life expectancy of the slaves, which was around seven years. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_194

It was also because of the imbalance between the number of men and women. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_195

The vast majority of slaves were men, black women being a minority. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_196

Slaves rarely had a family and the unions between the slaves was hampered due to incessant hours of work. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_197

Another very important factor was that black women were held by white and mixed-race men. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_198

The Portuguese colonization, largely composed of men with very few women resulted in a social context in which white men disputed indigenous or African women. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_199

According to Gilberto Freyre, in colonial Brazilian society the few African women who arrived quickly became concubines, and in some cases, officially wives of the Portuguese settlers. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_200

In large plantations of sugar cane and in the mining areas, the white master often choose the most beautiful black slaves to work inside the house. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_201

These slaves were raped by their masters, producing a very large Mulato population. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_202

The diplomat and ethnologist Richard Burton wrote that "Mulatism became a necessary evil" in the captaincies in the interior of Brazil. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_203

He noticed a "strange aversion to marriage" in the 19th century Minas Gerais, arguing that the colonists preferred to have quick relationships with black slaves rather than a marriage. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_204

According to Darcy Ribeiro the process of miscegenation between whites and blacks in Brazil, in contrast to an idealized racial democracy and a peaceful integration, was a process of sexual domination, in which the white man imposed an unequal relationship using violence because of his prime condition in society. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_205

As an official wife or as a concubine or subjected to a condition of sexual slave, the black woman was the responsible for the growth of the "parda" population. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_206

The non-White population has grown mainly through sexual intercourse between the black female slave and the Portuguese master, which, together with assortative mating, explains the high degree of European ancestry in the black Brazilian population and the high degree of African ancestry in the white population. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_207

Historian Manolo Florentino refutes the idea that a large part of the Brazilian people is a result of the forced relationship between the rich Portuguese colonizer and the Amerindian or African slaves. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_208

According to him, most of the Portuguese settlers in Brazil were poor adventurers from Northern Portugal who immigrated to Brazil alone. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_209

Most of them were men (the proportion was eight or nine men for each woman) and then it was natural that they had relationships with the Amerindian or Black women. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_210

According to him the mixture of races in Brazil, more than a sexual domination of the rich Portuguese master over the poor slaves, was a mixture between the poor Portuguese settlers with the Amerindian and Black women. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_211

The Brazilian population of more evident black physiognomy is more strongly present along the coast, due to the high concentration of slaves working on sugar cane plantations. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_212

Another region that had a strong presence of Africans was the mining areas in the center of Brazil. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_213

Freyre wrote that the states with strongest African presence were Bahia and Minas Gerais, but that there is no region in Brazil where the black people have not penetrated. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_214

Many blacks fled to the hinterland of Brazil, including the Northern region, and met Amerindian and Mameluco populations. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_215

Many of these acculturated blacks were accepted in these communities and taught them the Portuguese language and the European culture. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_216

In these areas the blacks were "agents for transmitting European culture" to those isolated communities in Brazil. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_217

Many blacks mixed with the Amerindian and caboclo women. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_218

Geographic distribution of Black Brazilians Afro-Brazilians_section_15

As of 2007, the Brazilian Metropolitan Area with the largest percentage of people reported as Black was Salvador, Bahia, with 1,869,550 Pardo people (53.8%) and 990,375 pretos (28.5%). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_219

The state of Bahia has also the largest percentage of "pardos" (62.9%) and pretos (15.7%). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_220

Other cities with significant Afro-Brazilian populations are Rio de Janeiro (where a 2013 study estimated that 31.1% of Rio de Janeiro's population is African-descended) and Belo Horizonte. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_221

Genetic studies Afro-Brazilians_section_16

Afro-Brazilians_table_general_4

Genetic origin of Afro-Brazilian population (Perc.% rounded values)Afro-Brazilians_table_caption_4
LineAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_4_0_0 OriginAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_4_0_1 Negros

(Black)|Afro-Brazilians_header_cell_4_0_2

Maternal

(mtDNA)Afro-Brazilians_cell_4_1_0

native AfricanAfro-Brazilians_cell_4_1_1 85%Afro-Brazilians_cell_4_1_2
EuropeAfro-Brazilians_cell_4_2_0 2.5%Afro-Brazilians_cell_4_2_1
Native BrazilianAfro-Brazilians_cell_4_3_0 12.5%Afro-Brazilians_cell_4_3_1
Paternal

(Y chromosome)Afro-Brazilians_cell_4_4_0

native AfricanAfro-Brazilians_cell_4_4_1 48%Afro-Brazilians_cell_4_4_2
EuropeAfro-Brazilians_cell_4_5_0 50%Afro-Brazilians_cell_4_5_1
Native BrazilianAfro-Brazilians_cell_4_6_0 1.6%Afro-Brazilians_cell_4_6_1

A recent genetic study of African Brazilians made for BBC Brasil analysed the DNA of self-reported native Africans from São Paulo. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_222

The research analysed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), that is present in all human beings and passed down with only minor mutations through the maternal line. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_223

The other is the Y chromosome, that is present only in males and passed down with only minor mutations through the paternal line. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_224

Both can show from what part of the world a matrilineal or patrilineal ancestor of a person came from, but one can have in mind that they are only a fraction of the human genome, and reading ancestry from Y chromosome and mtDNA only tells 1/23rd the story, since humans have 23 chromosome pairs in the cellular DNA. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_225

Analysing the Y chromosome, which comes from male ancestors through paternal line, it was concluded that half (50%) of Brazilian "negros" Y chromosomes come from Europe, 48% come from Africa and 1.6% come from Native Americans. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_226

Analysing their mitochondrial DNA, that comes from female ancestors though maternal line, 85% of them come from Africa, 12.5% come from Native Americans and 2.5% come from Europe. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_227

The high level of European ancestry in African Brazilians through paternal line exists because, for much of Brazil's History, there were more Caucasian males than Caucasian females. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_228

So inter-racial relationships between Caucasian males and native African or Native American females were widespread. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_229

Over 75% of Caucasians from North and Northeastern Brazil would have over 10% native African genes, according to this particular study. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_230

Even in Southeastern and Southern Brazil, regions which received large waves of European immigration beginning in the 1820s and growing strongly in the late nineteenth century, 49% of the Caucasian population would have over 10% native African genes, according to that study. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_231

Thus, 86% of Brazilians would have at least 10% of genes that came from Africa. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_232

The researchers however were cautious about its conclusions: "Obviously these estimates were made by extrapolation of experimental results with relatively small samples and, therefore, their confidence limits are very ample". Afro-Brazilians_sentence_233

A new autosomal study from 2011, also led by Sérgio Pena, but with nearly 1000 samples this time, from all over the country, shows that in most Brazilian regions most Brazilians "whites" are less than 10% African in ancestry, and it also shows that the "pardos" are predominantly European in ancestry, the European ancestry being therefore the main component in the Brazilian population, in spite of a very high degree of African ancestry and significant Native American contribution. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_234

Other autosomal studies (see some of them below) show a European predominance in the Brazilian population. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_235

Another study (based on blood polymorphisms, from 1981) carried out in one thousand individuals from Porto Alegre city, Southern Brazil, and 760 from Natal city, Northeastern Brazil, found whites of Porto Alegre had 8% of African alleles and in Natal the ancestry of the samples total was characterized as 58% White, 25% Black, and 17% Amerindian". Afro-Brazilians_sentence_236

This study found that persons identified as White or Pardo in Natal have similar ancestries, a dominant European ancestry, while persons identified as White in Porto Alegre have an overwhelming majority of European ancestry. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_237

According to an autosomal DNA genetic study from 2011, both "whites" and "pardos" from Fortaleza have a predominantly degree of European ancestry (>70%), with minor but important African and Native American contributions. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_238

"Whites" and "pardos" from Belém and Ilhéus also were found to be pred. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_239

European in ancestry, with minor Native American and African contributions. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_240

According to another study conducted on a school in the poor periphery of Rio de Janeiro, autosomal DNA study (from 2009), the "pardos" there were found to be on average over 80% European, and the "whites" (who thought of themselves as "very mixed") were found out to carry very little Amerindian and/or African admixtures. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_241

"The results of the tests of genomic ancestry are quite different from the self made estimates of European ancestry", say the researchers. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_242

In general, the test results showed that European ancestry is far more important than the students thought it would be. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_243

The "pardos" for example thought of themselves as ⅓ European, ⅓ African and ⅓ Amerindian before the tests, and yet their ancestry was determined to be at over 80% European. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_244

The "blacks" (pretos) of the periphery of Rio de Janeiro, according to this study, thought of themselves as predominantly African before the study and yet they turned out predominantly European (at 52%), the African contribution at 41% and the Native American 7%. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_245

According to another autosomal DNA study (see table), those who identified as Whites in Rio de Janeiro turned out to have 86.4% – and self identified pardos 68.1% – European ancestry on average (autosomal). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_246

Pretos were found out to have on average 41.8% European ancestry Afro-Brazilians_sentence_247

Another study (autosomal DNA study from 2010) found out that European ancestry predominates in the Brazilian population as a whole ("whites", "pardos" and "blacks" altogether). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_248

European ancestry is dominant throughout Brazil at nearly 80%, except for the Southern part of Brazil, where the European heritage reaches 90%. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_249

"A new portrayal of each ethnicity contribution to the DNA of Brazilians, obtained with samples from the five regions of the country, has indicated that, on average, European ancestors are responsible for nearly 80% of the genetic heritage of the population. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_250

The variation between the regions is small, with the possible exception of the South, where the European contribution reaches nearly 90%. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_251

The results, published in the American Journal of Human Biology by a team of the Catholic University of Brasília, show that, in Brazil, physical indicators such as skin colour, colour of the eyes and colour of the hair have little to do with the genetic ancestry of each person, which has been shown in previous studies"(regardless of census classification) "Ancestry informative SNPs can be useful to estimate individual and population biogeographical ancestry. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_252

Brazilian population is characterized by a genetic background of three parental populations (European, African, and Brazilian Native Amerindians) with a wide degree and diverse patterns of admixture. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_253

In this work we analyzed the information content of 28 ancestry-informative SNPs into multiplexed panels using three parental population sources (African, Amerindian, and European) to infer the genetic admixture in an urban sample of the five Brazilian geopolitical regions. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_254

The SNPs assigned apart the parental populations from each other and thus can be applied for ancestry estimation in a three hybrid admixed population. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_255

Data was used to infer genetic ancestry in Brazilians with an admixture model. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_256

Pairwise estimates of F(st) among the five Brazilian geopolitical regions suggested little genetic differentiation only between the South and the remaining regions." Afro-Brazilians_sentence_257

Estimates of ancestry results are consistent with the heterogeneous genetic profile of Brazilian population, with a major contribution of European ancestry (0.771) followed by African (0.143) and Amerindian contributions (0.085). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_258

The described multiplexed SNP panels can be useful tool for bioanthropological studies but it can be mainly valuable to control for spurious results in genetic association studies in admixed populations." Afro-Brazilians_sentence_259

It is important to note that "the samples came from free of charge paternity test takers, thus as the researchers made it explicit: "the paternity tests were free of charge, the population samples involved people of variable socioeconomic strata, although likely to be leaning slightly towards the ‘'pardo'’ group". Afro-Brazilians_sentence_260

According to it the total European, African and Native American contributions to the Brazilian population are: Afro-Brazilians_sentence_261

Afro-Brazilians_table_general_5

RegionAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_5_0_0 EuropeanAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_5_0_1 AfricanAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_5_0_2 Native AmericanAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_5_0_3
North RegionAfro-Brazilians_cell_5_1_0 71,10%Afro-Brazilians_cell_5_1_1 18,20%Afro-Brazilians_cell_5_1_2 10,70%Afro-Brazilians_cell_5_1_3
Northeast RegionAfro-Brazilians_cell_5_2_0 77,40%Afro-Brazilians_cell_5_2_1 13,60%Afro-Brazilians_cell_5_2_2 8,90%Afro-Brazilians_cell_5_2_3
Central-West RegionAfro-Brazilians_cell_5_3_0 65,90%Afro-Brazilians_cell_5_3_1 18,70%Afro-Brazilians_cell_5_3_2 11,80%Afro-Brazilians_cell_5_3_3
Southeast RegionAfro-Brazilians_cell_5_4_0 79,90%Afro-Brazilians_cell_5_4_1 14,10%Afro-Brazilians_cell_5_4_2 6,10%Afro-Brazilians_cell_5_4_3
South RegionAfro-Brazilians_cell_5_5_0 87,70%Afro-Brazilians_cell_5_5_1 7,70%Afro-Brazilians_cell_5_5_2 5,20%Afro-Brazilians_cell_5_5_3

According to another autosomal DNA study (from 2009) conducted on a school in the poor periphery of Rio de Janeiro the "pardos" there were found to be on average over 80% European, and the "whites" (who thought of themselves as "very mixed") were found out to carry very little Amerindian and/or African admixtures. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_262

"The results of the tests of genomic ancestry are quite different from the self made estimates of European ancestry", say the researchers. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_263

In general, the test results showed that European ancestry is far more important than the students thought it would be. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_264

The "pardos" for example thought of themselves as ⅓ European, ⅓ African and ⅓ Amerindian before the tests, and yet their ancestry was determined to be at over 80% European. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_265

The "blacks" (pretos) of the periphery of Rio de Janeiro, according to this study, thought of themselves as predominantly African before the study and yet they turned out predominantly European (at 52%), the African contribution at 41% and the Native American 7%. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_266

An autosomal study from 2013, with nearly 1300 samples from all of the Brazilian regions, found a pred. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_267

degree of European ancestry combined with African and Native American contributions, in varying degrees. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_268

'Following an increasing North to South gradient, European ancestry was the most prevalent in all urban populations (with values up to 74%). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_269

The populations in the North consisted of a significant proportion of Native American ancestry that was about two times higher than the African contribution. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_270

Conversely, in the Northeast, Center-West and Southeast, African ancestry was the second most prevalent. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_271

At an intrapopulation level, all urban populations were highly admixed, and most of the variation in ancestry proportions was observed between individuals within each population rather than among population'. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_272

Afro-Brazilians_table_general_6

RegionAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_6_0_0 EuropeanAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_6_0_1 AfricanAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_6_0_2 Native AmericanAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_6_0_3
North RegionAfro-Brazilians_cell_6_1_0 51%Afro-Brazilians_cell_6_1_1 17%Afro-Brazilians_cell_6_1_2 32%Afro-Brazilians_cell_6_1_3
Northeast RegionAfro-Brazilians_cell_6_2_0 56%Afro-Brazilians_cell_6_2_1 28%Afro-Brazilians_cell_6_2_2 16%Afro-Brazilians_cell_6_2_3
Central-West RegionAfro-Brazilians_cell_6_3_0 58%Afro-Brazilians_cell_6_3_1 26%Afro-Brazilians_cell_6_3_2 16%Afro-Brazilians_cell_6_3_3
Southeast RegionAfro-Brazilians_cell_6_4_0 61%Afro-Brazilians_cell_6_4_1 27%Afro-Brazilians_cell_6_4_2 12%Afro-Brazilians_cell_6_4_3
South RegionAfro-Brazilians_cell_6_5_0 74%Afro-Brazilians_cell_6_5_1 15%Afro-Brazilians_cell_6_5_2 11%Afro-Brazilians_cell_6_5_3

According to another autosomal DNA study from 2009, the Brazilian population, in all regions of the country, was also found out to be predominantly European: "all the Brazilian samples (regions) lie more closely to the European group than to the African populations or to the Mestizos from Mexico". Afro-Brazilians_sentence_273

According to it European ancestry was the main component in all regions of Brazil: Northeast of Brazil (66.7% European 23.3% African 10.0% Amerindian) Northern Brazil (60.6% European 21.3% African 18.1% Amerindian) Central West (66,3% European 21.7% African 12.0% Amerindian) Southeast Brazil (60.7% European 32.0% African 7.3% Amerindian) Southern Brazil (81.5% European 9.3% African 9.2% Amerindian). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_274

According to it the total European, African and Native American contributions to the Brazilian population are: Afro-Brazilians_sentence_275

Afro-Brazilians_table_general_7

RegionAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_7_0_0 EuropeanAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_7_0_1 AfricanAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_7_0_2 Native AmericanAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_7_0_3
North RegionAfro-Brazilians_cell_7_1_0 60,6%Afro-Brazilians_cell_7_1_1 21,3%Afro-Brazilians_cell_7_1_2 18,1%Afro-Brazilians_cell_7_1_3
Northeast RegionAfro-Brazilians_cell_7_2_0 66,7%Afro-Brazilians_cell_7_2_1 23,3%Afro-Brazilians_cell_7_2_2 10,0%Afro-Brazilians_cell_7_2_3
Central-West RegionAfro-Brazilians_cell_7_3_0 66,3%Afro-Brazilians_cell_7_3_1 21,7%Afro-Brazilians_cell_7_3_2 12,0%Afro-Brazilians_cell_7_3_3
Southeast RegionAfro-Brazilians_cell_7_4_0 60,7%Afro-Brazilians_cell_7_4_1 32,0%Afro-Brazilians_cell_7_4_2 7,3%Afro-Brazilians_cell_7_4_3
South RegionAfro-Brazilians_cell_7_5_0 81,5%Afro-Brazilians_cell_7_5_1 9,3%Afro-Brazilians_cell_7_5_2 9,2%Afro-Brazilians_cell_7_5_3

An autosomal study from 2011 (with nearly almost 1000 samples from all over the country, "whites", "pardos" and "blacks" included, according to their respective proportions) has also concluded that European ancestry is the predominant ancestry in Brazil, accounting for nearly 70% of the ancestry of the population: "In all regions studied, the European ancestry was predominant, with proportions ranging from 60.6% in the Northeast to 77.7% in the South". Afro-Brazilians_sentence_276

The 2011 autosomal study samples came from blood donors (the lowest classes constitute the great majority of blood donors in Brazil), and also public health institutions personnel and health students. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_277

In all Brazilian regions European, African and Amerindian genetic markers are found in the local populations, even though the proportion of each varies from region to region and from individual to individual. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_278

However most regions showed basically the same structure, a greater European contribution to the population, followed by African and Native American contributions: "Some people had the vision Brazil was a heterogeneous mosaic [...] Our study proves Brazil is a lot more integrated than some expected". Afro-Brazilians_sentence_279

Brazilian homogeneity is, therefore, greater within regions than between them: Afro-Brazilians_sentence_280

Afro-Brazilians_table_general_8

RegionAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_8_0_0 EuropeanAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_8_0_1 AfricanAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_8_0_2 Native AmericanAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_8_0_3
Northern BrazilAfro-Brazilians_cell_8_1_0 68,80%Afro-Brazilians_cell_8_1_1 10,50%Afro-Brazilians_cell_8_1_2 18,50%Afro-Brazilians_cell_8_1_3
Northeast of BrazilAfro-Brazilians_cell_8_2_0 60,10%Afro-Brazilians_cell_8_2_1 29,30%Afro-Brazilians_cell_8_2_2 8,90%Afro-Brazilians_cell_8_2_3
Southeast BrazilAfro-Brazilians_cell_8_3_0 74,20%Afro-Brazilians_cell_8_3_1 17,30%Afro-Brazilians_cell_8_3_2 7,30%Afro-Brazilians_cell_8_3_3
Southern BrazilAfro-Brazilians_cell_8_4_0 79,50%Afro-Brazilians_cell_8_4_1 10,30%Afro-Brazilians_cell_8_4_2 9,40%Afro-Brazilians_cell_8_4_3

A 2015 autosomal genetic study, which also analyzed data of 25 studies of 38 different Brazilian populations concluded that: European ancestry accounts for 62% of the heritage of the population, followed by the African (21%) and the Native American (17%). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_281

The European contribution is highest in Southern Brazil (77%), the African highest in Northeast Brazil (27%) and the Native American is the highest in Northern Brazil (32%). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_282

Afro-Brazilians_table_general_9

RegionAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_9_0_0 EuropeanAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_9_0_1 AfricanAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_9_0_2 Native AmericanAfro-Brazilians_header_cell_9_0_3
North RegionAfro-Brazilians_cell_9_1_0 51%Afro-Brazilians_cell_9_1_1 16%Afro-Brazilians_cell_9_1_2 32%Afro-Brazilians_cell_9_1_3
Northeast RegionAfro-Brazilians_cell_9_2_0 58%Afro-Brazilians_cell_9_2_1 27%Afro-Brazilians_cell_9_2_2 15%Afro-Brazilians_cell_9_2_3
Central-West RegionAfro-Brazilians_cell_9_3_0 64%Afro-Brazilians_cell_9_3_1 24%Afro-Brazilians_cell_9_3_2 12%Afro-Brazilians_cell_9_3_3
Southeast RegionAfro-Brazilians_cell_9_4_0 67%Afro-Brazilians_cell_9_4_1 23%Afro-Brazilians_cell_9_4_2 10%Afro-Brazilians_cell_9_4_3
South RegionAfro-Brazilians_cell_9_5_0 77%Afro-Brazilians_cell_9_5_1 12%Afro-Brazilians_cell_9_5_2 11%Afro-Brazilians_cell_9_5_3

According to another study from 2008, by the University of Brasília (UnB), European ancestry dominates in the whole of Brazil (in all regions), accounting for 65,90% of the heritage of the population, followed by the African contribution (24,80%) and the Native American (9,3%). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_283

According to an autosomal DNA study (from 2003) focused on the composition of the Brazilian population as a whole, "European contribution [...] is highest in the South (81% to 82%), and lowest in the North (68% to 71%). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_284

The African component is lowest in the South (11%), while the highest values are found in the Southeast (18%-20%). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_285

Extreme values for the Amerindian fraction were found in the South and Southeast (7%-8%) and North (17%-18%)". Afro-Brazilians_sentence_286

The researchers were cautious with the results as their samples came from paternity test takers which may have skewed the results partly. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_287

São Paulo state, the most populous state in Brazil, with about 40 million people, showed the following composition, according to an autosomal study from 2006: European genes account for 79% of the heritage of the people of São Paulo, 14% are of African origin, and 7% Native American. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_288

A more recent study, from 2013, found the following composition in São Paulo state: 61,9% European, 25,5% African and 11,6% Native American. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_289

Several other older studies have suggested that European ancestry is the main component in all Brazilian regions. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_290

A study from 1965, "Methods of Analysis of a Hybrid Population" (Human Biology, vol. 37, no. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_291

1), led by the geneticists D. F. Roberts and R. W. Hiorns, found out the average the Northeastern Brazilian to be predominantly European in ancestry (65%), with minor but important African and Native American contributions (25% and 9%). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_292

A study from 2002 quoted previous and older studies (28. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_293

Salzano F. M. Interciêência. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_294

1997;22:221–227. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_295

29. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_296

Santos S. E. B., Guerreiro J. F. Braz J. Genet. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_297

1995;18:311–315. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_298

30. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_299

Dornelles C. L, Callegari-Jacques S. M, Robinson W. M., Weimer T. A., Franco M. H. L. P., Hickmann A. C., Geiger C. J., Salzamo F. M. Genet. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_300

Mol. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_301

Biol. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_302

1999;22:151–161. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_303

31. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_304

Krieger H., Morton N. E., Mi M. P, Azevedo E., Freire-Maia A., Yasuda N. Ann. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_305

Hum. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_306

Genet. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_307

1965;29:113–125. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_308

[PubMed]), saying that: "Salzano (28, a study from 1997) calculated for the Northeastern population as a whole, 51% European, 36% African, and 13% Amerindian ancestries whereas in the north, Santos and Guerreiro (29, a study from 1995) obtained 47% European, 12% African, and 41% Amerindian descent, and in the southernmost state of Rio Grande do Sul, Dornelles et al. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_309

(30, a study from 1999) calculated 82% European, 7% African, and 11% Amerindian ancestries. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_310

Krieger et al. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_311

(31, a study from 1965) studied a population of Brazilian northeastern origin living in São Paulo with blood groups and electrophoretic markers and showed that whites presented 18% of African and 12% of Amerindian genetic contribution and that blacks presented 28% of European and 5% of Amerindian genetic contribution (31). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_312

Of course, all of these Amerindian admixture estimates are subject to the caveat mentioned in the previous paragraph. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_313

At any rate, compared with these previous studies, our estimates showed higher levels of bidirectional admixture between Africans and non-Africans." Afro-Brazilians_sentence_314

Afro-Brazilians_unordered_list_3

  • Afro-Brazilians_item_3_6
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_3_7
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_3_8

In 2007 BBC Brasil launched the project Raízes Afro-Brasileiras (Afro-Brazilian Roots), in which they analyzed the genetic ancestry of nine famous Brazilian blacks and "pardos". Afro-Brazilians_sentence_315

Three tests were based on analysis of different parts of their DNA: an examination of paternal ancestry, maternal ancestry and the genomic ancestry, allowing to estimate the percentage of African, European and Amerindian genes in the composition of an individual. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_316

Of the nine people analyzed, three had more European ancestry than African, while the other six people had more African ancestry, with varying degrees of European and Amerindian admixture. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_317

The African admixture varied from 19.5% in actress Ildi Silva to 99.3% in singer Milton Nascimento. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_318

The European admixture varied from 0.4% in Nascimento to 70% in Silva. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_319

The Amerindian admixture from 0.3% in Nascimento to 25.4% in football player Obina. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_320

Afro-Brazilians_unordered_list_4

  • Afro-Brazilians_item_4_9
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_4_10
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_4_11
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_4_12
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_4_13
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_4_14

Media Afro-Brazilians_section_17

Pretos, along with other non-Europeans, have a low representation in the Brazilian media. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_321

Africans / Afro-Brazilians are under-represented in telenovelas, which have the largest audience of Brazilian television. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_322

The Brazilian soap operas, as well as throughout Latin America, are accused of under-representing the Black, Mixed and Amerindian population and over-representing white casts (with having preferences to upper-middle-class, blond and blue/green-eyed actors and actresses). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_323

Brazil has produced soap operas since the 1960s, but it was only in 1996 that a black actress, Taís Araújo, was the protagonist of a telenovela, playing the role of the famous slave Chica da Silva. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_324

In 2002, Araujo was protagonist of another soap, being the only Black actress to have a more prominent role in a TV production of Brazil. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_325

Black actors in Brazil are usually required to follow stereotypes and are usually in subordinate and submissive roles, as maids, drivers, servants, bodyguards, and poor favelados. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_326

Joel Zito Araújo wrote the book A Negação do Brasil (The Denial of Brazil) which talks about how Brazilian TV hides the Black population. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_327

Araújo analyzed Brazilian soap operas from 1964 to 1997 and only 4 black families were represented as being of middle-class. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_328

Black women usually appear under strong sexual connotation and sensuality. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_329

Black men usually appear as rascals or criminals. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_330

Another common stereotype is of the "old mammies". Afro-Brazilians_sentence_331

In 1970, in the soap A Cabana do Pai Tomás (based on American novel Uncle Tom's Cabin) a white actor, Sérgio Cardoso, played Thomas, who was a black man in the book. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_332

The actor had to paint his body in black to look black. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_333

The choice of a White actor to play a black character caused major protests in Brazil. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_334

In 1975 the telenovela Gabriela was produced, based on a book by Jorge Amado, who described Gabriela, the main character, as a mulata. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_335

But to play Gabriela on television Rede Globo choose Sônia Braga, who is an olive-skinned woman. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_336

The producer claimed he "did not find any talented Black actress" for the role of Gabriela. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_337

In 2001 Rede Globo produced Porto dos Milagres, also based on a book by Jorge Amado. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_338

In the book Amado described a Bahia full of blacks. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_339

In the Rede Globo's soap opera, on the other hand, almost all the cast was white. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_340

The same situation has been seen in the 2018 telenovela "Segundo Sol", leading to new protests, mainly in social medias. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_341

But once again the producer (TV Globo) denied racism, saying "We base our cast selection by talent, not by race". Afro-Brazilians_sentence_342

In the fashion world blacks and "pardos" are also poorly represented. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_343

In Brazil there is a clear predominance of models from the South of Brazil, mostly of European descent. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_344

Many black models complained of the difficulty of finding work in the fashion world in Brazil. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_345

This reflects a Caucasian standard of beauty demanded by the media. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_346

To change this trend, the Black Movement of Brazil entered in court against the fashion show, where almost all the models were whites. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_347

In a fashion show during São Paulo Fashion Week in January 2008, of the 344 models only eight (2.3% of total) were blacks. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_348

A public attorney required the fashion show to contract Black models and demanded that during São Paulo Fashion Week 2009, at least 10% of the models should be "Blacks, Afro-descendants or Indians", under penalty of fine of 250,000 reais. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_349

Religion Afro-Brazilians_section_18

Main articles: Religion in Brazil and African diasporic religions Afro-Brazilians_sentence_350

Most blacks are Christians, mainly Catholics. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_351

Afro-Brazilian religions such as Candomblé and Umbanda have many followers, but they are open to people of any race, and, indeed, while the proportions of blacks (in the strict sense, i.e., "pretos") are higher among practitioners of these religions than among the population in general, Whites are a majority in Umbanda, and a significant minority (bigger than blacks in the strict sense) in Candomblé. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_352

They are concentrated mainly in large urban centers such as Salvador, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Brasília, São Luís. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_353

In addition to Candomblé which is closer to the original West African religions, there is also Umbanda which blends Catholic and Kardecist Spiritism beliefs with African beliefs. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_354

Candomblé, Batuque, Xango and Tambor de Mina were originally brought by enslaved Africans shipped from Africa to Brazil. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_355

These enslaved Africans would summon their gods, called Orixas, Voduns or Inkices with chants and dances they had brought from Africa. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_356

These religions have been persecuted in the past, mainly due to Catholic influence. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_357

However, Brazilian government has legalized them. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_358

In current practice, Umbanda followers leave offerings of food, candles and flowers in public places for the spirits. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_359

The Candomblé terreiros are more hidden from general view, except in famous festivals such as Iemanjá Festival and the Waters of Oxalá in the Northeast. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_360

From Bahia northwards there is also different practices such as Catimbo, Jurema with heavy, though not necessarily authentic, indigenous elements. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_361

Since the late 20th century, a large number of negros became followers of Protestant denominations, mainly Neopentecostal churches. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_362

Among Brazil's predominant ethnicities, Blacks make up the largest proportion of Pentecostal Protestants, while Whites make up the largest group of non-Pentecostal Protestants. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_363

As mentioned, some black Brazilians are Muslims of Sunni sect whose ancestors were called Malê. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_364

Cuisine Afro-Brazilians_section_19

Main article: Cuisine of Brazil Afro-Brazilians_sentence_365

The influence of African cuisine in Brazil is expressed in a wide variety of dishes. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_366

In the state of Bahia, an exquisite cuisine evolved when cooks improvised on African and traditional Portuguese dishes using locally available ingredients. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_367

Typical dishes include Vatapá and Moqueca, both with seafood and dendê palm oil (Portuguese: Azeite de Dendê). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_368

This heavy oil extracted from the fruits of an African palm tree is one of the basic ingredients in Bahian or Afro-Brazilian cuisine, adding flavor and bright orange color to foods. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_369

There is no equivalent substitute, but it is available in markets specializing in Brazilian or African imports. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_370

Feijoada was introduced from Portugal and has been one of the national dishes of for over 300 years. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_371

African slaves built upon its basic ingredients, but substituting more expensive ingredients with cheap ones such as pigs ears, feet and tail, beans and manioc flour. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_372

Basically a mixture of black beans, pork and farofa (lightly roasted coarse cassava manioc flour), the dish has been adopted by other cultures, and there are hundreds of ways to make it. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_373

Acarajé is a dish made from peeled black-eyed peas formed into a ball and then deep-fried in dendê (palm oil). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_374

It is found in Nigerian and Brazilian cuisine. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_375

The dish is traditionally encountered in Brazil's northeastern state of Bahia, especially in the city of Salvador, often as street food, and is also found in most parts of Nigeria, Ghana and the Republic of Benin. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_376

Sports Afro-Brazilians_section_20

Capoeira Afro-Brazilians_section_21

Main article: Capoeira Afro-Brazilians_sentence_377

Capoeira is a martial art developed initially by African slaves that came predominantly from Angola or Mozambique to Brazil, starting in the colonial period. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_378

Appeared in Quilombo dos Palmares, located in the Captaincy of Pernambuco. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_379

Documents, legends and literature of Brazil portrays this practice, especially in the port of Salvador, a city in which black Africans were discriminated by colonial society, seen as villains. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_380

Despite being reprimanded, Africans continued to practice this martial art, on the pretext that it was just a dance. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_381

Until the present, to Capoeira cofunde as dance and fight, and important part of the culture of Brazil. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_382

It is marked by deft, tricky movements often played on the ground or completely inverted. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_383

It also has a strong acrobatic component in some versions and is always played with music. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_384

Recently, the sport has been popularized by the addition of Capoeira performed in various computer games and movies, and Capoeira music has been featured in modern pop music (see Capoeira in popular culture). Afro-Brazilians_sentence_385

Music Afro-Brazilians_section_22

Main article: Music of Brazil Afro-Brazilians_sentence_386

The music of Brazil is a mixture of Portuguese, Amerindian, and African music, making a wide variety of styles. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_387

Brazil is well known for the rhythmic liveliness of its music as in its Samba dance music. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_388

Notable people Afro-Brazilians_section_23

For a more comprehensive list, see List of Brazilians of Black African descent. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_389

Many black Brazilians have been prominent in Brazilian society, particularly in the arts, music and sports. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_390

Many important figures of Brazilian literature have been people of African-descendant, such as Machado de Assis, widely regarded as the greatest writer of Brazilian literature. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_391

Some of these individuals include João da Cruz e Souza, symbolist poet, João do Rio, chronicler, Maria Firmina dos Reis, abolitionist and author, José do Patrocínio, journalist, among others. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_392

In popular music, the talents of black Brazilians have found fertile ground for their development. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_393

Masters of samba, Pixinguinha, Cartola, Lupicínio Rodrigues, Geraldo Pereira, Wilson Moreira, and of MPB, Milton Nascimento, Jorge Ben Jor, Gilberto Gil, have built the Brazilian musical identity. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_394

Another field where black Brazilians have excelled is football: Pelé, Garrincha, right-forward Leônidas da Silva, nicknamed "Black Diamond", are well known historic names of Brazilian football; Ronaldinho, Romário, Robinho and many others continue this tradition. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_395

Important athletes in other sports include NBA players, Nenê and Leandro Barbosa, nicknamed "The Brazilian Blur", referring to his speed. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_396

João Carlos de Oliveira Jadel Gregório, Nelson Prudêncio, Adhemar da Silva. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_397

Particularly important among sports is capoeira, itself a creation of Black Brazilians; important "Mestres" (masters) include Mestre Amen Santo, Mestre Bimba, Mestre Cobra Mansa, Mestre João Grande, Mestre João Pequeno, Mestre Moraes, Mestre Pastinha, Mestre Pé de Chumbo. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_398

Since the end of the military dictatorship, the political participation of black Brazilians has increased. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_399

The first female senator, Benedita da Silva, is Black; other important politicians include Senator Paulo Paim, former mayor of São Paulo Celso Pitta, former governor of Rio Grande do Sul, Alceu Collares, former governor of Espírito Santo, Albuíno Azeredo. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_400

One of the justices of the Supremo Tribunal Federal, Joaquim Barbosa, is Black. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_401

There is only one Black Justice at the TST (Tribunal Superior do Trabalho) who was also Minister, Carlos Alberto Reis de Paula. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_402

Black Brazilians have also excelled as actors, such as Lázaro Ramos, Ruth de Souza, Zózimo Bulbul, Milton Gonçalves, Mussum, Zezé Motta. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_403

and as dancers, like Isa Soares. Afro-Brazilians_sentence_404

Afro-Brazilians_unordered_list_5

  • Afro-Brazilians_item_5_15
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_5_16
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_5_17
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_5_18
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_5_19
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_5_20
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_5_21
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_5_22
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_5_23
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_5_24
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_5_25
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_5_26
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_5_27
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_5_28
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_5_29
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_5_30
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_5_31
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_5_32
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_5_33
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_5_34
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_5_35
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_5_36
  • Afro-Brazilians_item_5_37

See also Afro-Brazilians_section_24

Afro-Brazilians_unordered_list_6


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afro-Brazilians.