Afro-Haitians

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Afro-Haitians_table_infobox_0

Afro-HaitiansAfro-Haitians_table_caption_0
Total populationAfro-Haitians_header_cell_0_0_0
LanguagesAfro-Haitians_header_cell_0_1_0
ReligionAfro-Haitians_header_cell_0_2_0
Related ethnic groupsAfro-Haitians_header_cell_0_3_0

Afro-Haitians are Haitians who trace their full or partial ancestry to sub-Saharan Africa. Afro-Haitians_sentence_0

They form the largest racial group in Haiti and together with other Afro-Caribbean groups, the largest racial group in the region. Afro-Haitians_sentence_1

The majority of Afro-Haitians are descendants of enslaved Africans brought to the island by the Spanish Empire and the Kingdom of France to work on plantations. Afro-Haitians_sentence_2

Since the Haitian revolution, Afro-Haitians have been the largest racial group in the country, accounting for 95% of the population in the early 21st century . Afro-Haitians_sentence_3

The remaining 5% of the population is made up of mixed persons (mixed African and European descent) and other minor groups (Europeans, Arabs and Asians descent). Afro-Haitians_sentence_4

Origins Afro-Haitians_section_0

The African people of Haiti derived from various areas, spanning from Senegal to the Congo. Afro-Haitians_sentence_5

Most of which were brought from West Africa, with a considerable number also brought from Central Africa. Afro-Haitians_sentence_6

Some of these groups include those from the former Kongo kingdom (Kongo), (Igbo Benin (Ewe and Yoruba) and Togo land. Afro-Haitians_sentence_7

Others in Haiti were brought from Senegal, Guinea (imported by the Spanish since the sixteenth century and then by the French), Sierra Leone, Windward Coast, Angola, Cameroon, Nigeria, Ghana, Togo, and Southeast Africa (such as the Bara tribesmen of Madagascar, who were brought to Haiti in the eighteenth century). Afro-Haitians_sentence_8

Demography Afro-Haitians_section_1

Although Haiti averages approximately 250 people per square kilometre (650 per sq mi. Afro-Haitians_sentence_9

), its population is concentrated most heavily in urban areas, coastal plains, and valleys. Afro-Haitians_sentence_10

Haiti's population was about 9.8 million according to UN 2008 estimates, with half of the population being under 20 years old. Afro-Haitians_sentence_11

The first formal census, taken in 1950, showed a population of 3.1 million. Afro-Haitians_sentence_12

According to The World Factbook, 95% of Haitians are primarily of African descent; the remaining 5% of the population are mostly of mixed-race and European background, and a number of other ethnicities. Afro-Haitians_sentence_13

Culture Afro-Haitians_section_2

Culture, religion and social organization are the result in Haiti of a process of syncretism between French and African traditions, mainly Dahomey-Nigerian. Afro-Haitians_sentence_14

A small minority cultural practice in Haiti is Haitian Vodou. Afro-Haitians_sentence_15

This probably originated in Benin, although there are strong elements added from the Congo of Central Africa and many African nations are represented in the liturgy of Sèvis Lwa. Afro-Haitians_sentence_16

A generally ignored but significant element is that of the Taino people, the indigenous people of Hispaniola. Afro-Haitians_sentence_17

The Tainos were influential in the belief system of Haitian Vodou, especially in the Petro cult, a religious group with no counterpart on the African continent. Afro-Haitians_sentence_18

Characterized by the worship of the loa, the sect has influences from Native American folklore zemis. Afro-Haitians_sentence_19

The entire northern area of Haiti is influenced by the practices of the Congo. Afro-Haitians_sentence_20

In the north, these are often called Rites Congo or Lemba. Afro-Haitians_sentence_21

In the south, the Congo influence is called Petwo (Petro). Afro-Haitians_sentence_22

Many loa are of Congolese origin, such as Basimbi and Lemba. Afro-Haitians_sentence_23

Polygyny persists alongside Catholic marriages. Afro-Haitians_sentence_24

The dances and some forms of recreation tie in with African activities. Afro-Haitians_sentence_25

The preparation of beans is done in the style of Western Africa. Afro-Haitians_sentence_26

Popular literature retains fables and other forms that are expressed in the vernacular. Afro-Haitians_sentence_27

Economic activities are typical of Western culture and clothing tends to be European, but the scarf worn by women over the head is typical of clothing worn throughout West Africa. Afro-Haitians_sentence_28

Two languages are spoken in Haiti. Afro-Haitians_sentence_29

French is taught in schools and known by about 42% of the population, but spoken by a minority of black and biracial residents, in Port-au-Prince and other cities. Afro-Haitians_sentence_30

Haitian Creole, with roots in French, Spanish, Taino. Afro-Haitians_sentence_31

Portuguese, English and African languages, is a language with dialectal forms in different regions. Afro-Haitians_sentence_32

It is spoken throughout the country, but is used extensively in rural areas. Afro-Haitians_sentence_33

The music of Haiti is heavily influenced by the rhythms which came from Africa with the slaves. Afro-Haitians_sentence_34

Two of these rhythms come directly from the harbour and the Congo; a third rhythm, the "petro", developed on the island during the colonial era. Afro-Haitians_sentence_35

All are part of the rhythms used in Vodou ceremonies. Afro-Haitians_sentence_36

These rhythms have created a musical style, rasin, where percussion is the most important musical instrument, and despite being closely related to religion has become a popular kind of folk music. Afro-Haitians_sentence_37

Another type of music, which arises spontaneously from people with hand-held instruments, is twoubadou, a musical style that has endured to this day. Afro-Haitians_sentence_38

Currently the music heard in Haiti's Compas genre is a little softer than the merengue, and combines Congo rhythms with European and Caribbean influences. Afro-Haitians_sentence_39

Kompa is the most current version of this rhythm. Afro-Haitians_sentence_40

See also Afro-Haitians_section_3

Afro-Haitians_unordered_list_0

References and footnotes Afro-Haitians_section_4

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afro-Haitians.