Age of Enlightenment

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"Age of reason" redirects here. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_0

For other uses, see Age of reason (disambiguation). Age of Enlightenment_sentence_1

The Age of Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Reason or simply the Enlightenment) was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_2

The Enlightenment emerged out of a European intellectual and scholarly movement known as Renaissance humanism and was also preceded by the Scientific Revolution and the work of Francis Bacon, among others. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_3

Some date the beginning of the Enlightenment to René Descartes' 1637 philosophy of Cogito, ergo sum ("I think, therefore I Am"), while others cite the publication of Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica (1687) as the culmination of the Scientific Revolution and the beginning of the Enlightenment. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_4

French historians traditionally date its beginning with the death of Louis XIV of France in 1715 until the 1789 outbreak of the French Revolution. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_5

Most end it with the beginning of the 19th century. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_6

Philosophers and scientists of the period widely circulated their ideas through meetings at scientific academies, Masonic lodges, literary salons, coffeehouses and in printed books, journals, and pamphlets. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_7

The ideas of the Enlightenment undermined the authority of the monarchy and the Catholic Church and paved the way for the political revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_8

A variety of 19th-century movements, including liberalism and neoclassicism, trace their intellectual heritage to the Enlightenment. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_9

The Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on the sovereignty of reason and the evidence of the senses as the primary sources of knowledge and advanced ideals such as liberty, progress, toleration, fraternity, constitutional government and separation of church and state. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_10

In France, the central doctrines of the Enlightenment philosophers were individual liberty and religious tolerance, in opposition to an absolute monarchy and the fixed dogmas of the Church. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_11

The Enlightenment was marked by an emphasis on the scientific method and reductionism, along with increased questioning of religious orthodoxy—an attitude captured by Immanuel Kant's essay Answering the Question: What is Enlightenment, where the phrase Sapere aude (Dare to know) can be found. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_12

Significant people and publications Age of Enlightenment_section_0

The Age of Enlightenment was preceded by and closely associated with the Scientific Revolution. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_13

Earlier philosophers whose work influenced the Enlightenment included Francis Bacon and René Descartes. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_14

Some of the major figures of the Enlightenment included Cesare Beccaria, Denis Diderot, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, John Locke, Montesquieu, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Adam Smith, Hugo Grotius, Baruch Spinoza, and Voltaire. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_15

One particularly influential Enlightenment publication was the Encyclopédie (Encyclopedia). Age of Enlightenment_sentence_16

Published between 1751 and 1772 in thirty-five volumes, it was compiled by Denis Diderot, Jean le Rond d'Alembert, and a team of 150 other intellectuals. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_17

The Encyclopédie helped in spreading the ideas of the Enlightenment across Europe and beyond. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_18

Other landmark publications of the Enlightenment included Voltaire's Letters on the English (1733) and Dictionnaire philosophique (Philosophical Dictionary; 1764); Hume's A Treatise of Human Nature (1740); Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws (1748); Rousseau's Discourse on Inequality (1754) and The Social Contract (1762); Adam Smith's The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759) and The Wealth of Nations (1776); and Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (1781). Age of Enlightenment_sentence_19

Enlightenment thought was deeply influential in the political realm. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_20

European rulers such as Catherine II of Russia, Joseph II of Austria and Frederick II of Prussia tried to apply Enlightenment thought on religious and political tolerance, which became known as enlightened absolutism. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_21

Many of the main political and intellectual figures behind the American Revolution associated themselves closely with the Enlightenment: Benjamin Franklin visited Europe repeatedly and contributed actively to the scientific and political debates there and brought the newest ideas back to Philadelphia; Thomas Jefferson closely followed European ideas and later incorporated some of the ideals of the Enlightenment into the Declaration of Independence; and James Madison incorporated these ideals into the United States Constitution during its framing in 1787. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_22

The ideas of the Enlightenment also played a major role in inspiring the French Revolution, which began in 1789. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_23

Philosophy Age of Enlightenment_section_1

René Descartes' rationalist philosophy laid the foundation for enlightenment thinking. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_24

His attempt to construct the sciences on a secure metaphysical foundation was not as successful as his method of doubt applied in philosophic areas leading to a dualistic doctrine of mind and matter. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_25

His skepticism was refined by John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) and David Hume's writings in the 1740s. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_26

His dualism was challenged by Spinoza's uncompromising assertion of the unity of matter in his Tractatus (1670) and Ethics (1677). Age of Enlightenment_sentence_27

According to Jonathan Israel, these laid down two distinct lines of Enlightenment thought: first, the moderate variety, following Descartes, Locke and Christian Wolff, which sought accommodation between reform and the traditional systems of power and faith, and second, the radical enlightenment, inspired by the philosophy of Spinoza, advocating democracy, individual liberty, freedom of expression and eradication of religious authority. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_28

The moderate variety tended to be deistic, whereas the radical tendency separated the basis of morality entirely from theology. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_29

Both lines of thought were eventually opposed by a conservative Counter-Enlightenment, which sought a return to faith. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_30

In the mid-18th century, Paris became the center of philosophic and scientific activity challenging traditional doctrines and dogmas. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_31

The philosophical movement was led by Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who argued for a society based upon reason as in ancient Greece rather than faith and Catholic doctrine, for a new civil order based on natural law, and for science based on experiments and observation. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_32

The political philosopher Montesquieu introduced the idea of a separation of powers in a government, a concept which was enthusiastically adopted by the authors of the United States Constitution. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_33

While the Philosophes of the French Enlightenment were not revolutionaries and many were members of the nobility, their ideas played an important part in undermining the legitimacy of the Old Regime and shaping the French Revolution. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_34

Francis Hutcheson, a moral philosopher, described the utilitarian and consequentialist principle that virtue is that which provides, in his words, "the greatest happiness for the greatest numbers". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_35

Much of what is incorporated in the scientific method (the nature of knowledge, evidence, experience and causation) and some modern attitudes towards the relationship between science and religion were developed by his protégés David Hume and Adam Smith. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_36

Hume became a major figure in the skeptical philosophical and empiricist traditions of philosophy. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_37

Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) tried to reconcile rationalism and religious belief, individual freedom and political authority, as well as map out a view of the public sphere through private and public reason. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_38

Kant's work continued to shape German thought and indeed all of European philosophy, well into the 20th century. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_39

Mary Wollstonecraft was one of England's earliest feminist philosophers. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_40

She argued for a society based on reason and that women as well as men should be treated as rational beings. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_41

She is best known for her work A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1791). Age of Enlightenment_sentence_42

Science Age of Enlightenment_section_2

Main article: Science in the Age of Enlightenment Age of Enlightenment_sentence_43

Science played an important role in Enlightenment discourse and thought. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_44

Many Enlightenment writers and thinkers had backgrounds in the sciences and associated scientific advancement with the overthrow of religion and traditional authority in favour of the development of free speech and thought. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_45

Scientific progress during the Enlightenment included the discovery of carbon dioxide (fixed air) by the chemist Joseph Black, the argument for deep time by the geologist James Hutton and the invention of the condensing steam engine by James Watt. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_46

The experiments of Lavoisier were used to create the first modern chemical plants in Paris and the experiments of the Montgolfier Brothers enabled them to launch the first manned flight in a hot-air balloon on 21 November 1783 from the Château de la Muette, near the Bois de Boulogne. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_47

The wide-ranging contributions to mathematics of Leonhard Euler (1707–1783) included major results in analysis, number theory, topology, combinatorics, graph theory, algebra, and geometry (among other fields). Age of Enlightenment_sentence_48

In applied mathematics, he made fundamental contributions to mechanics, hydraulics, acoustics, optics, and astronomy. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_49

He was based in the Imperial Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg (1727–1741), then in Berlin at the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences and Belles Lettres (1741–1766), and finally back in St. Petersburg at the Imperial Academy (1766–1783). Age of Enlightenment_sentence_50

Broadly speaking, Enlightenment science greatly valued empiricism and rational thought and was embedded with the Enlightenment ideal of advancement and progress. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_51

The study of science, under the heading of natural philosophy, was divided into physics and a conglomerate grouping of chemistry and natural history, which included anatomy, biology, geology, mineralogy and zoology. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_52

As with most Enlightenment views, the benefits of science were not seen universally: Rousseau criticized the sciences for distancing man from nature and not operating to make people happier. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_53

Science during the Enlightenment was dominated by scientific societies and academies, which had largely replaced universities as centres of scientific research and development. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_54

Societies and academies were also the backbone of the maturation of the scientific profession. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_55

Another important development was the popularization of science among an increasingly literate population. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_56

Philosophes introduced the public to many scientific theories, most notably through the Encyclopédie and the popularization of Newtonianism by Voltaire and Émilie du Châtelet. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_57

Some historians have marked the 18th century as a drab period in the history of science. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_58

However, the century saw significant advancements in the practice of medicine, mathematics and physics; the development of biological taxonomy; a new understanding of magnetism and electricity; and the maturation of chemistry as a discipline, which established the foundations of modern chemistry. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_59

Scientific academies and societies grew out of the Scientific Revolution as the creators of scientific knowledge in contrast to the scholasticism of the university. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_60

During the Enlightenment, some societies created or retained links to universities, but contemporary sources distinguished universities from scientific societies by claiming that the university's utility was in the transmission of knowledge while societies functioned to create knowledge. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_61

As the role of universities in institutionalized science began to diminish, learned societies became the cornerstone of organized science. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_62

Official scientific societies were chartered by the state in order to provide technical expertise. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_63

Most societies were granted permission to oversee their own publications, control the election of new members and the administration of the society. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_64

After 1700, a tremendous number of official academies and societies were founded in Europe and by 1789 there were over seventy official scientific societies. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_65

In reference to this growth, Bernard de Fontenelle coined the term "the Age of Academies" to describe the 18th century. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_66

The influence of science also began appearing more commonly in poetry and literature during the Enlightenment. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_67

Some poetry became infused with scientific metaphor and imagery, while other poems were written directly about scientific topics. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_68

Sir Richard Blackmore committed the Newtonian system to verse in Creation, a Philosophical Poem in Seven Books (1712). Age of Enlightenment_sentence_69

After Newton's death in 1727, poems were composed in his honour for decades. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_70

James Thomson (1700–1748) penned his "Poem to the Memory of Newton", which mourned the loss of Newton, but also praised his science and legacy. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_71

Sociology, economics and law Age of Enlightenment_section_3

Hume and other Scottish Enlightenment thinkers developed a "science of man", which was expressed historically in works by authors including James Burnett, Adam Ferguson, John Millar and William Robertson, all of whom merged a scientific study of how humans behaved in ancient and primitive cultures with a strong awareness of the determining forces of modernity. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_72

Modern sociology largely originated from this movement and Hume's philosophical concepts that directly influenced James Madison (and thus the U.S. Constitution) and as popularised by Dugald Stewart, would be the basis of classical liberalism. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_73

In 1776, Adam Smith published The Wealth of Nations, often considered the first work on modern economics as it had an immediate impact on British economic policy that continues into the 21st century. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_74

It was immediately preceded and influenced by Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot, Baron de Laune drafts of Reflections on the Formation and Distribution of Wealth (Paris, 1766). Age of Enlightenment_sentence_75

Smith acknowledged indebtedness and possibly was the original English translator. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_76

Cesare Beccaria, a jurist, criminologist, philosopher and politician and one of the great Enlightenment writers, became famous for his masterpiece Of Crimes and Punishments (1764), later translated into 22 languages, which condemned torture and the death penalty and was a founding work in the field of penology and the Classical School of criminology by promoting criminal justice. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_77

Another prominent intellectual was Francesco Mario Pagano, who wrote important studies such as Saggi Politici (Political Essays, 1783), one of the major works of the Enlightenment in Naples; and Considerazioni sul processo criminale (Considerations on the criminal trial, 1787), which established him as an international authority on criminal law. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_78

Politics Age of Enlightenment_section_4

The Enlightenment has long been hailed as the foundation of modern Western political and intellectual culture. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_79

The Enlightenment brought political modernization to the West, in terms of introducing democratic values and institutions and the creation of modern, liberal democracies. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_80

This thesis has been widely accepted by Anglophone scholars and has been reinforced by the large-scale studies by Robert Darnton, Roy Porter and most recently by Jonathan Israel. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_81

Theories of government Age of Enlightenment_section_5

John Locke, one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers, based his governance philosophy in social contract theory, a subject that permeated Enlightenment political thought. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_82

The English philosopher Thomas Hobbes ushered in this new debate with his work Leviathan in 1651. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_83

Hobbes also developed some of the fundamentals of European liberal thought: the right of the individual; the natural equality of all men; the artificial character of the political order (which led to the later distinction between civil society and the state); the view that all legitimate political power must be "representative" and based on the consent of the people; and a liberal interpretation of law which leaves people free to do whatever the law does not explicitly forbid. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_84

Both Locke and Rousseau developed social contract theories in Two Treatises of Government and Discourse on Inequality, respectively. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_85

While quite different works, Locke, Hobbes and Rousseau agreed that a social contract, in which the government's authority lies in the consent of the governed, is necessary for man to live in civil society. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_86

Locke defines the state of nature as a condition in which humans are rational and follow natural law, in which all men are born equal and with the right to life, liberty and property. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_87

However, when one citizen breaks the Law of Nature both the transgressor and the victim enter into a state of war, from which it is virtually impossible to break free. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_88

Therefore, Locke said that individuals enter into civil society to protect their natural rights via an "unbiased judge" or common authority, such as courts, to appeal to. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_89

Contrastingly, Rousseau's conception relies on the supposition that "civil man" is corrupted, while "natural man" has no want he cannot fulfill himself. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_90

Natural man is only taken out of the state of nature when the inequality associated with private property is established. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_91

Rousseau said that people join into civil society via the social contract to achieve unity while preserving individual freedom. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_92

This is embodied in the sovereignty of the general will, the moral and collective legislative body constituted by citizens. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_93

Locke is known for his statement that individuals have a right to "Life, Liberty and Property" and his belief that the natural right to property is derived from labor. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_94

Tutored by Locke, Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury wrote in 1706: "There is a mighty Light which spreads its self over the world especially in those two free Nations of England and Holland; on whom the Affairs of Europe now turn". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_95

Locke's theory of natural rights has influenced many political documents, including the United States Declaration of Independence and the French National Constituent Assembly's Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_96

The philosophes argued that the establishment of a contractual basis of rights would lead to the market mechanism and capitalism, the scientific method, religious tolerance and the organization of states into self-governing republics through democratic means. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_97

In this view, the tendency of the philosophes in particular to apply rationality to every problem is considered the essential change. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_98

Although much of Enlightenment political thought was dominated by social contract theorists, both David Hume and Adam Ferguson criticized this camp. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_99

Hume's essay Of the Original Contract argues that governments derived from consent are rarely seen and civil government is grounded in a ruler's habitual authority and force. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_100

It is precisely because of the ruler's authority over-and-against the subject, that the subject tacitly consents and Hume says that the subjects would "never imagine that their consent made him sovereign", rather the authority did so. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_101

Similarly, Ferguson did not believe citizens built the state, rather polities grew out of social development. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_102

In his 1767 An Essay on the History of Civil Society, Ferguson uses the four stages of progress, a theory that was very popular in Scotland at the time, to explain how humans advance from a hunting and gathering society to a commercial and civil society without "signing" a social contract. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_103

Both Rousseau's and Locke's social contract theories rest on the presupposition of natural rights, which are not a result of law or custom, but are things that all men have in pre-political societies and are therefore universal and inalienable. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_104

The most famous natural right formulation comes from John Locke in his Second Treatise, when he introduces the state of nature. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_105

For Locke, the law of nature is grounded on mutual security or the idea that one cannot infringe on another's natural rights, as every man is equal and has the same inalienable rights. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_106

These natural rights include perfect equality and freedom, as well as the right to preserve life and property. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_107

Locke also argued against slavery on the basis that enslaving oneself goes against the law of nature because one cannot surrender one's own rights: one's freedom is absolute and no-one can take it away. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_108

Additionally, Locke argues that one person cannot enslave another because it is morally reprehensible, although he introduces a caveat by saying that enslavement of a lawful captive in time of war would not go against one's natural rights. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_109

As a spill-over of the Enlightenment, nonsecular beliefs expressed first by Quakers and then by Protestant evangelicals in Britain and the United States emerged. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_110

To these groups, slavery became "repugnant to our religion" and a "crime in the sight of God." Age of Enlightenment_sentence_111

These ideas added to those expressed by Enlightenment thinkers, leading many in Britain to believe that slavery was "not only morally wrong and economically inefficient, but also politically unwise." Age of Enlightenment_sentence_112

As these notions gained more adherents, Britain was forced to end its participation in the slave trade. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_113

Enlightened absolutism Age of Enlightenment_section_6

Main article: Enlightened absolutism Age of Enlightenment_sentence_114

The leaders of the Enlightenment were not especially democratic, as they more often look to absolute monarchs as the key to imposing reforms designed by the intellectuals. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_115

Voltaire despised democracy and said the absolute monarch must be enlightened and must act as dictated by reason and justice – in other words, be a "philosopher-king". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_116

In several nations, rulers welcomed leaders of the Enlightenment at court and asked them to help design laws and programs to reform the system, typically to build stronger states. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_117

These rulers are called "enlightened despots" by historians. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_118

They included Frederick the Great of Prussia, Catherine the Great of Russia, Leopold II of Tuscany and Joseph II of Austria. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_119

Joseph was over-enthusiastic, announcing many reforms that had little support so that revolts broke out and his regime became a comedy of errors and nearly all his programs were reversed. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_120

Senior ministers Pombal in Portugal and Johann Friedrich Struensee in Denmark also governed according to Enlightenment ideals. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_121

In Poland, the model constitution of 1791 expressed Enlightenment ideals, but was in effect for only one year before the nation was partitioned among its neighbors. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_122

More enduring were the cultural achievements, which created a nationalist spirit in Poland. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_123

Frederick the Great, the king of Prussia from 1740 to 1786, saw himself as a leader of the Enlightenment and patronized philosophers and scientists at his court in Berlin. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_124

Voltaire, who had been imprisoned and maltreated by the French government, was eager to accept Frederick's invitation to live at his palace. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_125

Frederick explained: "My principal occupation is to combat ignorance and prejudice ... to enlighten minds, cultivate morality, and to make people as happy as it suits human nature, and as the means at my disposal permit". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_126

French Revolution Age of Enlightenment_section_7

The Enlightenment has been frequently linked to the French Revolution of 1789. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_127

One view of the political changes that occurred during the Enlightenment is that the "consent of the governed" philosophy as delineated by Locke in Two Treatises of Government (1689) represented a paradigm shift from the old governance paradigm under feudalism known as the "divine right of kings". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_128

In this view, the revolutions of the late 1700s and early 1800s were caused by the fact that this governance paradigm shift often could not be resolved peacefully and therefore violent revolution was the result. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_129

Clearly a governance philosophy where the king was never wrong was in direct conflict with one whereby citizens by natural law had to consent to the acts and rulings of their government. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_130

Alexis de Tocqueville proposed the French Revolution as the inevitable result of the radical opposition created in the 18th century between the monarchy and the men of letters of the Enlightenment. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_131

These men of letters constituted a sort of "substitute aristocracy that was both all-powerful and without real power". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_132

This illusory power came from the rise of "public opinion", born when absolutist centralization removed the nobility and the bourgeoisie from the political sphere. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_133

The "literary politics" that resulted promoted a discourse of equality and was hence in fundamental opposition to the monarchical regime. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_134

De Tocqueville "clearly designates  ... the cultural effects of transformation in the forms of the exercise of power". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_135

Religion Age of Enlightenment_section_8

Enlightenment era religious commentary was a response to the preceding century of religious conflict in Europe, especially the Thirty Years' War. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_136

Theologians of the Enlightenment wanted to reform their faith to its generally non-confrontational roots and to limit the capacity for religious controversy to spill over into politics and warfare while still maintaining a true faith in God. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_137

For moderate Christians, this meant a return to simple Scripture. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_138

John Locke abandoned the corpus of theological commentary in favor of an "unprejudiced examination" of the Word of God alone. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_139

He determined the essence of Christianity to be a belief in Christ the redeemer and recommended avoiding more detailed debate. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_140

In the Jefferson Bible, Thomas Jefferson went further and dropped any passages dealing with miracles, visitations of angels and the resurrection of Jesus after his death, as he tried to extract the practical Christian moral code of the New Testament. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_141

Enlightenment scholars sought to curtail the political power of organized religion and thereby prevent another age of intolerant religious war. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_142

Spinoza determined to remove politics from contemporary and historical theology (e.g., disregarding Judaic law). Age of Enlightenment_sentence_143

Moses Mendelssohn advised affording no political weight to any organized religion, but instead recommended that each person follow what they found most convincing. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_144

They believed a good religion based in instinctive morals and a belief in God should not theoretically need force to maintain order in its believers, and both Mendelssohn and Spinoza judged religion on its moral fruits, not the logic of its theology. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_145

A number of novel ideas about religion developed with the Enlightenment, including deism and talk of atheism. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_146

According to Thomas Paine, deism is the simple belief in God the Creator, with no reference to the Bible or any other miraculous source. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_147

Instead, the deist relies solely on personal reason to guide his creed, which was eminently agreeable to many thinkers of the time. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_148

Atheism was much discussed, but there were few proponents. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_149

Wilson and Reill note: "In fact, very few enlightened intellectuals, even when they were vocal critics of Christianity, were true atheists. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_150

Rather, they were critics of orthodox belief, wedded rather to skepticism, deism, vitalism, or perhaps pantheism". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_151

Some followed Pierre Bayle and argued that atheists could indeed be moral men. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_152

Many others like Voltaire held that without belief in a God who punishes evil, the moral order of society was undermined. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_153

That is, since atheists gave themselves to no Supreme Authority and no law and had no fear of eternal consequences, they were far more likely to disrupt society. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_154

Bayle (1647–1706) observed that, in his day, "prudent persons will always maintain an appearance of [religion]," and he believed that even atheists could hold concepts of honor and go beyond their own self-interest to create and interact in society. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_155

Locke said that if there were no God and no divine law, the result would be moral anarchy: every individual "could have no law but his own will, no end but himself. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_156

He would be a god to himself, and the satisfaction of his own will the sole measure and end of all his actions." Age of Enlightenment_sentence_157

Separation of church and state Age of Enlightenment_section_9

Main articles: Separation of church and state and Separation of church and state in the United States Age of Enlightenment_sentence_158

The "Radical Enlightenment" promoted the concept of separating church and state, an idea that is often credited to English philosopher John Locke (1632–1704). Age of Enlightenment_sentence_159

According to his principle of the social contract, Locke said that the government lacked authority in the realm of individual conscience, as this was something rational people could not cede to the government for it or others to control. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_160

For Locke, this created a natural right in the liberty of conscience, which he said must therefore remain protected from any government authority. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_161

These views on religious tolerance and the importance of individual conscience, along with the social contract, became particularly influential in the American colonies and the drafting of the United States Constitution. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_162

Thomas Jefferson called for a "wall of separation between church and state" at the federal level. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_163

He previously had supported successful efforts to disestablish the Church of England in Virginia and authored the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_164

Jefferson's political ideals were greatly influenced by the writings of John Locke, Francis Bacon, and Isaac Newton, whom he considered the three greatest men that ever lived. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_165

National variations Age of Enlightenment_section_10

The Enlightenment took hold in most European countries, often with a specific local emphasis. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_166

For example, in France it became associated with anti-government and anti-Church radicalism, while in Germany it reached deep into the middle classes, where it expressed a spiritualistic and nationalistic tone without threatening governments or established churches. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_167

Government responses varied widely. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_168

In France, the government was hostile, and the philosophes fought against its censorship, sometimes being imprisoned or hounded into exile. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_169

The British government, for the most part, ignored the Enlightenment's leaders in England and Scotland, although it did give Isaac Newton a knighthood and a very lucrative government office. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_170

A common theme among most countries which derived enlightenment ideas from Europe was the intentional non-inclusion of enlightenment philosophies pertaining to slavery. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_171

Originally during the French Revolution, a revolution deeply inspired by enlightenment philosophy, "France's revolutionary government had denounced slavery, but the property-holding 'revolutionaries' then remembered their bank accounts." Age of Enlightenment_sentence_172

Slavery often showed the limitations of the enlightenment as it pertained to European countries since many European countries held colonies supported by slavery. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_173

For instance, during the Haitian Revolution England and the United States supported France "rather than giving aid to Saint-Domingue's anti-colonial struggle." Age of Enlightenment_sentence_174

Great Britain Age of Enlightenment_section_11

England Age of Enlightenment_section_12

Further information: Georgian era § English Enlightenment Age of Enlightenment_sentence_175

The very existence of an English Enlightenment has been hotly debated by scholars. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_176

The majority of textbooks on British history make little or no mention of an English Enlightenment. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_177

Some surveys of the entire Enlightenment include England and others ignore it, although they do include coverage of such major intellectuals as Joseph Addison, Edward Gibbon, John Locke, Isaac Newton, Alexander Pope, Joshua Reynolds and Jonathan Swift. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_178

Roy Porter argues that the reasons for this neglect were the assumptions that the movement was primarily French-inspired, that it was largely a-religious or anti-clerical, and that it stood in outspoken defiance to the established order. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_179

Porter admits that, after the 1720s, England could claim thinkers to equal Diderot, Voltaire or Rousseau. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_180

However, its leading intellectuals such as Edward Gibbon, Edmund Burke and Samuel Johnson were all quite conservative and supportive of the standing order. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_181

Porter says the reason was that Enlightenment had come early to England and had succeeded so that the culture had accepted political liberalism, philosophical empiricism, and religious toleration of the sort that intellectuals on the continent had to fight for against powerful odds. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_182

Furthermore, England rejected the collectivism of the continent and emphasized the improvement of individuals as the main goal of enlightenment. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_183

Scotland Age of Enlightenment_section_13

Further information: Scottish Enlightenment Age of Enlightenment_sentence_184

In the Scottish Enlightenment, Scotland's major cities created an intellectual infrastructure of mutually supporting institutions such as universities, reading societies, libraries, periodicals, museums and masonic lodges. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_185

The Scottish network was "predominantly liberal Calvinist, Newtonian, and 'design' oriented in character which played a major role in the further development of the transatlantic Enlightenment". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_186

In France, Voltaire said that "we look to Scotland for all our ideas of civilization". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_187

The focus of the Scottish Enlightenment ranged from intellectual and economic matters to the specifically scientific as in the work of William Cullen, physician and chemist; James Anderson, an agronomist; Joseph Black, physicist and chemist; and James Hutton, the first modern geologist. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_188

Anglo-American colonies Age of Enlightenment_section_14

Further information: American Enlightenment Age of Enlightenment_sentence_189

Several Americans, especially Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson, played a major role in bringing Enlightenment ideas to the New World and in influencing British and French thinkers. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_190

Franklin was influential for his political activism and for his advances in physics. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_191

The cultural exchange during the Age of Enlightenment ran in both directions across the Atlantic. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_192

Thinkers such as Paine, Locke and Rousseau all take Native American cultural practices as examples of natural freedom. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_193

The Americans closely followed English and Scottish political ideas, as well as some French thinkers such as Montesquieu. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_194

As deists, they were influenced by ideas of John Toland (1670–1722) and Matthew Tindal (1656–1733). Age of Enlightenment_sentence_195

During the Enlightenment there was a great emphasis upon liberty, republicanism and religious tolerance. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_196

There was no respect for monarchy or inherited political power. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_197

Deists reconciled science and religion by rejecting prophecies, miracles and Biblical theology. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_198

Leading deists included Thomas Paine in The Age of Reason and by Thomas Jefferson in his short Jefferson Bible – from which all supernatural aspects were removed. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_199

German states Age of Enlightenment_section_15

Further information: History of Germany § Enlightenment, and Hymnody of continental Europe § Rationalism Age of Enlightenment_sentence_200

Prussia took the lead among the German states in sponsoring the political reforms that Enlightenment thinkers urged absolute rulers to adopt. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_201

There were important movements as well in the smaller states of Bavaria, Saxony, Hanover and the Palatinate. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_202

In each case, Enlightenment values became accepted and led to significant political and administrative reforms that laid the groundwork for the creation of modern states. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_203

The princes of Saxony, for example, carried out an impressive series of fundamental fiscal, administrative, judicial, educational, cultural and general economic reforms. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_204

The reforms were aided by the country's strong urban structure and influential commercial groups and modernized pre-1789 Saxony along the lines of classic Enlightenment principles. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_205

Before 1750, the German upper classes looked to France for intellectual, cultural and architectural leadership, as French was the language of high society. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_206

By the mid-18th century, the Aufklärung (The Enlightenment) had transformed German high culture in music, philosophy, science and literature. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_207

Christian Wolff (1679–1754) was the pioneer as a writer who expounded the Enlightenment to German readers and legitimized German as a philosophic language. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_208

Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744–1803) broke new ground in philosophy and poetry, as a leader of the Sturm und Drang movement of proto-Romanticism. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_209

Weimar Classicism (Weimarer Klassik) was a cultural and literary movement based in Weimar that sought to establish a new humanism by synthesizing Romantic, classical and Enlightenment ideas. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_210

The movement (from 1772 until 1805) involved Herder as well as polymath Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832) and Friedrich Schiller (1759–1805), a poet and historian. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_211

Herder argued that every folk had its own particular identity, which was expressed in its language and culture. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_212

This legitimized the promotion of German language and culture and helped shape the development of German nationalism. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_213

Schiller's plays expressed the restless spirit of his generation, depicting the hero's struggle against social pressures and the force of destiny. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_214

German music, sponsored by the upper classes, came of age under composers Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750), Joseph Haydn (1732–1809) and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791). Age of Enlightenment_sentence_215

In remote Königsberg, philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) tried to reconcile rationalism and religious belief, individual freedom and political authority. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_216

Kant's work contained basic tensions that would continue to shape German thought – and indeed all of European philosophy – well into the 20th century. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_217

The German Enlightenment won the support of princes, aristocrats and the middle classes and it permanently reshaped the culture. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_218

However, there was a conservatism among the elites that warned against going too far. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_219

In the 1780s, Lutheran ministers Johann Heinrich Schulz and Karl Wilhelm Brumbey got in trouble with their preaching as they were attacked and ridiculed by Immanuel Kant, Wilhelm Abraham Teller and others. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_220

In 1788, Prussia issued an "Edict on Religion" that forbade preaching any sermon that undermined popular belief in the Holy Trinity and the Bible. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_221

The goal was to avoid skepticism, deism and theological disputes that might impinge on domestic tranquility. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_222

Men who doubted the value of Enlightenment favoured the measure, but so too did many supporters. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_223

German universities had created a closed elite that could debate controversial issues among themselves, but spreading them to the public was seen as too risky. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_224

This intellectual elite was favoured by the state, but that might be reversed if the process of the Enlightenment proved politically or socially destabilizing. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_225

Italy Age of Enlightenment_section_16

The Enlightenment played a distinctive, if small, role in the history of Italy. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_226

Although most of Italy was controlled by conservative Habsburgs or the pope, Tuscany had some opportunities for reform. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_227

Leopold II of Tuscany abolished the death penalty in Tuscany and reduced censorship. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_228

From Naples, Antonio Genovesi (1713–1769) influenced a generation of southern Italian intellectuals and university students. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_229

His textbook "Diceosina, o Sia della Filosofia del Giusto e dell'Onesto" (1766) was a controversial attempt to mediate between the history of moral philosophy on the one hand and the specific problems encountered by 18th-century commercial society on the other. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_230

It contained the greater part of Genovesi's political, philosophical and economic thought – guidebook for Neapolitan economic and social development. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_231

Science flourished as Alessandro Volta and Luigi Galvani made break-through discoveries in electricity. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_232

Pietro Verri was a leading economist in Lombardy. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_233

Historian Joseph Schumpeter states he was "the most important pre-Smithian authority on Cheapness-and-Plenty". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_234

The most influential scholar on the Italian Enlightenment has been Franco Venturi. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_235

Italy also produced some of the Enlightenment's greatest legal theorists, including Cesare Beccaria, Giambattista Vico and Francesco Mario Pagano. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_236

Beccaria in particular is now considered one of the fathers of classical criminal theory as well as modern penology. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_237

Beccaria is famous for his masterpiece On Crimes and Punishments (1764), a treatise (later translated into 22 languages) that served as one of the earliest prominent condemnations of torture and the death penalty and thus a landmark work in anti-death penalty philosophy. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_238

Spain and Spanish America Age of Enlightenment_section_17

Main articles: Enlightenment in Spain and Spanish American Enlightenment Age of Enlightenment_sentence_239

When Charles II the last Spanish Hapsburg monarch died in 1700, it touched out a major European conflict about succession and the fate of Spain and the Spanish Empire. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_240

The War of the Spanish Succession (1700-1715) brought Bourbon prince Philip, Duke of Anjou to the throne of Spain as Philip V. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_241

Under the 1715 Treaty of Utrecht, the French and the Spanish Bourbons could not unite, with Philip renouncing any rights to the French throne. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_242

The political restriction did not impede strong French influence of the Age of Enlightenment on Spain, the Spanish monarchs, the Spanish Empire. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_243

Philip did not come into effective power until 1715 and began implementing administrative reforms to try to stop the decline of the Spanish Empire. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_244

Under Charles III, the crown began to implement serious structural changes, generally known as the Bourbon Reforms. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_245

The crown curtailed the power of the Catholic Church and the clergy, established a standing military in Spanish America, established new viceroyalties and reorganized administrative districts into intendancies. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_246

Freer trade was promoted under comercio libre in which regions could trade with companies sailing from any other Spanish port, rather than the restrictive mercantile system limiting trade. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_247

The crown sent out scientific expeditions to assert Spanish sovereignty over territories it claimed but did not control, but also importantly to discover the economic potential of its far-flung empire. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_248

Botanical expeditions sought plants that could be of use to the empire. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_249

One of the best acts by Charles IV, a monarch not notable for his good judgment, was to give Prussian scientist, Baron Alexander von Humboldt, free rein to travel and gather information about the Spanish empire during his five-year, self-funded expedition. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_250

Crown officials were to aid Humboldt in any way they could, so that he was able to get access to expert information. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_251

Given that Spain’s empire was closed to foreigners, Humboldt's unfettered access is quite remarkable. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_252

His observations of New Spain, published as the Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain remains an important scientific and historical text. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_253

When Napoleon invaded Spain in 1808, Ferdinand VII abdicated and Napoleon placed his brother Joseph Bonaparte on the throne. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_254

To add legitimacy to this move, the Bayonne Constitution was promulgated, which included representation from Spain's overseas components, but most Spaniards rejected the whole Napoleonic project. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_255

A war of national resistance erupted. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_256

The Cortes de Cádiz (parliament) was convened to rule Spain in the absence of the legitimate monarch, Ferdinand. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_257

It created a new governing document, the Constitution of 1812, which laid out three branches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial, put limits on the king by creating a constitutional monarchy, defined citizens as those in the Spanish Empire without African ancestry, established universal manhood suffrage, and established public education starting with primary school through university as well as freedom of expression. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_258

The constitution was in effect from 1812 until 1814, when Napoleon was defeated and Ferdinand was restored to the throne of Spain. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_259

Upon his return, Ferdinand repudiated the constitution and reestablished absolutist rule. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_260

The French invasion of Spain sparked a crisis of legitimacy of rule in Spanish America, with many regions establishing juntas to rule in the name of Ferdinand VII. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_261

Most of Spanish America fought for independence, leaving only Cuba and Puerto Rico, as well as the Philippines as overseas components of the Spanish Empire. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_262

All of newly independent and sovereign nations became republics by 1824, with written constitutions. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_263

Mexico's brief post-independence monarchy was overthrown and replaced by a federal republic under the Constitution of 1824, inspired by both the U.S. and Spanish constitutions. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_264

Portugal Age of Enlightenment_section_18

Main article: History of Portugal (1640–1777) Age of Enlightenment_sentence_265

The enlightenment in Portugal (iluminismo) was marked by the rule of the Prime Minister Marquis of Pombal under King Joseph I of Portugal from 1756 to 1777. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_266

Following the 1755 Lisbon earthquake which destroyed great part of Lisbon, the Marquis of Pombal implemented important economic policies to regulate commercial activity (in particular with Brazil and England), and to standardise quality throughout the country (for example by introducing the first integrated industries in Portugal). Age of Enlightenment_sentence_267

His reconstruction of Lisbon's riverside district in straight and perpendicular streets, methodically organized to facilitate commerce and exchange (for example by assigning to each street a different product or service), can be seen as a direct application of the Enlightenment ideas to governance and urbanism. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_268

His urbanistic ideas, also being the first large-scale example of earthquake engineering, became collectively known as Pombaline style, and were implemented throughout the kingdom during his stay in office. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_269

His governance was as enlightened as ruthless, see for example the Távora affair. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_270

In literature, the first Enlightenment ideas in Portugal can be traced back to the diplomat, philosopher, and writer António Vieira (1608-1697), who spent a considerable amount of his life in colonial Brazil denouncing discriminations against New Christians and the Indigenous peoples in Brazil. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_271

His works remain today as one of the best pieces of Portuguese literature. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_272

During the 18th century, enlightened literary movements such as the Arcádia Lusitana (lasting from 1756 until 1776, then replaced by the Nova Arcádia in 1790 until 1794) surfaced in the academic medium, in particular involving former students of the University of Coimbra. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_273

A distinct member of this group was the poet Manuel Maria Barbosa du Bocage. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_274

The ideas of the enlightenment also influenced various economists and anti-colonial intellectuals throughout the Portuguese Empire, such as José de Azeredo Coutinho, José da Silva Lisboa, Cláudio Manoel da Costa, and Tomás de Antônio Gonzaga. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_275

As with the Napoleonic invasion of Spain, his invasion of Portugal had consequences for the Portuguese monarchy. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_276

With the aid of the British navy, the Portuguese royal family was evacuated to Brazil, its most important colony. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_277

Even though Napoleon had been defeated, the royal court remained in Brazil. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_278

The Liberal Revolution of 1820 forced the return of the royal family to Portugal. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_279

The terms by which the restored king was to rule was a constitutional monarchy under the Constitution of Portugal. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_280

Brazil declared its independence of Portugal in 1822, and became a monarchy. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_281

Russia Age of Enlightenment_section_19

In Russia, the government began to actively encourage the proliferation of arts and sciences in the mid-18th century. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_282

This era produced the first Russian university, library, theatre, public museum and independent press. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_283

Like other enlightened despots, Catherine the Great played a key role in fostering the arts, sciences and education. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_284

She used her own interpretation of Enlightenment ideals, assisted by notable international experts such as Voltaire (by correspondence) and in residence world class scientists such as Leonhard Euler and Peter Simon Pallas. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_285

The national Enlightenment differed from its Western European counterpart in that it promoted further modernization of all aspects of Russian life and was concerned with attacking the institution of serfdom in Russia. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_286

The Russian enlightenment centered on the individual instead of societal enlightenment and encouraged the living of an enlightened life. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_287

A powerful element was prosveshchenie which combined religious piety, erudition and commitment to the spread of learning. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_288

However, it lacked the skeptical and critical spirit of the Western European Enlightenment. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_289

Poland Age of Enlightenment_section_20

Main article: Enlightenment in Poland Age of Enlightenment_sentence_290

Enlightenment ideas (oświecenie) emerged late in Poland, as the Polish middle class was weaker and szlachta (nobility) culture (Sarmatism) together with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth political system (Golden Liberty) were in deep crisis. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_291

The political system was built on republicanism, but was unable to defend itself against powerful neighbors Russia, Prussia and Austria as they repeatedly sliced off regions until nothing was left of independent Poland. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_292

The period of Polish Enlightenment began in the 1730s–1740s and especially in theatre and the arts peaked in the reign of King Stanisław August Poniatowski (second half of the 18th century). Age of Enlightenment_sentence_293

Warsaw was a main centre after 1750, with an expansion of schools and educational institutions and the arts patronage held at the Royal Castle. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_294

Leaders promoted tolerance and more education. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_295

They included King Stanislaw II Poniatowski and reformers Piotr Switkowski, Antoni Poplawski, Josef Niemcewicz and Jósef Pawlinkowski, as well as Baudouin de Cortenay, a Polonized dramatist. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_296

Opponents included Florian Jaroszewicz, Gracjan Piotrowski, Karol Wyrwicz and Wojciech Skarszewski. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_297

The movement went into decline with the Third Partition of Poland (1795) – a national tragedy inspiring a short period of sentimental writing – and ended in 1822, replaced by Romanticism. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_298

Historiography Age of Enlightenment_section_21

The Enlightenment has always been contested territory. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_299

According to Keith Thomas, its supporters "hail it as the source of everything that is progressive about the modern world. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_300

For them, it stands for freedom of thought, rational inquiry, critical thinking, religious tolerance, political liberty, scientific achievement, the pursuit of happiness, and hope for the future." Age of Enlightenment_sentence_301

Thomas adds that its detractors accuse it of shallow rationalism, naïve optimism, unrealistic universalism and moral darkness. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_302

From the start, conservative and clerical defenders of traditional religion attacked materialism and skepticism as evil forces that encouraged immorality. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_303

By 1794, they pointed to the Terror during the French Revolution as confirmation of their predictions. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_304

As the Enlightenment was ending, Romantic philosophers argued that excessive dependence on reason was a mistake perpetuated by the Enlightenment because it disregarded the bonds of history, myth, faith, and tradition that were necessary to hold society together. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_305

Definition Age of Enlightenment_section_22

The term "Enlightenment" emerged in English in the later part of the 19th century, with particular reference to French philosophy, as the equivalent of the French term Lumières (used first by Dubos in 1733 and already well established by 1751). Age of Enlightenment_sentence_306

From Immanuel Kant's 1784 essay "Beantwortung der Frage: Was ist Aufklärung?" Age of Enlightenment_sentence_307

("Answering the Question: What is Enlightenment? Age of Enlightenment_sentence_308 "), the German term became Aufklärung (aufklären = to illuminate; sich aufklären = to clear up). Age of Enlightenment_sentence_309

However, scholars have never agreed on a definition of the Enlightenment, or on its chronological or geographical extent. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_310

Terms like les Lumières (French), illuminismo (Italian), ilustración (Spanish) and Aufklärung (German) referred to partly overlapping movements. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_311

Not until the late nineteenth century did English scholars agree they were talking about "the Enlightenment". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_312

Enlightenment historiography began in the period itself, from what Enlightenment figures said about their work. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_313

A dominant element was the intellectual angle they took. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_314

D'Alembert's Preliminary Discourse of l'Encyclopédie provides a history of the Enlightenment which comprises a chronological list of developments in the realm of knowledge – of which the Encyclopédie forms the pinnacle. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_315

In 1783, Jewish philosopher Moses Mendelssohn referred to Enlightenment as a process by which man was educated in the use of reason. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_316

Immanuel Kant called Enlightenment "man's release from his self-incurred tutelage", tutelage being "man's inability to make use of his understanding without direction from another". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_317

"For Kant, Enlightenment was mankind's final coming of age, the emancipation of the human consciousness from an immature state of ignorance". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_318

The German scholar Ernst Cassirer called the Enlightenment "a part and a special phase of that whole intellectual development through which modern philosophic thought gained its characteristic self-confidence and self-consciousness". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_319

According to historian Roy Porter, the liberation of the human mind from a dogmatic state of ignorance, is the epitome of what the Age of Enlightenment was trying to capture. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_320

Bertrand Russell saw the Enlightenment as a phase in a progressive development which began in antiquity and that reason and challenges to the established order were constant ideals throughout that time. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_321

Russell said that the Enlightenment was ultimately born out of the Protestant reaction against the Catholic counter-reformation and that philosophical views such as affinity for democracy against monarchy originated among 16th-century Protestants to justify their desire to break away from the Catholic Church. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_322

Although many of these philosophical ideals were picked up by Catholics, Russell argues that by the 18th century the Enlightenment was the principal manifestation of the schism that began with Martin Luther. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_323

Jonathan Israel rejects the attempts of postmodern and Marxian historians to understand the revolutionary ideas of the period purely as by-products of social and economic transformations. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_324

He instead focuses on the history of ideas in the period from 1650 to the end of the 18th century and claims that it was the ideas themselves that caused the change that eventually led to the revolutions of the latter half of the 18th century and the early 19th century. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_325

Israel argues that until the 1650s Western civilization "was based on a largely shared core of faith, tradition and authority". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_326

Time span Age of Enlightenment_section_23

There is little consensus on the precise beginning of the Age of Enlightenment, though several historians and philosophers argue that it was marked by Descartes' 1637 philosophy of Cogito, ergo sum ("I think, therefore I Am"), which shifted the epistemological basis from external authority to internal certainty. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_327

In France, many cited the publication of Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica (1687), which built upon the work of earlier scientists and formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_328

The middle of the 17th century (1650) or the beginning of the 18th century (1701) are often used as epochs. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_329

French historians usually place the Siècle des Lumières ("Century of Enlightenments") between 1715 and 1789: from the beginning of the reign of Louis XV until the French Revolution. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_330

Most scholars use the last years of the century, often choosing the French Revolution of 1789 or the beginning of the Napoleonic Wars (1804–1815) as a convenient point in time with which to date the end of the Enlightenment. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_331

Modern study Age of Enlightenment_section_24

In the 1947 book Dialectic of Enlightenment, Frankfurt School philosophers Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno argued: Age of Enlightenment_sentence_332

Extending Horkheimer and Adorno's argument, intellectual historian Jason Josephson-Storm has argued that any idea of the Age of Enlightenment as a clearly defined period that is separate from the earlier Renaissance and later Romanticism or Counter-Enlightenment constitutes a myth. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_333

Josephson-Storm points out that there are vastly different and mutually contradictory periodizations of the Enlightenment depending on nation, field of study, and school of thought; that the term and category of "Enlightenment" referring to the scientific revolution was actually applied after the fact; that the Enlightenment did not see an increase in disenchantment or the dominance of the mechanistic worldview; and that a blur in the early modern ideas of the humanities and natural sciences makes it hard to circumscribe a Scientific Revolution. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_334

Josephson-Storm defends his categorization of the Enlightenment as "myth" by noting the regulative role ideas of a period of Enlightenment and disenchantment play in modern Western culture, such that belief in magic, spiritualism, and even religion appears somewhat taboo in intellectual strata. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_335

In the 1970s, study of the Enlightenment expanded to include the ways Enlightenment ideas spread to European colonies and how they interacted with indigenous cultures and how the Enlightenment took place in formerly unstudied areas such as Italy, Greece, the Balkans, Poland, Hungary and Russia. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_336

Intellectuals such as Robert Darnton and Jürgen Habermas have focused on the social conditions of the Enlightenment. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_337

Habermas described the creation of the "bourgeois public sphere" in 18th-century Europe, containing the new venues and modes of communication allowing for rational exchange. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_338

Habermas said that the public sphere was bourgeois, egalitarian, rational and independent from the state, making it the ideal venue for intellectuals to critically examine contemporary politics and society, away from the interference of established authority. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_339

While the public sphere is generally an integral component of the social study of the Enlightenment, other historians have questioned whether the public sphere had these characteristics. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_340

Society and culture Age of Enlightenment_section_25

In contrast to the intellectual historiographical approach of the Enlightenment, which examines the various currents or discourses of intellectual thought within the European context during the 17th and 18th centuries, the cultural (or social) approach examines the changes that occurred in European society and culture. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_341

This approach studies the process of changing sociabilities and cultural practices during the Enlightenment. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_342

One of the primary elements of the culture of the Enlightenment was the rise of the public sphere, a "realm of communication marked by new arenas of debate, more open and accessible forms of urban public space and sociability, and an explosion of print culture", in the late 17th century and 18th century. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_343

Elements of the public sphere included that it was egalitarian, that it discussed the domain of "common concern," and that argument was founded on reason. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_344

Habermas uses the term "common concern" to describe those areas of political/social knowledge and discussion that were previously the exclusive territory of the state and religious authorities, now open to critical examination by the public sphere. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_345

The values of this bourgeois public sphere included holding reason to be supreme, considering everything to be open to criticism (the public sphere is critical), and the opposition of secrecy of all sorts. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_346

The creation of the public sphere has been associated with two long-term historical trends: the rise of the modern nation state and the rise of capitalism. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_347

The modern nation state, in its consolidation of public power, created by counterpoint a private realm of society independent of the state, which allowed for the public sphere. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_348

Capitalism also increased society's autonomy and self-awareness, as well as an increasing need for the exchange of information. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_349

As the nascent public sphere expanded, it embraced a large variety of institutions and the most commonly cited were coffee houses and cafés, salons and the literary public sphere, figuratively localized in the Republic of Letters. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_350

In France, the creation of the public sphere was helped by the aristocracy's move from the King's palace at Versailles to Paris in about 1720, since their rich spending stimulated the trade in luxuries and artistic creations, especially fine paintings. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_351

The context for the rise of the public sphere was the economic and social change commonly associated with the Industrial Revolution: "Economic expansion, increasing urbanization, rising population and improving communications in comparison to the stagnation of the previous century". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_352

Rising efficiency in production techniques and communication lowered the prices of consumer goods and increased the amount and variety of goods available to consumers (including the literature essential to the public sphere). Age of Enlightenment_sentence_353

Meanwhile, the colonial experience (most European states had colonial empires in the 18th century) began to expose European society to extremely heterogeneous cultures, leading to the breaking down of "barriers between cultural systems, religious divides, gender differences and geographical areas". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_354

The word "public" implies the highest level of inclusivity – the public sphere by definition should be open to all. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_355

However, this sphere was only public to relative degrees. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_356

Enlightenment thinkers frequently contrasted their conception of the "public" with that of the people: Condorcet contrasted "opinion" with populace, Marmontel "the opinion of men of letters" with "the opinion of the multitude" and d'Alembert the "truly enlightened public" with "the blind and noisy multitude". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_357

Additionally, most institutions of the public sphere excluded both women and the lower classes. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_358

Cross-class influences occurred through noble and lower class participation in areas such as the coffeehouses and the Masonic lodges. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_359

Social and cultural implications in the arts Age of Enlightenment_section_26

Because of the focus on reason over superstition, the Enlightenment cultivated the arts. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_360

Emphasis on learning, art and music became more widespread, especially with the growing middle class. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_361

Areas of study such as literature, philosophy, science, and the fine arts increasingly explored subject matter to which the general public, in addition to the previously more segregated professionals and patrons, could relate. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_362

As musicians depended more and more on public support, public concerts became increasingly popular and helped supplement performers' and composers' incomes. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_363

The concerts also helped them to reach a wider audience. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_364

Handel, for example, epitomized this with his highly public musical activities in London. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_365

He gained considerable fame there with performances of his operas and oratorios. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_366

The music of Haydn and Mozart, with their Viennese Classical styles, are usually regarded as being the most in line with the Enlightenment ideals. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_367

The desire to explore, record and systematize knowledge had a meaningful impact on music publications. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_368

Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Dictionnaire de musique (published 1767 in Geneva and 1768 in Paris) was a leading text in the late 18th century. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_369

This widely available dictionary gave short definitions of words like genius and taste and was clearly influenced by the Enlightenment movement. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_370

Another text influenced by Enlightenment values was Charles Burney's A General History of Music: From the Earliest Ages to the Present Period (1776), which was a historical survey and an attempt to rationalize elements in music systematically over time. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_371

Recently, musicologists have shown renewed interest in the ideas and consequences of the Enlightenment. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_372

For example, Rose Rosengard Subotnik's Deconstructive Variations (subtitled Music and Reason in Western Society) compares Mozart's Die Zauberflöte (1791) using the Enlightenment and Romantic perspectives and concludes that the work is "an ideal musical representation of the Enlightenment". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_373

As the economy and the middle class expanded, there was an increasing number of amateur musicians. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_374

One manifestation of this involved women, who became more involved with music on a social level. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_375

Women were already engaged in professional roles as singers and increased their presence in the amateur performers' scene, especially with keyboard music. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_376

Music publishers begin to print music that amateurs could understand and play. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_377

The majority of the works that were published were for keyboard, voice and keyboard and chamber ensemble. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_378

After these initial genres were popularized, from the mid-century on, amateur groups sang choral music, which then became a new trend for publishers to capitalize on. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_379

The increasing study of the fine arts, as well as access to amateur-friendly published works, led to more people becoming interested in reading and discussing music. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_380

Music magazines, reviews and critical works which suited amateurs as well as connoisseurs began to surface. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_381

Dissemination of ideas Age of Enlightenment_section_27

The philosophes spent a great deal of energy disseminating their ideas among educated men and women in cosmopolitan cities. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_382

They used many venues, some of them quite new. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_383

The Republic of Letters Age of Enlightenment_section_28

Main article: Republic of Letters Age of Enlightenment_sentence_384

The term "Republic of Letters" was coined in 1664 by Pierre Bayle in his journal Nouvelles de la Republique des Lettres. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_385

Towards the end of the 18th century, the editor of Histoire de la République des Lettres en France, a literary survey, described the Republic of Letters as being: Age of Enlightenment_sentence_386

The Republic of Letters was the sum of a number of Enlightenment ideals: an egalitarian realm governed by knowledge that could act across political boundaries and rival state power. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_387

It was a forum that supported "free public examination of questions regarding religion or legislation". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_388

Immanuel Kant considered written communication essential to his conception of the public sphere; once everyone was a part of the "reading public", then society could be said to be enlightened. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_389

The people who participated in the Republic of Letters, such as Diderot and Voltaire, are frequently known today as important Enlightenment figures. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_390

Indeed, the men who wrote Diderot's Encyclopédie arguably formed a microcosm of the larger "republic". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_391

Many women played an essential part in the French Enlightenment, due to the role they played as salonnières in Parisian salons, as the contrast to the male philosophes. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_392

The salon was the principal social institution of the republic and "became the civil working spaces of the project of Enlightenment". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_393

Women, as salonnières, were "the legitimate governors of [the] potentially unruly discourse" that took place within. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_394

While women were marginalized in the public culture of the Old Regime, the French Revolution destroyed the old cultural and economic restraints of patronage and corporatism (guilds), opening French society to female participation, particularly in the literary sphere. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_395

In France, the established men of letters (gens de lettres) had fused with the elites (les grands) of French society by the mid-18th century. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_396

This led to the creation of an oppositional literary sphere, Grub Street, the domain of a "multitude of versifiers and would-be authors". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_397

These men came to London to become authors, only to discover that the literary market simply could not support large numbers of writers, who in any case were very poorly remunerated by the publishing-bookselling guilds. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_398

The writers of Grub Street, the Grub Street Hacks, were left feeling bitter about the relative success of the men of letters and found an outlet for their literature which was typified by the libelle. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_399

Written mostly in the form of pamphlets, the libelles "slandered the court, the Church, the aristocracy, the academies, the salons, everything elevated and respectable, including the monarchy itself". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_400

Le Gazetier cuirassé by Charles Théveneau de Morande was a prototype of the genre. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_401

It was Grub Street literature that was most read by the public during the Enlightenment. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_402

According to Darnton, more importantly the Grub Street hacks inherited the "revolutionary spirit" once displayed by the philosophes and paved the way for the French Revolution by desacralizing figures of political, moral and religious authority in France. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_403

The book industry Age of Enlightenment_section_29

The increased consumption of reading materials of all sorts was one of the key features of the "social" Enlightenment. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_404

Developments in the Industrial Revolution allowed consumer goods to be produced in greater quantities at lower prices, encouraging the spread of books, pamphlets, newspapers and journals – "media of the transmission of ideas and attitudes". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_405

Commercial development likewise increased the demand for information, along with rising populations and increased urbanisation. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_406

However, demand for reading material extended outside of the realm of the commercial and outside the realm of the upper and middle classes, as evidenced by the Bibliothèque Bleue. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_407

Literacy rates are difficult to gauge, but in France the rates doubled over the course of the 18th century. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_408

Reflecting the decreasing influence of religion, the number of books about science and art published in Paris doubled from 1720 to 1780, while the number of books about religion dropped to just one-tenth of the total. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_409

Reading underwent serious changes in the 18th century. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_410

In particular, Rolf Engelsing has argued for the existence of a Reading Revolution. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_411

Until 1750, reading was done intensively: people tended to own a small number of books and read them repeatedly, often to small audience. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_412

After 1750, people began to read "extensively", finding as many books as they could, increasingly reading them alone. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_413

This is supported by increasing literacy rates, particularly among women. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_414

The vast majority of the reading public could not afford to own a private library and while most of the state-run "universal libraries" set up in the 17th and 18th centuries were open to the public, they were not the only sources of reading material. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_415

On one end of the spectrum was the Bibliothèque Bleue, a collection of cheaply produced books published in Troyes, France. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_416

Intended for a largely rural and semi-literate audience these books included almanacs, retellings of medieval romances and condensed versions of popular novels, among other things. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_417

While some historians have argued against the Enlightenment's penetration into the lower classes, the Bibliothèque Bleue represents at least a desire to participate in Enlightenment sociability. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_418

Moving up the classes, a variety of institutions offered readers access to material without needing to buy anything. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_419

Libraries that lent out their material for a small price started to appear and occasionally bookstores would offer a small lending library to their patrons. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_420

Coffee houses commonly offered books, journals and sometimes even popular novels to their customers. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_421

The Tatler and The Spectator, two influential periodicals sold from 1709 to 1714, were closely associated with coffee house culture in London, being both read and produced in various establishments in the city. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_422

This is an example of the triple or even quadruple function of the coffee house: reading material was often obtained, read, discussed and even produced on the premises. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_423

It is extremely difficult to determine what people actually read during the Enlightenment. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_424

For example, examining the catalogs of private libraries gives an image skewed in favor of the classes wealthy enough to afford libraries and also ignores censored works unlikely to be publicly acknowledged. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_425

For this reason, a study of publishing would be much more fruitful for discerning reading habits. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_426

Across continental Europe, but in France especially, booksellers and publishers had to negotiate censorship laws of varying strictness. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_427

For example, the Encyclopédie narrowly escaped seizure and had to be saved by Malesherbes, the man in charge of the French censor. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_428

Indeed, many publishing companies were conveniently located outside France so as to avoid overzealous French censors. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_429

They would smuggle their merchandise across the border, where it would then be transported to clandestine booksellers or small-time peddlers. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_430

The records of clandestine booksellers may give a better representation of what literate Frenchmen might have truly read, since their clandestine nature provided a less restrictive product choice. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_431

In one case, political books were the most popular category, primarily libels and pamphlets. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_432

Readers were more interested in sensationalist stories about criminals and political corruption than they were in political theory itself. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_433

The second most popular category, "general works" (those books "that did not have a dominant motif and that contained something to offend almost everyone in authority"), demonstrated a high demand for generally low-brow subversive literature. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_434

However, these works never became part of literary canon and are largely forgotten today as a result. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_435

A healthy, legal publishing industry existed throughout Europe, although established publishers and book sellers occasionally ran afoul of the law. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_436

For example, the Encyclopédie condemned not only by the King, but also by Clement XII, nevertheless found its way into print with the help of the aforementioned Malesherbes and creative use of French censorship law. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_437

However, many works were sold without running into any legal trouble at all. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_438

Borrowing records from libraries in England, Germany, and North America indicate that more than 70 percent of books borrowed were novels. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_439

Less than 1 percent of the books were of a religious nature, indicating the general trend of declining religiosity. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_440

Natural history Age of Enlightenment_section_30

Main article: Natural history Age of Enlightenment_sentence_441

A genre that greatly rose in importance was that of scientific literature. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_442

Natural history in particular became increasingly popular among the upper classes. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_443

Works of natural history include René-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur's Histoire naturelle des insectes and Jacques Gautier d'Agoty's La Myologie complète, ou description de tous les muscles du corps humain (1746). Age of Enlightenment_sentence_444

Outside ancien régime France, natural history was an important part of medicine and industry, encompassing the fields of botany, zoology, meteorology, hydrology and mineralogy. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_445

Students in Enlightenment universities and academies were taught these subjects to prepare them for careers as diverse as medicine and theology. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_446

As shown by Matthew Daniel Eddy, natural history in this context was a very middle class pursuit and operated as a fertile trading zone for the interdisciplinary exchange of diverse scientific ideas. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_447

The target audience of natural history was French polite society, evidenced more by the specific discourse of the genre than by the generally high prices of its works. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_448

Naturalists catered to polite society's desire for erudition – many texts had an explicit instructive purpose. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_449

However, natural history was often a political affair. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_450

As Emma Spary writes, the classifications used by naturalists "slipped between the natural world and the social ... to establish not only the expertise of the naturalists over the natural, but also the dominance of the natural over the social". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_451

The idea of taste (le goût) was a social indicator: to truly be able to categorize nature, one had to have the proper taste, an ability of discretion shared by all members of polite society. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_452

In this way natural history spread many of the scientific developments of the time, but also provided a new source of legitimacy for the dominant class. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_453

From this basis, naturalists could then develop their own social ideals based on their scientific works. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_454

Scientific and literary journals Age of Enlightenment_section_31

The first scientific and literary journals were established during the Enlightenment. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_455

The first journal, the Parisian Journal des Sçavans, appeared in 1665. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_456

However, it was not until 1682 that periodicals began to be more widely produced. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_457

French and Latin were the dominant languages of publication, but there was also a steady demand for material in German and Dutch. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_458

There was generally low demand for English publications on the Continent, which was echoed by England's similar lack of desire for French works. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_459

Languages commanding less of an international market—such as Danish, Spanish and Portuguese—found journal success more difficult and more often than not a more international language was used instead. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_460

French slowly took over Latin's status as the lingua franca of learned circles. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_461

This in turn gave precedence to the publishing industry in Holland, where the vast majority of these French language periodicals were produced. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_462

Jonathan Israel called the journals the most influential cultural innovation of European intellectual culture. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_463

They shifted the attention of the "cultivated public" away from established authorities to novelty and innovation and instead promoted the "enlightened" ideals of toleration and intellectual objectivity. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_464

Being a source of knowledge derived from science and reason, they were an implicit critique of existing notions of universal truth monopolized by monarchies, parliaments and religious authorities. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_465

They also advanced Christian enlightenment that upheld "the legitimacy of God-ordained authority"—the Bible—in which there had to be agreement between the biblical and natural theories. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_466

Encyclopedias and dictionaries Age of Enlightenment_section_32

Although the existence of dictionaries and encyclopedias spanned into ancient times, the texts changed from simply defining words in a long running list to far more detailed discussions of those words in 18th-century encyclopedic dictionaries. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_467

The works were part of an Enlightenment movement to systematize knowledge and provide education to a wider audience than the elite. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_468

As the 18th century progressed, the content of encyclopedias also changed according to readers' tastes. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_469

Volumes tended to focus more strongly on secular affairs, particularly science and technology, rather than matters of theology. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_470

Along with secular matters, readers also favoured an alphabetical ordering scheme over cumbersome works arranged along thematic lines. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_471

Commenting on alphabetization, the historian Charles Porset has said that "as the zero degree of taxonomy, alphabetical order authorizes all reading strategies; in this respect it could be considered an emblem of the Enlightenment". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_472

For Porset, the avoidance of thematic and hierarchical systems thus allows free interpretation of the works and becomes an example of egalitarianism. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_473

Encyclopedias and dictionaries also became more popular during the Age of Enlightenment as the number of educated consumers who could afford such texts began to multiply. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_474

In the later half of the 18th century, the number of dictionaries and encyclopedias published by decade increased from 63 between 1760 and 1769 to approximately 148 in the decade proceeding the French Revolution (1780–1789). Age of Enlightenment_sentence_475

Along with growth in numbers, dictionaries and encyclopedias also grew in length, often having multiple print runs that sometimes included in supplemented editions. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_476

The first technical dictionary was drafted by John Harris and entitled Lexicon Technicum: Or, An Universal English Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_477

Harris' book avoided theological and biographical entries and instead it concentrated on science and technology. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_478

Published in 1704, the Lexicon technicum was the first book to be written in English that took a methodical approach to describing mathematics and commercial arithmetic along with the physical sciences and navigation. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_479

Other technical dictionaries followed Harris' model, including Ephraim Chambers' Cyclopaedia (1728), which included five editions and was a substantially larger work than Harris'. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_480

The folio edition of the work even included foldout engravings. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_481

The Cyclopaedia emphasized Newtonian theories, Lockean philosophy and contained thorough examinations of technologies, such as engraving, brewing and dyeing. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_482

In Germany, practical reference works intended for the uneducated majority became popular in the 18th century. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_483

The Marperger Curieuses Natur-, Kunst-, Berg-, Gewerkund Handlungs-Lexicon (1712) explained terms that usefully described the trades and scientific and commercial education. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_484

Jablonksi Allgemeines Lexicon (1721) was better known than the Handlungs-Lexicon and underscored technical subjects rather than scientific theory. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_485

For example, over five columns of text were dedicated to wine while geometry and logic were allocated only twenty-two and seventeen lines, respectively. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_486

The first edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1771) was modelled along the same lines as the German lexicons. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_487

However, the prime example of reference works that systematized scientific knowledge in the age of Enlightenment were universal encyclopedias rather than technical dictionaries. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_488

It was the goal of universal encyclopedias to record all human knowledge in a comprehensive reference work. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_489

The most well-known of these works is Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert's Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_490

The work, which began publication in 1751, was composed of thirty-five volumes and over 71 000 separate entries. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_491

A great number of the entries were dedicated to describing the sciences and crafts in detail and provided intellectuals across Europe with a high-quality survey of human knowledge. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_492

In d'Alembert's Preliminary Discourse to the Encyclopedia of Diderot, the work's goal to record the extent of human knowledge in the arts and sciences is outlined: Age of Enlightenment_sentence_493

The massive work was arranged according to a "tree of knowledge". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_494

The tree reflected the marked division between the arts and sciences, which was largely a result of the rise of empiricism. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_495

Both areas of knowledge were united by philosophy, or the trunk of the tree of knowledge. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_496

The Enlightenment's desacrilization of religion was pronounced in the tree's design, particularly where theology accounted for a peripheral branch, with black magic as a close neighbour. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_497

As the Encyclopédie gained popularity, it was published in quarto and octavo editions after 1777. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_498

The quarto and octavo editions were much less expensive than previous editions, making the Encyclopédie more accessible to the non-elite. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_499

Robert Darnton estimates that there were approximately 25 000 copies of the Encyclopédie in circulation throughout France and Europe before the French Revolution. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_500

The extensive, yet affordable encyclopedia came to represent the transmission of Enlightenment and scientific education to an expanding audience. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_501

Popularization of science Age of Enlightenment_section_33

One of the most important developments that the Enlightenment era brought to the discipline of science was its popularization. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_502

An increasingly literate population seeking knowledge and education in both the arts and the sciences drove the expansion of print culture and the dissemination of scientific learning. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_503

The new literate population was due to a high rise in the availability of food. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_504

This enabled many people to rise out of poverty, and instead of paying more for food, they had money for education. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_505

Popularization was generally part of an overarching Enlightenment ideal that endeavoured "to make information available to the greatest number of people". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_506

As public interest in natural philosophy grew during the 18th century, public lecture courses and the publication of popular texts opened up new roads to money and fame for amateurs and scientists who remained on the periphery of universities and academies. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_507

More formal works included explanations of scientific theories for individuals lacking the educational background to comprehend the original scientific text. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_508

Sir Isaac Newton's celebrated Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica was published in Latin and remained inaccessible to readers without education in the classics until Enlightenment writers began to translate and analyze the text in the vernacular. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_509

The first significant work that expressed scientific theory and knowledge expressly for the laity, in the vernacular and with the entertainment of readers in mind, was Bernard de Fontenelle's Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds (1686). Age of Enlightenment_sentence_510

The book was produced specifically for women with an interest in scientific writing and inspired a variety of similar works. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_511

These popular works were written in a discursive style, which was laid out much more clearly for the reader than the complicated articles, treatises and books published by the academies and scientists. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_512

Charles Leadbetter's Astronomy (1727) was advertised as "a Work entirely New" that would include "short and easie sic Rules and Astronomical Tables". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_513

The first French introduction to Newtonianism and the Principia was Eléments de la philosophie de Newton, published by Voltaire in 1738. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_514

Émilie du Châtelet's translation of the Principia, published after her death in 1756, also helped to spread Newton's theories beyond scientific academies and the university. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_515

Writing for a growing female audience, Francesco Algarotti published Il Newtonianism per le dame, which was a tremendously popular work and was translated from Italian into English by Elizabeth Carter. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_516

A similar introduction to Newtonianism for women was produced by Henry Pemberton. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_517

His A View of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophy was published by subscription. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_518

Extant records of subscribers show that women from a wide range of social standings purchased the book, indicating the growing number of scientifically inclined female readers among the middling class. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_519

During the Enlightenment, women also began producing popular scientific works themselves. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_520

Sarah Trimmer wrote a successful natural history textbook for children titled The Easy Introduction to the Knowledge of Nature (1782), which was published for many years after in eleven editions. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_521

Schools and universities Age of Enlightenment_section_34

Main article: Education in the Age of Enlightenment Age of Enlightenment_sentence_522

Most work on the Enlightenment emphasizes the ideals discussed by intellectuals, rather than the actual state of education at the time. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_523

Leading educational theorists like England's John Locke and Switzerland's Jean Jacques Rousseau both emphasized the importance of shaping young minds early. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_524

By the late Enlightenment, there was a rising demand for a more universal approach to education, particularly after the American and French Revolutions. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_525

The predominant educational psychology from the 1750s onward, especially in northern European countries was associationism, the notion that the mind associates or dissociates ideas through repeated routines. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_526

In addition to being conducive to Enlightenment ideologies of liberty, self-determination and personal responsibility, it offered a practical theory of the mind that allowed teachers to transform longstanding forms of print and manuscript culture into effective graphic tools of learning for the lower and middle orders of society. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_527

Children were taught to memorize facts through oral and graphic methods that originated during the Renaissance. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_528

Many of the leading universities associated with Enlightenment progressive principles were located in northern Europe, with the most renowned being the universities of Leiden, Göttingen, Halle, Montpellier, Uppsala and Edinburgh. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_529

These universities, especially Edinburgh, produced professors whose ideas had a significant impact on Britain's North American colonies and later the American Republic. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_530

Within the natural sciences, Edinburgh's medical school also led the way in chemistry, anatomy and pharmacology. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_531

In other parts of Europe, the universities and schools of France and most of Europe were bastions of traditionalism and were not hospitable to the Enlightenment. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_532

In France, the major exception was the medical university at Montpellier. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_533

Learned academies Age of Enlightenment_section_35

The history of Academies in France during the Enlightenment begins with the Academy of Science, founded in 1635 in Paris. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_534

It was closely tied to the French state, acting as an extension of a government seriously lacking in scientists. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_535

It helped promote and organize new disciplines and it trained new scientists. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_536

It also contributed to the enhancement of scientists' social status, considering them to be the "most useful of all citizens". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_537

Academies demonstrate the rising interest in science along with its increasing secularization, as evidenced by the small number of clerics who were members (13 percent). Age of Enlightenment_sentence_538

The presence of the French academies in the public sphere cannot be attributed to their membership, as although the majority of their members were bourgeois, the exclusive institution was only open to elite Parisian scholars. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_539

They perceived themselves as "interpreters of the sciences for the people". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_540

For example, it was with this in mind that academicians took it upon themselves to disprove the popular pseudo-science of mesmerism. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_541

The strongest contribution of the French Academies to the public sphere comes from the concours académiques (roughly translated as "academic contests") they sponsored throughout France. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_542

These academic contests were perhaps the most public of any institution during the Enlightenment. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_543

The practice of contests dated back to the Middle Ages and was revived in the mid-17th century. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_544

The subject matter had previously been generally religious and/or monarchical, featuring essays, poetry and painting. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_545

However, by roughly 1725 this subject matter had radically expanded and diversified, including "royal propaganda, philosophical battles, and critical ruminations on the social and political institutions of the Old Regime". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_546

Topics of public controversy were also discussed such as the theories of Newton and Descartes, the slave trade, women's education and justice in France. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_547

More importantly, the contests were open to all and the enforced anonymity of each submission guaranteed that neither gender nor social rank would determine the judging. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_548

Indeed, although the "vast majority" of participants belonged to the wealthier strata of society ("the liberal arts, the clergy, the judiciary and the medical profession"), there were some cases of the popular classes submitting essays and even winning. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_549

Similarly, a significant number of women participated—and won—the competitions. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_550

Of a total of 2,300 prize competitions offered in France, women won 49—perhaps a small number by modern standards, but very significant in an age in which most women did not have any academic training. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_551

Indeed, the majority of the winning entries were for poetry competitions, a genre commonly stressed in women's education. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_552

In England, the Royal Society of London also played a significant role in the public sphere and the spread of Enlightenment ideas. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_553

It was founded by a group of independent scientists and given a royal charter in 1662. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_554

The Society played a large role in spreading Robert Boyle's experimental philosophy around Europe and acted as a clearinghouse for intellectual correspondence and exchange. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_555

Boyle was "a founder of the experimental world in which scientists now live and operate" and his method based knowledge on experimentation, which had to be witnessed to provide proper empirical legitimacy. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_556

This is where the Royal Society came into play: witnessing had to be a "collective act" and the Royal Society's assembly rooms were ideal locations for relatively public demonstrations. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_557

However, not just any witness was considered to be credible: "Oxford professors were accounted more reliable witnesses than Oxfordshire peasants". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_558

Two factors were taken into account: a witness's knowledge in the area and a witness's "moral constitution". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_559

In other words, only civil society were considered for Boyle's public. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_560

Salons Age of Enlightenment_section_36

Main article: Historiography of the salon Age of Enlightenment_sentence_561

Salons were places where philosophes were reunited and discussed old, actual or new ideas. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_562

This led to salons being the birthplace of intellectual and enlightened ideas. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_563

Coffeehouses Age of Enlightenment_section_37

Main articles: Coffeehouse and English coffeehouses in the 17th and 18th centuries Age of Enlightenment_sentence_564

Coffeehouses were especially important to the spread of knowledge during the Enlightenment because they created a unique environment in which people from many different walks of life gathered and shared ideas. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_565

They were frequently criticized by nobles who feared the possibility of an environment in which class and its accompanying titles and privileges were disregarded. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_566

Such an environment was especially intimidating to monarchs who derived much of their power from the disparity between classes of people. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_567

If classes were to join together under the influence of Enlightenment thinking, they might recognize the all-encompassing oppression and abuses of their monarchs and because of their size might be able to carry out successful revolts. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_568

Monarchs also resented the idea of their subjects convening as one to discuss political matters, especially those concerning foreign affairs—rulers thought political affairs to be their business only, a result of their supposed divine right to rule. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_569

Coffeehouses represent a turning point in history during which people discovered that they could have enjoyable social lives within their communities. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_570

Coffeeshops became homes away from home for many who sought, for the first time, to engage in discourse with their neighbors and discuss intriguing and thought-provoking matters, especially those regarding philosophy to politics. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_571

Coffeehouses were essential to the Enlightenment, for they were centers of free-thinking and self-discovery. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_572

Although many coffeehouse patrons were scholars, a great deal were not. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_573

Coffeehouses attracted a diverse set of people, including not only the educated wealthy but also members of the bourgeoisie and the lower class. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_574

While it may seem positive that patrons, being doctors, lawyers, merchants, etc. represented almost all classes, the coffeeshop environment sparked fear in those who sought to preserve class distinction. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_575

One of the most popular critiques of the coffeehouse claimed that it "allowed promiscuous association among people from different rungs of the social ladder, from the artisan to the aristocrat" and was therefore compared to Noah's Ark, receiving all types of animals, clean or unclean. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_576

This unique culture served as a catalyst for journalism when Joseph Addison and Richard Steele recognized its potential as an audience. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_577

Together, Steele and Addison published The Spectator (1711), a daily publication which aimed, through fictional narrator Mr. Spectator, both to entertain and to provoke discussion regarding serious philosophical matters. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_578

The first English coffeehouse opened in Oxford in 1650. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_579

Brian Cowan said that Oxford coffeehouses developed into "penny universities", offering a locus of learning that was less formal than structured institutions. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_580

These penny universities occupied a significant position in Oxford academic life, as they were frequented by those consequently referred to as the virtuosi, who conducted their research on some of the resulting premises. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_581

According to Cowan, "the coffeehouse was a place for like-minded scholars to congregate, to read, as well as learn from and to debate with each other, but was emphatically not a university institution, and the discourse there was of a far different order than any university tutorial". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_582

The Café Procope was established in Paris in 1686 and by the 1720s there were around 400 cafés in the city. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_583

The Café Procope in particular became a center of Enlightenment, welcoming such celebrities as Voltaire and Rousseau. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_584

The Café Procope was where Diderot and D'Alembert decided to create the Encyclopédie. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_585

The cafés were one of the various "nerve centers" for bruits publics, public noise or rumour. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_586

These bruits were allegedly a much better source of information than were the actual newspapers available at the time. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_587

Debating societies Age of Enlightenment_section_38

Main article: London Debating Societies Age of Enlightenment_sentence_588

The debating societies are an example of the public sphere during the Enlightenment. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_589

Their origins include: Age of Enlightenment_sentence_590

Age of Enlightenment_unordered_list_0

  • Clubs of fifty or more men who, at the beginning of the 18th century, met in pubs to discuss religious issues and affairs of state.Age of Enlightenment_item_0_0
  • Mooting clubs, set up by law students to practice rhetoric.Age of Enlightenment_item_0_1
  • Spouting clubs, established to help actors train for theatrical roles.Age of Enlightenment_item_0_2
  • John Henley's Oratory, which mixed outrageous sermons with even more absurd questions, like "Whether Scotland be anywhere in the world?".Age of Enlightenment_item_0_3

In the late 1770s, popular debating societies began to move into more "genteel" rooms, a change which helped establish a new standard of sociability. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_591

The backdrop to these developments was "an explosion of interest in the theory and practice of public elocution". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_592

The debating societies were commercial enterprises that responded to this demand, sometimes very successfully. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_593

Some societies welcomed from 800 to 1,200 spectators a night. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_594

The debating societies discussed an extremely wide range of topics. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_595

Before the Enlightenment, most intellectual debates revolved around "confessional" – that is, Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed (Calvinist) or Anglican issues and the main aim of these debates was to establish which bloc of faith ought to have the "monopoly of truth and a God-given title to authority". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_596

After this date, everything thus previously rooted in tradition was questioned and often replaced by new concepts in the light of philosophical reason. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_597

After the second half of the 17th century and during the 18th century, a "general process of rationalization and secularization set in" and confessional disputes were reduced to a secondary status in favor of the "escalating contest between faith and incredulity". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_598

In addition to debates on religion, societies discussed issues such as politics and the role of women. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_599

However, it is important to note that the critical subject matter of these debates did not necessarily translate into opposition to the government. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_600

In other words, the results of the debate quite frequently upheld the status quo. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_601

From a historical standpoint, one of the most important features of the debating society was their openness to the public, as women attended and even participated in almost every debating society, which were likewise open to all classes providing they could pay the entrance fee. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_602

Once inside, spectators were able to participate in a largely egalitarian form of sociability that helped spread Enlightenment ideas. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_603

Masonic lodges Age of Enlightenment_section_39

Historians have long debated the extent to which the secret network of Freemasonry was a main factor in the Enlightenment. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_604

The leaders of the Enlightenment included Freemasons such as Diderot, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Lessing, Pope, Horace Walpole, Sir Robert Walpole, Mozart, Goethe, Frederick the Great, Benjamin Franklin and George Washington. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_605

Norman Davies said that Freemasonry was a powerful force on behalf of liberalism in Europe from about 1700 to the twentieth century. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_606

It expanded rapidly during the Age of Enlightenment, reaching practically every country in Europe. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_607

It was especially attractive to powerful aristocrats and politicians as well as intellectuals, artists and political activists. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_608

During the Age of Enlightenment, Freemasons comprised an international network of like-minded men, often meeting in secret in ritualistic programs at their lodges. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_609

They promoted the ideals of the Enlightenment and helped diffuse these values across Britain and France and other places. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_610

Freemasonry as a systematic creed with its own myths, values and set of rituals originated in Scotland around 1600 and spread first to England and then across the Continent in the eighteenth century. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_611

They fostered new codes of conduct—including a communal understanding of liberty and equality inherited from guild sociability—"liberty, fraternity and equality". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_612

Scottish soldiers and Jacobite Scots brought to the Continent ideals of fraternity which reflected not the local system of Scottish customs but the institutions and ideals originating in the English Revolution against royal absolutism. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_613

Freemasonry was particularly prevalent in France—by 1789, there were perhaps as many as 100,000 French Masons, making Freemasonry the most popular of all Enlightenment associations. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_614

The Freemasons displayed a passion for secrecy and created new degrees and ceremonies. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_615

Similar societies, partially imitating Freemasonry, emerged in France, Germany, Sweden and Russia. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_616

One example was the Illuminati founded in Bavaria in 1776, which was copied after the Freemasons, but was never part of the movement. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_617

The Illuminati was an overtly political group, which most Masonic lodges decidedly were not. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_618

Masonic lodges created a private model for public affairs. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_619

They "reconstituted the polity and established a constitutional form of self-government, complete with constitutions and laws, elections and representatives". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_620

In other words, the micro-society set up within the lodges constituted a normative model for society as a whole. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_621

This was especially true on the continent: when the first lodges began to appear in the 1730s, their embodiment of British values was often seen as threatening by state authorities. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_622

For example, the Parisian lodge that met in the mid 1720s was composed of English Jacobite exiles. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_623

Furthermore, freemasons all across Europe explicitly linked themselves to the Enlightenment as a whole. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_624

For example, in French lodges the line "As the means to be enlightened I search for the enlightened" was a part of their initiation rites. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_625

British lodges assigned themselves the duty to "initiate the unenlightened". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_626

This did not necessarily link lodges to the irreligious, but neither did this exclude them from the occasional heresy. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_627

In fact, many lodges praised the Grand Architect, the masonic terminology for the deistic divine being who created a scientifically ordered universe. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_628

German historian Reinhart Koselleck claimed: "On the Continent there were two social structures that left a decisive imprint on the Age of Enlightenment: the Republic of Letters and the Masonic lodges". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_629

Scottish professor Thomas Munck argues that "although the Masons did promote international and cross-social contacts which were essentially non-religious and broadly in agreement with enlightened values, they can hardly be described as a major radical or reformist network in their own right". Age of Enlightenment_sentence_630

Many of the Masons values seemed to greatly appeal to Enlightenment values and thinkers. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_631

Diderot discusses the link between Freemason ideals and the enlightenment in D'Alembert's Dream, exploring masonry as a way of spreading enlightenment beliefs. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_632

Historian Margaret Jacob stresses the importance of the Masons in indirectly inspiring enlightened political thought. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_633

On the negative side, Daniel Roche contests claims that Masonry promoted egalitarianism and he argues that the lodges only attracted men of similar social backgrounds. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_634

The presence of noble women in the French "lodges of adoption" that formed in the 1780s was largely due to the close ties shared between these lodges and aristocratic society. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_635

The major opponent of Freemasonry was the Roman Catholic Church so that in countries with a large Catholic element, such as France, Italy, Spain and Mexico, much of the ferocity of the political battles involve the confrontation between what Davies calls the reactionary Church and enlightened Freemasonry. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_636

Even in France, Masons did not act as a group. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_637

American historians, while noting that Benjamin Franklin and George Washington were indeed active Masons, have downplayed the importance of Freemasonry in causing the American Revolution because the Masonic order was non-political and included both Patriots and their enemy the Loyalists. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_638

Art Age of Enlightenment_section_40

The art produced during the Enlightenment focused on a search for morality that was absent from the art in previous eras. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_639

At the same time, the Classical art of Greece and Rome became interesting to people again, since archaeological teams discovered Pompeii and Herculaneum. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_640

People did take inspiration from it and revived the classical art into neo-classical art. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_641

This can be especially seen in early American art, where, throughout their art and architecture, they used arches, goddesses, and other classical architectural designs. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_642

Important intellectuals Age of Enlightenment_section_41

For a more comprehensive list, see List of intellectuals of the Enlightenment. Age of Enlightenment_sentence_643

See also Age of Enlightenment_section_42

Age of Enlightenment_unordered_list_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Age of Enlightenment.