Ahmad Sanjar

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'Sanjar' redirects here. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_0

For the town in Iran, see Sanjar, Iran; for the town in Iraq, see Sinjar; for the Iraqi plain, see Plain of Sanjar; for the Iraqi mountain, see Mount Sinjar. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_1

Ahmad Sanjar_table_infobox_0

Ahmad SanjarAhmad Sanjar_header_cell_0_0_0
Malik of KhorasanAhmad Sanjar_header_cell_0_1_0
ReignAhmad Sanjar_header_cell_0_2_0 1097–1118Ahmad Sanjar_cell_0_2_1
PredecessorAhmad Sanjar_header_cell_0_3_0 Arghun ArslanAhmad Sanjar_cell_0_3_1
SuccessorAhmad Sanjar_header_cell_0_4_0 Kara-Khitan conquestAhmad Sanjar_cell_0_4_1
Sultan of the Great Seljuq EmpireAhmad Sanjar_header_cell_0_5_0
ReignAhmad Sanjar_header_cell_0_6_0 1118–1157Ahmad Sanjar_cell_0_6_1
PredecessorAhmad Sanjar_header_cell_0_7_0 Muhammad IAhmad Sanjar_cell_0_7_1
SuccessorAhmad Sanjar_header_cell_0_8_0 NoneAhmad Sanjar_cell_0_8_1
BornAhmad Sanjar_header_cell_0_10_0 October 1086

SinjarAhmad Sanjar_cell_0_10_1

DiedAhmad Sanjar_header_cell_0_11_0 8 May 1157(1157-05-08) (aged 70)

MervAhmad Sanjar_cell_0_11_1

ConsortAhmad Sanjar_header_cell_0_12_0 Terken Khatun

Rusudan KhatunAhmad Sanjar_cell_0_12_1

IssueAhmad Sanjar_header_cell_0_13_0 Mah-i Mulk Khatun

Mudzaffar Shah I Amir Sitti Khatun Gouhar Neseb KhatunAhmad Sanjar_cell_0_13_1

HouseAhmad Sanjar_header_cell_0_14_0 House of SeljuqAhmad Sanjar_cell_0_14_1
FatherAhmad Sanjar_header_cell_0_15_0 Malik-Shah IAhmad Sanjar_cell_0_15_1
MotherAhmad Sanjar_header_cell_0_16_0 Tajuddin Safariyya KhatunAhmad Sanjar_cell_0_16_1
ReligionAhmad Sanjar_header_cell_0_17_0 Sunni IslamAhmad Sanjar_cell_0_17_1

Ahmad Sanjar (Persian: احمد سنجر; full name: Muizz ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Adud ad-Dawlah Abul-Harith Ahmad Sanjar ibn Malik-Shah) (b. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_2

1085 – d. 8 May 1157) was the Seljuq ruler of Khorasan from 1097 until in 1118, when he became the Sultan of the Seljuq Empire, which he ruled until his death in 1157. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_3

Early years Ahmad Sanjar_section_0

Sanjar was born in ca. 1086 in Sinjar, a town situated in the borderland between Syria and the al-Jazira. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_4

Although primary sources state that he was named after his birthplace (Rāvandi, p. 185; Ebn al-Jawzi, XVIII, p. 161) Bosworth notes Sanjar is a Turkic name, denoting "he who pierces", "he who thrusts". Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_5

He was a son of Malik Shah I and participated in wars of succession against his three brothers and a nephew, namely Mahmud I, Barkiyaruq, Malik Shah II and Muhammad I. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_6

In 1096, he was given the province of Khorasan to govern under his brother Muhammad I. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_7

Over the next several years Ahmed Sanjar became the ruler of most of Iran with his capital at Nishapur. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_8

Governor of Khorasan Ahmad Sanjar_section_1

A number of rulers revolted against Sanjar and continued the split of the Great Seljuq Empire that had started upon dynastic wars. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_9

In 1102, he repulsed an invasion from Kashgaria, killing Jibrail Arslan Khan near Termez. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_10

In 1107, he invaded the domains of the Ghurid ruler Izz al-Din Husayn and captured him, but later released him in return for tribute. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_11

Sanjar undertook a campaign to eliminate the Assassins within Persia and successfully drove them from a number of their strongholds including Quhistan and Tabas. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_12

However, an anecdote indicates that en route to their stronghold at Alamut, Sanjar woke up one day to find a dagger beside him, pinning a note from Hassan-i Sabbah stating that he (Hassan) would like peace. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_13

Sanjar, shocked by this event, sent envoys to Hassan and they both agreed to stay out of each other's way. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_14

In 1117, he marched against the Ghaznavid Sultan Arslan-Shah of Ghazna defeating him at Battle of Ghazni and installing Arslan's brother Bahram-Shah in the throne as a Seljuk vassal. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_15

Sultan of the Great Seljuk Empire Ahmad Sanjar_section_2

On February 26, 1105 Sultan Barkiyaruq died. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_16

He chose his younger son, Muizzeddin Malik-Shah, as heir to the throne. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_17

Malikshah took the name Malik-Shah II after being proclaimed the Sultan of the Seljuk Empire. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_18

However, the true power was in the hands of his uncle, Muhammad Tapar. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_19

In the same year, Muhammad Tapar dethroned his cousin and started to rule the State himself as sultan. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_20

When Muhammad died on April 4, 1118, his son Mahmud II was declared as new sultan. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_21

When Muhammad's son Mahmud II ascended the throne, Emir or Yazd Garshasp II fell into disgrace; slander about him spread to the court that made him lose confidence, and made Mahmud send a military force to Yazd where Garshasp was arrested and jailed in Jibal, while Yazd was granted to the royal cupbearer. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_22

Garshasp, however, escaped and returned to Yazd, where he requested protection from Ahmad Sanjar (Garshasp's wife was the sister of Ahmad). Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_23

Garshasp urged Ahmad to invade the domains of Mahmud in Central Iran, and gave him information on how to march to Central Iran, and the ways to combat Mahmud. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_24

Ahmad accepted and advanced with an army to the west in 1119, where he together with "five kings" defeated Mahmud at Saveh. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_25

The kings who aided Ahmad during the battle were Garshasp himself, the Emir of Sistan and the Khwarazm-Shah, including two other unnamed kings. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_26

Nizari forces were also present in Sanjar's army. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_27

After being victorious, Ahmad then restored the domains of Garshasp II. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_28

Ahmad then marched as far as Baghdad, where he agreed with Mahmud that he should marry one of his daughters, and that he should give up strategic territories in northern Persia. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_29

In 1141, Ahmad, along with Garshasp II, marched to confront the Kara Khitan threat and engaged them near Samarkand at the Battle of Qatwan. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_30

He suffered an astounding defeat, and Garshasp was killed. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_31

Ahmad escaped with only fifteen of his elite horsemen, losing all Seljuq territory east of the Syr Darya (Jaxartes). Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_32

Sanjar’s as well as Seljuks' rule collapsed as a consequence of yet another unexpected defeat, this time at the hands of the Seljuks’ own tribe, in 1153. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_33

Sanjar was captured during the battle and held in captivity until 1156. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_34

It brought chaos to the Empire - situation later exploited by the victorious Turkmens, whose hordes would overrun Khorasan unopposed, wreaking colossal damage on the province and prestige of Sanjar. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_35

Sanjar eventually escaped from captivity in the fall of 1156, but soon died in Merv (present-day Turkmenistan), in 1157. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_36

After his death, Turkic rulers, Turkmen tribal forces, and other secondary powers competed for Khorasan, and after a long period of confrontations, the province was finally conquered by Khwarazmians in the early 1200s. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_37

Death and legacy Ahmad Sanjar_section_3

Sanjar died in 1157 and was buried in Merv. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_38

His tomb was destroyed by the Mongols in 1221, during their invasion of the Khwarezmian Empire. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_39

The death of Sanjar meant the end of the Seljuq dynasty as an empire, since they only controlled Iraq and Azerbaijan afterwards. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_40

Sanjar is considered as one of the most prominent Seljuq sultans and was the longest reigning Muslim ruler until the Mongols arrived. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_41

Although of Turkic origin, Sanjar was highly Iranized, and due to his feats, even became a legendary figure like some of the mythological characters in the Shahnameh. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_42

Indeed, medieval sources described Sanjar as having "the majesty of the Khosrows and the glory of the Kayanids". Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_43

Persian poetry flourished under Sanjar, and his court included some of the greatest Persian poets, such as Mu'izzi, Nizami Aruzi, and Anvari. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_44

Family Ahmad Sanjar_section_4

Ahmad Sanjar married Terken Khatun (died 1156) with whom he had two daughters – wives of his nephew Mahmud II. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_45

After her death, Sanjar married Rusudan, daughter of Demetrius I of Georgia, widow of sultan Masud Temirek. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_46

He had no children with her. Ahmad Sanjar_sentence_47

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahmad Sanjar.