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Imam al-Haramayn Dhia' ul-Din al-Juwayni

امام الحرمین ضیاءُ الدین الجُوَینیAl-Juwayni_header_cell_0_0_0

TitleAl-Juwayni_header_cell_0_1_0 Imam al-Haramayn Sheikh ul-Islam Dia al-DinAl-Juwayni_cell_0_1_1
BornAl-Juwayni_header_cell_0_3_0 17 February 1028

Boštanekān, Jowayin County, near Nishapur, Greater Khorasan, Persia, now Razavi Khorasan Province, IranAl-Juwayni_cell_0_3_1

DiedAl-Juwayni_header_cell_0_4_0 20 August 1085 (aged 57)Al-Juwayni_cell_0_4_1
ReligionAl-Juwayni_header_cell_0_5_0 IslamAl-Juwayni_cell_0_5_1
EthnicityAl-Juwayni_header_cell_0_6_0 PersianAl-Juwayni_cell_0_6_1
EraAl-Juwayni_header_cell_0_7_0 Middle Ages Islamic Golden AgeAl-Juwayni_cell_0_7_1
RegionAl-Juwayni_header_cell_0_8_0 Persia, Hejaz, IraqAl-Juwayni_cell_0_8_1
DenominationAl-Juwayni_header_cell_0_9_0 Sunni IslamAl-Juwayni_cell_0_9_1
JurisprudenceAl-Juwayni_header_cell_0_10_0 Shafi'iAl-Juwayni_cell_0_10_1
CreedAl-Juwayni_header_cell_0_11_0 Ash'ariAl-Juwayni_cell_0_11_1
Main interest(s)Al-Juwayni_header_cell_0_12_0 Usul al-fiqh, Fiqh, KalamAl-Juwayni_cell_0_12_1
OccupationAl-Juwayni_header_cell_0_13_0 Muslim scholarAl-Juwayni_cell_0_13_1
Muslim leaderAl-Juwayni_header_cell_0_14_0

Dhia' ul-Dīn 'Abd al-Malik ibn Yūsuf al-Juwaynī al-Shafi'ī (Persian: امام الحرمین ضیاءالدین عبدالملک ابن یوسف جوینی شافعی‎, 17 February 1028— 19 August 1085; 419—478 AH) was a Persian Sunni Shafi'i jurist and mutakallim theologian. Al-Juwayni_sentence_0

His name is commonly abbreviated as Al-Juwayni; he is also commonly referred to as Imam al Haramayn, meaning "leading master of the two holy cities", that is, Mecca and Medina. Al-Juwayni_sentence_1

Biography Al-Juwayni_section_0

Al-Juwayni was born on 17 February 1028 in a village on the outskirts of Naysabur called Bushtaniqan in Iran, Al-Juwayni was a prominent Muslim scholar known for his gifted intellect in Islamic legal matters. Al-Juwayni_sentence_2

Al-Juwayni was born into a family of legal study. Al-Juwayni_sentence_3

His father, Abu Muhammad 'Abdallah b. Yusef al-Juwayni, was a well-known master of Law in the Shafi′i community as well as a Shafi'i teacher and his older brother, Abu'l-Hasan 'Ali al-Juwayni, was a Sufi teacher of Hadith. Al-Juwayni_sentence_4

Al-Juwayni grew up in Naysabur, an intellectually thriving area drawing scholars to it. Al-Juwayni_sentence_5

Naturally, Juwayni did not have to search far for his education. Al-Juwayni_sentence_6

At the time, the teachings of the Shafi'i school were closely linked to the Ash'arite theology which al-Juwayni decided to study for several years after the death of his father, though he would later regret the time he invested in studying and debating the school's principles while on his deathbed. Al-Juwayni_sentence_7

He took over for his father at this point and began his teaching career at only 19 years of age. Al-Juwayni_sentence_8

The Seljuks, at the time, were moving quickly in their conquest of eastern Iran and Tughril Beg became the first sultan. Al-Juwayni_sentence_9

Tughril Beg was a Mutazili-Hanafi adherent and at the time, the Ash'arite theological camp and the Hanafi school of legal thought shared a hostile relationship based in differences of opinion regarding doctrine and when Tughril Beg was named wazir in Nishapur, he forbid al-Juwayni to practice or teach the Ash'ari theological perspective. Al-Juwayni_sentence_10

Al-Juwayni traveled to Mecca and Medina in search of an interim home. Al-Juwayni_sentence_11

He taught and studied there in Hijaz for four years. Al-Juwayni_sentence_12

During this time, al-Juwayni became hugely popularized because of his father's prominence in the scholarly world, and his exile. Al-Juwayni_sentence_13

He gained a large following and was invited back to Nishapur by the founder of the Shafii Madrasa, Khwaja Nizam al-Mulk. Al-Juwayni_sentence_14

Upon his return, Juwayni was appointed to teach the doctrine of the Ash'arites at the Nizamiyya Madrasa until he died in 1085CE (which would turn out to be about 26 years). Al-Juwayni_sentence_15

Al-Juwayni spent his life studying and producing influential treatises in Muslim government; it is suspected that most of his works (below) came out of this period after his return from Mecca and Medina. Al-Juwayni_sentence_16

Al-Juwayni was the teacher of one of the most influential scholars in the Islamic tradition, particularly Sufism, al-Ghazali. Al-Juwayni_sentence_17

Doctrine Al-Juwayni_section_1

Al-Juwayni, a Sunni jurist and Mutakallim, or scholar engaged in the study of theological principles, spent his life deciphering between what a Muslim ought and ought not to do. Al-Juwayni_sentence_18

He was said to be stubborn and accepting of any legal speculation whatsoever. Al-Juwayni_sentence_19

His basic principle was that the law should not be left to speculation on any grounds. Al-Juwayni_sentence_20

Rather, texts hold the answers to any possible legal debate in some capacity or another. Al-Juwayni_sentence_21

He was a master of the Koran and Hadith texts in addition to being well versed in the particular school of Shafi'i and theological practices of the Ash'arite persuasion. Al-Juwayni_sentence_22

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