Alabama

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This article is about the U.S. state. Alabama_sentence_0

For the river, see Alabama River. Alabama_sentence_1

For other uses, see Alabama (disambiguation). Alabama_sentence_2

Alabama_table_infobox_0

AlabamaAlabama_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryAlabama_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesAlabama_cell_0_1_1
Before statehoodAlabama_header_cell_0_2_0 Alabama TerritoryAlabama_cell_0_2_1
Admitted to the UnionAlabama_header_cell_0_3_0 December 14, 1819 (22nd)Alabama_cell_0_3_1
CapitalAlabama_header_cell_0_4_0 MontgomeryAlabama_cell_0_4_1
Largest cityAlabama_header_cell_0_5_0 BirminghamAlabama_cell_0_5_1
Largest metroAlabama_header_cell_0_6_0 Greater BirminghamAlabama_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentAlabama_header_cell_0_7_0
GovernorAlabama_header_cell_0_8_0 Kay Ivey (R)Alabama_cell_0_8_1
Lieutenant GovernorAlabama_header_cell_0_9_0 Will Ainsworth (R)Alabama_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureAlabama_header_cell_0_10_0 Alabama LegislatureAlabama_cell_0_10_1
Upper houseAlabama_header_cell_0_11_0 SenateAlabama_cell_0_11_1
Lower houseAlabama_header_cell_0_12_0 House of RepresentativesAlabama_cell_0_12_1
JudiciaryAlabama_header_cell_0_13_0 Supreme Court of AlabamaAlabama_cell_0_13_1
U.S. senatorsAlabama_header_cell_0_14_0 Richard Shelby (R)

Doug Jones (D)Alabama_cell_0_14_1

U.S. House delegationAlabama_header_cell_0_15_0 6 Republicans

1 Democrat (list)Alabama_cell_0_15_1

AreaAlabama_header_cell_0_16_0
TotalAlabama_header_cell_0_17_0 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km)Alabama_cell_0_17_1
LandAlabama_header_cell_0_18_0 50,744 sq mi (131,426 km)Alabama_cell_0_18_1
WaterAlabama_header_cell_0_19_0 1,675 sq mi (4,338 km)  3.2%Alabama_cell_0_19_1
Area rankAlabama_header_cell_0_20_0 30thAlabama_cell_0_20_1
DimensionsAlabama_header_cell_0_21_0
LengthAlabama_header_cell_0_22_0 330 mi (531 km)Alabama_cell_0_22_1
WidthAlabama_header_cell_0_23_0 190 mi (305 km)Alabama_cell_0_23_1
ElevationAlabama_header_cell_0_24_0 500 ft (150 m)Alabama_cell_0_24_1
Highest elevation (Mount Cheaha)Alabama_header_cell_0_25_0 2,413 ft (735.5 m)Alabama_cell_0_25_1
Lowest elevation (Gulf of Mexico)Alabama_header_cell_0_26_0 0 ft (0 m)Alabama_cell_0_26_1
Population (2019)Alabama_header_cell_0_27_0
TotalAlabama_header_cell_0_28_0 4,903,185Alabama_cell_0_28_1
RankAlabama_header_cell_0_29_0 24thAlabama_cell_0_29_1
Density rankAlabama_header_cell_0_30_0 27thAlabama_cell_0_30_1
Median household incomeAlabama_header_cell_0_31_0 $48,123Alabama_cell_0_31_1
Income rankAlabama_header_cell_0_32_0 46thAlabama_cell_0_32_1
Demonym(s)Alabama_header_cell_0_33_0 Alabamian, AlabamanAlabama_cell_0_33_1
LanguageAlabama_header_cell_0_34_0
Official languageAlabama_header_cell_0_35_0 EnglishAlabama_cell_0_35_1
Spoken languageAlabama_header_cell_0_36_0 As of 2010Alabama_cell_0_36_1
Time zoneAlabama_header_cell_0_37_0 UTC−06:00 (Central)Alabama_cell_0_37_1
Summer (DST)Alabama_header_cell_0_38_0 UTC−05:00 (CDT)Alabama_cell_0_38_1
USPS abbreviationAlabama_header_cell_0_39_0 ALAlabama_cell_0_39_1
ISO 3166 codeAlabama_header_cell_0_40_0 US-ALAlabama_cell_0_40_1
Traditional abbreviationAlabama_header_cell_0_41_0 Ala.Alabama_cell_0_41_1
LatitudeAlabama_header_cell_0_42_0 30°11' N to 35° NAlabama_cell_0_42_1
LongitudeAlabama_header_cell_0_43_0 84°53' W to 88°28' WAlabama_cell_0_43_1
WebsiteAlabama_header_cell_0_44_0 Alabama_cell_0_44_1

Alabama_table_infobox_1

Alabama state symbolsAlabama_header_cell_1_0_0
Living insigniaAlabama_header_cell_1_1_0
AmphibianAlabama_header_cell_1_2_0 Red Hills salamanderAlabama_cell_1_2_1
BirdAlabama_header_cell_1_3_0 Yellowhammer, wild turkeyAlabama_cell_1_3_1
ButterflyAlabama_header_cell_1_4_0 Eastern tiger swallowtailAlabama_cell_1_4_1
FishAlabama_header_cell_1_5_0 Largemouth bass, fighting tarpon BluegillAlabama_cell_1_5_1
FlowerAlabama_header_cell_1_6_0 Camellia, oak-leaf hydrangeaAlabama_cell_1_6_1
Horse breedAlabama_header_cell_1_7_0 Racking horseAlabama_cell_1_7_1
InsectAlabama_header_cell_1_8_0 Monarch butterflyAlabama_cell_1_8_1
MammalAlabama_header_cell_1_9_0 American black bearAlabama_cell_1_9_1
ReptileAlabama_header_cell_1_10_0 Alabama red-bellied turtleAlabama_cell_1_10_1
TreeAlabama_header_cell_1_11_0 Longleaf pineAlabama_cell_1_11_1
Inanimate insigniaAlabama_header_cell_1_12_0
BeverageAlabama_header_cell_1_13_0 Conecuh Ridge WhiskeyAlabama_cell_1_13_1
ColorsAlabama_header_cell_1_14_0 Red, whiteAlabama_cell_1_14_1
DanceAlabama_header_cell_1_15_0 Square danceAlabama_cell_1_15_1
FoodAlabama_header_cell_1_16_0 Pecan, blackberry, peachAlabama_cell_1_16_1
FossilAlabama_header_cell_1_17_0 BasilosaurusAlabama_cell_1_17_1
GemstoneAlabama_header_cell_1_18_0 Star blue quartzAlabama_cell_1_18_1
MineralAlabama_header_cell_1_19_0 HematiteAlabama_cell_1_19_1
RockAlabama_header_cell_1_20_0 MarbleAlabama_cell_1_20_1
ShellAlabama_header_cell_1_21_0 Johnstone's junoniaAlabama_cell_1_21_1
SloganAlabama_header_cell_1_22_0 Share The Wonder,

Alabama the beautiful, Where America finds its voice, Sweet Home AlabamaAlabama_cell_1_22_1

SoilAlabama_header_cell_1_23_0 BamaAlabama_cell_1_23_1
State route markerAlabama_header_cell_1_24_0
State quarterAlabama_header_cell_1_25_0

Alabama (/ˌæləˈbæmə/) is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. Alabama_sentence_3

It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Alabama_sentence_4

Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U.S. Alabama_sentence_5

states. Alabama_sentence_6

With a total of 1,500 miles (2,400 km) of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state. Alabama_sentence_7

Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama_sentence_8

Alabama is also known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the "Cotton State". Alabama_sentence_9

The state tree is the longleaf pine, and the state flower is the camellia. Alabama_sentence_10

Alabama's capital is Montgomery. Alabama_sentence_11

The largest city by population is Birmingham, which has long been the most industrialized city; the largest city by land area is Huntsville. Alabama_sentence_12

The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana. Alabama_sentence_13

Greater Birmingham is Alabama's largest urban economy, its most populous urban area, and its economic center. Alabama_sentence_14

From the American Civil War until World War II, Alabama, like many states in the southern U.S., suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Alabama_sentence_15

Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s. Alabama_sentence_16

Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. Alabama_sentence_17

During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. Alabama_sentence_18

Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one primarily based on agriculture to one with diversified interests. Alabama_sentence_19

The state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, automotive, finance, manufacturing, aerospace, mineral extraction, healthcare, education, retail, and technology. Alabama_sentence_20

Etymology Alabama_section_0

The European-American naming of the Alabama River and state was derived from the Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river. Alabama_sentence_21

In the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo (or variously Albaama or Albàamo in different dialects; the plural form is Albaamaha). Alabama_sentence_22

The suggestion that "Alabama" was borrowed from the Choctaw language is unlikely. Alabama_sentence_23

The word's spelling varies significantly among historical sources. Alabama_sentence_24

The first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540: Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu, respectively, in transliterations of the term. Alabama_sentence_25

As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons. Alabama_sentence_26

Other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Alabamo, Albama, Alebamon, Alibama, Alibamou, Alabamu, Allibamou. Alabama_sentence_27

Sources disagree on the word's meaning. Alabama_sentence_28

Some scholars suggest the word comes from the Choctaw alba (meaning "plants" or "weeds") and amo (meaning "to cut", "to trim", or "to gather"). Alabama_sentence_29

The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket" or "herb gatherers", referring to clearing land for cultivation or collecting medicinal plants. Alabama_sentence_30

The state has numerous place names of Native American origin. Alabama_sentence_31

However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language. Alabama_sentence_32

An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant "Here We Rest". Alabama_sentence_33

This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. Alabama_sentence_34

Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation. Alabama_sentence_35

History Alabama_section_1

Main article: History of Alabama Alabama_sentence_36

Pre-European settlement Alabama_section_2

Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization. Alabama_sentence_37

Trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period (1000 BCE – 700 CE) and continued until European contact. Alabama_sentence_38

The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 CE, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. Alabama_sentence_39

This is the second-largest complex of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia in present-day Illinois, which was the center of the culture. Alabama_sentence_40

Analysis of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars' formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex (SECC). Alabama_sentence_41

Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerican culture, but developed independently. Alabama_sentence_42

The Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples; it is one of the primary means by which their religion is understood. Alabama_sentence_43

Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Cherokee, an Iroquoian language people; and the Muskogean-speaking Alabama (Alibamu), Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Koasati. Alabama_sentence_44

While part of the same large language family, the Muskogee tribes developed distinct cultures and languages. Alabama_sentence_45

European settlement Alabama_section_3

Main articles: New France, Louisiana (New France), French and Indian War, Treaty of Paris (1763), New Spain, Louisiana (New Spain), West Florida, Indian Reserve (1763), American Revolutionary War, Treaty of Paris (1783), Spanish West Florida, Seminole Wars, Adams–Onís Treaty, Republic of West Florida, and Mississippi Territory Alabama_sentence_46

With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were the first Europeans to reach Alabama. Alabama_sentence_47

The expedition of Hernando de Soto passed through Mabila and other parts of the state in 1540. Alabama_sentence_48

More than 160 years later, the French founded the region's first European settlement at Old Mobile in 1702. Alabama_sentence_49

The city was moved to the current site of Mobile in 1711. Alabama_sentence_50

This area was claimed by the French from 1702 to 1763 as part of La Louisiane. Alabama_sentence_51

After the French lost to the British in the Seven Years' War, it became part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1783. Alabama_sentence_52

After the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War, the territory was divided between the United States and Spain. Alabama_sentence_53

The latter retained control of this western territory from 1783 until the surrender of the Spanish garrison at Mobile to U.S. forces on April 13, 1813. Alabama_sentence_54

Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy during the Revolutionary era, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state outside Mobile. Alabama_sentence_55

He settled in the Tombigbee District during the early 1770s. Alabama_sentence_56

The district's boundaries were roughly limited to the area within a few miles of the Tombigbee River and included portions of what is today southern Clarke County, northernmost Mobile County, and most of Washington County. Alabama_sentence_57

What is now the counties of Baldwin and Mobile became part of Spanish West Florida in 1783, part of the independent Republic of West Florida in 1810, and was finally added to the Mississippi Territory in 1812. Alabama_sentence_58

Most of what is now the northern two-thirds of Alabama was known as the Yazoo lands beginning during the British colonial period. Alabama_sentence_59

It was claimed by the Province of Georgia from 1767 onwards. Alabama_sentence_60

Following the Revolutionary War, it remained a part of Georgia, although heavily disputed. Alabama_sentence_61

With the exception of the area around Mobile and the Yazoo lands, what is now the lower one-third of Alabama was made part of the Mississippi Territory when it was organized in 1798. Alabama_sentence_62

The Yazoo lands were added to the territory in 1804, following the Yazoo land scandal. Alabama_sentence_63

Spain kept a claim on its former Spanish West Florida territory in what would become the coastal counties until the Adams–Onís Treaty officially ceded it to the United States in 1819. Alabama_sentence_64

Early 19th century Alabama_section_4

Main articles: Organic act § List of organic acts, Alabama Territory, Admission to the Union, and List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union Alabama_sentence_65

Before Mississippi's admission to statehood on December 10, 1817, the more sparsely settled eastern half of the territory was separated and named the Alabama Territory. Alabama_sentence_66

The United States Congress created the Alabama Territory on March 3, 1817. Alabama_sentence_67

St. Alabama_sentence_68

Stephens, now abandoned, served as the territorial capital from 1817 to 1819. Alabama_sentence_69

Alabama was admitted as the 22nd state on December 14, 1819, with Congress selecting Huntsville as the site for the first Constitutional Convention. Alabama_sentence_70

From July 5 to August 2, 1819, delegates met to prepare the new state constitution. Alabama_sentence_71

Huntsville served as temporary capital from 1819 to 1820, when the seat of government moved to Cahaba in Dallas County. Alabama_sentence_72

Cahaba, now a ghost town, was the first permanent state capital from 1820 to 1825. Alabama_sentence_73

The Alabama Fever land rush was underway when the state was admitted to the Union, with settlers and land speculators pouring into the state to take advantage of fertile land suitable for cotton cultivation. Alabama_sentence_74

Part of the frontier in the 1820s and 1830s, its constitution provided for universal suffrage for white men. Alabama_sentence_75

Southeastern planters and traders from the Upper South brought slaves with them as the cotton plantations in Alabama expanded. Alabama_sentence_76

The economy of the central Black Belt (named for its dark, productive soil) was built around large cotton plantations whose owners' wealth grew mainly from slave labor. Alabama_sentence_77

The area also drew many poor, disfranchised people who became subsistence farmers. Alabama_sentence_78

Alabama had an estimated population of under 10,000 people in 1810, but it increased to more than 300,000 people by 1830. Alabama_sentence_79

Most Native American tribes were completely removed from the state within a few years of the passage of the Indian Removal Act by Congress in 1830. Alabama_sentence_80

From 1826 to 1846, Tuscaloosa served as Alabama's capital. Alabama_sentence_81

On January 30, 1846, the Alabama legislature announced it had voted to move the capital city from Tuscaloosa to Montgomery. Alabama_sentence_82

The first legislative session in the new capital met in December 1847. Alabama_sentence_83

A new capitol building was erected under the direction of Stephen Decatur Button of Philadelphia. Alabama_sentence_84

The first structure burned down in 1849, but was rebuilt on the same site in 1851. Alabama_sentence_85

This second capitol building in Montgomery remains to the present day. Alabama_sentence_86

It was designed by Barachias Holt of Exeter, Maine. Alabama_sentence_87

Civil War and Reconstruction Alabama_section_5

Main articles: Ordinance of Secession, Confederate States of America, and Alabama in the American Civil War Alabama_sentence_88

By 1860, the population had increased to 964,201 people, of which nearly half, 435,080, were enslaved African Americans, and 2,690 were free people of color. Alabama_sentence_89

On January 11, 1861, Alabama declared its secession from the Union. Alabama_sentence_90

After remaining an independent republic for a few days, it joined the Confederate States of America. Alabama_sentence_91

The Confederacy's capital was initially at Montgomery. Alabama_sentence_92

Alabama was heavily involved in the American Civil War. Alabama_sentence_93

Although comparatively few battles were fought in the state, Alabama contributed about 120,000 soldiers to the war effort. Alabama_sentence_94

A company of cavalry soldiers from Huntsville, Alabama, joined Nathan Bedford Forrest's battalion in Hopkinsville, Kentucky. Alabama_sentence_95

The company wore new uniforms with yellow trim on the sleeves, collar and coat tails. Alabama_sentence_96

This led to them being greeted with "Yellowhammer", and the name later was applied to all Alabama troops in the Confederate Army. Alabama_sentence_97

Alabama's slaves were freed by the 13th Amendment in 1865. Alabama_sentence_98

Alabama was under military rule from the end of the war in May 1865 until its official restoration to the Union in 1868. Alabama_sentence_99

From 1867 to 1874, with most white citizens barred temporarily from voting and freedmen enfranchised, many African Americans emerged as political leaders in the state. Alabama_sentence_100

Alabama was represented in Congress during this period by three African-American congressmen: Jeremiah Haralson, Benjamin S. Turner, and James T. Rapier. Alabama_sentence_101

Following the war, the state remained chiefly agricultural, with an economy tied to cotton. Alabama_sentence_102

During Reconstruction, state legislators ratified a new state constitution in 1868 which created the state's first public school system and expanded women's rights. Alabama_sentence_103

Legislators funded numerous public road and railroad projects, although these were plagued with allegations of fraud and misappropriation. Alabama_sentence_104

Organized insurgent, resistance groups tried to suppress the freedmen and Republicans. Alabama_sentence_105

Besides the short-lived original Ku Klux Klan, these included the Pale Faces, Knights of the White Camellia, Red Shirts, and the White League. Alabama_sentence_106

Reconstruction in Alabama ended in 1874, when the Democrats regained control of the legislature and governor's office through an election dominated by fraud and violence. Alabama_sentence_107

They wrote another constitution in 1875, and the legislature passed the Blaine Amendment, prohibiting public money from being used to finance religious-affiliated schools. Alabama_sentence_108

The same year, legislation was approved that called for racially segregated schools. Alabama_sentence_109

Railroad passenger cars were segregated in 1891. Alabama_sentence_110

After disenfranchising most African Americans and many poor whites in the 1901 constitution, the Alabama legislature passed more Jim Crow laws at the beginning of the 20th century to impose segregation in everyday life. Alabama_sentence_111

20th century Alabama_section_6

The new 1901 Constitution of Alabama included provisions for voter registration that effectively disenfranchised large portions of the population, including nearly all African Americans and Native Americans, and tens of thousands of poor whites, through making voter registration difficult, requiring a poll tax and literacy test. Alabama_sentence_112

The 1901 constitution required racial segregation of public schools. Alabama_sentence_113

By 1903 only 2,980 African Americans were registered in Alabama, although at least 74,000 were literate. Alabama_sentence_114

This compared to more than 181,000 African Americans eligible to vote in 1900. Alabama_sentence_115

The numbers dropped even more in later decades. Alabama_sentence_116

The state legislature passed additional racial segregation laws related to public facilities into the 1950s: jails were segregated in 1911; hospitals in 1915; toilets, hotels, and restaurants in 1928; and bus stop waiting rooms in 1945. Alabama_sentence_117

While the planter class had persuaded poor whites to vote for this legislative effort to suppress black voting, the new restrictions resulted in their disenfranchisement as well, due mostly to the imposition of a cumulative poll tax. Alabama_sentence_118

By 1941, whites constituted a slight majority of those disenfranchised by these laws: 600,000 whites vs. 520,000 African-Americans. Alabama_sentence_119

Nearly all African Americans had lost the ability to vote. Alabama_sentence_120

Despite numerous legal challenges which succeeded in overturning certain provisions, the state legislature would create new ones to maintain disenfranchisement. Alabama_sentence_121

The exclusion of blacks from the political system persisted until after passage of federal civil rights legislation in 1965 to enforce their constitutional rights as citizens. Alabama_sentence_122

The rural-dominated Alabama legislature consistently underfunded schools and services for the disenfranchised African Americans, but it did not relieve them of paying taxes. Alabama_sentence_123

Partially as a response to chronic underfunding of education for African Americans in the South, the Rosenwald Fund began funding the construction of what came to be known as Rosenwald Schools. Alabama_sentence_124

In Alabama these schools were designed and the construction partially financed with Rosenwald funds, which paid one-third of the construction costs. Alabama_sentence_125

The fund required the local community and state to raise matching funds to pay the rest. Alabama_sentence_126

Black residents effectively taxed themselves twice, by raising additional monies to supply matching funds for such schools, which were built in many rural areas. Alabama_sentence_127

They often donated land and labor as well. Alabama_sentence_128

Beginning in 1913, the first 80 Rosenwald Schools were built in Alabama for African-American children. Alabama_sentence_129

A total of 387 schools, seven teachers' houses, and several vocational buildings were completed by 1937 in the state. Alabama_sentence_130

Several of the surviving school buildings in the state are now listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Alabama_sentence_131

Continued racial discrimination and lynchings, agricultural depression, and the failure of the cotton crops due to boll weevil infestation led tens of thousands of African Americans from rural Alabama and other states to seek opportunities in northern and midwestern cities during the early decades of the 20th century as part of the Great Migration out of the South. Alabama_sentence_132

Reflecting this emigration, the population growth rate in Alabama (see "historical populations" table below) dropped by nearly half from 1910 to 1920. Alabama_sentence_133

At the same time, many rural people migrated to the city of Birmingham to work in new industrial jobs. Alabama_sentence_134

Birmingham experienced such rapid growth it was called the "Magic City". Alabama_sentence_135

By 1920, Birmingham was the 36th-largest city in the United States. Alabama_sentence_136

Heavy industry and mining were the basis of its economy. Alabama_sentence_137

Its residents were under-represented for decades in the state legislature, which refused to redistrict after each decennial census according to population changes, as it was required by the state constitution. Alabama_sentence_138

This did not change until the late 1960s following a lawsuit and court order. Alabama_sentence_139

Industrial development related to the demands of World War II brought a level of prosperity to the state not seen since before the civil war. Alabama_sentence_140

Rural workers poured into the largest cities in the state for better jobs and a higher standard of living. Alabama_sentence_141

One example of this massive influx of workers occurred in Mobile. Alabama_sentence_142

Between 1940 and 1943, more than 89,000 people moved into the city to work for war-related industries. Alabama_sentence_143

Cotton and other cash crops faded in importance as the state developed a manufacturing and service base. Alabama_sentence_144

Despite massive population changes in the state from 1901 to 1961, the rural-dominated legislature refused to reapportion House and Senate seats based on population, as required by the state constitution to follow the results of decennial censuses. Alabama_sentence_145

They held on to old representation to maintain political and economic power in agricultural areas. Alabama_sentence_146

One result was that Jefferson County, containing Birmingham's industrial and economic powerhouse, contributed more than one-third of all tax revenue to the state, but did not receive a proportional amount in services. Alabama_sentence_147

Urban interests were consistently underrepresented in the legislature. Alabama_sentence_148

A 1960 study noted that because of rural domination, "a minority of about 25% of the total state population is in majority control of the Alabama legislature." Alabama_sentence_149

In the United States Supreme Court cases of Baker v. Carr (1962) and Reynolds v. Sims (1964), the court ruled that the principle of "one man, one vote" needed to be the basis of both houses of state legislatures, and that their districts had to be based on population rather than geographic counties. Alabama_sentence_150

In 1972, for the first time since 1901, the legislature completed the congressional redistricting based on the decennial census. Alabama_sentence_151

This benefited the urban areas that had developed, as well as all in the population who had been underrepresented for more than sixty years. Alabama_sentence_152

Other changes were made to implement representative state house and senate districts. Alabama_sentence_153

African Americans continued to press in the 1950s and 1960s to end disenfranchisement and segregation in the state through the civil rights movement, including legal challenges. Alabama_sentence_154

In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that public schools had to be desegregated, but Alabama was slow to comply. Alabama_sentence_155

During the 1960s, under Governor George Wallace, Alabama resisted compliance with federal demands for desegregation. Alabama_sentence_156

The civil rights movement had notable events in Alabama, including the Montgomery bus boycott (1955–56), Freedom Rides in 1961, and 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches. Alabama_sentence_157

These contributed to Congressional passage and enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 by the U.S. Congress. Alabama_sentence_158

Legal segregation ended in the states in 1964, but Jim Crow customs often continued until specifically challenged in court. Alabama_sentence_159

According to The New York Times, by 2017, many of Alabama's African-Americans were living in Alabama's cities such as Birmingham and Montgomery. Alabama_sentence_160

Also, the Black Belt region across central Alabama "is home to largely poor counties that are predominantly African-American. Alabama_sentence_161

These counties include Dallas, Lowndes, Marengo and Perry." Alabama_sentence_162

Alabama has made some changes since the late 20th century and has used new types of voting to increase representation. Alabama_sentence_163

In the 1980s, an omnibus redistricting case, Dillard v. Crenshaw County, challenged the at-large voting for representative seats of 180 Alabama jurisdictions, including counties and school boards. Alabama_sentence_164

At-large voting had diluted the votes of any minority in a county, as the majority tended to take all seats. Alabama_sentence_165

Despite African Americans making up a significant minority in the state, they had been unable to elect any representatives in most of the at-large jurisdictions. Alabama_sentence_166

As part of settlement of this case, five Alabama cities and counties, including Chilton County, adopted a system of cumulative voting for election of representatives in multi-seat jurisdictions. Alabama_sentence_167

This has resulted in more proportional representation for voters. Alabama_sentence_168

In another form of proportional representation, 23 jurisdictions use limited voting, as in Conecuh County. Alabama_sentence_169

In 1982, limited voting was first tested in Conecuh County. Alabama_sentence_170

Together use of these systems has increased the number of African Americans and women being elected to local offices, resulting in governments that are more representative of their citizens. Alabama_sentence_171

Geography Alabama_section_7

Main article: Geography of Alabama Alabama_sentence_172

See also: List of Alabama counties and Geology of Alabama Alabama_sentence_173

Alabama is the thirtieth-largest state in the United States with 52,419 square miles (135,760 km) of total area: 3.2% of the area is water, making Alabama 23rd in the amount of surface water, also giving it the second-largest inland waterway system in the United States. Alabama_sentence_174

About three-fifths of the land area is a gentle plain with a general descent towards the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. Alabama_sentence_175

The North Alabama region is mostly mountainous, with the Tennessee River cutting a large valley and creating numerous creeks, streams, rivers, mountains, and lakes. Alabama_sentence_176

Alabama is bordered by the states of Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Alabama_sentence_177

Alabama has coastline at the Gulf of Mexico, in the extreme southern edge of the state. Alabama_sentence_178

The state ranges in elevation from sea level at Mobile Bay to nearly half a mile in the northeast, to wit Mount Cheaha at 2,413 ft (735 m). Alabama_sentence_179

Alabama's land consists of 22 million acres (89,000 km) of forest or 67% of total land area. Alabama_sentence_180

Suburban Baldwin County, along the Gulf Coast, is the largest county in the state in both land area and water area. Alabama_sentence_181

Areas in Alabama administered by the National Park Service include Horseshoe Bend National Military Park near Alexander City; Little River Canyon National Preserve near Fort Payne; Russell Cave National Monument in Bridgeport; Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site in Tuskegee; and Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site near Tuskegee. Alabama_sentence_182

Additionally, Alabama has four National Forests: Conecuh, Talladega, Tuskegee, and William B. Bankhead. Alabama_sentence_183

Alabama also contains the Natchez Trace Parkway, the Selma To Montgomery National Historic Trail, and the Trail of Tears National Historic Trail. Alabama_sentence_184

Notable natural wonders include: the "Natural Bridge" rock, the longest natural bridge east of the Rockies, located just south of Haleyville; Cathedral Caverns in Marshall County, named for its cathedral-like appearance, features one of the largest cave entrances and stalagmites in the world; Ecor Rouge in Fairhope, the highest coastline point between Maine and Mexico; DeSoto Caverns in Childersburg, the first officially recorded cave in the United States; Noccalula Falls in Gadsden features a 90-foot waterfall; Dismals Canyon near Phil Campbell, home to two waterfalls, six natural bridges and allegedly served as a hideout for legendary outlaw Jesse James; Stephens Gap Cave in Jackson County boasts a 143-foot pit, two waterfalls and is one of the most photographed wild cave scenes in America; Little River Canyon near Fort Payne, one of the nation's longest mountaintop rivers; Rickwood Caverns near Warrior features an underground pool, blind cave fish and 260-million-year-old limestone formations; and the Walls of Jericho canyon on the Alabama-Tennessee state line. Alabama_sentence_185

A 5-mile (8 km)-wide meteorite impact crater is located in Elmore County, just north of Montgomery. Alabama_sentence_186

This is the Wetumpka crater, the site of "Alabama's greatest natural disaster". Alabama_sentence_187

A 1,000-foot (300 m)-wide meteorite hit the area about 80 million years ago. Alabama_sentence_188

The hills just east of downtown Wetumpka showcase the eroded remains of the impact crater that was blasted into the bedrock, with the area labeled the Wetumpka crater or astrobleme ("star-wound") because of the concentric rings of fractures and zones of shattered rock that can be found beneath the surface. Alabama_sentence_189

In 2002, Christian Koeberl with the Institute of Geochemistry University of Vienna published evidence and established the site as the 157th recognized impact crater on Earth. Alabama_sentence_190

Climate Alabama_section_8

Main article: Climate of Alabama Alabama_sentence_191

The state is classified as humid subtropical (Cfa) under the Koppen Climate Classification. Alabama_sentence_192

The average annual temperature is 64 °F (18 °C). Alabama_sentence_193

Temperatures tend to be warmer in the southern part of the state with its proximity to the Gulf of Mexico, while the northern parts of the state, especially in the Appalachian Mountains in the northeast, tend to be slightly cooler. Alabama_sentence_194

Generally, Alabama has very hot summers and mild winters with copious precipitation throughout the year. Alabama_sentence_195

Alabama receives an average of 56 inches (1,400 mm) of rainfall annually and enjoys a lengthy growing season of up to 300 days in the southern part of the state. Alabama_sentence_196

Summers in Alabama are among the hottest in the U.S., with high temperatures averaging over 90 °F (32 °C) throughout the summer in some parts of the state. Alabama_sentence_197

Alabama is also prone to tropical storms and even hurricanes. Alabama_sentence_198

Areas of the state far away from the Gulf are not immune to the effects of the storms, which often dump tremendous amounts of rain as they move inland and weaken. Alabama_sentence_199

South Alabama reports many thunderstorms. Alabama_sentence_200

The Gulf Coast, around Mobile Bay, averages between 70 and 80 days per year with thunder reported. Alabama_sentence_201

This activity decreases somewhat further north in the state, but even the far north of the state reports thunder on about 60 days per year. Alabama_sentence_202

Occasionally, thunderstorms are severe with frequent lightning and large hail; the central and northern parts of the state are most vulnerable to this type of storm. Alabama_sentence_203

Alabama ranks ninth in the number of deaths from lightning and tenth in the number of deaths from lightning strikes per capita. Alabama_sentence_204

Alabama, along with Oklahoma and Iowa, has the most confirmed F5 and EF5 tornadoes of any state, according to statistics from the National Climatic Data Center for the period January 1, 1950, to June 2013. Alabama_sentence_205

Several long-tracked F5/EF5 tornadoes have contributed to Alabama reporting more tornado fatalities since 1950 than any other state. Alabama_sentence_206

The state was affected by the 1974 Super Outbreak and was devastated tremendously by the 2011 Super Outbreak. Alabama_sentence_207

The 2011 Super Outbreak produced a record amount of tornadoes in the state. Alabama_sentence_208

The tally reached 62. Alabama_sentence_209

The peak season for tornadoes varies from the northern to southern parts of the state. Alabama_sentence_210

Alabama is one of the few places in the world that has a secondary tornado season in November and December besides the typically severe spring. Alabama_sentence_211

The northern part—along the Tennessee River Valley—is most vulnerable. Alabama_sentence_212

The area of Alabama and Mississippi most affected by tornadoes is sometimes referred to as Dixie Alley, as distinct from the Tornado Alley of the Southern Plains. Alabama_sentence_213

Winters are generally mild in Alabama, as they are throughout most of the Southeastern United States, with average January low temperatures around 40 °F (4 °C) in Mobile and around 32 °F (0 °C) in Birmingham. Alabama_sentence_214

Although snow is a rare event in much of Alabama, areas of the state north of Montgomery may receive a dusting of snow a few times every winter, with an occasional moderately heavy snowfall every few years. Alabama_sentence_215

Historic snowfall events include New Year's Eve 1963 snowstorm and the 1993 Storm of the Century. Alabama_sentence_216

The annual average snowfall for the Birmingham area is 2 inches (51 mm) per year. Alabama_sentence_217

In the southern Gulf coast, snowfall is less frequent, sometimes going several years without any snowfall. Alabama_sentence_218

Alabama's highest temperature of 112 °F (44 °C) was recorded on September 5, 1925, in the unincorporated community of Centerville. Alabama_sentence_219

The record low of −27 °F (−33 °C) occurred on January 30, 1966, in New Market. Alabama_sentence_220

Alabama_table_general_2

Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Alabama cities [°F (°C)]Alabama_header_cell_2_0_0
MonthAlabama_header_cell_2_1_0 JanAlabama_header_cell_2_1_2 FebAlabama_header_cell_2_1_3 MarAlabama_header_cell_2_1_4 AprAlabama_header_cell_2_1_5 MayAlabama_header_cell_2_1_6 JunAlabama_header_cell_2_1_7 JulAlabama_header_cell_2_1_8 AugAlabama_header_cell_2_1_9 SepAlabama_header_cell_2_1_10 OctAlabama_header_cell_2_1_11 NovAlabama_header_cell_2_1_12 DecAlabama_header_cell_2_1_13 YearAlabama_header_cell_2_1_14 HuntsvilleBirminghamMontgomeryMobileCities in AlabamaAlabama_cell_2_1_15
HuntsvilleAlabama_header_cell_2_2_0 Average highAlabama_header_cell_2_2_1 48.9

(9.4)Alabama_cell_2_2_2

54.6

(12.6)Alabama_cell_2_2_3

63.4

(17.4)Alabama_cell_2_2_4

72.3

(22.4)Alabama_cell_2_2_5

79.6

(26.4)Alabama_cell_2_2_6

86.5

(30.3)Alabama_cell_2_2_7

89.4

(31.9)Alabama_cell_2_2_8

89.0

(31.7)Alabama_cell_2_2_9

83.0

(28.3)Alabama_cell_2_2_10

72.9

(22.7)Alabama_cell_2_2_11

61.6

(16.4)Alabama_cell_2_2_12

52.4

(11.3)Alabama_cell_2_2_13

71.1

(21.7)Alabama_cell_2_2_14

Average lowAlabama_header_cell_2_3_0 30.7

(-0.7)Alabama_cell_2_3_1

34.0

(1.1)Alabama_cell_2_3_2

41.2

(5.1)Alabama_cell_2_3_3

48.4

(9.1)Alabama_cell_2_3_4

57.5

(14.2)Alabama_cell_2_3_5

65.4

(18.6)Alabama_cell_2_3_6

69.5

(20.8)Alabama_cell_2_3_7

68.1

(20.1)Alabama_cell_2_3_8

61.7

(16.5)Alabama_cell_2_3_9

49.6

(9.8)Alabama_cell_2_3_10

40.7

(4.8)Alabama_cell_2_3_11

33.8

(1.0)Alabama_cell_2_3_12

50.1

(10.1)Alabama_cell_2_3_13

BirminghamAlabama_header_cell_2_4_0 Average highAlabama_header_cell_2_4_1 52.8

(11.6)Alabama_cell_2_4_2

58.3

(14.6)Alabama_cell_2_4_3

66.5

(19.2)Alabama_cell_2_4_4

74.1

(23.4)Alabama_cell_2_4_5

81.0

(27.2)Alabama_cell_2_4_6

87.5

(30.8)Alabama_cell_2_4_7

90.6

(32.6)Alabama_cell_2_4_8

90.2

(32.3)Alabama_cell_2_4_9

84.6

(29.2)Alabama_cell_2_4_10

74.9

(23.8)Alabama_cell_2_4_11

64.5

(18.1)Alabama_cell_2_4_12

56.0

(13.3)Alabama_cell_2_4_13

73.4

(23.0)Alabama_cell_2_4_14

Average lowAlabama_header_cell_2_5_0 32.3

(0.2)Alabama_cell_2_5_1

35.4

(1.9)Alabama_cell_2_5_2

42.4

(5.8)Alabama_cell_2_5_3

48.4

(9.1)Alabama_cell_2_5_4

57.6

(14.2)Alabama_cell_2_5_5

65.4

(18.6)Alabama_cell_2_5_6

69.7

(20.9)Alabama_cell_2_5_7

68.9

(20.5)Alabama_cell_2_5_8

63.0

(17.2)Alabama_cell_2_5_9

50.9

(10.5)Alabama_cell_2_5_10

41.8

(5.4)Alabama_cell_2_5_11

35.2

(1.8)Alabama_cell_2_5_12

50.9

(10.5)Alabama_cell_2_5_13

MontgomeryAlabama_header_cell_2_6_0 Average highAlabama_header_cell_2_6_1 57.6

(14.2)Alabama_cell_2_6_2

62.4

(16.9)Alabama_cell_2_6_3

70.5

(21.4)Alabama_cell_2_6_4

77.5

(25.3)Alabama_cell_2_6_5

84.6

(29.2)Alabama_cell_2_6_6

90.6

(32.6)Alabama_cell_2_6_7

92.7

(33.7)Alabama_cell_2_6_8

92.2

(33.4)Alabama_cell_2_6_9

87.7

(30.9)Alabama_cell_2_6_10

78.7

(25.9)Alabama_cell_2_6_11

68.7

(20.4)Alabama_cell_2_6_12

60.3

(15.7)Alabama_cell_2_6_13

77.0

(25.0)Alabama_cell_2_6_14

Average lowAlabama_header_cell_2_7_0 35.5

(1.9)Alabama_cell_2_7_1

38.6

(3.7)Alabama_cell_2_7_2

45.4

(7.4)Alabama_cell_2_7_3

52.1

(11.2)Alabama_cell_2_7_4

60.1

(15.6)Alabama_cell_2_7_5

67.3

(19.6)Alabama_cell_2_7_6

70.9

(21.6)Alabama_cell_2_7_7

70.1

(21.2)Alabama_cell_2_7_8

64.9

(18.3)Alabama_cell_2_7_9

52.2

(11.2)Alabama_cell_2_7_10

43.5

(6.4)Alabama_cell_2_7_11

37.6

(3.1)Alabama_cell_2_7_12

53.2

(11.8)Alabama_cell_2_7_13

MobileAlabama_header_cell_2_8_0 Average highAlabama_header_cell_2_8_1 60.7

(15.9)Alabama_cell_2_8_2

64.5

(18.1)Alabama_cell_2_8_3

71.2

(21.8)Alabama_cell_2_8_4

77.4

(25.2)Alabama_cell_2_8_5

84.2

(29.0)Alabama_cell_2_8_6

89.4

(31.9)Alabama_cell_2_8_7

91.2

(32.9)Alabama_cell_2_8_8

90.8

(32.7)Alabama_cell_2_8_9

86.8

(30.4)Alabama_cell_2_8_10

79.2

(26.2)Alabama_cell_2_8_11

70.1

(21.2)Alabama_cell_2_8_12

62.9

(17.2)Alabama_cell_2_8_13

77.4

(25.2)Alabama_cell_2_8_14

Average lowAlabama_header_cell_2_9_0 39.5

(4.2)Alabama_cell_2_9_1

42.4

(5.8)Alabama_cell_2_9_2

49.2

(9.6)Alabama_cell_2_9_3

54.8

(12.7)Alabama_cell_2_9_4

62.8

(17.1)Alabama_cell_2_9_5

69.2

(20.7)Alabama_cell_2_9_6

71.8

(22.1)Alabama_cell_2_9_7

71.7

(22.0)Alabama_cell_2_9_8

67.6

(19.8)Alabama_cell_2_9_9

56.3

(13.5)Alabama_cell_2_9_10

47.8

(8.8)Alabama_cell_2_9_11

41.6

(5.3)Alabama_cell_2_9_12

56.2

(13.4)Alabama_cell_2_9_13

Source: NOAAAlabama_cell_2_10_0

Flora and fauna Alabama_section_9

Main articles: List of amphibians of Alabama, List of mammals of Alabama, List of reptiles of Alabama, and Trees of Alabama Alabama_sentence_221

Alabama is home to a diverse array of flora and fauna in habitats that range from the Tennessee Valley, Appalachian Plateau, and Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians of the north to the Piedmont, Canebrake, and Black Belt of the central region to the Gulf Coastal Plain and beaches along the Gulf of Mexico in the south. Alabama_sentence_222

The state is usually ranked among the top in nation for its range of overall biodiversity. Alabama_sentence_223

Alabama is in the subtropical coniferous forest biome and once boasted huge expanses of pine forest, which still form the largest proportion of forests in the state. Alabama_sentence_224

It currently ranks fifth in the nation for the diversity of its flora. Alabama_sentence_225

It is home to nearly 4,000 pteridophyte and spermatophyte plant species. Alabama_sentence_226

Indigenous animal species in the state include 62 mammal species, 93 reptile species, 73 amphibian species, roughly 307 native freshwater fish species, and 420 bird species that spend at least part of their year within the state. Alabama_sentence_227

Invertebrates include 97 crayfish species and 383 mollusk species. Alabama_sentence_228

113 of these mollusk species have never been collected outside the state. Alabama_sentence_229

Demographics Alabama_section_10

Main article: Demographics of Alabama Alabama_sentence_230

The United States Census Bureau estimates the population of Alabama was 4,903,185 on July 1, 2019, which represents an increase of 123,440 or 2.58%, since the 2010 Census. Alabama_sentence_231

This includes a natural increase since the last census of 121,054 (502,457 births minus 381,403 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 104,991 into the state. Alabama_sentence_232

Immigration from outside the U.S. resulted in a net increase of 31,180 people, and migration within the country produced a net gain of 73,811 people. Alabama_sentence_233

The state had 108,000 foreign-born (2.4% of the state population), of which an estimated 22.2% were undocumented (24,000). Alabama_sentence_234

The center of population of Alabama is located in Chilton County, outside the town of Jemison. Alabama_sentence_235

Ancestry Alabama_section_11

According to the 2010 Census, Alabama had a population of 4,779,736. Alabama_sentence_236

The racial composition of the state was 68.5% White (67% Non-Hispanic White and 1.5% Hispanic White), 26.2% Black or African American, 3.9% Hispanic or Latino of any race, 1.1% Asian, 0.6% American Indian and Alaska Native, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 2% from "Some Other Race", and 1.5% from "Two or More Races". Alabama_sentence_237

In 2011, 46.6% of Alabama's population younger than age 1 were minorities. Alabama_sentence_238

The largest reported ancestry groups in Alabama are: African (26.2%), English (23.6%), Irish (7.7%), German (5.7%), and Scots-Irish (2%). Alabama_sentence_239

Those citing "American" ancestry in Alabama are generally of English or British ancestry; many Anglo-Americans identify as having American ancestry because their roots have been in North America for so long, in some cases since the 1600s. Alabama_sentence_240

Demographers estimate that 20–23% of people in Alabama are of predominantly English ancestry and the figure is likely higher. Alabama_sentence_241

In the 1980 census, 41% of the people in Alabama identified as being of English ancestry, making them the largest ethnic group at the time. Alabama_sentence_242

Alabama_table_general_3

Alabama racial population breakdownAlabama_table_caption_3
Racial compositionAlabama_header_cell_3_0_0 1990Alabama_header_cell_3_0_1 2000Alabama_header_cell_3_0_2 2010Alabama_header_cell_3_0_3
WhiteAlabama_cell_3_1_0 73.6%Alabama_cell_3_1_1 71.1%Alabama_cell_3_1_2 68.5%Alabama_cell_3_1_3
BlackAlabama_cell_3_2_0 25.3%Alabama_cell_3_2_1 26%Alabama_cell_3_2_2 26.2%Alabama_cell_3_2_3
AsianAlabama_cell_3_3_0 0.5%Alabama_cell_3_3_1 0.7%Alabama_cell_3_3_2 1.1%Alabama_cell_3_3_3
NativeAlabama_cell_3_4_0 0.4%Alabama_cell_3_4_1 0.5%Alabama_cell_3_4_2 0.6%Alabama_cell_3_4_3
Native Hawaiian and

other Pacific IslanderAlabama_cell_3_5_0

Alabama_cell_3_5_1 Alabama_cell_3_5_2 0.1%Alabama_cell_3_5_3
Other raceAlabama_cell_3_6_0 0.1%Alabama_cell_3_6_1 0.6%Alabama_cell_3_6_2 2%Alabama_cell_3_6_3
Two or more racesAlabama_cell_3_7_0 Alabama_cell_3_7_1 1%Alabama_cell_3_7_2 1.5%Alabama_cell_3_7_3

Based on historic migration and settlement patterns in the southern colonies and states, demographers estimated there are more people in Alabama of Scots-Irish origins than self-reported. Alabama_sentence_243

Many people in Alabama claim Irish ancestry because of the term Scots-Irish but, based on historic immigration and settlement, their ancestors were more likely Protestant Scots-Irish coming from the northern province of Ulster, where they had been for a few generations as part of the English colonization. Alabama_sentence_244

The Scots-Irish were the largest non-English immigrant group from the British Isles before the American Revolution, and many settled in the South, later moving into the Deep South as it was developed. Alabama_sentence_245

In 1984, under the Davis–Strong Act, the state legislature established the Alabama Indian Affairs Commission. Alabama_sentence_246

Native American groups within the state had increasingly been demanding recognition as ethnic groups and seeking an end to discrimination. Alabama_sentence_247

Given the long history of slavery and associated racial segregation, the Native American peoples, who have sometimes been of mixed race, have insisted on having their cultural identification respected. Alabama_sentence_248

In the past, their self-identification was often overlooked as the state tried to impose a binary breakdown of society into white and black. Alabama_sentence_249

The state has officially recognized nine American Indian tribes in the state, descended mostly from the Five Civilized Tribes of the American Southeast. Alabama_sentence_250

These are the following. Alabama_sentence_251

Alabama_unordered_list_0

The state government has promoted recognition of Native American contributions to the state, including the designation in 2000 for Columbus Day to be jointly celebrated as American Indian Heritage Day. Alabama_sentence_252

Census-designated and metropolitan areas Alabama_section_12

Main article: List of metropolitan areas of Alabama Alabama_sentence_253

Alabama_table_general_4

Combined statistical areasAlabama_table_caption_4
RankAlabama_header_cell_4_0_0 Combined statistical areaAlabama_header_cell_4_0_1 Population (2019 estimate)Alabama_header_cell_4_0_2 Population (2010 Census)Alabama_header_cell_4_0_3
1Alabama_cell_4_1_0 Birmingham–Hoover–TalladegaAlabama_cell_4_1_1 1,317,702Alabama_cell_4_1_2 1,302,283Alabama_cell_4_1_3
2Alabama_cell_4_2_0 Chattanooga–Cleveland–DaltonAlabama_cell_4_2_1 1,004,573Alabama_cell_4_2_2 923,460Alabama_cell_4_2_3
3Alabama_cell_4_3_0 Huntsville–Decatur–AlbertvilleAlabama_cell_4_3_1 792,714Alabama_cell_4_3_2 735,550Alabama_cell_4_3_3
4Alabama_cell_4_4_0 Mobile–Daphne–FairhopeAlabama_cell_4_4_1 652,770Alabama_cell_4_4_2 595,257Alabama_cell_4_4_3
5Alabama_cell_4_5_0 Columbus–Auburn–OpelikaAlabama_cell_4_5_1 485,590Alabama_cell_4_5_2 448,035Alabama_cell_4_5_3
6Alabama_cell_4_6_0 Dothan–Enterprise–OzarkAlabama_cell_4_6_1 250,872Alabama_cell_4_6_2 245,838Alabama_cell_4_6_3

Alabama_table_general_5

Metropolitan areasAlabama_table_caption_5
RankAlabama_header_cell_5_0_0 Metropolitan areaAlabama_header_cell_5_0_1 Population (2019 estimate)Alabama_header_cell_5_0_2 Population (2010 Census)Alabama_header_cell_5_0_3
1Alabama_cell_5_1_0 Birmingham–HooverAlabama_cell_5_1_1 1,090,435Alabama_cell_5_1_2 1,061,024Alabama_cell_5_1_3
2Alabama_cell_5_2_0 HuntsvilleAlabama_cell_5_2_1 471,824Alabama_cell_5_2_2 417,593Alabama_cell_5_2_3
3Alabama_cell_5_3_0 MobileAlabama_cell_5_3_1 429,536Alabama_cell_5_3_2 430,573Alabama_cell_5_3_3
4Alabama_cell_5_4_0 MontgomeryAlabama_cell_5_4_1 373,290Alabama_cell_5_4_2 374,536Alabama_cell_5_4_3
5Alabama_cell_5_5_0 TuscaloosaAlabama_cell_5_5_1 252,047Alabama_cell_5_5_2 239,207Alabama_cell_5_5_3
6Alabama_cell_5_6_0 Daphne–Fairhope–FoleyAlabama_cell_5_6_1 218,022Alabama_cell_5_6_2 182,265Alabama_cell_5_6_3
7Alabama_cell_5_7_0 Auburn–OpelikaAlabama_cell_5_7_1 164,542Alabama_cell_5_7_2 140,247Alabama_cell_5_7_3
8Alabama_cell_5_8_0 DecaturAlabama_cell_5_8_1 152,603Alabama_cell_5_8_2 153,829Alabama_cell_5_8_3
9Alabama_cell_5_9_0 DothanAlabama_cell_5_9_1 149,358Alabama_cell_5_9_2 145,639Alabama_cell_5_9_3
10Alabama_cell_5_10_0 Florence–Muscle ShoalsAlabama_cell_5_10_1 147,970Alabama_cell_5_10_2 147,137Alabama_cell_5_10_3
11Alabama_cell_5_11_0 Anniston–Oxford–JacksonvilleAlabama_cell_5_11_1 113,605Alabama_cell_5_11_2 118,572Alabama_cell_5_11_3
12Alabama_cell_5_12_0 GadsdenAlabama_cell_5_12_1 102,268Alabama_cell_5_12_2 104,430Alabama_cell_5_12_3

Cities Alabama_section_13

Main article: List of cities and towns in Alabama Alabama_sentence_254

Alabama_table_general_6

Largest citiesAlabama_table_caption_6
RankAlabama_header_cell_6_0_0 CityAlabama_header_cell_6_0_1 Population

(2019 census estimates)Alabama_header_cell_6_0_2

County(ies)Alabama_header_cell_6_0_3
1Alabama_cell_6_1_0 BirminghamAlabama_cell_6_1_1 209,403Alabama_cell_6_1_2 Jefferson, ShelbyAlabama_cell_6_1_3
2Alabama_cell_6_2_0 HuntsvilleAlabama_cell_6_2_1 200,574Alabama_cell_6_2_2 Madison, Limestone, MorganAlabama_cell_6_2_3
3Alabama_cell_6_3_0 MontgomeryAlabama_cell_6_3_1 198,525Alabama_cell_6_3_2 MontgomeryAlabama_cell_6_3_3
4Alabama_cell_6_4_0 MobileAlabama_cell_6_4_1 188,720Alabama_cell_6_4_2 MobileAlabama_cell_6_4_3
5Alabama_cell_6_5_0 TuscaloosaAlabama_cell_6_5_1 101,129Alabama_cell_6_5_2 TuscaloosaAlabama_cell_6_5_3
6Alabama_cell_6_6_0 HooverAlabama_cell_6_6_1 85,768Alabama_cell_6_6_2 Jefferson, ShelbyAlabama_cell_6_6_3
7Alabama_cell_6_7_0 DothanAlabama_cell_6_7_1 68,941Alabama_cell_6_7_2 Houston, Dale, HenryAlabama_cell_6_7_3
8Alabama_cell_6_8_0 AuburnAlabama_cell_6_8_1 66,259Alabama_cell_6_8_2 LeeAlabama_cell_6_8_3
9Alabama_cell_6_9_0 DecaturAlabama_cell_6_9_1 54,445Alabama_cell_6_9_2 Morgan, LimestoneAlabama_cell_6_9_3
10Alabama_cell_6_10_0 MadisonAlabama_cell_6_10_1 51,593Alabama_cell_6_10_2 Madison, LimestoneAlabama_cell_6_10_3
11Alabama_cell_6_11_0 FlorenceAlabama_cell_6_11_1 40,797Alabama_cell_6_11_2 LauderdaleAlabama_cell_6_11_3
12Alabama_cell_6_12_0 Phenix CityAlabama_cell_6_12_1 36,487Alabama_cell_6_12_2 RussellAlabama_cell_6_12_3
13Alabama_cell_6_13_0 PrattvilleAlabama_cell_6_13_1 35,957Alabama_cell_6_13_2 Autauga, ElmoreAlabama_cell_6_13_3
14Alabama_cell_6_14_0 GadsdenAlabama_cell_6_14_1 35,000Alabama_cell_6_14_2 EtowahAlabama_cell_6_14_3
15Alabama_cell_6_15_0 Vestavia HillsAlabama_cell_6_15_1 34,413Alabama_cell_6_15_2 Jefferson, ShelbyAlabama_cell_6_15_3

Language Alabama_section_14

Most Alabama residents (95.1% of those five and older) spoke only English at home in 2010, a minor decrease from 96.1% in 2000. Alabama_sentence_255

Alabama English is predominantly Southern, and is related to South Midland speech which was taken across the border from Tennessee. Alabama_sentence_256

In the major Southern speech region, there is the decreasing loss of the final r, for example the "boyd" pronunciation of "bird". Alabama_sentence_257

In the northern third of the state, there is a South Midland "arm" and "barb" rhyming with "form" and "orb". Alabama_sentence_258

Unique words in Alabama English include: redworm (earthworm), peckerwood (woodpecker), snake doctor and snake feeder (dragonfly), tow sack (burlap bag), plum peach (clingstone), French harp (harmonica), and dog irons (andirons). Alabama_sentence_259

Alabama_table_general_7

Top non-English languages spoken in AlabamaAlabama_table_caption_7
LanguageAlabama_header_cell_7_0_0 Percentage of population

(as of 2010)Alabama_header_cell_7_0_1

SpanishAlabama_cell_7_1_0 2.2%Alabama_cell_7_1_1
GermanAlabama_cell_7_2_0 0.4%Alabama_cell_7_2_1
French (incl. Patois, Cajun)Alabama_cell_7_3_0 0.3%Alabama_cell_7_3_1
Chinese, Vietnamese, Korean, Arabic, African languages, Japanese, and Italian (tied)Alabama_cell_7_4_0 0.1%Alabama_cell_7_4_1

Religion Alabama_section_15

In the 2008 American Religious Identification Survey, 86% of Alabama respondents reported their religion as Christian, including 6% Catholic, with 11% as having no religion. Alabama_sentence_260

The composition of other traditions is 0.5% Mormon, 0.5% Jewish, 0.5% Muslim, 0.5% Buddhist, and 0.5% Hindu. Alabama_sentence_261

Alabama_table_general_8

Religious affiliation in Alabama (2014)Alabama_table_caption_8
AffiliationAlabama_header_cell_8_0_0 % of populationAlabama_header_cell_8_0_1
ChristianAlabama_cell_8_1_0 86Alabama_cell_8_1_1 86Alabama_cell_8_1_2
ProtestantAlabama_cell_8_2_0 78Alabama_cell_8_2_1 78Alabama_cell_8_2_2
Evangelical ProtestantAlabama_cell_8_3_0 49Alabama_cell_8_3_1 49Alabama_cell_8_3_2
Mainline ProtestantAlabama_cell_8_4_0 13Alabama_cell_8_4_1 13Alabama_cell_8_4_2
Black churchAlabama_cell_8_5_0 16Alabama_cell_8_5_1 16Alabama_cell_8_5_2
CatholicAlabama_cell_8_6_0 7Alabama_cell_8_6_1 7Alabama_cell_8_6_2
MormonAlabama_cell_8_7_0 1Alabama_cell_8_7_1 1Alabama_cell_8_7_2
Jehovah's WitnessesAlabama_cell_8_8_0 0.1Alabama_cell_8_8_1 0.1Alabama_cell_8_8_2
Eastern OrthodoxAlabama_cell_8_9_0 0.1Alabama_cell_8_9_1 0.1Alabama_cell_8_9_2
Other ChristianAlabama_cell_8_10_0 0.1Alabama_cell_8_10_1 0.1Alabama_cell_8_10_2
UnaffiliatedAlabama_cell_8_11_0 12Alabama_cell_8_11_1 12Alabama_cell_8_11_2
Nothing in particularAlabama_cell_8_12_0 9Alabama_cell_8_12_1 9Alabama_cell_8_12_2
AgnosticAlabama_cell_8_13_0 1Alabama_cell_8_13_1 1Alabama_cell_8_13_2
AtheistAlabama_cell_8_14_0 1Alabama_cell_8_14_1 1Alabama_cell_8_14_2
Non-Christian faithsAlabama_cell_8_15_0 1Alabama_cell_8_15_1 1Alabama_cell_8_15_2
JewishAlabama_cell_8_16_0 0.2Alabama_cell_8_16_1 0.2Alabama_cell_8_16_2
MuslimAlabama_cell_8_17_0 0.2Alabama_cell_8_17_1 0.2Alabama_cell_8_17_2
BuddhistAlabama_cell_8_18_0 0.2Alabama_cell_8_18_1 0.2Alabama_cell_8_18_2
HinduAlabama_cell_8_19_0 0.2Alabama_cell_8_19_1 0.2Alabama_cell_8_19_2
Other Non-Christian faithsAlabama_cell_8_20_0 0.2Alabama_cell_8_20_1 0.2Alabama_cell_8_20_2
Don't know/refused answerAlabama_cell_8_21_0 1Alabama_cell_8_21_1 1Alabama_cell_8_21_2
TotalAlabama_cell_8_22_0 100Alabama_cell_8_22_1 100Alabama_cell_8_22_2

Further information on Christianity in Alabama: History of Baptists in Alabama, List of Baptist churches in Alabama, Episcopal Diocese of Alabama, Episcopal Diocese of the Central Gulf Coast, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mobile, Roman Catholic Diocese of Birmingham in Alabama, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Alabama Alabama_sentence_262

Alabama is located in the middle of the Bible Belt, a region of numerous Protestant Christians. Alabama_sentence_263

Alabama has been identified as one of the most religious states in the United States, with about 58% of the population attending church regularly. Alabama_sentence_264

A majority of people in the state identify as Evangelical Protestant. Alabama_sentence_265

As of 2010, the three largest denominational groups in Alabama are the Southern Baptist Convention, The United Methodist Church, and non-denominational Evangelical Protestant. Alabama_sentence_266

In Alabama, the Southern Baptist Convention has the highest number of adherents with 1,380,121; this is followed by the United Methodist Church with 327,734 adherents, non-denominational Evangelical Protestant with 220,938 adherents, and the Catholic Church with 150,647 adherents. Alabama_sentence_267

Many Baptist and Methodist congregations became established in the Great Awakening of the early 19th century, when preachers proselytized across the South. Alabama_sentence_268

The Assemblies of God had almost 60,000 members, the Churches of Christ had nearly 120,000 members. Alabama_sentence_269

The Presbyterian churches, strongly associated with Scots-Irish immigrants of the 18th century and their descendants, had a combined membership around 75,000 (PCA—28,009 members in 108 congregations, PC(USA)—26,247 members in 147 congregations, the Cumberland Presbyterian Church—6,000 members in 59 congregations, the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in America—5,000 members and fifty congregations plus the EPC and Associate Reformed Presbyterians with 230 members and nine congregations). Alabama_sentence_270

In a 2007 survey, nearly 70% of respondents could name all four of the Christian Gospels. Alabama_sentence_271

Of those who indicated a religious preference, 59% said they possessed a "full understanding" of their faith and needed no further learning. Alabama_sentence_272

In a 2007 poll, 92% of Alabamians reported having at least some confidence in churches in the state. Alabama_sentence_273

Although in much smaller numbers, many other religious faiths are represented in the state as well, including Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, the Baháʼí Faith, and Unitarian Universalism. Alabama_sentence_274

Jews have been present in what is now Alabama since 1763, during the colonial era of Mobile, when Sephardic Jews immigrated from London. Alabama_sentence_275

The oldest Jewish congregation in the state is Congregation Sha'arai Shomayim in Mobile. Alabama_sentence_276

It was formally recognized by the state legislature on January 25, 1844. Alabama_sentence_277

Later immigrants in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries tended to be Ashkenazi Jews from eastern Europe. Alabama_sentence_278

Jewish denominations in the state include two Orthodox, four Conservative, ten Reform, and one Humanistic synagogue. Alabama_sentence_279

Muslims have been increasing in Alabama, with 31 mosques built by 2011, many by African-American converts. Alabama_sentence_280

Several Hindu temples and cultural centers in the state have been founded by Indian immigrants and their descendants, the best-known being the Shri Swaminarayan Mandir in Birmingham, the Hindu Temple and Cultural Center of Birmingham in Pelham, the Hindu Cultural Center of North Alabama in Capshaw, and the Hindu Mandir and Cultural Center in Tuscaloosa. Alabama_sentence_281

There are six Dharma centers and organizations for Theravada Buddhists. Alabama_sentence_282

Most monastic Buddhist temples are concentrated in southern Mobile County, near Bayou La Batre. Alabama_sentence_283

This area has attracted an influx of refugees from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam during the 1970s and thereafter. Alabama_sentence_284

The four temples within a ten-mile radius of Bayou La Batre, include Chua Chanh Giac, Wat Buddharaksa, and Wat Lao Phoutthavihan. Alabama_sentence_285

The first community of adherents of the Baháʼí Faith in Alabama was founded in 1896 by Paul K. Dealy, who moved from Chicago to Fairhope. Alabama_sentence_286

Baháʼí centers in Alabama exist in Birmingham, Huntsville, and Florence. Alabama_sentence_287

Health Alabama_section_16

A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention study in 2008 showed that obesity in Alabama is a problem, with most counties having more than 29% of adults obese, except for ten which had a rate between 26% and 29%. Alabama_sentence_288

Residents of the state, along with those in five other states, were least likely in the nation to be physically active during leisure time. Alabama_sentence_289

Alabama, and the southeastern U.S. in general, has one of the highest incidences of adult onset diabetes in the country, exceeding 10% of adults. Alabama_sentence_290

On May 14, 2019, Alabama passed the Human Life Protection Act, banning abortion at any stage of pregnancy unless there is a "serious health risk", with no exceptions for rape and incest. Alabama_sentence_291

The law, if enacted, would punish doctors who perform abortions with 10 to 99 years imprisonment and be the most restrictive abortion law in the country. Alabama_sentence_292

However, on October 29, 2019, U.S. District Judge Myron Thompson blocked the law from taking effect. Alabama_sentence_293

Economy Alabama_section_17

See also: Economy of Alabama and Alabama locations by per capita income Alabama_sentence_294

The state has invested in aerospace, education, health care, banking, and various heavy industries, including automobile manufacturing, mineral extraction, steel production and fabrication. Alabama_sentence_295

By 2006, crop and animal production in Alabama was valued at $1.5 billion. Alabama_sentence_296

In contrast to the primarily agricultural economy of the previous century, this was only about one percent of the state's gross domestic product. Alabama_sentence_297

The number of private farms has declined at a steady rate since the 1960s, as land has been sold to developers, timber companies, and large farming conglomerates. Alabama_sentence_298

Non-agricultural employment in 2008 was 121,800 in management occupations; 71,750 in business and financial operations; 36,790 in computer-related and mathematical occupation; 44,200 in architecture and engineering; 12,410 in life, physical, and social sciences; 32,260 in community and social services; 12,770 in legal occupations; 116,250 in education, training, and library services; 27,840 in art, design and media occupations; 121,110 in healthcare; 44,750 in fire fighting, law enforcement, and security; 154,040 in food preparation and serving; 76,650 in building and grounds cleaning and maintenance; 53,230 in personal care and services; 244,510 in sales; 338,760 in office and administration support; 20,510 in farming, fishing, and forestry; 120,155 in construction and mining, gas, and oil extraction; 106,280 in installation, maintenance, and repair; 224,110 in production; and 167,160 in transportation and material moving. Alabama_sentence_299

According to the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, the 2008 total gross state product was $170 billion, or $29,411 per capita. Alabama_sentence_300

Alabama's 2012 GDP increased 1.2% from the previous year. Alabama_sentence_301

The single largest increase came in the area of information. Alabama_sentence_302

In 2010, per capita income for the state was $22,984. Alabama_sentence_303

The state's seasonally adjusted unemployment rate was 5.8% in April 2015. Alabama_sentence_304

This compared to a nationwide seasonally adjusted rate of 5.4%. Alabama_sentence_305

Alabama has no minimum wage and in February 2016 passed legislation preventing municipalities from setting one. Alabama_sentence_306

(A Birmingham city ordinance would have raised theirs to $10.10.) Alabama_sentence_307

As of 2018, Alabama has the sixth highest poverty rate among states in the U.S. Alabama_sentence_308

In 2017, United Nations Special Rapporteur Philip Alston toured parts of rural Alabama and observed environmental conditions he said were poorer than anywhere he had seen in the developed world. Alabama_sentence_309

Largest employers Alabama_section_18

The five employers that employed the most employees in Alabama in April 2011 were: Alabama_sentence_310

Alabama_table_general_9

EmployerAlabama_header_cell_9_0_0 EmployeesAlabama_header_cell_9_0_1
Redstone ArsenalAlabama_cell_9_1_0 25,373Alabama_cell_9_1_1
University of Alabama at Birmingham (includes UAB Hospital)Alabama_cell_9_2_0 18,750Alabama_cell_9_2_1
Maxwell Air Force BaseAlabama_cell_9_3_0 12,280Alabama_cell_9_3_1
State of AlabamaAlabama_cell_9_4_0 9,500Alabama_cell_9_4_1
Mobile County Public School SystemAlabama_cell_9_5_0 8,100Alabama_cell_9_5_1

The next twenty largest employers, as of 2011, included: Alabama_sentence_311

Alabama_table_general_10

EmployerAlabama_header_cell_10_0_0 LocationAlabama_header_cell_10_0_1
Anniston Army DepotAlabama_cell_10_1_0 AnnistonAlabama_cell_10_1_1
AT&TAlabama_cell_10_2_0 MultipleAlabama_cell_10_2_1
Auburn UniversityAlabama_cell_10_3_0 AuburnAlabama_cell_10_3_1
Baptist Medical Center SouthAlabama_cell_10_4_0 MontgomeryAlabama_cell_10_4_1
Birmingham City SchoolsAlabama_cell_10_5_0 BirminghamAlabama_cell_10_5_1
City of BirminghamAlabama_cell_10_6_0 BirminghamAlabama_cell_10_6_1
DCH Health SystemAlabama_cell_10_7_0 TuscaloosaAlabama_cell_10_7_1
Huntsville City SchoolsAlabama_cell_10_8_0 HuntsvilleAlabama_cell_10_8_1
Huntsville Hospital SystemAlabama_cell_10_9_0 HuntsvilleAlabama_cell_10_9_1
Hyundai Motor Manufacturing AlabamaAlabama_cell_10_10_0 MontgomeryAlabama_cell_10_10_1
Infirmary Health SystemAlabama_cell_10_11_0 MobileAlabama_cell_10_11_1
Jefferson County Board of EducationAlabama_cell_10_12_0 BirminghamAlabama_cell_10_12_1
Marshall Space Flight CenterAlabama_cell_10_13_0 HuntsvilleAlabama_cell_10_13_1
Mercedes-Benz U.S. InternationalAlabama_cell_10_14_0 VanceAlabama_cell_10_14_1
Montgomery Public SchoolsAlabama_cell_10_15_0 MontgomeryAlabama_cell_10_15_1
Regions Financial CorporationAlabama_cell_10_16_0 MultipleAlabama_cell_10_16_1
BoeingAlabama_cell_10_17_0 MultipleAlabama_cell_10_17_1
University of AlabamaAlabama_cell_10_18_0 TuscaloosaAlabama_cell_10_18_1
University of South AlabamaAlabama_cell_10_19_0 MobileAlabama_cell_10_19_1
WalmartAlabama_cell_10_20_0 MultipleAlabama_cell_10_20_1

Agriculture Alabama_section_19

Alabama's agricultural outputs include poultry and eggs, cattle, fish, plant nursery items, peanuts, cotton, grains such as corn and sorghum, vegetables, milk, soybeans, and peaches. Alabama_sentence_312

Although known as "The Cotton State", Alabama ranks between eighth and tenth in national cotton production, according to various reports, with Texas, Georgia and Mississippi comprising the top three. Alabama_sentence_313

Industry Alabama_section_20

Alabama's industrial outputs include iron and steel products (including cast-iron and steel pipe); paper, lumber, and wood products; mining (mostly coal); plastic products; cars and trucks; and apparel. Alabama_sentence_314

In addition, Alabama produces aerospace and electronic products, mostly in the Huntsville area, the location of NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center and the U.S. Alabama_sentence_315

Army Materiel Command, headquartered at Redstone Arsenal. Alabama_sentence_316

A great deal of Alabama's economic growth since the 1990s has been due to the state's expanding automotive manufacturing industry. Alabama_sentence_317

Located in the state are Honda Manufacturing of Alabama, Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Alabama, Mercedes-Benz U.S. International, and Toyota Motor Manufacturing Alabama, as well as their various suppliers. Alabama_sentence_318

Since 1993, the automobile industry has generated more than 67,800 new jobs in the state. Alabama_sentence_319

Alabama currently ranks 4th in the nation for vehicle exports. Alabama_sentence_320

Automakers accounted for approximately a third of the industrial expansion in the state in 2012. Alabama_sentence_321

The eight models produced at the state's auto factories totaled combined sales of 74,335 vehicles for 2012. Alabama_sentence_322

The strongest model sales during this period were the Hyundai Elantra compact car, the Mercedes-Benz GL-Class sport utility vehicle and the Honda Ridgeline sport utility truck. Alabama_sentence_323

Steel producers Outokumpu, Nucor, SSAB, ThyssenKrupp, and U.S. Alabama_sentence_324

Steel have facilities in Alabama and employ more than 10,000 people. Alabama_sentence_325

In May 2007, German steelmaker ThyssenKrupp selected Calvert in Mobile County for a 4.65 billion combined stainless and carbon steel processing facility. Alabama_sentence_326

ThyssenKrupp's stainless steel division, Inoxum, including the stainless portion of the Calvert plant, was sold to Finnish stainless steel company Outokumpu in 2012. Alabama_sentence_327

The remaining portion of the ThyssenKrupp plant had final bids submitted by ArcelorMittal and Nippon Steel for $1.6 billion in March 2013. Alabama_sentence_328

Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional submitted a combined bid for the mill at Calvert, plus a majority stake in the ThyssenKrupp mill in Brazil, for $3.8 billion. Alabama_sentence_329

In July 2013, the plant was sold to ArcelorMittal and Nippon Steel. Alabama_sentence_330

The Hunt Refining Company, a subsidiary of Hunt Consolidated, Inc., is based in Tuscaloosa and operates a refinery there. Alabama_sentence_331

The company also operates terminals in Mobile, Melvin, and Moundville. Alabama_sentence_332

JVC America, Inc. operates an optical disc replication and packaging plant in Tuscaloosa. Alabama_sentence_333

The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company operates a large plant in Gadsden which employs about 1,400 people. Alabama_sentence_334

It has been in operation since 1929. Alabama_sentence_335

Construction of an Airbus A320 family aircraft assembly plant in Mobile was formally announced by Airbus CEO Fabrice Brégier from the Mobile Convention Center on July 2, 2012. Alabama_sentence_336

The plans include a $600 million factory at the Brookley Aeroplex for the assembly of the A319, A320 and A321 aircraft. Alabama_sentence_337

Construction began in 2013, with plans for it to become operable by 2015 and produce up to 50 aircraft per year by 2017. Alabama_sentence_338

The assembly plant is the company's first factory to be built within the United States. Alabama_sentence_339

It was announced on February 1, 2013, that Airbus had hired Alabama-based Hoar Construction to oversee construction of the facility. Alabama_sentence_340

Tourism and entertainment Alabama_section_21

According to Business Insider, Alabama ranked 14th in most popular states to visit in 2014. Alabama_sentence_341

An estimated 26 million tourists visited the state in 2018, more than 100,000 of them from other countries including Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany and Japan. Alabama_sentence_342

In 2006, 22.3 million travellers spent $8.3 billion providing an estimated 162,000 jobs in the state. Alabama_sentence_343

The state is home to various attractions, natural features, parks and events that attract visitors from around the globe, notably the annual Hangout Music Festival, held on the public beaches of Gulf Shores; the Alabama Shakespeare Festival, one of the ten largest Shakespeare festivals in the world; the Robert Trent Jones Golf Trail, a collection of championship caliber golf courses distributed across the state; casinos such as Victoryland; amusement parks such as Alabama Splash Adventure; the Riverchase Galleria, one of the largest shopping centers in the southeast; Guntersville Lake, voted the best lake in Alabama by Southern Living Magazine readers; and the Alabama Museum of Natural History, the oldest museum in the state. Alabama_sentence_344

Mobile is known for having the oldest organized Mardi Gras celebration in the United States, beginning in 1703. Alabama_sentence_345

It was also host to the first formally organized Mardi Gras parade in the United States in 1830, a tradition that continues to this day. Alabama_sentence_346

Mardi Gras is an official state holiday in Mobile and Baldwin counties. Alabama_sentence_347

In 2018, Mobile's Mardi Gras parade was the state's top event, producing the most tourists with an attendance of 892,811. Alabama_sentence_348

The top attraction was the U.S. Alabama_sentence_349

Space & Rocket Center in Huntsville with an attendance of 849,981, followed by the Birmingham Zoo with 543,090. Alabama_sentence_350

Of the parks and natural destinations, Alabama's Gulf Coast topped the list with 6,700,000 visitors. Alabama_sentence_351

Alabama has historically been a popular region for film shoots due to its diverse landscapes and contrast of environments. Alabama_sentence_352

Movies filmed in Alabama include: Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Get Out, 42, Selma, Big Fish, The Final Destination, Due Date, Need For Speed and many more. Alabama_sentence_353

Healthcare Alabama_section_22

UAB Hospital, USA Health University Hospital, Huntsville Hospital, and Children's Hospital of Alabama are the only Level I trauma centers in Alabama. Alabama_sentence_354

UAB is the largest state government employer in Alabama, with a workforce of about 18,000. Alabama_sentence_355

A 2017 study found that Alabama had the least competitive health insurance market in the country, with Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Alabama having a market share of 84% followed by UnitedHealth Group at 7%. Alabama_sentence_356

Banking Alabama_section_23

Regions Financial Corporation and BBVA USA Bank are the largest banks headquartered in Alabama. Alabama_sentence_357

Birmingham-based Compass Banchshares was acquired by Spanish-based BBVA in September 2007 with the headquarters of BBVA USA remaining in Birmingham. Alabama_sentence_358

In November 2006, Regions Financial acquired AmSouth Bancorporation, which was also headquartered in Birmingham. Alabama_sentence_359

SouthTrust Corporation, another large bank headquartered in Birmingham, was acquired by Wachovia in 2004. Alabama_sentence_360

Wells Fargo has a regional headquarters, an operations center campus, and a $400 million data center in Birmingham. Alabama_sentence_361

Many smaller banks are also headquartered in the Birmingham area, including ServisFirst and New South Federal Savings Bank. Alabama_sentence_362

Birmingham also serves as the headquarters for several large investment management companies, including Harbert Management Corporation. Alabama_sentence_363

Electronics and communications Alabama_section_24

Telecommunications provider AT&T, formerly BellSouth, has a major presence in Alabama with several large offices in Birmingham. Alabama_sentence_364

Many commercial technology companies are headquartered in Huntsville, such as network access company ADTRAN, computer graphics company Intergraph, and IT infrastructure company Avocent. Alabama_sentence_365

Construction Alabama_section_25

Rust International has grown to include Brasfield & Gorrie, BE&K, Hoar Construction, and B.L. Alabama_sentence_366

Harbert International, which all routinely are included in the Engineering News-Record lists of top design, international construction, and engineering firms. Alabama_sentence_367

(Rust International was acquired in 2000 by Washington Group International, which was in turn acquired by San-Francisco based URS Corporation in 2007.) Alabama_sentence_368

Law and government Alabama_section_26

State government Alabama_section_27

Main article: Government of Alabama Alabama_sentence_369

The foundational document for Alabama's government is the Alabama Constitution, which was ratified in 1901. Alabama_sentence_370

At almost 800 amendments and 310,000 words, it is by some accounts the world's longest constitution and is roughly forty times the length of the United States Constitution. Alabama_sentence_371

There has been a significant movement to rewrite and modernize Alabama's constitution. Alabama_sentence_372

Critics argue that Alabama's constitution maintains highly centralized power with the state legislature, leaving practically no power in local hands. Alabama_sentence_373

Most counties do not have home rule. Alabama_sentence_374

Any policy changes proposed in different areas of the state must be approved by the entire Alabama legislature and, frequently, by state referendum. Alabama_sentence_375

One criticism of the current constitution claims that its complexity and length intentionally codify segregation and racism. Alabama_sentence_376

Alabama's government is divided into three coequal branches. Alabama_sentence_377

The legislative branch is the Alabama Legislature, a bicameral assembly composed of the Alabama House of Representatives, with 105 members, and the Alabama Senate, with 35 members. Alabama_sentence_378

The Legislature is responsible for writing, debating, passing, or defeating state legislation. Alabama_sentence_379

The Republican Party currently holds a majority in both houses of the Legislature. Alabama_sentence_380

The Legislature has the power to override a gubernatorial veto by a simple majority (most state Legislatures require a two-thirds majority to override a veto). Alabama_sentence_381

Until 1964, the state elected state senators on a geographic basis by county, with one per county. Alabama_sentence_382

It had not redistricted congressional districts since passage of its constitution in 1901; as a result, urbanized areas were grossly underrepresented. Alabama_sentence_383

It had not changed legislative districts to reflect the decennial censuses, either. Alabama_sentence_384

In Reynolds v. Sims (1964), the U.S. Supreme Court implemented the principle of "one man, one vote", ruling that congressional districts had to be reapportioned based on censuses (as the state already included in its constitution but had not implemented.) Alabama_sentence_385

Further, the court ruled that both houses of bicameral state legislatures had to be apportioned by population, as there was no constitutional basis for states to have geographically based systems. Alabama_sentence_386

At that time, Alabama and many other states had to change their legislative districting, as many across the country had systems that underrepresented urban areas and districts. Alabama_sentence_387

This had caused decades of underinvestment in such areas. Alabama_sentence_388

For instance, Birmingham and Jefferson County taxes had supplied one-third of the state budget, but Jefferson County received only 1/67th of state services in funding. Alabama_sentence_389

Through the legislative delegations, the Alabama legislature kept control of county governments. Alabama_sentence_390

The executive branch is responsible for the execution and oversight of laws. Alabama_sentence_391

It is headed by the governor of Alabama. Alabama_sentence_392

Other members of executive branch include the cabinet, the lieutenant governor of Alabama, the Attorney General of Alabama, the Alabama Secretary of State, the Alabama State Treasurer, and the State Auditor of Alabama. Alabama_sentence_393

The current governor is Republican Kay Ivey. Alabama_sentence_394

The members of the Legislature take office immediately after the November elections. Alabama_sentence_395

Statewide officials, such as the governor, lieutenant governor, attorney general, and other constitutional officers, take office the following January. Alabama_sentence_396

The judicial branch is responsible for interpreting the state's Constitution and applying the law in state criminal and civil cases. Alabama_sentence_397

The state's highest court is the Supreme Court of Alabama. Alabama_sentence_398

Alabama uses partisan elections to select judges. Alabama_sentence_399

Since the 1980s judicial campaigns have become increasingly politicized. Alabama_sentence_400

The current chief justice of the Alabama Supreme Court is Republican Tom Parker. Alabama_sentence_401

All sitting justices on the Alabama Supreme Court are members of the Republican Party. Alabama_sentence_402

There are two intermediate appellate courts, the Court of Civil Appeals and the Court of Criminal Appeals, and four trial courts: the circuit court (trial court of general jurisdiction), and the district, probate, and municipal courts. Alabama_sentence_403

Some critics believe the election of judges has contributed to an exceedingly high rate of executions. Alabama_sentence_404

Alabama has the highest per capita death penalty rate in the country. Alabama_sentence_405

In some years, it imposes more death sentences than does Texas, a state which has a population five times larger. Alabama_sentence_406

However, executions per capita are significantly higher in Texas. Alabama_sentence_407

Some of its cases have been highly controversial; the Supreme Court has overturned 24 convictions in death penalty cases. Alabama_sentence_408

It was the only state to allow judges to override jury decisions in whether or not to use a death sentence; in 10 cases judges overturned sentences of life imprisonment without parole (LWOP) that were voted unanimously by juries. Alabama_sentence_409

This judicial authority was removed in April 2017. Alabama_sentence_410

Taxes Alabama_section_28

Taxes are collected by the Alabama Department of Revenue. Alabama_sentence_411

Alabama levies a 2, 4, or 5 percent personal income tax, depending on the amount earned and filing status. Alabama_sentence_412

Taxpayers are allowed to deduct their federal income tax from their Alabama state tax, even if taking the standard deduction; those who itemize can also deduct FICA (the Social Security and Medicare tax). Alabama_sentence_413

The state's general sales tax rate is 4%. Alabama_sentence_414

Sales tax rates for cities and counties are also added to purchases. Alabama_sentence_415

For example, the total sales tax rate in Mobile is 10% and there is an additional restaurant tax of 1%, which means a diner in Mobile would pay an 11% tax on a meal. Alabama_sentence_416

As of 1999, sales and excise taxes in Alabama account for 51% of all state and local revenue, compared with an average of about 36% nationwide. Alabama_sentence_417

Alabama is one of seven states that levy a tax on food at the same rate as other goods, and one of two states (the other being neighboring Mississippi) which fully taxes groceries without any offsetting relief for low-income families. Alabama_sentence_418

(Most states exempt groceries from sales tax or apply a lower tax rate.) Alabama_sentence_419

Alabama's income tax on poor working families is among the highest in the U.S. Alabama is the only state that levies income tax on a family of four with income as low as $4,600, which is barely one-quarter the federal poverty line. Alabama_sentence_420

Alabama's threshold is the lowest among the 41 states and the District of Columbia with income taxes. Alabama_sentence_421

The corporate income tax rate is currently 6.5%. Alabama_sentence_422

The overall federal, state, and local tax burden in Alabama ranks the state as the second least tax-burdened state in the country. Alabama_sentence_423

Property taxes are the lowest in the U.S. Alabama_sentence_424

The current state constitution requires a voter referendum to raise property taxes. Alabama_sentence_425

Since Alabama's tax structure largely depends on consumer spending, it is subject to high variable budget structure. Alabama_sentence_426

For example, in 2003, Alabama had an annual budget deficit as high as $670 million. Alabama_sentence_427

County and local governments Alabama_section_29

See also: List of counties in Alabama Alabama_sentence_428

Alabama has 67 counties. Alabama_sentence_429

Each county has its own elected legislative branch, usually called the county commission. Alabama_sentence_430

It also has limited executive authority in the county. Alabama_sentence_431

Because of the constraints of the Alabama Constitution, which centralizes power in the state legislature, only seven counties (Jefferson, Lee, Mobile, Madison, Montgomery, Shelby, and Tuscaloosa) in the state have limited home rule. Alabama_sentence_432

Instead, most counties in the state must lobby the Local Legislation Committee of the state legislature to get simple local policies approved, ranging from waste disposal to land use zoning. Alabama_sentence_433

The state legislature has retained power over local governments by refusing to pass a constitutional amendment establishing home rule for counties, as recommended by the 1973 Alabama Constitutional Commission. Alabama_sentence_434

Legislative delegations retain certain powers over each county. Alabama_sentence_435

United States Supreme Court decisions in Baker v. Carr (1964) required that both houses have districts established on the basis of population, and redistricted after each census, to implement the principle of "one man, one vote". Alabama_sentence_436

Before that, each county was represented by one state senator, leading to under-representation in the state senate for more urbanized, populous counties. Alabama_sentence_437

The rural bias of the state legislature, which had also failed to redistrict seats in the state house, affected politics well into the 20th century, failing to recognize the rise of industrial cities and urbanized areas. Alabama_sentence_438

"The lack of home rule for counties in Alabama has resulted in the proliferation of local legislation permitting counties to do things not authorized by the state constitution. Alabama_sentence_439

Alabama's constitution has been amended more than 700 times, and almost one-third of the amendments are local in nature, applying to only one county or city. Alabama_sentence_440

A significant part of each legislative session is spent on local legislation, taking away time and attention of legislators from issues of statewide importance." Alabama_sentence_441

Alabama is an alcoholic beverage control state, meaning the state government holds a monopoly on the sale of alcohol. Alabama_sentence_442

The Alabama Alcoholic Beverage Control Board controls the sale and distribution of alcoholic beverages in the state. Alabama_sentence_443

A total of 25 of the 67 counties are "dry counties" which ban the sale of alcohol, and there are many dry municipalities in counties which permit alcohol sales. Alabama_sentence_444

Alabama_table_general_11

RankAlabama_header_cell_11_0_0 CountyAlabama_header_cell_11_0_1 Population

(2019 Estimate)Alabama_header_cell_11_0_2

Population

(2010 Census)Alabama_header_cell_11_0_3

SeatAlabama_header_cell_11_0_4 Largest cityAlabama_header_cell_11_0_5
1Alabama_cell_11_1_0 JeffersonAlabama_cell_11_1_1 658,573Alabama_cell_11_1_2 658,466Alabama_cell_11_1_3 BirminghamAlabama_cell_11_1_4 BirminghamAlabama_cell_11_1_5
2Alabama_cell_11_2_0 MobileAlabama_cell_11_2_1 413,210Alabama_cell_11_2_2 412,992Alabama_cell_11_2_3 MobileAlabama_cell_11_2_4 MobileAlabama_cell_11_2_5
3Alabama_cell_11_3_0 MadisonAlabama_cell_11_3_1 372,909Alabama_cell_11_3_2 334,811Alabama_cell_11_3_3 HuntsvilleAlabama_cell_11_3_4 HuntsvilleAlabama_cell_11_3_5
4Alabama_cell_11_4_0 MontgomeryAlabama_cell_11_4_1 226,486Alabama_cell_11_4_2 229,363Alabama_cell_11_4_3 MontgomeryAlabama_cell_11_4_4 MontgomeryAlabama_cell_11_4_5
5Alabama_cell_11_5_0 ShelbyAlabama_cell_11_5_1 217,702Alabama_cell_11_5_2 195,085Alabama_cell_11_5_3 ColumbianaAlabama_cell_11_5_4 Hoover (part)

AlabasterAlabama_cell_11_5_5

6Alabama_cell_11_6_0 BaldwinAlabama_cell_11_6_1 223,234Alabama_cell_11_6_2 182,265Alabama_cell_11_6_3 Bay MinetteAlabama_cell_11_6_4 DaphneAlabama_cell_11_6_5
7Alabama_cell_11_7_0 TuscaloosaAlabama_cell_11_7_1 209,355Alabama_cell_11_7_2 194,656Alabama_cell_11_7_3 TuscaloosaAlabama_cell_11_7_4 TuscaloosaAlabama_cell_11_7_5
8Alabama_cell_11_8_0 LeeAlabama_cell_11_8_1 164,542Alabama_cell_11_8_2 140,247Alabama_cell_11_8_3 OpelikaAlabama_cell_11_8_4 AuburnAlabama_cell_11_8_5
9Alabama_cell_11_9_0 MorganAlabama_cell_11_9_1 119,679Alabama_cell_11_9_2 119,490Alabama_cell_11_9_3 DecaturAlabama_cell_11_9_4 DecaturAlabama_cell_11_9_5
10Alabama_cell_11_10_0 CalhounAlabama_cell_11_10_1 113,605Alabama_cell_11_10_2 118,572Alabama_cell_11_10_3 AnnistonAlabama_cell_11_10_4 AnnistonAlabama_cell_11_10_5
11Alabama_cell_11_11_0 HoustonAlabama_cell_11_11_1 105,882Alabama_cell_11_11_2 101,547Alabama_cell_11_11_3 DothanAlabama_cell_11_11_4 DothanAlabama_cell_11_11_5
12Alabama_cell_11_12_0 EtowahAlabama_cell_11_12_1 102,268Alabama_cell_11_12_2 104,303Alabama_cell_11_12_3 GadsdenAlabama_cell_11_12_4 GadsdenAlabama_cell_11_12_5
13Alabama_cell_11_13_0 LimestoneAlabama_cell_11_13_1 98,915Alabama_cell_11_13_2 82,782Alabama_cell_11_13_3 AthensAlabama_cell_11_13_4 AthensAlabama_cell_11_13_5
14Alabama_cell_11_14_0 MarshallAlabama_cell_11_14_1 96,774Alabama_cell_11_14_2 93,019Alabama_cell_11_14_3 GuntersvilleAlabama_cell_11_14_4 AlbertvilleAlabama_cell_11_14_5
15Alabama_cell_11_15_0 LauderdaleAlabama_cell_11_15_1 92,729Alabama_cell_11_15_2 92,709Alabama_cell_11_15_3 FlorenceAlabama_cell_11_15_4 FlorenceAlabama_cell_11_15_5

Politics Alabama_section_30

During Reconstruction following the American Civil War, Alabama was occupied by federal troops of the Third Military District under General John Pope. Alabama_sentence_445

In 1874, the political coalition of white Democrats known as the Redeemers took control of the state government from the Republicans, in part by suppressing the black vote through violence, fraud and intimidation. Alabama_sentence_446

After 1890, a coalition of White Democratic politicians passed laws to segregate and disenfranchise African American residents, a process completed in provisions of the 1901 constitution. Alabama_sentence_447

Provisions which disenfranchised blacks resulted in excluding many poor Whites. Alabama_sentence_448

By 1941 more Whites than Blacks had been disenfranchised: 600,000 to 520,000. Alabama_sentence_449

The total effects were greater on the black community, as almost all its citizens were disfranchised and relegated to separate and unequal treatment under the law. Alabama_sentence_450

From 1901 through the 1960s, the state did not redraw election districts as population grew and shifted within the state during urbanization and industrialization of certain areas. Alabama_sentence_451

As counties were the basis of election districts, the result was a rural minority that dominated state politics through nearly three-quarters of the century, until a series of federal court cases required redistricting in 1972 to meet equal representation. Alabama_sentence_452

Alabama state politics gained nationwide and international attention in the 1950s and 1960s during the civil rights movement, when whites bureaucratically, and at times violently, resisted protests for electoral and social reform. Alabama_sentence_453

Governor George Wallace, the state's only four-term governor, was a controversial figure who vowed to maintain segregation. Alabama_sentence_454

Only after passage of the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 did African Americans regain the ability to exercise suffrage, among other civil rights. Alabama_sentence_455

In many jurisdictions, they continued to be excluded from representation by at-large electoral systems, which allowed the majority of the population to dominate elections. Alabama_sentence_456

Some changes at the county level have occurred following court challenges to establish single-member districts that enable a more diverse representation among county boards. Alabama_sentence_457

In 2007, the Alabama Legislature passed, and Republican governor Bob Riley signed a resolution expressing "profound regret" over slavery and its lingering impact. Alabama_sentence_458

In a symbolic ceremony, the bill was signed in the Alabama State Capitol, which housed Congress of the Confederate States of America. Alabama_sentence_459

In 2010, Republicans won control of both houses of the legislature for the first time in 136 years. Alabama_sentence_460

As of December 2017, there are a total of 3,326,812 registered voters, with 2,979,576 active, and the others inactive in the state. Alabama_sentence_461

Elections Alabama_section_31

Main article: Elections in Alabama Alabama_sentence_462

State elections Alabama_section_32

With the disfranchisement of Blacks in 1901, the state became part of the "Solid South", a system in which the Democratic Party operated as effectively the only viable political party in every Southern state. Alabama_sentence_463

For nearly a hundred years local and state elections in Alabama were decided in the Democratic Party primary, with generally only token Republican challengers running in the General Election. Alabama_sentence_464

Since the mid- to late 20th century, however, white conservatives started shifting to the Republican Party. Alabama_sentence_465

In Alabama, majority-white districts are now expected to regularly elect Republican candidates to federal, state and local office. Alabama_sentence_466

Members of the nine seats on the Supreme Court of Alabama and all ten seats on the state appellate courts are elected to office. Alabama_sentence_467

Until 1994, no Republicans held any of the court seats. Alabama_sentence_468

In that general election, the then-incumbent chief justice, Ernest C. Hornsby, refused to leave office after losing the election by approximately 3,000 votes to Republican Perry O. Hooper, Sr.. Alabama_sentence_469

Hornsby sued Alabama and defiantly remained in office for nearly a year before finally giving up the seat after losing in court. Alabama_sentence_470

This ultimately led to a collapse of support for Democrats at the ballot box in the next three or four election cycles. Alabama_sentence_471

The Democrats lost the last of the nineteen court seats in August 2011 with the resignation of the last Democrat on the bench. Alabama_sentence_472

In the early 21st century, Republicans hold all seven of the statewide elected executive branch offices. Alabama_sentence_473

Republicans hold six of the eight elected seats on the Alabama State Board of Education. Alabama_sentence_474

In 2010, Republicans took large majorities of both chambers of the state legislature, giving them control of that body for the first time in 136 years. Alabama_sentence_475

The last remaining statewide Democrat, who served on the Alabama Public Service Commission was defeated in 2012. Alabama_sentence_476

Only three Republican lieutenant governors have been elected since the end of Reconstruction, when Republicans generally represented Reconstruction government, including the newly emancipated freedmen who had gained the franchise. Alabama_sentence_477

The three GOP lieutenant governors are Steve Windom (1999–2003), Kay Ivey (2011–2017), and Will Ainsworth (2019–present). Alabama_sentence_478

Local elections Alabama_section_33

Many local offices (county commissioners, boards of education, tax assessors, tax collectors, etc.) in the state are still held by Democrats. Alabama_sentence_479

Many rural counties have voters who are majority Democrats, resulting in local elections being decided in the Democratic primary. Alabama_sentence_480

Similarly many metropolitan and suburban counties are majority-Republican and elections are effectively decided in the Republican Primary, although there are exceptions. Alabama_sentence_481

Alabama's 67 county sheriffs are elected in partisan, at-large races, and Democrats still retain the narrow majority of those posts. Alabama_sentence_482

The current split is 35 Democrats, 31 Republicans, and one Independent Fayette. Alabama_sentence_483

However, most of the Democratic sheriffs preside over rural and less populated counties. Alabama_sentence_484

The majority of Republican sheriffs have been elected in the more urban/suburban and heavily populated counties. Alabama_sentence_485

As of 2015, the state of Alabama has one female sheriff, in Morgan County, Alabama, and ten African-American sheriffs. Alabama_sentence_486

Federal elections Alabama_section_34

The state's two U.S. Alabama_sentence_487

senators are Republican Richard C. Shelby and Democrat Doug Jones. Alabama_sentence_488

Shelby was originally elected to the Senate as a Democrat in 1986 and re-elected in 1992, but switched parties immediately following the November 1994 general election. Alabama_sentence_489

In the U.S. Alabama_sentence_490

House of Representatives, the state is represented by seven members, six of whom are Republicans: (Bradley Byrne, Mike D. Rogers, Robert Aderholt, Morris J. Brooks, Martha Roby, and Gary Palmer) and one Democrat: Terri Sewell who represents the Black Belt as well as most of the predominantly black portions of Birmingham, Tuscaloosa and Montgomery. Alabama_sentence_491

Education Alabama_section_35

Main article: Education in Alabama Alabama_sentence_492

Primary and secondary education Alabama_section_36

Public primary and secondary education in Alabama is under the purview of the Alabama State Board of Education as well as local oversight by 67 county school boards and 60 city boards of education. Alabama_sentence_493

Together, 1,496 individual schools provide education for 744,637 elementary and secondary students. Alabama_sentence_494

Public school funding is appropriated through the Alabama Legislature through the Education Trust Fund. Alabama_sentence_495

In FY 2006–2007, Alabama appropriated $3,775,163,578 for primary and secondary education. Alabama_sentence_496

That represented an increase of $444,736,387 over the previous fiscal year. Alabama_sentence_497

In 2007, more than 82 percent of schools made adequate yearly progress (AYP) toward student proficiency under the National No Child Left Behind law, using measures determined by the state of Alabama. Alabama_sentence_498

While Alabama's public education system has improved in recent decades, it lags behind in achievement compared to other states. Alabama_sentence_499

According to U.S. Census data (2000), Alabama's high school graduation rate (75%) is the fourth lowest in the U.S. (after Kentucky, Louisiana and Mississippi). Alabama_sentence_500

The largest educational gains were among people with some college education but without degrees. Alabama_sentence_501

Generally prohibited in the West at large, school corporal punishment is not unusual in Alabama, with 27,260 public school students paddled at least one time, according to government data for the 2011–2012 school year. Alabama_sentence_502

The rate of school corporal punishment in Alabama is surpassed by only Mississippi and Arkansas. Alabama_sentence_503

Colleges and universities Alabama_section_37

Main article: List of colleges and universities in Alabama Alabama_sentence_504

Alabama's programs of higher education include 14 four-year public universities, two-year community colleges, and 17 private, undergraduate and graduate universities. Alabama_sentence_505

In the state are four medical schools (as of fall 2015) (University of Alabama School of Medicine, University of South Alabama and Alabama College of Osteopathic Medicine and The Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine—Auburn Campus), two veterinary colleges (Auburn University and Tuskegee University), a dental school (University of Alabama School of Dentistry), an optometry college (University of Alabama at Birmingham), two pharmacy schools (Auburn University and Samford University), and five law schools (University of Alabama School of Law, Birmingham School of Law, Cumberland School of Law, Miles Law School, and the Thomas Goode Jones School of Law). Alabama_sentence_506

Public, post-secondary education in Alabama is overseen by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education and the Alabama Department of Postsecondary Education. Alabama_sentence_507

Colleges and universities in Alabama offer degree programs from two-year associate degrees to a multitude of doctoral level programs. Alabama_sentence_508

The largest single campus is the University of Alabama, located in Tuscaloosa, with 37,665 enrolled for fall 2016. Alabama_sentence_509

Troy University was the largest institution in the state in 2010, with an enrollment of 29,689 students across four Alabama campuses (Troy, Dothan, Montgomery, and Phenix City), as well as sixty learning sites in seventeen other states and eleven other countries. Alabama_sentence_510

The oldest institutions are the public University of North Alabama in Florence and the Catholic Church-affiliated Spring Hill College in Mobile, both founded in 1830. Alabama_sentence_511

Accreditation of academic programs is through the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) as well as other subject-focused national and international accreditation agencies such as the Association for Biblical Higher Education (ABHE), the Council on Occupational Education (COE), and the Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools (ACICS). Alabama_sentence_512

According to the 2011 U.S. Alabama_sentence_513

News & World Report, Alabama had three universities ranked in the top 100 Public Schools in America (University of Alabama at 31, Auburn University at 36, and University of Alabama at Birmingham at 73). Alabama_sentence_514

According to the 2012 U.S. News & World Report, Alabama had four tier one universities (University of Alabama, Auburn University, University of Alabama at Birmingham and University of Alabama in Huntsville). Alabama_sentence_515

Media Alabama_section_38

See also: :Category:Mass media in Alabama and List of newspapers in Alabama Alabama_sentence_516

Major newspapers include Birmingham News, Mobile Press-Register, and Montgomery Advertiser. Alabama_sentence_517

Major television network affiliates in Alabama include: Alabama_sentence_518

Culture Alabama_section_39

Literature Alabama_section_40

Main article: Alabama literature Alabama_sentence_519

Sports Alabama_section_41

College sports Alabama_section_42

College football is extremely popular in Alabama, particularly the University of Alabama Crimson Tide and Auburn University Tigers, rivals in the Southeastern Conference. Alabama_sentence_520

In the 2013 season, Alabama averaged over 100,000 fans per game and Auburn averaged over 80,000—both numbers among the top twenty in the nation. Alabama_sentence_521

Bryant–Denny Stadium is the home of the Alabama football team, and has a seating capacity of 101,821, and is the fifth largest stadium in America. Alabama_sentence_522

Jordan-Hare Stadium is the home field of the Auburn football team and seats up to 87,451. Alabama_sentence_523

Legion Field is home for the UAB Blazers football program and the Birmingham Bowl. Alabama_sentence_524

It seats 71,594. Alabama_sentence_525

Ladd–Peebles Stadium in Mobile is the home of the University of South Alabama football team, and serves as the home of the NCAA Senior Bowl, Dollar General Bowl (formerly GoDaddy.com Bowl), and Alabama-Mississippi All Star Classic; the stadium seats 40,646. Alabama_sentence_526

In 2009, Bryant–Denny Stadium and Jordan-Hare Stadium became the homes of the Alabama High School Athletic Association state football championship games, after previously being held at Legion Field in Birmingham. Alabama_sentence_527

Professional sports Alabama_section_43

Main article: List of professional sports teams in Alabama Alabama_sentence_528

Alabama has several professional and semi-professional sports teams, including three minor league baseball teams. Alabama_sentence_529

Alabama_table_general_12

ClubAlabama_header_cell_12_0_0 CityAlabama_header_cell_12_0_1 SportAlabama_header_cell_12_0_2 LeagueAlabama_header_cell_12_0_3 VenueAlabama_header_cell_12_0_4
AFC MobileAlabama_cell_12_1_0 MobileAlabama_cell_12_1_1 SoccerAlabama_cell_12_1_2 Gulf Coast Premier LeagueAlabama_cell_12_1_3 Archbishop Lipscomb Athletic ComplexAlabama_cell_12_1_4
Birmingham BullsAlabama_cell_12_2_0 PelhamAlabama_cell_12_2_1 Ice HockeyAlabama_cell_12_2_2 Southern Professional Hockey LeagueAlabama_cell_12_2_3 Pelham Civic CenterAlabama_cell_12_2_4
Birmingham Legion FCAlabama_cell_12_3_0 BirminghamAlabama_cell_12_3_1 SoccerAlabama_cell_12_3_2 USL ChampionshipAlabama_cell_12_3_3 BBVA Compass FieldAlabama_cell_12_3_4
Birmingham BaronsAlabama_cell_12_4_0 BirminghamAlabama_cell_12_4_1 BaseballAlabama_cell_12_4_2 Southern LeagueAlabama_cell_12_4_3 Regions FieldAlabama_cell_12_4_4
Huntsville HavocAlabama_cell_12_5_0 HuntsvilleAlabama_cell_12_5_1 Ice HockeyAlabama_cell_12_5_2 Southern Professional Hockey LeagueAlabama_cell_12_5_3 Von Braun CenterAlabama_cell_12_5_4
Montgomery BiscuitsAlabama_cell_12_6_0 MontgomeryAlabama_cell_12_6_1 BaseballAlabama_cell_12_6_2 Southern LeagueAlabama_cell_12_6_3 Montgomery Riverwalk StadiumAlabama_cell_12_6_4
Rocket City Trash PandasAlabama_cell_12_7_0 MadisonAlabama_cell_12_7_1 BaseballAlabama_cell_12_7_2 Southern LeagueAlabama_cell_12_7_3 Toyota FieldAlabama_cell_12_7_4
Tennessee Valley TigersAlabama_cell_12_8_0 HuntsvilleAlabama_cell_12_8_1 FootballAlabama_cell_12_8_2 Independent Women's Football LeagueAlabama_cell_12_8_3 Milton Frank StadiumAlabama_cell_12_8_4

Alabama_description_list_1

The Talladega Superspeedway motorsports complex hosts a series of NASCAR events. Alabama_sentence_530

It has a seating capacity of 143,000 and is the thirteenth largest stadium in the world and sixth largest stadium in America. Alabama_sentence_531

Also, the Barber Motorsports Park has hosted IndyCar Series and Rolex Sports Car Series races. Alabama_sentence_532

The ATP Birmingham was a World Championship Tennis tournament held from 1973 to 1980. Alabama_sentence_533

Alabama has hosted several professional golf tournaments, such as the 1984 and 1990 PGA Championship at Shoal Creek, the Barbasol Championship (PGA Tour), the Mobile LPGA Tournament of Champions, Airbus LPGA Classic, and Yokohama Tire LPGA Classic (LPGA Tour), and The Tradition (Champions Tour). Alabama_sentence_534

Transportation Alabama_section_44

Main article: Transportation in Alabama Alabama_sentence_535

Aviation Alabama_section_45

Main article: Aviation in Alabama Alabama_sentence_536

Major airports with sustained operations in Alabama include Birmingham-Shuttlesworth International Airport (BHM), Huntsville International Airport (HSV), Dothan Regional Airport (DHN), Mobile Regional Airport (MOB), Montgomery Regional Airport (MGM), Northwest Alabama Regional Airport (MSL) and Northeast Alabama Regional Airport (GAD). Alabama_sentence_537

Rail Alabama_section_46

For rail transport, Amtrak schedules the Crescent, a daily passenger train, running from New York to New Orleans with station stops at Anniston, Birmingham, and Tuscaloosa. Alabama_sentence_538

Roads Alabama_section_47

Alabama has six major interstate routes: Interstate 65 (I-65) travels north–south roughly through the middle of the state; I-20/I-59 travel from the central west Mississippi state line to Birmingham, where I-59 continues to the north-east corner of the state and I-20 continues east towards Atlanta; I-85 originates in Montgomery and travels east-northeast to the Georgia state line, providing a main thoroughfare to Atlanta; and I-10 traverses the southernmost portion of the state, traveling from west to east through Mobile. Alabama_sentence_539

I-22 enters the state from Mississippi and connects Birmingham with Memphis, Tennessee. Alabama_sentence_540

In addition, there are currently five auxiliary interstate routes in the state: I-165 in Mobile, I-359 in Tuscaloosa, I-459 around Birmingham, I-565 in Decatur and Huntsville, and I-759 in Gadsden. Alabama_sentence_541

A sixth route, I-685, will be formed when I-85 is rerouted along a new southern bypass of Montgomery. Alabama_sentence_542

A proposed northern bypass of Birmingham will be designated as I-422. Alabama_sentence_543

Since a direct connection from I-22 to I-422 will not be possible, I-222 has been proposed, as well. Alabama_sentence_544

Several U.S. Alabama_sentence_545

Highways also pass through the state, such as U.S. Alabama_sentence_546 Route 11 (US-11), US-29, US-31, US-43, US-45, US-72, US-78, US-80, US-82, US-84, US-90, US-98, US-231, US-278, US-280, US-331, US-411, and US-431. Alabama_sentence_547

There are four toll roads in the state: Montgomery Expressway in Montgomery; Northport/Tuscaloosa Western Bypass in Tuscaloosa and Northport; Emerald Mountain Expressway in Wetumpka; and Beach Express in Orange Beach. Alabama_sentence_548

Ports Alabama_section_48

The Port of Mobile, Alabama's only saltwater port, is a large seaport on the Gulf of Mexico with inland waterway access to the Midwest by way of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway. Alabama_sentence_549

The Port of Mobile was ranked 12th by tons of traffic in the United States during 2009. Alabama_sentence_550

The newly expanded container terminal at the Port of Mobile was ranked as the 25th busiest for container traffic in the nation during 2011. Alabama_sentence_551

The state's other ports are on rivers with access to the Gulf of Mexico. Alabama_sentence_552

Water ports of Alabama, listed from north to south: Alabama_sentence_553

Alabama_table_general_13

Port nameAlabama_header_cell_13_0_0 LocationAlabama_header_cell_13_0_1 Connected toAlabama_header_cell_13_0_2
Port of FlorenceAlabama_cell_13_1_0 Florence/Muscle Shoals, on Pickwick LakeAlabama_cell_13_1_1 Tennessee RiverAlabama_cell_13_1_2
Port of DecaturAlabama_cell_13_2_0 Decatur, on Wheeler LakeAlabama_cell_13_2_1 Tennessee RiverAlabama_cell_13_2_2
Port of GuntersvilleAlabama_cell_13_3_0 Guntersville, on Lake GuntersvilleAlabama_cell_13_3_1 Tennessee RiverAlabama_cell_13_3_2
Port of BirminghamAlabama_cell_13_4_0 Birmingham, on Black Warrior RiverAlabama_cell_13_4_1 Tenn-Tom WaterwayAlabama_cell_13_4_2
Port of TuscaloosaAlabama_cell_13_5_0 Tuscaloosa, on Black Warrior RiverAlabama_cell_13_5_1 Tenn-Tom WaterwayAlabama_cell_13_5_2
Port of MontgomeryAlabama_cell_13_6_0 Montgomery, on Woodruff LakeAlabama_cell_13_6_1 Alabama RiverAlabama_cell_13_6_2
Port of MobileAlabama_cell_13_7_0 Mobile, on Mobile BayAlabama_cell_13_7_1 Gulf of MexicoAlabama_cell_13_7_2

See also Alabama_section_49

Alabama_unordered_list_2


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alabama.