Alaska

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This article is about the State of Alaska. Alaska_sentence_0

For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). Alaska_sentence_1

"Alaskan" redirects here. Alaska_sentence_2

For other uses, see Alaskan (disambiguation). Alaska_sentence_3

Alaska_table_infobox_0

Alaska

Alax̂sxax̂  (Aleut) Alaasikaq  (Inupiaq) Anáaski  (Tlingit) Alas'kaaq  (Pacific Gulf Yupik)Alaska_header_cell_0_0_0

CountryAlaska_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesAlaska_cell_0_1_1
Before statehoodAlaska_header_cell_0_2_0 Territory of AlaskaAlaska_cell_0_2_1
Admitted to the UnionAlaska_header_cell_0_3_0 January 3, 1959 (49th)Alaska_cell_0_3_1
CapitalAlaska_header_cell_0_4_0 JuneauAlaska_cell_0_4_1
Largest cityAlaska_header_cell_0_5_0 AnchorageAlaska_cell_0_5_1
Largest metroAlaska_header_cell_0_6_0 Anchorage metropolitan areaAlaska_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentAlaska_header_cell_0_7_0
GovernorAlaska_header_cell_0_8_0 Mike Dunleavy (R)Alaska_cell_0_8_1
Lieutenant GovernorAlaska_header_cell_0_9_0 Kevin Meyer (R)Alaska_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureAlaska_header_cell_0_10_0 Alaska LegislatureAlaska_cell_0_10_1
Upper houseAlaska_header_cell_0_11_0 SenateAlaska_cell_0_11_1
Lower houseAlaska_header_cell_0_12_0 House of RepresentativesAlaska_cell_0_12_1
JudiciaryAlaska_header_cell_0_13_0 Alaska Supreme CourtAlaska_cell_0_13_1
U.S. senatorsAlaska_header_cell_0_14_0 Alaska_cell_0_14_1
U.S. House delegationAlaska_header_cell_0_15_0 Don Young (R) (at-large) (list)Alaska_cell_0_15_1
AreaAlaska_header_cell_0_16_0
TotalAlaska_header_cell_0_17_0 663,268 sq mi (1,717,856 km)Alaska_cell_0_17_1
LandAlaska_header_cell_0_18_0 571,951 sq mi (1,481,346 km)Alaska_cell_0_18_1
WaterAlaska_header_cell_0_19_0 91,316 sq mi (236,507 km)  13.77%Alaska_cell_0_19_1
Area rankAlaska_header_cell_0_20_0 1stAlaska_cell_0_20_1
DimensionsAlaska_header_cell_0_21_0
LengthAlaska_header_cell_0_22_0 1,420 mi (2,285 km)Alaska_cell_0_22_1
WidthAlaska_header_cell_0_23_0 2,261 mi (3,639 km)Alaska_cell_0_23_1
ElevationAlaska_header_cell_0_24_0 1,900 ft (580 m)Alaska_cell_0_24_1
Highest elevation (Denali)Alaska_header_cell_0_25_0 20,310 ft (6,190.5 m)Alaska_cell_0_25_1
Lowest elevationAlaska_header_cell_0_26_0 0 ft (0 m)Alaska_cell_0_26_1
PopulationAlaska_header_cell_0_27_0
TotalAlaska_header_cell_0_28_0 710,249Alaska_cell_0_28_1
RankAlaska_header_cell_0_29_0 48thAlaska_cell_0_29_1
DensityAlaska_header_cell_0_30_0 1.26/sq mi (0.49/km)Alaska_cell_0_30_1
Density rankAlaska_header_cell_0_31_0 50thAlaska_cell_0_31_1
Median household incomeAlaska_header_cell_0_32_0 $73,181Alaska_cell_0_32_1
Income rankAlaska_header_cell_0_33_0 8thAlaska_cell_0_33_1
Demonym(s)Alaska_header_cell_0_34_0 AlaskanAlaska_cell_0_34_1
LanguageAlaska_header_cell_0_35_0
Official languagesAlaska_header_cell_0_36_0 Ahtna, Alutiiq, Dena'ina, Deg Xinag, English, Eyak, Gwich'in, Haida, Hän, Holikachuk, Inupiaq, Koyukon, Lower Tanana, St. Lawrence Island Yupik, Tanacross, Tlingit, Tsimshian, Unangax̂, Upper Kuskokwim, Upper Tanana, Yup'ikAlaska_cell_0_36_1
Spoken languageAlaska_header_cell_0_37_0 Alaska_cell_0_37_1
Time zonesAlaska_header_cell_0_38_0
east of 169°30'Alaska_header_cell_0_39_0 UTC−09:00 (Alaska)Alaska_cell_0_39_1
Summer (DST)Alaska_header_cell_0_40_0 UTC−08:00 (ADT)Alaska_cell_0_40_1
west of 169°30'Alaska_header_cell_0_41_0 UTC−10:00 (Hawaii-Aleutian)Alaska_cell_0_41_1
Summer (DST)Alaska_header_cell_0_42_0 UTC−09:00 (HADT)Alaska_cell_0_42_1
USPS abbreviationAlaska_header_cell_0_43_0 AKAlaska_cell_0_43_1
ISO 3166 codeAlaska_header_cell_0_44_0 US-AKAlaska_cell_0_44_1
LatitudeAlaska_header_cell_0_45_0 51°20'N to 71°50'NAlaska_cell_0_45_1
LongitudeAlaska_header_cell_0_46_0 130°W to 172°EAlaska_cell_0_46_1
WebsiteAlaska_header_cell_0_47_0 Alaska_cell_0_47_1

Alaska_table_infobox_1

Alaska state symbolsAlaska_header_cell_1_0_0
Living insigniaAlaska_header_cell_1_1_0
BirdAlaska_header_cell_1_2_0 Willow ptarmiganAlaska_cell_1_2_1
Dog breedAlaska_header_cell_1_3_0 Alaskan MalamuteAlaska_cell_1_3_1
FishAlaska_header_cell_1_4_0 King salmonAlaska_cell_1_4_1
FlowerAlaska_header_cell_1_5_0 Forget-me-notAlaska_cell_1_5_1
InsectAlaska_header_cell_1_6_0 Four-spot skimmer dragonflyAlaska_cell_1_6_1
MammalAlaska_header_cell_1_7_0 Alaska_cell_1_7_1
TreeAlaska_header_cell_1_8_0 Sitka SpruceAlaska_cell_1_8_1
Inanimate insigniaAlaska_header_cell_1_9_0
FossilAlaska_header_cell_1_10_0 Woolly MammothAlaska_cell_1_10_1
GemstoneAlaska_header_cell_1_11_0 JadeAlaska_cell_1_11_1
MineralAlaska_header_cell_1_12_0 GoldAlaska_cell_1_12_1
OtherAlaska_header_cell_1_13_0 Dog mushing (state sport)Alaska_cell_1_13_1
State route markerAlaska_header_cell_1_14_0
State quarterAlaska_header_cell_1_15_0

Alaska (/əˈlæskə/ (listen); Aleut: Alax̂sxax̂; Inupiaq: Alaasikaq; Pacific Gulf Yupik: Alas'kaaq; Tlingit: Anáaski; Russian: Аля́ска, romanized: Alyáska) is a U.S. Alaska_sentence_4 state on the northwest extremity of the country's West Coast, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. Alaska_sentence_5

An exclave of the U.S., it borders the Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon to the east and southeast and has a maritime border with Russia's Chukotka Autonomous Okrug to the west. Alaska_sentence_6

To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas of the Arctic Ocean, while the Pacific Ocean lies to the south and southwest. Alaska_sentence_7

Alaska is by far the largest U.S. state by area, comprising more total area than the next three largest states Texas, California, and Montana combined, and the seventh-largest subnational division in the world. Alaska_sentence_8

It is the third-least populous and the most sparsely populated state, but by far the continent's most populous territory located mostly north of the 60th parallel, with an estimated population of 738,432 as of 2015—more than quadruple the combined populations of Northern Canada and Greenland. Alaska_sentence_9

Approximately half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska_sentence_10

The state capital of Juneau is the second-largest city in the United States by area, comprising more territory than the states of Rhode Island and Delaware. Alaska_sentence_11

Alaska was occupied by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans. Alaska_sentence_12

The state is considered the entry point for the settlement of North America by way of the Bering land bridge. Alaska_sentence_13

The Russians were the first Europeans to settle the area beginning in the 18th century, eventually establishing Russian America, which spanned most of the current state. Alaska_sentence_14

The expense and difficulty of maintaining this distant possession prompted its sale to the U.S. in 1867 for US$7.2 million, or approximately two cents per acre ($4.74/km). Alaska_sentence_15

The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912. Alaska_sentence_16

It was admitted as the 49th state of the U.S. on January 3, 1959. Alaska_sentence_17

While it has one of the smallest state economies in the country, Alaska's per capita income is among the highest, owing to a diversified economy dominated by fishing, natural gas, and oil, all of which it has in abundance. Alaska_sentence_18

United States armed forces bases and tourism are also a significant part of the economy; more than half the state is federally owned public land, including a multitude of national forests, parks, and wildlife refuges. Alaska_sentence_19

Alaska's indigenous population is proportionally the highest of any U.S. state, at over 15 percent. Alaska_sentence_20

Close to two dozen native languages are spoken, and Alaskan Natives exercise considerable influence in local and state politics. Alaska_sentence_21

Etymology Alaska_section_0

The name "Alaska" (Russian: Аля́ска, tr. Alaska_sentence_22

Alyáska) was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula. Alaska_sentence_23

It was derived from an Aleut-language idiom, which figuratively refers to the mainland. Alaska_sentence_24

Literally, it means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska_sentence_25

Geography Alaska_section_1

Main article: Geography of Alaska Alaska_sentence_26

Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska_sentence_27

Alaska is the only non-contiguous U.S. state on continental North America; about 500 miles (800 km) of British Columbia (Canada) separates Alaska from Washington. Alaska_sentence_28

It is technically part of the continental U.S., but is sometimes not included in colloquial use; Alaska is not part of the contiguous U.S., often called "the Lower 48". Alaska_sentence_29

The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system. Alaska_sentence_30

The state is bordered by Canada's Yukon and British Columbia to the east (making it the only state to border a Canadian territory), the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, and Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north. Alaska_sentence_31

Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles (4.8 km) apart. Alaska_sentence_32

Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U.S. states combined. Alaska_sentence_33

At 663,268 square miles (1,717,856 km) in area, Alaska is by far the largest state in the United States, and is more than twice the size of the second-largest U.S. state, Texas. Alaska_sentence_34

Alaska is the seventh largest sub-national division in the world, and if it was an independent nation would be the 19th largest country in the world. Alaska_sentence_35

Regions Alaska_section_2

There are no officially defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six widely accepted regions: Alaska_sentence_36

South Central Alaska_section_3

Main article: South Central Alaska Alaska_sentence_37

The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Alaska_sentence_38

Rural, mostly unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains also fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez. Alaska_sentence_39

Southeast Alaska_section_4

Main article: Southeast Alaska Alaska_sentence_40

Also referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. Alaska_sentence_41

As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase. Alaska_sentence_42

The region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. Alaska_sentence_43

It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, and Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city. Alaska_sentence_44

The Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities (Haines, Hyder and Skagway) enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Alaska_sentence_45

Interior Alaska_section_5

Main article: Alaska Interior Alaska_sentence_46

The Interior is the largest region of Alaska; much of it is uninhabited wilderness. Alaska_sentence_47

Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Alaska_sentence_48

Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Alaska_sentence_49

Denali, formerly Mount McKinley, is the highest mountain in North America. Alaska_sentence_50

Southwest Alaska_section_6

Main article: Southwest Alaska Alaska_sentence_51

Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles (800 km) inland from the Bering Sea. Alaska_sentence_52

Most of the population lives along the coast. Alaska_sentence_53

Kodiak Island is also located in Southwest. Alaska_sentence_54

The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Alaska_sentence_55

Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands (see below). Alaska_sentence_56

North Slope Alaska_section_7

Main article: Alaska North Slope Alaska_sentence_57

The North Slope is mostly tundra peppered with small villages. Alaska_sentence_58

The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, and contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field. Alaska_sentence_59

The city of Utqiagvik, formerly known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. Alaska_sentence_60

The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and also containing the Kobuk River valley, is often regarded as being part of this region. Alaska_sentence_61

However, the respective Inupiat of the North Slope and of the Northwest Arctic seldom consider themselves to be one people. Alaska_sentence_62

Aleutian Islands Alaska_section_8

Main article: Aleutian Islands Alaska_sentence_63

More than 300 small volcanic islands make up this chain, which stretches more than 1,200 miles (1,900 km) into the Pacific Ocean. Alaska_sentence_64

Some of these islands fall in the Eastern Hemisphere, but the International Date Line was drawn west of 180° to keep the whole state, and thus the entire North American continent, within the same legal day. Alaska_sentence_65

Two of the islands, Attu and Kiska, were occupied by Japanese forces during World War II. Alaska_sentence_66

Natural features Alaska_section_9

See also: Wildlife of Alaska Alaska_sentence_67

With its myriad islands, Alaska has nearly 34,000 miles (55,000 km) of tidal shoreline. Alaska_sentence_68

The Aleutian Islands chain extends west from the southern tip of the Alaska Peninsula. Alaska_sentence_69

Many active volcanoes are found in the Aleutians and in coastal regions. Alaska_sentence_70

Unimak Island, for example, is home to Mount Shishaldin, which is an occasionally smoldering volcano that rises to 10,000 feet (3,000 m) above the North Pacific. Alaska_sentence_71

It is the most perfect volcanic cone on Earth, even more symmetrical than Japan's Mount Fuji. Alaska_sentence_72

The chain of volcanoes extends to Mount Spurr, west of Anchorage on the mainland. Alaska_sentence_73

Geologists have identified Alaska as part of Wrangellia, a large region consisting of multiple states and Canadian provinces in the Pacific Northwest, which is actively undergoing continent building. Alaska_sentence_74

One of the world's largest tides occurs in Turnagain Arm, just south of Anchorage, where tidal differences can be more than 35 feet (10.7 m). Alaska_sentence_75

Main article: List of lakes in Alaska Alaska_sentence_76

Alaska has more than three million lakes. Alaska_sentence_77

Marshlands and wetland permafrost cover 188,320 square miles (487,700 km) (mostly in northern, western and southwest flatlands). Alaska_sentence_78

Glacier ice covers about 28,957 square miles (75,000 km) of Alaska. Alaska_sentence_79

The Bering Glacier is the largest glacier in North America, covering 2,008 square miles (5,200 km) alone. Alaska_sentence_80

Land ownership Alaska_section_10

According to an October 1998 report by the United States Bureau of Land Management, approximately 65% of Alaska is owned and managed by the U.S. Alaska_sentence_81 federal government as public lands, including a multitude of national forests, national parks, and national wildlife refuges. Alaska_sentence_82

Of these, the Bureau of Land Management manages 87 million acres (35 million hectares), or 23.8% of the state. Alaska_sentence_83

The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Alaska_sentence_84

It is the world's largest wildlife refuge, comprising 16 million acres (6.5 million hectares). Alaska_sentence_85

Of the remaining land area, the state of Alaska owns 101 million acres (41 million hectares), its entitlement under the Alaska Statehood Act. Alaska_sentence_86

A portion of that acreage is occasionally ceded to organized boroughs, under the statutory provisions pertaining to newly formed boroughs. Alaska_sentence_87

Smaller portions are set aside for rural subdivisions and other homesteading-related opportunities. Alaska_sentence_88

These are not very popular due to the often remote and roadless locations. Alaska_sentence_89

The University of Alaska, as a land grant university, also owns substantial acreage which it manages independently. Alaska_sentence_90

Another 44 million acres (18 million hectares) are owned by 12 regional, and scores of local, Native corporations created under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) of 1971. Alaska_sentence_91

Regional Native corporation Doyon, Limited often promotes itself as the largest private landowner in Alaska in advertisements and other communications. Alaska_sentence_92

Provisions of ANCSA allowing the corporations' land holdings to be sold on the open market starting in 1991 were repealed before they could take effect. Alaska_sentence_93

Effectively, the corporations hold title (including subsurface title in many cases, a privilege denied to individual Alaskans) but cannot sell the land. Alaska_sentence_94

Individual Native allotments can be and are sold on the open market, however. Alaska_sentence_95

Various private interests own the remaining land, totaling about one percent of the state. Alaska_sentence_96

Alaska is, by a large margin, the state with the smallest percentage of private land ownership when Native corporation holdings are excluded. Alaska_sentence_97

Climate Alaska_section_11

Main article: Climate of Alaska Alaska_sentence_98

The climate in Southeast Alaska is a mid-latitude oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb) in the southern sections and a subarctic oceanic climate (Köppen Cfc) in the northern parts. Alaska_sentence_99

On an annual basis, Southeast is both the wettest and warmest part of Alaska with milder temperatures in the winter and high precipitation throughout the year. Alaska_sentence_100

Juneau averages over 50 in (130 cm) of precipitation a year, and Ketchikan averages over 150 in (380 cm). Alaska_sentence_101

This is also the only region in Alaska in which the average daytime high temperature is above freezing during the winter months. Alaska_sentence_102

The climate of Anchorage and south central Alaska is mild by Alaskan standards due to the region's proximity to the seacoast. Alaska_sentence_103

While the area gets less rain than southeast Alaska, it gets more snow, and days tend to be clearer. Alaska_sentence_104

On average, Anchorage receives 16 in (41 cm) of precipitation a year, with around 75 in (190 cm) of snow, although there are areas in the south central which receive far more snow. Alaska_sentence_105

It is a subarctic climate (Köppen: Dfc) due to its brief, cool summers. Alaska_sentence_106

The climate of Western Alaska is determined in large part by the Bering Sea and the Gulf of Alaska. Alaska_sentence_107

It is a subarctic oceanic climate in the southwest and a continental subarctic climate farther north. Alaska_sentence_108

The temperature is somewhat moderate considering how far north the area is. Alaska_sentence_109

This region has a tremendous amount of variety in precipitation. Alaska_sentence_110

An area stretching from the northern side of the Seward Peninsula to the Kobuk River valley (i. e., the region around Kotzebue Sound) is technically a desert, with portions receiving less than 10 in (25 cm) of precipitation annually. Alaska_sentence_111

On the other extreme, some locations between Dillingham and Bethel average around 100 in (250 cm) of precipitation. Alaska_sentence_112

The climate of the interior of Alaska is subarctic. Alaska_sentence_113

Some of the highest and lowest temperatures in Alaska occur around the area near Fairbanks. Alaska_sentence_114

The summers may have temperatures reaching into the 90s °F (the low-to-mid 30s °C), while in the winter, the temperature can fall below −60 °F (−51 °C). Alaska_sentence_115

Precipitation is sparse in the Interior, often less than 10 in (25 cm) a year, but what precipitation falls in the winter tends to stay the entire winter. Alaska_sentence_116

The highest and lowest recorded temperatures in Alaska are both in the Interior. Alaska_sentence_117

The highest is 100 °F (38 °C) in Fort Yukon (which is just 8 mi or 13 km inside the arctic circle) on June 27, 1915, making Alaska tied with Hawaii as the state with the lowest high temperature in the United States. Alaska_sentence_118

The lowest official Alaska temperature is −80 °F (−62 °C) in Prospect Creek on January 23, 1971, one degree above the lowest temperature recorded in continental North America (in Snag, Yukon, Canada). Alaska_sentence_119

The climate in the extreme north of Alaska is Arctic (Köppen: ET) with long, very cold winters and short, cool summers. Alaska_sentence_120

Even in July, the average low temperature in Utqiagvik is 34 °F (1 °C). Alaska_sentence_121

Precipitation is light in this part of Alaska, with many places averaging less than 10 in (25 cm) per year, mostly as snow which stays on the ground almost the entire year. Alaska_sentence_122

Alaska_table_general_2

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations in AlaskaAlaska_table_caption_2
LocationAlaska_header_cell_2_0_0 July (°F)Alaska_header_cell_2_0_1 July (°C)Alaska_header_cell_2_0_2 January (°F)Alaska_header_cell_2_0_3 January (°C)Alaska_header_cell_2_0_4
AnchorageAlaska_cell_2_1_0 65/51Alaska_cell_2_1_1 18/10Alaska_cell_2_1_2 22/11Alaska_cell_2_1_3 −5/−11Alaska_cell_2_1_4
JuneauAlaska_cell_2_2_0 64/50Alaska_cell_2_2_1 17/11Alaska_cell_2_2_2 32/23Alaska_cell_2_2_3 0/−4Alaska_cell_2_2_4
KetchikanAlaska_cell_2_3_0 64/51Alaska_cell_2_3_1 17/11Alaska_cell_2_3_2 38/28Alaska_cell_2_3_3 3/−1Alaska_cell_2_3_4
UnalaskaAlaska_cell_2_4_0 57/46Alaska_cell_2_4_1 14/8Alaska_cell_2_4_2 36/28Alaska_cell_2_4_3 2/−2Alaska_cell_2_4_4
FairbanksAlaska_cell_2_5_0 72/53Alaska_cell_2_5_1 22/11Alaska_cell_2_5_2 1/−17Alaska_cell_2_5_3 −17/−27Alaska_cell_2_5_4
Fort YukonAlaska_cell_2_6_0 73/51Alaska_cell_2_6_1 23/10Alaska_cell_2_6_2 −11/−27Alaska_cell_2_6_3 −23/−33Alaska_cell_2_6_4
NomeAlaska_cell_2_7_0 58/46Alaska_cell_2_7_1 14/8Alaska_cell_2_7_2 13/−2Alaska_cell_2_7_3 −10/−19Alaska_cell_2_7_4
UtqiagvikAlaska_cell_2_8_0 47/34Alaska_cell_2_8_1 08/1Alaska_cell_2_8_2 −7/−19Alaska_cell_2_8_3 −21/−28Alaska_cell_2_8_4

History Alaska_section_12

Main articles: Prehistory of Alaska and History of Alaska Alaska_sentence_123

Pre-colonization Alaska_section_13

Main article: Alaska Natives Alaska_sentence_124

Numerous indigenous peoples occupied Alaska for thousands of years before the arrival of European peoples to the area. Alaska_sentence_125

Linguistic and DNA studies done here have provided evidence for the settlement of North America by way of the Bering land bridge. Alaska_sentence_126

At the Upward Sun River site in the Tanana River Valley in Alaska, remains of a six-week-old infant were found. Alaska_sentence_127

The baby's DNA showed that she belonged to a population that was genetically separate from other native groups present elsewhere in the New World at the end of the Pleistocene. Alaska_sentence_128

Ben Potter, the University of Alaska Fairbanks archaeologist who unearthed the remains at the Upward River Sun site in 2013, named this new group Ancient Beringians. Alaska_sentence_129

The Tlingit people developed a society with a matrilineal kinship system of property inheritance and descent in what is today Southeast Alaska, along with parts of British Columbia and the Yukon. Alaska_sentence_130

Also in Southeast were the Haida, now well known for their unique arts. Alaska_sentence_131

The Tsimshian people came to Alaska from British Columbia in 1887, when President Grover Cleveland, and later the U.S. Congress, granted them permission to settle on Annette Island and found the town of Metlakatla. Alaska_sentence_132

All three of these peoples, as well as other indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast, experienced smallpox outbreaks from the late 18th through the mid-19th century, with the most devastating epidemics occurring in the 1830s and 1860s, resulting in high fatalities and social disruption. Alaska_sentence_133

The Aleutian Islands are still home to the Aleut people's seafaring society, although they were the first Native Alaskans to be exploited by the Russians. Alaska_sentence_134

Western and Southwestern Alaska are home to the Yup'ik, while their cousins the Alutiiq ~ Sugpiaq lived in what is now Southcentral Alaska. Alaska_sentence_135

The Gwich'in people of the northern Interior region are Athabaskan and primarily known today for their dependence on the caribou within the much-contested Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Alaska_sentence_136

The North Slope and Little Diomede Island are occupied by the widespread Inupiat people. Alaska_sentence_137

Colonization Alaska_section_14

Main articles: Russian America, Department of Alaska, District of Alaska, Fairbanks Gold Rush, Kobuk River Stampede, and Nome Gold Rush Alaska_sentence_138

Some researchers believe the first Russian settlement in Alaska was established in the 17th century. Alaska_sentence_139

According to this hypothesis, in 1648 several koches of Semyon Dezhnyov's expedition came ashore in Alaska by storm and founded this settlement. Alaska_sentence_140

This hypothesis is based on the testimony of Chukchi geographer Nikolai Daurkin, who had visited Alaska in 1764–1765 and who had reported on a village on the Kheuveren River, populated by "bearded men" who "pray to the icons". Alaska_sentence_141

Some modern researchers associate Kheuveren with Koyuk River. Alaska_sentence_142

The first European vessel to reach Alaska is generally held to be the St. Gabriel under the authority of the surveyor M. Alaska_sentence_143 S. Gvozdev and assistant navigator I. Alaska_sentence_144 Fyodorov on August 21, 1732, during an expedition of Siberian cossack A. F. Shestakov and Russian explorer Dmitry Pavlutsky (1729–1735). Alaska_sentence_145

Another European contact with Alaska occurred in 1741, when Vitus Bering led an expedition for the Russian Navy aboard the St. Peter. Alaska_sentence_146

After his crew returned to Russia with sea otter pelts judged to be the finest fur in the world, small associations of fur traders began to sail from the shores of Siberia toward the Aleutian Islands. Alaska_sentence_147

The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1784. Alaska_sentence_148

Between 1774 and 1800, Spain sent several expeditions to Alaska to assert its claim over the Pacific Northwest. Alaska_sentence_149

In 1789 a Spanish settlement and fort were built in Nootka Sound. Alaska_sentence_150

These expeditions gave names to places such as Valdez, Bucareli Sound, and Cordova. Alaska_sentence_151

Later, the Russian-American Company carried out an expanded colonization program during the early-to-mid-19th century. Alaska_sentence_152

Sitka, renamed New Archangel from 1804 to 1867, on Baranof Island in the Alexander Archipelago in what is now Southeast Alaska, became the capital of Russian America. Alaska_sentence_153

It remained the capital after the colony was transferred to the United States. Alaska_sentence_154

The Russians never fully colonized Alaska, and the colony was never very profitable. Alaska_sentence_155

Evidence of Russian settlement in names and churches survive throughout southeast Alaska. Alaska_sentence_156

William H. Seward, the United States Secretary of State, negotiated the Alaska Purchase (also known as Seward's Folly) with the Russians in 1867 for $7.2 million. Alaska_sentence_157

Russia's contemporary ruler Tsar Alexander II, the Emperor of the Russian Empire, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland, also planned the sale; the purchase was made on March 30, 1867. Alaska_sentence_158

Six months later the commissioners arrived in Sitka and the formal transfer was arranged; the formal flag-raising took place at Fort Sitka on October 18, 1867. Alaska_sentence_159

In the ceremony 250 uniformed U.S. soldiers marched to the governor's house at "Castle Hill", where the Russian troops lowered the Russian flag and the U.S. flag was raised. Alaska_sentence_160

This event is celebrated as Alaska Day, a legal holiday on October 18. Alaska_sentence_161

Alaska was loosely governed by the military initially, and was administered as a district starting in 1884, with a governor appointed by the President of the United States. Alaska_sentence_162

A federal district court was headquartered in Sitka. Alaska_sentence_163

For most of Alaska's first decade under the United States flag, Sitka was the only community inhabited by American settlers. Alaska_sentence_164

They organized a "provisional city government", which was Alaska's first municipal government, but not in a legal sense. Alaska_sentence_165

Legislation allowing Alaskan communities to legally incorporate as cities did not come about until 1900, and home rule for cities was extremely limited or unavailable until statehood took effect in 1959. Alaska_sentence_166

Alaska as an incorporated U.S. territory Alaska_section_15

Main articles: Organic act § List of organic acts, and Territory of Alaska Alaska_sentence_167

Starting in the 1890s and stretching in some places to the early 1910s, gold rushes in Alaska and the nearby Yukon Territory brought thousands of miners and settlers to Alaska. Alaska_sentence_168

Alaska was officially incorporated as an organized territory in 1912. Alaska_sentence_169

Alaska's capital, which had been in Sitka until 1906, was moved north to Juneau. Alaska_sentence_170

Construction of the Alaska Governor's Mansion began that same year. Alaska_sentence_171

European immigrants from Norway and Sweden also settled in southeast Alaska, where they entered the fishing and logging industries. Alaska_sentence_172

During World War II, the Aleutian Islands Campaign focused on Attu, Agattu and Kiska, all which were occupied by the Empire of Japan. Alaska_sentence_173

During the Japanese occupation, a white American civilian and two United States Navy personnel were killed at Attu and Kiska respectively, and nearly a total of 50 Aleut civilians and eight sailors were interned in Japan. Alaska_sentence_174

About half of the Aleuts died during the period of internment. Alaska_sentence_175

Unalaska/Dutch Harbor and Adak became significant bases for the United States Army, United States Army Air Forces and United States Navy. Alaska_sentence_176

The United States Lend-Lease program involved flying American warplanes through Canada to Fairbanks and then Nome; Soviet pilots took possession of these aircraft, ferrying them to fight the German invasion of the Soviet Union. Alaska_sentence_177

The construction of military bases contributed to the population growth of some Alaskan cities. Alaska_sentence_178

Statehood Alaska_section_16

See also: Alaska Statehood Act, Admission to the Union, and List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union Alaska_sentence_179

Statehood for Alaska was an important cause of James Wickersham early in his tenure as a congressional delegate. Alaska_sentence_180

Decades later, the statehood movement gained its first real momentum following a territorial referendum in 1946. Alaska_sentence_181

The Alaska Statehood Committee and Alaska's Constitutional Convention would soon follow. Alaska_sentence_182

Statehood supporters also found themselves fighting major battles against political foes, mostly in the U.S. Congress but also within Alaska. Alaska_sentence_183

Statehood was approved by Congress on July 7, 1958. Alaska_sentence_184

Alaska was officially proclaimed a state on January 3, 1959. Alaska_sentence_185

In 1960, the Census Bureau reported Alaska's population as 77.2% White, 3% Black, and 18.8% American Indian and Alaska Native. Alaska_sentence_186

Good Friday earthquake Alaska_section_17

Main article: 1964 Alaska earthquake Alaska_sentence_187

On March 27, 1964, the massive Good Friday earthquake killed 133 people and destroyed several villages and portions of large coastal communities, mainly by the resultant tsunamis and landslides. Alaska_sentence_188

It was the second-most-powerful earthquake in recorded history, with a moment magnitude of 9.2 (more than a thousand times as powerful as the 1989 San Francisco earthquake). Alaska_sentence_189

The time of day (5:36 pm), time of year (spring) and location of the epicenter were all cited as factors in potentially sparing thousands of lives, particularly in Anchorage. Alaska_sentence_190

Discovery of oil Alaska_section_18

The 1968 discovery of oil at Prudhoe Bay and the 1977 completion of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System led to an oil boom. Alaska_sentence_191

Royalty revenues from oil have funded large state budgets from 1980 onward. Alaska_sentence_192

That same year, not coincidentally, Alaska repealed its state income tax. Alaska_sentence_193

In 1989, the Exxon Valdez hit a reef in the Prince William Sound, spilling more than 11 million U.S. gallons (42 megaliters) of crude oil over 1,100 miles (1,800 km) of coastline. Alaska_sentence_194

Today, the battle between philosophies of development and conservation is seen in the contentious debate over oil drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and the proposed Pebble Mine. Alaska_sentence_195

Alaska Heritage Resources Survey Alaska_section_19

The Alaska Heritage Resources Survey (AHRS) is a restricted inventory of all reported historic and prehistoric sites within the state of Alaska; it is maintained by the Office of History and Archaeology. Alaska_sentence_196

The survey's inventory of cultural resources includes objects, structures, buildings, sites, districts, and travel ways, with a general provision that they are more than fifty years old. Alaska_sentence_197

As of 31 January 2012, more than 35,000 sites have been reported. Alaska_sentence_198

Demographics Alaska_section_20

Main article: Demographics of Alaska Alaska_sentence_199

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Alaska was 731,545 on July 1, 2019, a 3.00% increase since the 2010 United States Census. Alaska_sentence_200

In 2010, Alaska ranked as the 47th state by population, ahead of North Dakota, Vermont, and Wyoming (and Washington, D.C.). Alaska_sentence_201

Estimates show North Dakota ahead as of 2018. Alaska_sentence_202

Alaska is the least densely populated state, and one of the most sparsely populated areas in the world, at 1.2 inhabitants per square mile (0.46/km), with the next state, Wyoming, at 5.8 inhabitants per square mile (2.2/km). Alaska_sentence_203

Alaska is by far the largest U.S. state by area, and the tenth wealthiest (per capita income). Alaska_sentence_204

As of November 2014, the state's unemployment rate was 6.6%. Alaska_sentence_205

As of 2018, it is one of 14 U.S. states that still have only one telephone area code. Alaska_sentence_206

Race and ethnicity Alaska_section_21

According to the 2010 United States Census, Alaska had a population of 710,231. Alaska_sentence_207

In terms of race and ethnicity, the state was 66.7% White (64.1% Non-Hispanic White), 14.8% American Indian and Alaska Native, 5.4% Asian, 3.3% Black or African American, 1.0% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 1.6% from Some Other Race, and 7.3% from Two or More Races. Alaska_sentence_208

Hispanics or Latinos of any race made up 5.5% of the population. Alaska_sentence_209

As of 2011, 50.7% of Alaska's population younger than one year of age belonged to minority groups (i.e., did not have two parents of non-Hispanic white ancestry). Alaska_sentence_210

Alaska_table_general_3

Alaska racial breakdown of populationAlaska_table_caption_3
Racial compositionAlaska_header_cell_3_0_0 1970Alaska_header_cell_3_0_1 1990Alaska_header_cell_3_0_2 2000Alaska_header_cell_3_0_3 2010Alaska_header_cell_3_0_4
WhiteAlaska_cell_3_1_0 78.8%Alaska_cell_3_1_1 75.5%Alaska_cell_3_1_2 69.3%Alaska_cell_3_1_3 66.7%Alaska_cell_3_1_4
NativeAlaska_cell_3_2_0 16.9%Alaska_cell_3_2_1 15.6%Alaska_cell_3_2_2 15.6%Alaska_cell_3_2_3 14.8%Alaska_cell_3_2_4
AsianAlaska_cell_3_3_0 0.9%Alaska_cell_3_3_1 3.6%Alaska_cell_3_3_2 4.0%Alaska_cell_3_3_3 5.4%Alaska_cell_3_3_4
BlackAlaska_cell_3_4_0 3.0%Alaska_cell_3_4_1 4.1%Alaska_cell_3_4_2 3.5%Alaska_cell_3_4_3 3.3%Alaska_cell_3_4_4
Native Hawaiian and

other Pacific IslanderAlaska_cell_3_5_0

Alaska_cell_3_5_1 Alaska_cell_3_5_2 0.5%Alaska_cell_3_5_3 1.0%Alaska_cell_3_5_4
Other raceAlaska_cell_3_6_0 0.4%Alaska_cell_3_6_1 1.2%Alaska_cell_3_6_2 1.6%Alaska_cell_3_6_3 1.6%Alaska_cell_3_6_4
MultiracialAlaska_cell_3_7_0 Alaska_cell_3_7_1 Alaska_cell_3_7_2 5.5%Alaska_cell_3_7_3 7.3%Alaska_cell_3_7_4

Languages Alaska_section_22

Further information: Alaska Native languages Alaska_sentence_211

According to the 2011 American Community Survey, 83.4% of people over the age of five spoke only English at home. Alaska_sentence_212

About 3.5% spoke Spanish at home, 2.2% spoke another Indo-European language, about 4.3% spoke an Asian language (including Tagalog), and about 5.3% spoke other languages at home. Alaska_sentence_213

The Alaska Native Language Center at the University of Alaska Fairbanks claims that at least 20 Alaskan native languages exist and there are also some languages with different dialects. Alaska_sentence_214

Most of Alaska's native languages belong to either the Eskimo–Aleut or Na-Dene language families; however, some languages are thought to be isolates (e.g. Haida) or have not yet been classified (e.g. Tsimshianic). Alaska_sentence_215

As of 2014 nearly all of Alaska's native languages were classified as either threatened, shifting, moribund, nearly extinct, or dormant languages. Alaska_sentence_216

A total of 5.2% of Alaskans speak one of the state's 20 indigenous languages, known locally as "native languages". Alaska_sentence_217

In October 2014, the governor of Alaska signed a bill declaring the state's 20 indigenous languages to have official status. Alaska_sentence_218

This bill gave them symbolic recognition as official languages, though they have not been adopted for official use within the government. Alaska_sentence_219

The 20 languages that were included in the bill are: Alaska_sentence_220

Alaska_ordered_list_0

  1. InupiaqAlaska_item_0_0
  2. Siberian YupikAlaska_item_0_1
  3. Central Alaskan Yup'ikAlaska_item_0_2
  4. AlutiiqAlaska_item_0_3
  5. UnangaxAlaska_item_0_4
  6. Dena'inaAlaska_item_0_5
  7. Deg XinagAlaska_item_0_6
  8. HolikachukAlaska_item_0_7
  9. KoyukonAlaska_item_0_8
  10. Upper KuskokwimAlaska_item_0_9
  11. Gwich'inAlaska_item_0_10
  12. TananaAlaska_item_0_11
  13. Upper TananaAlaska_item_0_12
  14. TanacrossAlaska_item_0_13
  15. HänAlaska_item_0_14
  16. AhtnaAlaska_item_0_15
  17. EyakAlaska_item_0_16
  18. TlingitAlaska_item_0_17
  19. HaidaAlaska_item_0_18
  20. TsimshianAlaska_item_0_19

Religion Alaska_section_23

See also: Alaska Native religion Alaska_sentence_221

According to statistics collected by the Association of Religion Data Archives from 2010, about 34% of Alaska residents were members of religious congregations. Alaska_sentence_222

100,960 people identified as Evangelical Protestants, 50,866 as Roman Catholic, and 32,550 as mainline Protestants. Alaska_sentence_223

Roughly 4% are Mormon, 0.5% are Jewish, 1% are Muslim, 0.5% are Buddhist, 0.2% are Baháʼí, and 0.5% are Hindu. Alaska_sentence_224

The largest religious denominations in Alaska as of 2010 were the Catholic Church with 50,866 adherents, non-denominational Evangelical Protestants with 38,070 adherents, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 32,170 adherents, and the Southern Baptist Convention with 19,891 adherents. Alaska_sentence_225

Alaska has been identified, along with Pacific Northwest states Washington and Oregon, as being the least religious states of the USA, in terms of church membership, Alaska_sentence_226

In 1795, the First Russian Orthodox Church was established in Kodiak. Alaska_sentence_227

Intermarriage with Alaskan Natives helped the Russian immigrants integrate into society. Alaska_sentence_228

As a result, an increasing number of Russian Orthodox churches gradually became established within Alaska. Alaska_sentence_229

Alaska also has the largest Quaker population (by percentage) of any state. Alaska_sentence_230

In 2009 there were 6,000 Jews in Alaska (for whom observance of halakha may pose special problems). Alaska_sentence_231

Alaskan Hindus often share venues and celebrations with members of other Asian religious communities, including Sikhs and Jains. Alaska_sentence_232

In 2010, Alaskan Hindus established the Sri Ganesha Temple of Alaska, making it the first Hindu Temple in Alaska and the northernmost Hindu Temple in the world. Alaska_sentence_233

There are an estimated 2,000–3,000 Hindus in Alaska. Alaska_sentence_234

The vast majority of Hindus live in Anchorage or Fairbanks. Alaska_sentence_235

Estimates for the number of Muslims in Alaska range from 2,000 to 5,000. Alaska_sentence_236

The Islamic Community Center of Anchorage began efforts in the late 1990s to construct a mosque in Anchorage. Alaska_sentence_237

They broke ground on a building in south Anchorage in 2010 and were nearing completion in late 2014. Alaska_sentence_238

When completed, the mosque will be the first in the state and one of the northernmost mosques in the world. Alaska_sentence_239

There's also a Baháʼí Center. Alaska_sentence_240

Alaska_table_general_4

Religious affiliation in Alaska (2014)Alaska_table_caption_4
AffiliationAlaska_header_cell_4_0_0 % of populationAlaska_header_cell_4_0_1
ChristianAlaska_cell_4_1_0 62Alaska_cell_4_1_1 62Alaska_cell_4_1_2
ProtestantAlaska_cell_4_2_0 37Alaska_cell_4_2_1 37Alaska_cell_4_2_2
Evangelical ProtestantAlaska_cell_4_3_0 22Alaska_cell_4_3_1 22Alaska_cell_4_3_2
Mainline ProtestantAlaska_cell_4_4_0 12Alaska_cell_4_4_1 12Alaska_cell_4_4_2
Black churchAlaska_cell_4_5_0 3Alaska_cell_4_5_1 3Alaska_cell_4_5_2
CatholicAlaska_cell_4_6_0 16Alaska_cell_4_6_1 16Alaska_cell_4_6_2
MormonAlaska_cell_4_7_0 5Alaska_cell_4_7_1 5Alaska_cell_4_7_2
Jehovah's WitnessesAlaska_cell_4_8_0 0.5Alaska_cell_4_8_1 0.5Alaska_cell_4_8_2
Eastern OrthodoxAlaska_cell_4_9_0 5Alaska_cell_4_9_1 5Alaska_cell_4_9_2
Other ChristianAlaska_cell_4_10_0 0.5Alaska_cell_4_10_1 0.5Alaska_cell_4_10_2
UnaffiliatedAlaska_cell_4_11_0 31Alaska_cell_4_11_1 31Alaska_cell_4_11_2
Nothing in particularAlaska_cell_4_12_0 20Alaska_cell_4_12_1 20Alaska_cell_4_12_2
AgnosticAlaska_cell_4_13_0 6Alaska_cell_4_13_1 6Alaska_cell_4_13_2
AtheistAlaska_cell_4_14_0 5Alaska_cell_4_14_1 5Alaska_cell_4_14_2
Non-Christian faithsAlaska_cell_4_15_0 6Alaska_cell_4_15_1 6Alaska_cell_4_15_2
JewishAlaska_cell_4_16_0 0.5Alaska_cell_4_16_1 0.5Alaska_cell_4_16_2
MuslimAlaska_cell_4_17_0 0.5Alaska_cell_4_17_1 0.5Alaska_cell_4_17_2
BaháʼíAlaska_cell_4_18_0 0.2Alaska_cell_4_18_1 0.2Alaska_cell_4_18_2
BuddhistAlaska_cell_4_19_0 1Alaska_cell_4_19_1 1Alaska_cell_4_19_2
HinduAlaska_cell_4_20_0 0.5Alaska_cell_4_20_1 0.5Alaska_cell_4_20_2
Other Non-Christian faithsAlaska_cell_4_21_0 4Alaska_cell_4_21_1 4Alaska_cell_4_21_2
Don't know/refused answerAlaska_cell_4_22_0 1Alaska_cell_4_22_1 1Alaska_cell_4_22_2
TotalAlaska_cell_4_23_0 100Alaska_cell_4_23_1 100Alaska_cell_4_23_2

Economy Alaska_section_24

Main article: Economy of Alaska Alaska_sentence_241

See also: Alaska locations by per capita income and List of Alaska companies Alaska_sentence_242

Alaska_unordered_list_1

  • Total employment (2016): 266,072Alaska_item_1_20
  • Number of employer establishments: 21,077Alaska_item_1_21

The 2018 gross state product was $55 billion, 48th in the nation. Alaska_sentence_243

Its per capita personal income for 2018 was $73,000, ranking 7th in the nation. Alaska_sentence_244

According to a 2013 study by Phoenix Marketing International, Alaska had the fifth-largest number of millionaires per capita in the United States, with a ratio of 6.75 percent. Alaska_sentence_245

The oil and gas industry dominates the Alaskan economy, with more than 80% of the state's revenues derived from petroleum extraction. Alaska_sentence_246

Alaska's main export product (excluding oil and natural gas) is seafood, primarily salmon, cod, Pollock and crab. Alaska_sentence_247

Agriculture represents a very small fraction of the Alaskan economy. Alaska_sentence_248

Agricultural production is primarily for consumption within the state and includes nursery stock, dairy products, vegetables, and livestock. Alaska_sentence_249

Manufacturing is limited, with most foodstuffs and general goods imported from elsewhere. Alaska_sentence_250

Employment is primarily in government and industries such as natural resource extraction, shipping, and transportation. Alaska_sentence_251

Military bases are a significant component of the economy in the Fairbanks North Star, Anchorage and Kodiak Island boroughs, as well as Kodiak. Alaska_sentence_252

Federal subsidies are also an important part of the economy, allowing the state to keep taxes low. Alaska_sentence_253

Its industrial outputs are crude petroleum, natural gas, coal, gold, precious metals, zinc and other mining, seafood processing, timber and wood products. Alaska_sentence_254

There is also a growing service and tourism sector. Alaska_sentence_255

Tourists have contributed to the economy by supporting local lodging. Alaska_sentence_256

Energy Alaska_section_25

See also: Natural gas in Alaska and Energy law § Alaska law Alaska_sentence_257

Alaska has vast energy resources, although its oil reserves have been largely depleted. Alaska_sentence_258

Major oil and gas reserves were found in the Alaska North Slope (ANS) and Cook Inlet basins, but according to the Energy Information Administration, by February 2014 Alaska had fallen to fourth place in the nation in crude oil production after Texas, North Dakota, and California. Alaska_sentence_259

Prudhoe Bay on Alaska's North Slope is still the second highest-yielding oil field in the United States, typically producing about 400,000 barrels per day (64,000 m/d), although by early 2014 North Dakota's Bakken Formation was producing over 900,000 barrels per day (140,000 m/d). Alaska_sentence_260

Prudhoe Bay was the largest conventional oil field ever discovered in North America, but was much smaller than Canada's enormous Athabasca oil sands field, which by 2014 was producing about 1,500,000 barrels per day (240,000 m/d) of unconventional oil, and had hundreds of years of producible reserves at that rate. Alaska_sentence_261

The Trans-Alaska Pipeline can transport and pump up to 2.1 million barrels (330,000 m) of crude oil per day, more than any other crude oil pipeline in the United States. Alaska_sentence_262

Additionally, substantial coal deposits are found in Alaska's bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite coal basins. Alaska_sentence_263

The United States Geological Survey estimates that there are 85.4 trillion cubic feet (2,420 km) of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas from natural gas hydrates on the Alaskan North Slope. Alaska_sentence_264

Alaska also offers some of the highest hydroelectric power potential in the country from its numerous rivers. Alaska_sentence_265

Large swaths of the Alaskan coastline offer wind and geothermal energy potential as well. Alaska_sentence_266

Alaska's economy depends heavily on increasingly expensive diesel fuel for heating, transportation, electric power and light. Alaska_sentence_267

Although wind and hydroelectric power are abundant and underdeveloped, proposals for statewide energy systems (e.g. with special low-cost electric interties) were judged uneconomical (at the time of the report, 2001) due to low (less than 50¢/gal) fuel prices, long distances and low population. Alaska_sentence_268

The cost of a gallon of gas in urban Alaska today is usually thirty to sixty cents higher than the national average; prices in rural areas are generally significantly higher but vary widely depending on transportation costs, seasonal usage peaks, nearby petroleum development infrastructure and many other factors. Alaska_sentence_269

Permanent Fund Alaska_section_26

The Alaska Permanent Fund is a constitutionally authorized appropriation of oil revenues, established by voters in 1976 to manage a surplus in state petroleum revenues from oil, largely in anticipation of the then recently constructed Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. Alaska_sentence_270

The fund was originally proposed by Governor Keith Miller on the eve of the 1969 Prudhoe Bay lease sale, out of fear that the legislature would spend the entire proceeds of the sale (which amounted to $900 million) at once. Alaska_sentence_271

It was later championed by Governor Jay Hammond and Kenai state representative Hugh Malone. Alaska_sentence_272

It has served as an attractive political prospect ever since, diverting revenues which would normally be deposited into the general fund. Alaska_sentence_273

The Alaska Constitution was written so as to discourage dedicating state funds for a particular purpose. Alaska_sentence_274

The Permanent Fund has become the rare exception to this, mostly due to the political climate of distrust existing during the time of its creation. Alaska_sentence_275

From its initial principal of $734,000, the fund has grown to $50 billion as a result of oil royalties and capital investment programs. Alaska_sentence_276

Most if not all the principal is invested conservatively outside Alaska. Alaska_sentence_277

This has led to frequent calls by Alaskan politicians for the Fund to make investments within Alaska, though such a stance has never gained momentum. Alaska_sentence_278

Starting in 1982, dividends from the fund's annual growth have been paid out each year to eligible Alaskans, ranging from an initial $1,000 in 1982 (equal to three years' payout, as the distribution of payments was held up in a lawsuit over the distribution scheme) to $3,269 in 2008 (which included a one-time $1,200 "Resource Rebate"). Alaska_sentence_279

Every year, the state legislature takes out 8% from the earnings, puts 3% back into the principal for inflation proofing, and the remaining 5% is distributed to all qualifying Alaskans. Alaska_sentence_280

To qualify for the Permanent Fund Dividend, one must have lived in the state for a minimum of 12 months, maintain constant residency subject to allowable absences, and not be subject to court judgments or criminal convictions which fall under various disqualifying classifications or may subject the payment amount to civil garnishment. Alaska_sentence_281

The Permanent Fund is often considered to be one of the leading examples of a "Basic income" policy in the world. Alaska_sentence_282

Cost of living Alaska_section_27

The cost of goods in Alaska has long been higher than in the contiguous 48 states. Alaska_sentence_283

Federal government employees, particularly United States Postal Service (USPS) workers and active-duty military members, receive a Cost of Living Allowance usually set at 25% of base pay because, while the cost of living has gone down, it is still one of the highest in the country. Alaska_sentence_284

Rural Alaska suffers from extremely high prices for food and consumer goods compared to the rest of the country, due to the relatively limited transportation infrastructure. Alaska_sentence_285

Agriculture and fishing Alaska_section_28

Due to the northern climate and short growing season, relatively little farming occurs in Alaska. Alaska_sentence_286

Most farms are in either the Matanuska Valley, about 40 miles (64 km) northeast of Anchorage, or on the Kenai Peninsula, about 60 miles (97 km) southwest of Anchorage. Alaska_sentence_287

The short 100-day growing season limits the crops that can be grown, but the long sunny summer days make for productive growing seasons. Alaska_sentence_288

The primary crops are potatoes, carrots, lettuce, and cabbage. Alaska_sentence_289

The Tanana Valley is another notable agricultural locus, especially the Delta Junction area, about 100 miles (160 km) southeast of Fairbanks, with a sizable concentration of farms growing agronomic crops; these farms mostly lie north and east of Fort Greely. Alaska_sentence_290

This area was largely set aside and developed under a state program spearheaded by Hammond during his second term as governor. Alaska_sentence_291

Delta-area crops consist predominantly of barley and hay. Alaska_sentence_292

West of Fairbanks lies another concentration of small farms catering to restaurants, the hotel and tourist industry, and community-supported agriculture. Alaska_sentence_293

Alaskan agriculture has experienced a surge in growth of market gardeners, small farms and farmers' markets in recent years, with the highest percentage increase (46%) in the nation in growth in farmers' markets in 2011, compared to 17% nationwide. Alaska_sentence_294

The peony industry has also taken off, as the growing season allows farmers to harvest during a gap in supply elsewhere in the world, thereby filling a niche in the flower market. Alaska_sentence_295

Alaska, with no counties, lacks county fairs. Alaska_sentence_296

However, a small assortment of state and local fairs (with the Alaska State Fair in Palmer the largest), are held mostly in the late summer. Alaska_sentence_297

The fairs are mostly located in communities with historic or current agricultural activity, and feature local farmers exhibiting produce in addition to more high-profile commercial activities such as carnival rides, concerts and food. Alaska_sentence_298

"Alaska Grown" is used as an agricultural slogan. Alaska_sentence_299

Alaska has an abundance of seafood, with the primary fisheries in the Bering Sea and the North Pacific. Alaska_sentence_300

Seafood is one of the few food items that is often cheaper within the state than outside it. Alaska_sentence_301

Many Alaskans take advantage of salmon seasons to harvest portions of their household diet while fishing for subsistence, as well as sport. Alaska_sentence_302

This includes fish taken by hook, net or wheel. Alaska_sentence_303

Hunting for subsistence, primarily caribou, moose, and Dall sheep is still common in the state, particularly in remote Bush communities. Alaska_sentence_304

An example of a traditional native food is Akutaq, the Eskimo ice cream, which can consist of reindeer fat, seal oil, dried fish meat and local berries. Alaska_sentence_305

Alaska's reindeer herding is concentrated on Seward Peninsula, where wild caribou can be prevented from mingling and migrating with the domesticated reindeer. Alaska_sentence_306

Most food in Alaska is transported into the state from "Outside", and shipping costs make food in the cities relatively expensive. Alaska_sentence_307

In rural areas, subsistence hunting and gathering is an essential activity because imported food is prohibitively expensive. Alaska_sentence_308

Although most small towns and villages in Alaska lie along the coastline, the cost of importing food to remote villages can be high, because of the terrain and difficult road conditions, which change dramatically, due to varying climate and precipitation changes. Alaska_sentence_309

The cost of transport can reach as high as 50¢ per pound ($1.10/kg) or more in some remote areas, during the most difficult times, if these locations can be reached at all during such inclement weather and terrain conditions. Alaska_sentence_310

The cost of delivering a 1 US gallon (3.8 L) of milk is about $3.50 in many villages where per capita income can be $20,000 or less. Alaska_sentence_311

Fuel cost per gallon is routinely twenty to thirty cents higher than the contiguous United States average, with only Hawaii having higher prices. Alaska_sentence_312

Transportation Alaska_section_29

Main article: Transportation in Alaska Alaska_sentence_313

Law and government Alaska_section_30

State government Alaska_section_31

Main article: Government of Alaska Alaska_sentence_314

Like all other U.S. states, Alaska is governed as a republic, with three branches of government: an executive branch consisting of the governor of Alaska and his or her appointees which head executive departments; a legislative branch consisting of the Alaska House of Representatives and Alaska Senate; and a judicial branch consisting of the Alaska Supreme Court and lower courts. Alaska_sentence_315

The state of Alaska employs approximately 16,000 people statewide. Alaska_sentence_316

The Alaska Legislature consists of a 40-member House of Representatives and a 20-member Senate. Alaska_sentence_317

Senators serve four-year terms and House members two. Alaska_sentence_318

The governor of Alaska serves four-year terms. Alaska_sentence_319

The lieutenant governor runs separately from the governor in the primaries, but during the general election, the nominee for governor and nominee for lieutenant governor run together on the same ticket. Alaska_sentence_320

Alaska's court system has four levels: the Alaska Supreme Court, the Alaska Court of Appeals, the superior courts and the district courts. Alaska_sentence_321

The superior and district courts are trial courts. Alaska_sentence_322

Superior courts are courts of general jurisdiction, while district courts hear only certain types of cases, including misdemeanor criminal cases and civil cases valued up to $100,000. Alaska_sentence_323

The Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals are appellate courts. Alaska_sentence_324

The Court of Appeals is required to hear appeals from certain lower-court decisions, including those regarding criminal prosecutions, juvenile delinquency, and habeas corpus. Alaska_sentence_325

The Supreme Court hears civil appeals and may in its discretion hear criminal appeals. Alaska_sentence_326

State politics Alaska_section_32

Main article: Politics of Alaska Alaska_sentence_327

Further information: Political party strength in Alaska and Alaska political corruption probe Alaska_sentence_328

Alaska_table_general_5

Gubernatorial election resultsAlaska_table_caption_5
YearAlaska_header_cell_5_0_0 DemocraticAlaska_header_cell_5_0_1 RepublicanAlaska_header_cell_5_0_2
1958Alaska_cell_5_1_0 59.6% 29,189Alaska_cell_5_1_1 39.4% 19,299Alaska_cell_5_1_2
1962Alaska_cell_5_2_0 52.3% 29,627Alaska_cell_5_2_1 47.7% 27,054Alaska_cell_5_2_2
1966Alaska_cell_5_3_0 48.4% 32,065Alaska_cell_5_3_1 50.0% 33,145Alaska_cell_5_3_2
1970Alaska_cell_5_4_0 52.4% 42,309Alaska_cell_5_4_1 46.1% 37,264Alaska_cell_5_4_2
1974Alaska_cell_5_5_0 47.4% 45,553Alaska_cell_5_5_1 47.7% 45,840Alaska_cell_5_5_2
1978Alaska_cell_5_6_0 20.2% 25,656Alaska_cell_5_6_1 39.1% 49,580Alaska_cell_5_6_2
1982Alaska_cell_5_7_0 46.1% 89,918Alaska_cell_5_7_1 37.1% 72,291Alaska_cell_5_7_2
1986Alaska_cell_5_8_0 47.3% 84,943Alaska_cell_5_8_1 42.6% 76,515Alaska_cell_5_8_2
1990Alaska_cell_5_9_0 30.9% 60,201Alaska_cell_5_9_1 26.2% 50,991Alaska_cell_5_9_2
1994Alaska_cell_5_10_0 41.1% 87,693Alaska_cell_5_10_1 40.8% 87,157Alaska_cell_5_10_2
1998Alaska_cell_5_11_0 51.3% 112,879Alaska_cell_5_11_1 17.9% 39,331Alaska_cell_5_11_2
2002Alaska_cell_5_12_0 40.7% 94,216Alaska_cell_5_12_1 55.9% 129,279Alaska_cell_5_12_2
2006Alaska_cell_5_13_0 41.0% 97,238Alaska_cell_5_13_1 48.3% 114,697Alaska_cell_5_13_2
2010Alaska_cell_5_14_0 37.7% 96,519Alaska_cell_5_14_1 59.1% 151,318Alaska_cell_5_14_2
2014Alaska_cell_5_15_0 Alaska_cell_5_15_1 45.9% 128,435Alaska_cell_5_15_2
2018Alaska_cell_5_16_0 44.4% 125,739Alaska_cell_5_16_1 51.4% 145,631Alaska_cell_5_16_2

Although in its early years of statehood Alaska was a Democratic state, since the early 1970s it has been characterized as Republican-leaning. Alaska_sentence_329

Local political communities have often worked on issues related to land use development, fishing, tourism, and individual rights. Alaska_sentence_330

Alaska Natives, while organized in and around their communities, have been active within the Native corporations. Alaska_sentence_331

These have been given ownership over large tracts of land, which require stewardship. Alaska_sentence_332

Alaska was formerly the only state in which possession of one ounce or less of marijuana in one's home was completely legal under state law, though the federal law remains in force. Alaska_sentence_333

The state has an independence movement favoring a vote on secession from the United States, with the Alaskan Independence Party. Alaska_sentence_334

Six Republicans and four Democrats have served as governor of Alaska. Alaska_sentence_335

In addition, Republican governor Wally Hickel was elected to the office for a second term in 1990 after leaving the Republican party and briefly joining the Alaskan Independence Party ticket just long enough to be reelected. Alaska_sentence_336

He officially rejoined the Republican party in 1994. Alaska_sentence_337

Alaska's voter initiative making marijuana legal took effect on February 24, 2015, placing Alaska alongside Colorado and Washington as the first three U.S. states where recreational marijuana is legal. Alaska_sentence_338

The new law means people over 21 can consume small amounts of pot. Alaska_sentence_339

The first legal marijuana store opened in Valdez in October 2016. Alaska_sentence_340

Taxes Alaska_section_33

To finance state government operations, Alaska depends primarily on petroleum revenues and federal subsidies. Alaska_sentence_341

This allows it to have the lowest individual tax burden in the United States. Alaska_sentence_342

It is one of five states with no sales tax, one of seven states with no individual income tax, and—along with New Hampshire—one of two that has neither. Alaska_sentence_343

The Department of Revenue Tax Division reports regularly on the state's revenue sources. Alaska_sentence_344

The Department also issues an annual summary of its operations, including new state laws that directly affect the tax division. Alaska_sentence_345

In 2014 the Tax Foundation ranked Alaska as having the fourth most "business friendly" tax policy, behind only Wyoming, South Dakota, and Nevada. Alaska_sentence_346

While Alaska has no state sales tax, 89 municipalities collect a local sales tax, from 1.0 to 7.5%, typically 3–5%. Alaska_sentence_347

Other local taxes levied include raw fish taxes, hotel, motel, and bed-and-breakfast 'bed' taxes, severance taxes, liquor and tobacco taxes, gaming (pull tabs) taxes, tire taxes and fuel transfer taxes. Alaska_sentence_348

A part of the revenue collected from certain state taxes and license fees (such as petroleum, aviation motor fuel, telephone cooperative) is shared with municipalities in Alaska. Alaska_sentence_349

The fall in oil prices after the fracking boom in the early 2010s has decimated Alaska's state treasury, which has historically received about 85 percent of its revenue from taxes and fees imposed on oil and gas companies. Alaska_sentence_350

The state government has had to drastically reduce its budget, and has brought its budget shortfall from over $2 billion in 2016 to under $500 million by 2018. Alaska_sentence_351

In 2020, Alaska's state government budget was $4.8 billion, while projected government revenues were only $4.5 billion. Alaska_sentence_352

Federal politics Alaska_section_34

Main article: Politics of Alaska Alaska_sentence_353

See also: Arctic Policy of the United States Alaska_sentence_354

Alaska regularly supports Republicans in presidential elections and has done so since statehood. Alaska_sentence_355

Republicans have won the state's electoral college votes in all but one election that it has participated in (1964). Alaska_sentence_356

No state has voted for a Democratic presidential candidate fewer times. Alaska_sentence_357

Alaska was carried by Democratic nominee Lyndon B. Johnson during his landslide election in 1964, while the 1960 and 1968 elections were close. Alaska_sentence_358

Since 1972, however, Republicans have carried the state by large margins. Alaska_sentence_359

In 2008, Republican John McCain defeated Democrat Barack Obama in Alaska, 59.49% to 37.83%. Alaska_sentence_360

McCain's running mate was Sarah Palin, the state's governor and the first Alaskan on a major party ticket. Alaska_sentence_361

Obama lost Alaska again in 2012, but he captured 40% of the state's vote in that election, making him the first Democrat to do so since 1968. Alaska_sentence_362

The Alaska Bush, central Juneau, midtown and downtown Anchorage, and the areas surrounding the University of Alaska Fairbanks campus and Ester have been strongholds of the Democratic Party. Alaska_sentence_363

The Matanuska-Susitna Borough, the majority of Fairbanks (including North Pole and the military base), and South Anchorage typically have the strongest Republican showing. Alaska_sentence_364

As of 2004, well over half of all registered voters have chosen "non-partisan" or "undeclared" as their affiliation, despite recent attempts to close primaries to unaffiliated voters. Alaska_sentence_365

Alaska_table_general_6

Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of 3 July 2018Alaska_table_caption_6
PartyAlaska_header_cell_6_0_0 Number of VotersAlaska_header_cell_6_0_2 PercentageAlaska_header_cell_6_0_3
Alaska_cell_6_1_0 UnaffiliatedAlaska_cell_6_1_1 299,365Alaska_cell_6_1_2 55.25%Alaska_cell_6_1_3
Alaska_cell_6_2_0 RepublicanAlaska_cell_6_2_1 139,615Alaska_cell_6_2_2 25.77%Alaska_cell_6_2_3
Alaska_cell_6_3_0 DemocraticAlaska_cell_6_3_1 74,865Alaska_cell_6_3_2 13.82%Alaska_cell_6_3_3
Alaska_cell_6_4_0 AKIPAlaska_cell_6_4_1 17,118Alaska_cell_6_4_2 3.16%Alaska_cell_6_4_3
Alaska_cell_6_5_0 LibertarianAlaska_cell_6_5_1 7,422Alaska_cell_6_5_2 1.37%Alaska_cell_6_5_3
Alaska_cell_6_6_0 OtherAlaska_cell_6_6_1 3,436Alaska_cell_6_6_2 0.36%Alaska_cell_6_6_3
TotalAlaska_header_cell_6_7_0 541,821Alaska_header_cell_6_7_2 100%Alaska_header_cell_6_7_3

Because of its population relative to other U.S. states, Alaska has only one member in the U.S. Alaska_sentence_366 House of Representatives. Alaska_sentence_367

This seat is held by Republican Don Young, who was re-elected to his 21st consecutive term in 2012. Alaska_sentence_368

Alaska's at-large congressional district is one of the largest parliamentary constituencies in the world by area. Alaska_sentence_369

In 2008, Governor Sarah Palin became the first Republican woman to run on a national ticket when she became John McCain's running mate. Alaska_sentence_370

She continued to be a prominent national figure even after resigning from the governor's job in July 2009. Alaska_sentence_371

Alaska's United States senators belong to Class 2 and Class 3. Alaska_sentence_372

In 2008, Democrat Mark Begich, mayor of Anchorage, defeated long-time Republican senator Ted Stevens. Alaska_sentence_373

Stevens had been convicted on seven felony counts of failing to report gifts on Senate financial discloser forms one week before the election. Alaska_sentence_374

The conviction was set aside in April 2009 after evidence of prosecutorial misconduct emerged. Alaska_sentence_375

Republican Frank Murkowski held the state's other senatorial position. Alaska_sentence_376

After being elected governor in 2002, he resigned from the Senate and appointed his daughter, State representative Lisa Murkowski, as his successor. Alaska_sentence_377

She won full six-year terms in 2004, 2010 and 2016. Alaska_sentence_378

Alaska_unordered_list_2

  • Alaska's current statewide elected officialsAlaska_item_2_22
  • Alaska_item_2_23
  • Alaska_item_2_24
  • Alaska_item_2_25
  • Alaska_item_2_26

Cities, towns and boroughs Alaska_section_35

See also: List of cities in Alaska by population, Alaska locations by per capita income, and List of boroughs and census areas in Alaska Alaska_sentence_379

Alaska is not divided into counties, as most of the other U.S. states, but it is divided into boroughs. Alaska_sentence_380

Many of the more densely populated parts of the state are part of Alaska's 16 boroughs, which function somewhat similarly to counties in other states. Alaska_sentence_381

However, unlike county-equivalents in the other 49 states, the boroughs do not cover the entire land area of the state. Alaska_sentence_382

The area not part of any borough is referred to as the Unorganized Borough. Alaska_sentence_383

The Unorganized Borough has no government of its own, but the U.S. Alaska_sentence_384 Census Bureau in cooperation with the state divided the Unorganized Borough into 11 census areas solely for the purposes of statistical analysis and presentation. Alaska_sentence_385

A recording district is a mechanism for administration of the public record in Alaska. Alaska_sentence_386

The state is divided into 34 recording districts which are centrally administered under a State Recorder. Alaska_sentence_387

All recording districts use the same acceptance criteria, fee schedule, etc., for accepting documents into the public record. Alaska_sentence_388

Whereas many U.S. states use a three-tiered system of decentralization—state/county/township—most of Alaska uses only two tiers—state/borough. Alaska_sentence_389

Owing to the low population density, most of the land is located in the Unorganized Borough. Alaska_sentence_390

As the name implies, it has no intermediate borough government but is administered directly by the state government. Alaska_sentence_391

In 2000, 57.71% of Alaska's area has this status, with 13.05% of the population. Alaska_sentence_392

Anchorage merged the city government with the Greater Anchorage Area Borough in 1975 to form the Municipality of Anchorage, containing the city proper and the communities of Eagle River, Chugiak, Peters Creek, Girdwood, Bird, and Indian. Alaska_sentence_393

Fairbanks has a separate borough (the Fairbanks North Star Borough) and municipality (the City of Fairbanks). Alaska_sentence_394

The state's most populous city is Anchorage, home to 278,700 people in 2006, 225,744 of whom live in the urbanized area. Alaska_sentence_395

The richest location in Alaska by per capita income is Halibut Cove ($89,895). Alaska_sentence_396

Yakutat City, Sitka, Juneau, and Anchorage are the four largest cities in the U.S. by area. Alaska_sentence_397

Cities and census-designated places (by population) Alaska_section_36

As reflected in the 2010 United States Census, Alaska has a total of 355 incorporated cities and census-designated places (CDPs). Alaska_sentence_398

The tally of cities includes four unified municipalities, essentially the equivalent of a consolidated city–county. Alaska_sentence_399

The majority of these communities are located in the rural expanse of Alaska known as "The Bush" and are unconnected to the contiguous North American road network. Alaska_sentence_400

The table at the bottom of this section lists the 100 largest cities and census-designated places in Alaska, in population order. Alaska_sentence_401

Of Alaska's 2010 Census population figure of 710,231, 20,429 people, or 2.88% of the population, did not live in an incorporated city or census-designated place. Alaska_sentence_402

Approximately three-quarters of that figure were people who live in urban and suburban neighborhoods on the outskirts of the city limits of Ketchikan, Kodiak, Palmer and Wasilla. Alaska_sentence_403

CDPs have not been established for these areas by the United States Census Bureau, except that seven CDPs were established for the Ketchikan-area neighborhoods in the 1980 Census (Clover Pass, Herring Cove, Ketchikan East, Mountain Point, North Tongass Highway, Pennock Island and Saxman East), but have not been used since. Alaska_sentence_404

The remaining population was scattered throughout Alaska, both within organized boroughs and in the Unorganized Borough, in largely remote areas. Alaska_sentence_405

Education Alaska_section_37

The Alaska Department of Education and Early Development administers many school districts in Alaska. Alaska_sentence_406

In addition, the state operates a boarding school, Mt. Alaska_sentence_407 Edgecumbe High School in Sitka, and provides partial funding for other boarding schools, including Nenana Student Living Center in Nenana and The Galena Interior Learning Academy in Galena. Alaska_sentence_408

There are more than a dozen colleges and universities in Alaska. Alaska_sentence_409

Accredited universities in Alaska include the University of Alaska Anchorage, University of Alaska Fairbanks, University of Alaska Southeast, and Alaska Pacific University. Alaska_sentence_410

Alaska is the only state that has no institutions that are part of NCAA Division I. Alaska_sentence_411

The Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development operates AVTEC, Alaska's Institute of Technology. Alaska_sentence_412

Campuses in Seward and Anchorage offer one-week to 11-month training programs in areas as diverse as Information Technology, Welding, Nursing, and Mechanics. Alaska_sentence_413

Alaska has had a problem with a "brain drain". Alaska_sentence_414

Many of its young people, including most of the highest academic achievers, leave the state after high school graduation and do not return. Alaska_sentence_415

As of 2013, Alaska did not have a law school or medical school. Alaska_sentence_416

The University of Alaska has attempted to combat this by offering partial four-year scholarships to the top 10% of Alaska high school graduates, via the Alaska Scholars Program. Alaska_sentence_417

Public health and public safety Alaska_section_38

See also: Dentistry in rural Alaska Alaska_sentence_418

The Alaska State Troopers are Alaska's statewide police force. Alaska_sentence_419

They have a long and storied history, but were not an official organization until 1941. Alaska_sentence_420

Before the force was officially organized, law enforcement in Alaska was handled by various federal agencies. Alaska_sentence_421

Larger towns usually have their own local police and some villages rely on "Public Safety Officers" who have police training but do not carry firearms. Alaska_sentence_422

In much of the state, the troopers serve as the only police force available. Alaska_sentence_423

In addition to enforcing traffic and criminal law, wildlife Troopers enforce hunting and fishing regulations. Alaska_sentence_424

Due to the varied terrain and wide scope of the Troopers' duties, they employ a wide variety of land, air, and water patrol vehicles. Alaska_sentence_425

Many rural communities in Alaska are considered "dry", having outlawed the importation of alcoholic beverages. Alaska_sentence_426

Suicide rates for rural residents are higher than urban. Alaska_sentence_427

Domestic abuse and other violent crimes are also at high levels in the state; this is in part linked to alcohol abuse. Alaska_sentence_428

Alaska has the highest rate of sexual assault in the nation, especially in rural areas. Alaska_sentence_429

The average age of sexually assaulted victims is 16 years old. Alaska_sentence_430

In four out of five cases, the suspects were relatives, friends or acquaintances. Alaska_sentence_431

Culture Alaska_section_39

See also: List of artists and writers from Alaska Alaska_sentence_432

Some of Alaska's popular annual events are the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race from Anchorage to Nome, World Ice Art Championships in Fairbanks, the Blueberry Festival and Alaska Hummingbird Festival in Ketchikan, the Sitka Whale Fest, and the Stikine River Garnet Fest in Wrangell. Alaska_sentence_433

The Stikine River attracts the largest springtime concentration of American bald eagles in the world. Alaska_sentence_434

The Alaska Native Heritage Center celebrates the rich heritage of Alaska's 11 cultural groups. Alaska_sentence_435

Their purpose is to encourage cross-cultural exchanges among all people and enhance self-esteem among Native people. Alaska_sentence_436

The Alaska Native Arts Foundation promotes and markets Native art from all regions and cultures in the State, using the internet. Alaska_sentence_437

Music Alaska_section_40

Main article: Music of Alaska Alaska_sentence_438

Influences on music in Alaska include the traditional music of Alaska Natives as well as folk music brought by later immigrants from Russia and Europe. Alaska_sentence_439

Prominent musicians from Alaska include singer Jewel, traditional Aleut flautist Mary Youngblood, folk singer-songwriter Libby Roderick, Christian music singer-songwriter Lincoln Brewster, metal/post hardcore band 36 Crazyfists and the groups Pamyua and Portugal. Alaska_sentence_440 The Man. Alaska_sentence_441

There are many established music festivals in Alaska, including the Alaska Folk Festival, the Fairbanks Summer Arts Festival] the Anchorage Folk Festival, the Athabascan Old-Time Fiddling Festival, the Sitka Jazz Festival, and the Sitka Summer Music Festival. Alaska_sentence_442

The most prominent orchestra in Alaska is the Anchorage Symphony Orchestra, though the Fairbanks Symphony Orchestra and Juneau Symphony are also notable. Alaska_sentence_443

The Anchorage Opera is currently the state's only professional opera company, though there are several volunteer and semi-professional organizations in the state as well. Alaska_sentence_444

The official state song of Alaska is "Alaska's Flag", which was adopted in 1955; it celebrates the flag of Alaska. Alaska_sentence_445

Alaska in film and on television Alaska_section_41

See also: List of films set in Alaska Alaska_sentence_446

Alaska's first independent picture entirely made in Alaska was The Chechahcos, produced by Alaskan businessman Austin E. Lathrop and filmed in and around Anchorage. Alaska_sentence_447

Released in 1924 by the Alaska Moving Picture Corporation, it was the only film the company made. Alaska_sentence_448

One of the most prominent movies filmed in Alaska is MGM's Eskimo/Mala The Magnificent, starring Alaska Native Ray Mala. Alaska_sentence_449

In 1932 an expedition set out from MGM's studios in Hollywood to Alaska to film what was then billed as "The Biggest Picture Ever Made". Alaska_sentence_450

Upon arriving in Alaska, they set up "Camp Hollywood" in Northwest Alaska, where they lived during the duration of the filming. Alaska_sentence_451

Louis B. Mayer spared no expense in spite of the remote location, going so far as to hire the chef from the Hotel Roosevelt in Hollywood to prepare meals. Alaska_sentence_452

When Eskimo premiered at the Astor Theatre in New York City, the studio received the largest amount of feedback in its history. Alaska_sentence_453

Eskimo was critically acclaimed and released worldwide; as a result, Mala became an international movie star. Alaska_sentence_454

Eskimo won the first Oscar for Best Film Editing at the Academy Awards, and showcased and preserved aspects of Inupiat culture on film. Alaska_sentence_455

The 1983 Disney movie Never Cry Wolf was at least partially shot in Alaska. Alaska_sentence_456

The 1991 film White Fang, based on Jack London's 1906 novel and starring Ethan Hawke, was filmed in and around Haines. Alaska_sentence_457

Steven Seagal's 1994 On Deadly Ground, starring Michael Caine, was filmed in part at the Worthington Glacier near Valdez. Alaska_sentence_458

The 1999 John Sayles film Limbo, starring David Strathairn, Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio, and Kris Kristofferson, was filmed in Juneau. Alaska_sentence_459

The psychological thriller Insomnia, starring Al Pacino and Robin Williams, was shot in Canada, but was set in Alaska. Alaska_sentence_460

The 2007 film directed by Sean Penn, Into The Wild, was partially filmed and set in Alaska. Alaska_sentence_461

The film, which is based on the novel of the same name, follows the adventures of Christopher McCandless, who died in a remote abandoned bus along the Stampede Trail west of Healy in 1992. Alaska_sentence_462

Many films and television shows set in Alaska are not filmed there; for example, Northern Exposure, set in the fictional town of Cicely, Alaska, was filmed in Roslyn, Washington. Alaska_sentence_463

The 2007 horror feature 30 Days of Night is set in Barrow, Alaska, but was filmed in New Zealand. Alaska_sentence_464

Many reality television shows are filmed in Alaska. Alaska_sentence_465

In 2011 the Anchorage Daily News found ten set in the state. Alaska_sentence_466

State symbols Alaska_section_42

Main article: List of Alaska state symbols Alaska_sentence_467

Alaska_unordered_list_3

  • State motto: North to the FutureAlaska_item_3_27
  • Nicknames: "The Last Frontier" or "Land of the Midnight Sun" or "Seward's Icebox"Alaska_item_3_28
  • State bird: willow ptarmigan, adopted by the Territorial Legislature in 1955. It is a small (15–17 in or 380–430 mm) Arctic grouse that lives among willows and on open tundra and muskeg. Plumage is brown in summer, changing to white in winter. The willow ptarmigan is common in much of Alaska.Alaska_item_3_29
  • State fish: king salmon, adopted 1962.Alaska_item_3_30
  • State flower: wild/native forget-me-not, adopted by the Territorial Legislature in 1917. It is a perennial found throughout Alaska, from Hyder to the Arctic Coast, and west to the Aleutians.Alaska_item_3_31
  • State fossil: woolly mammoth, adopted 1986.Alaska_item_3_32
  • State gem: jade, adopted 1968.Alaska_item_3_33
  • State insect: four-spot skimmer dragonfly, adopted 1995.Alaska_item_3_34
  • State land mammal: moose, adopted 1998.Alaska_item_3_35
  • State marine mammal: bowhead whale, adopted 1983.Alaska_item_3_36
  • State mineral: gold, adopted 1968.Alaska_item_3_37
  • State song: "Alaska's Flag"Alaska_item_3_38
  • State sport: dog mushing, adopted 1972.Alaska_item_3_39
  • State tree: Sitka spruce, adopted 1962.Alaska_item_3_40
  • State dog: Alaskan Malamute, adopted 2010.Alaska_item_3_41
  • State soil: Tanana, adopted unknown.Alaska_item_3_42

See also Alaska_section_43

Alaska_unordered_list_4


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alaska.