Albanian language

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Albanian language_table_infobox_0

AlbanianAlbanian language_header_cell_0_0_0
PronunciationAlbanian language_header_cell_0_1_0 [ʃc͡çipAlbanian language_cell_0_1_1
Native toAlbanian language_header_cell_0_2_0 Albania, Greece, Kosovo, Italy, Montenegro, North Macedonia, SerbiaAlbanian language_cell_0_2_1
EthnicityAlbanian language_header_cell_0_3_0 AlbaniansAlbanian language_cell_0_3_1
Native speakersAlbanian language_header_cell_0_4_0 Albanian language_cell_0_4_1
Language familyAlbanian language_header_cell_0_5_0 Indo-EuropeanAlbanian language_cell_0_5_1
Early formAlbanian language_header_cell_0_6_0 Proto-AlbanianAlbanian language_cell_0_6_1
DialectsAlbanian language_header_cell_0_7_0 Albanian language_cell_0_7_1
Writing systemAlbanian language_header_cell_0_8_0 Latin (Albanian alphabet)

Albanian BrailleAlbanian language_cell_0_8_1

Official statusAlbanian language_header_cell_0_9_0
Official language inAlbanian language_header_cell_0_10_0 Albania

 Kosovo  North Macedonia  MontenegroAlbanian language_cell_0_10_1

Recognised minority

language inAlbanian language_header_cell_0_11_0

Italy

 Serbia  Croatia  RomaniaAlbanian language_cell_0_11_1

Regulated byAlbanian language_header_cell_0_12_0 Officially by the Social Sciences and Albanological Section of the Academy of Sciences of AlbaniaAlbanian language_cell_0_12_1
Language codesAlbanian language_header_cell_0_13_0
ISO 639-1Albanian language_header_cell_0_14_0 Albanian language_cell_0_14_1
ISO 639-2Albanian language_header_cell_0_15_0 (B)

 (T)Albanian language_cell_0_15_1

ISO 639-3Albanian language_header_cell_0_16_0 – inclusive code

Individual codes:  – Arbëresh  – Arvanitika  – Gheg  – ToskAlbanian language_cell_0_16_1

GlottologAlbanian language_header_cell_0_17_0 Albanian language_cell_0_17_1
LinguasphereAlbanian language_header_cell_0_18_0 55-AAA-aaa to 55-AAA-ahe (25 varieties)Albanian language_cell_0_18_1

Albanian (/ælˈbeɪniən/; shqip, [ʃc͡çip or gjuha shqipe, [ɟ͡ʝuha ˈʃc͡çipɛ) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Albanians in the Balkans and the Albanian diaspora in the Americas, Europe and Oceania. Albanian language_sentence_0

With about 10 million speakers, it comprises an independent branch within the Indo-European languages and is not closely related to any other language. Albanian language_sentence_1

First attested in the 15th century, it is the last Indo-European branch to appear in written records. Albanian language_sentence_2

This is one of the reasons why its still-unknown origin has long been a matter of dispute among linguists and historians. Albanian language_sentence_3

Albanian is considered to be the descendant of one of the Paleo-Balkan languages of antiquity. Albanian language_sentence_4

For more historical and geographical reasons than specifically linguistic ones, there are various modern historians and linguists who believe that the Albanian language may have descended from a southern Illyrian dialect spoken in much the same region in classical times. Albanian language_sentence_5

Alternative hypotheses hold that Albanian may have descended from Thracian or Daco-Moesian, other ancient languages spoken farther east than Illyrian. Albanian language_sentence_6

Not enough is known of these languages to completely prove or disprove the various hypotheses. Albanian language_sentence_7

The two main Albanian dialects, Gheg and Tosk, are primarily distinguished by phonological differences and are mutually intelligible, with Gheg spoken to the north and Tosk spoken to the south of the Shkumbin river. Albanian language_sentence_8

Their characteristics in the treatment of both native words and loanwords indicate the dialectal split occurred after Christianisation of the region (4th century AD) and at the time of the Slavic migration to the Balkans, with the historic boundary between Gheg and Tosk being the Shkumbin which straddled the Jireček line. Albanian language_sentence_9

Standard Albanian is a standardised form of spoken Albanian based on the Tosk dialect. Albanian language_sentence_10

It is the official language of Albania and Kosovo and a co-official language in North Macedonia as well as a minority language of Italy, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia. Albanian language_sentence_11

Centuries-old communities speaking Albanian dialects can be found scattered in Croatia (the Arbanasi), Greece (the Arvanites and some communities in Epirus, Western Macedonia and Western Thrace), Italy (the Arbëreshë) as well as in Romania, Turkey and Ukraine. Albanian language_sentence_12

Two varieties of the Tosk dialect, Arvanitika in Greece and Arbëresh in Southern Italy, have preserved archaic elements of the language. Albanian language_sentence_13

Ethnic Albanians constitute a large diaspora, with many having long assimilated in different cultures and communities. Albanian language_sentence_14

Consequently, Albanian speakers do not correspond to the total ethnic Albanian population, as many ethnic Albanians may identify as Albanian but are unable to speak the language. Albanian language_sentence_15

Geographic distribution Albanian language_section_0

Main article: Albanians Albanian language_sentence_16

The language is spoken by approximately 6 million people in the Balkans, primarily in Albania, Kosovo, North Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece. Albanian language_sentence_17

However, due to old communities in Italy and the large Albanian diaspora, the worldwide total of speakers is much higher than in Southern Europe and numbers approximately 7.5 million. Albanian language_sentence_18

Europe Albanian language_section_1

The Albanian language is the official language of Albania and Kosovo and co-official in North Macedonia. Albanian language_sentence_19

Albanian is a recognised minority language in Croatia, Italy, Montenegro, Romania and in Serbia. Albanian language_sentence_20

Albanian is also spoken by a minority in Greece, specifically in the Thesprotia and Preveza regional units and in a few villages in Ioannina and Florina regional units in Greece. Albanian language_sentence_21

It is also spoken by 450,000 Albanian immigrants in Greece. Albanian language_sentence_22

Albanian is the third most spoken language in Italy. Albanian language_sentence_23

This is due to a substantial Albanian immigration to Italy. Albanian language_sentence_24

Italy has a historical Albanian minority of about 500,000, scattered across Southern Italy, known as Arbëreshë. Albanian language_sentence_25

Approximately 1 million Albanians from Kosovo are dispersed throughout Germany, Switzerland and Austria. Albanian language_sentence_26

These are mainly immigrants from Kosovo who migrated during the 1990s. Albanian language_sentence_27

In Switzerland, the Albanian language is the sixth most spoken language with 176,293 native speakers. Albanian language_sentence_28

Albanian became an official language in North Macedonia on 15 January 2019. Albanian language_sentence_29

Americas Albanian language_section_2

There are large numbers of Albanian speakers in the United States, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and Canada. Albanian language_sentence_30

Some of the first ethnic Albanians to arrive in the United States were Arbëreshë. Albanian language_sentence_31

Arbëreshe have a strong sense of identity and are unique in that they speak an archaic dialect of Tosk Albanian called Arbëreshë. Albanian language_sentence_32

In the United States and Canada, there are approximately 250,000 Albanian speakers. Albanian language_sentence_33

It is spoken in the eastern area of the United States in cities like New York City, New Jersey, Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia and Detroit, as well as in parts of the states of Ohio and Connecticut. Albanian language_sentence_34

Greater New Orleans has a large Arbëresh community. Albanian language_sentence_35

Oftentimes, wherever there are Italians, there are a few Arbëreshe mixed with them. Albanian language_sentence_36

Arbëreshe Americans, therefore are often indistinguishable from Italian Americans due to being assimilated into the Italian American community. Albanian language_sentence_37

In Argentina, there are nearly 40,000 Albanian speakers, mostly in Buenos Aires. Albanian language_sentence_38

Asia and Oceania Albanian language_section_3

Approximately 1.3 million people of Albanian ancestry live in Turkey, and more than 500,000 recognising their ancestry, language and culture. Albanian language_sentence_39

There are other estimates, however, that place the number of people in Turkey with Albanian ancestry and or background upward to 5 million. Albanian language_sentence_40

However, the vast majority of this population is assimilated and no longer possesses fluency in the Albanian language, though a vibrant Albanian community maintains its distinct identity in Istanbul to this day. Albanian language_sentence_41

In Egypt there are around 18,000 Albanians, mostly Tosk speakers. Albanian language_sentence_42

Many are descendants of the Janissary of Muhammad Ali Pasha, an Albanian who became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan. Albanian language_sentence_43

In addition to the dynasty that he established, a large part of the former Egyptian and Sudanese aristocracy was of Albanian origin. Albanian language_sentence_44

In addition to the recent emigrants, there are older diasporic communities around the world. Albanian language_sentence_45

Albanian is also spoken by Albanian diaspora communities residing in Australia and New Zealand. Albanian language_sentence_46

Dialects Albanian language_section_4

Main article: Albanian dialects Albanian language_sentence_47

The Albanian language has two distinct dialects, Tosk which is spoken in the south, and Gheg spoken in the north. Albanian language_sentence_48

Standard Albanian is based on the Tosk dialect. Albanian language_sentence_49

The Shkumbin River is the rough dividing line between the two dialects. Albanian language_sentence_50

Gheg is divided into four sub-dialects, in Northwest Gheg, Northeast Gheg, Central Gheg, and Southern Gheg. Albanian language_sentence_51

It is primarily spoken in northern Albania and throughout Montenegro, Kosovo and northwestern North Macedonia. Albanian language_sentence_52

One fairly divergent dialect is the Upper Reka dialect, which is however classified as Central Gheg. Albanian language_sentence_53

There is also a diaspora dialect in Croatia, the Arbanasi dialect. Albanian language_sentence_54

Tosk is divided into five sub-dialects, including Northern Tosk (the most numerous in speakers), Labërisht, Çam, Arvanitika, and Arbëresh. Albanian language_sentence_55

Tosk is spoken in southern Albania, southwestern North Macedonia and northern and southern Greece. Albanian language_sentence_56

Cham Albanian is spoken in North-western Greece, while Arvanitika is spoken by the Arvanites in southern Greece. Albanian language_sentence_57

In addition, Arbëresh is spoken by the Arbëreshë people, descendants of 15th and 16th century migrants who settled in southeastern Italy, in small communities in the regions of Sicily and Calabria. Albanian language_sentence_58

Orthography Albanian language_section_5

Main articles: Albanian alphabet and Albanian braille Albanian language_sentence_59

The Albanian language has been written using many different alphabets since the earliest records from the 14th century. Albanian language_sentence_60

The history of Albanian language orthography is closely related to the cultural orientation and knowledge of certain foreign languages among Albanian writers. Albanian language_sentence_61

The earliest written Albanian records come from the Gheg area in makeshift spellings based on Italian or Greek. Albanian language_sentence_62

Originally, the Tosk dialect was written in the Greek alphabet and the Gheg dialect was written in the Latin script. Albanian language_sentence_63

Both dialects had also been written in the Ottoman Turkish version of the Arabic script, Cyrillic, and some local alphabets (Elbasan, Vithkuqi, Todhri, Veso Bey, Jan Vellara and others, see original Albanian alphabets). Albanian language_sentence_64

More specifically, the writers from northern Albania and under the influence of the Catholic Church used Latin letters, those in southern Albania and under the influence of the Greek Orthodox church used Greek letters, while others throughout Albania and under the influence of Islam used Arabic letters. Albanian language_sentence_65

There were initial attempts to create an original Albanian alphabet during the 1750–1850 period. Albanian language_sentence_66

These attempts intensified after the League of Prizren and culminated with the Congress of Manastir held by Albanian intellectuals from 14 to 22 November 1908, in Manastir (present day Bitola), which decided on which alphabet to use, and what the standardised spelling would be for standard Albanian. Albanian language_sentence_67

This is how the literary language remains. Albanian language_sentence_68

The alphabet is the Latin alphabet with the addition of the letters <ë>, <ç>, and ten digraphs: dh, th, xh, gj, nj, ng, ll, rr, zh and sh. Albanian language_sentence_69

According to Robert Elsie: Albanian language_sentence_70

Classification Albanian language_section_6

The Albanian language occupies an independent branch of the Indo-European language tree. Albanian language_sentence_71

In 1854, Albanian was demonstrated to be an Indo-European language by the philologist Franz Bopp. Albanian language_sentence_72

Albanian was formerly compared by a few Indo-European linguists with Germanic and Balto-Slavic, all of which share a number of isoglosses with Albanian. Albanian language_sentence_73

Other linguists linked the Albanian language with Latin, Greek and Armenian, while placing Germanic and Balto-Slavic in another branch of Indo-European. Albanian language_sentence_74

History Albanian language_section_7

The first written mention of the Albanian language was on 14 July 1284 in Dubrovnik in modern Croatia when a crime witness named Matthew testified: "I heard a voice shouting on the mountainside in the Albanian language" (Latin: Audivi unam vocem, clamantem in monte in lingua albanesca). Albanian language_sentence_75

The oldest document written in Albanian dates back to 1462, while the first audio recording in the language was made by Norbert Jokl on 4 April 1914 in Vienna. Albanian language_sentence_76

During the five-century period of the Ottoman presence in Albania, the language was not officially recognised until 1909, when the Congress of Dibra decided that Albanian schools would finally be allowed. Albanian language_sentence_77

Linguistic affinities Albanian language_section_8

See also: Illyrian languages Albanian language_sentence_78

Albanian is considered an isolate within the Indo-European language family; no other language has been conclusively linked to its branch. Albanian language_sentence_79

The only other languages that are sole surviving members of a branch of Indo-European are Armenian and Greek. Albanian language_sentence_80

The Albanian language is part of the Indo-European language group and is considered to have evolved from one of the Paleo-Balkan languages of antiquity, although it is still uncertain which particular Paleo-Balkan language represents the ancestor of Albanian, or where in Southern Europe that population lived. Albanian language_sentence_81

In general there is insufficient evidence to connect Albanian with one of those languages, whether one of the Illyrian languages (which historians mostly confirm), or Thracian and Dacian. Albanian language_sentence_82

Among these possibilities, Illyrian is typically held to be the most probable, though insufficient evidence still clouds the discussion. Albanian language_sentence_83

Although Albanian shares lexical isoglosses with Greek, Germanic, and to a lesser extent Balto-Slavic, the vocabulary of Albanian is quite distinct. Albanian language_sentence_84

In 1995, Taylor, Ringe and Warnow, using quantitative linguistic techniques, found that Albanian appears to comprise a "subgroup with Germanic". Albanian language_sentence_85

However, they argued that this fact is hardly significant, as Albanian has lost much of its original vocabulary and morphology, and so this "apparently close connection to Germanic rests on only a couple of lexical cognates – hardly any evidence at all". Albanian language_sentence_86

Historical presence and location Albanian language_section_9

Main article: Origin of the Albanians Albanian language_sentence_87

The place and the time where the Albanian language was formed is uncertain. Albanian language_sentence_88

American linguist Eric Hamp stated that during an unknown chronological period a pre-Albanian population (termed as "Albanoid" by Hamp) inhabited areas stretching from Poland to the southwestern Balkans. Albanian language_sentence_89

Further analysis has suggested that it was in a mountainous region rather than on a plain or seacoast: while the words for plants and animals characteristic of mountainous regions are entirely original, the names for fish and for agricultural activities (such as ploughing) are borrowed from other languages. Albanian language_sentence_90

A deeper analysis of the vocabulary, however, shows that this could be a consequence of a prolonged Latin domination of the coastal and plain areas of the country, rather than evidence of the original environment where the Albanian language was formed. Albanian language_sentence_91

For example, the word for 'fish' is borrowed from Latin, but not the word for 'gills', which is native. Albanian language_sentence_92

Indigenous are also the words for 'ship', 'raft', 'navigation', 'sea shelves' and a few names of fish kinds, but not the words for 'sail', 'row' and 'harbor' – objects pertaining to navigation itself and a large part of sea fauna. Albanian language_sentence_93

This rather shows that Proto-Albanians were pushed away from coastal areas in early times (probably after the Latin conquest of the region) thus losing large parts (or the majority) of sea environment lexicon. Albanian language_sentence_94

A similar phenomenon could be observed with agricultural terms. Albanian language_sentence_95

While the words for 'arable land', 'corn', 'wheat', 'cereals', 'vineyard', 'yoke', 'harvesting', 'cattle breeding', etc. are native, the words for 'ploughing', 'farm' and 'farmer', agricultural practices, and some harvesting tools are foreign. Albanian language_sentence_96

This, again, points to intense contact with other languages and people, rather than providing evidence of a possible Urheimat. Albanian language_sentence_97

The centre of Albanian settlement remained the Mat river. Albanian language_sentence_98

In 1079, they were recorded farther south in the valley of the Shkumbin river. Albanian language_sentence_99

The Shkumbin, a seasonal stream that lies near the old Via Egnatia, is approximately the boundary of the primary dialect division for Albanian, Tosk and Gheg. Albanian language_sentence_100

The characteristics of Tosk and Gheg in the treatment of the native and loanwords from other languages are evidence that the dialectal split preceded the Slavic migration to the Balkans, which means that in that period (the 5th to 6th centuries AD), Albanians were occupying nearly the same area around the Shkumbin river, which straddled the Jireček Line. Albanian language_sentence_101

References to the existence of Albanian as a distinct language survive from the 14th century, but they failed to cite specific words. Albanian language_sentence_102

The oldest surviving documents written in Albanian are the "formula e pagëzimit" (Baptismal formula), Un'te paghesont' pr'emenit t'Atit e t'Birit e t'Spertit Senit. Albanian language_sentence_103

("I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit") recorded by Pal Engjelli, Bishop of Durrës in 1462 in the Gheg dialect, and some New Testament verses from that period. Albanian language_sentence_104

Linguists Stefan Schumacher and Joachim Matzinger (University of Vienna) assert that the first literary records of Albanian date from the 16th century. Albanian language_sentence_105

The oldest known Albanian printed book, Meshari, or "missal", was written in 1555 by Gjon Buzuku, a Roman Catholic cleric. Albanian language_sentence_106

In 1635 Frang Bardhi wrote the first Latin–Albanian dictionary. Albanian language_sentence_107

The first Albanian school is believed to have been opened by Franciscans in 1638 in Pdhanë. Albanian language_sentence_108

One of the earliest dictionaries of Albanian language was written in 1693 which was an Italian language manuscript authored by Montenegrin sea captain Julije Balović Pratichae Schrivaneschae and includes a multilingual dictionary of hundreds of the most often used words in everyday life in the Italian, Slavic, Greek, Albanian and Turkish languages. Albanian language_sentence_109

Pre-Indo-European substratum Albanian language_section_10

Pre-Indo-European (PreIE) sites are found throughout the territory of Albania. Albanian language_sentence_110

Such PreIE sites existed in Maliq, Vashtëm, Burimas, Barç, Dërsnik in Korçë District, Kamnik in Kolonja, Kolsh in Kukës District, Rashtan in Librazhd and Nezir in Mat District. Albanian language_sentence_111

As in other parts of Europe, these PreIE people joined the migratory Indo-European tribes that entered the Balkans and contributed to the formation of the historical Paleo-Balkan tribes. Albanian language_sentence_112

In terms of linguistics, the pre-Indo-European substrate language spoken in the southern Balkans has probably influenced pre-Proto-Albanian, the ancestor idiom of Albanian. Albanian language_sentence_113

The extent of this linguistic impact cannot be determined with precision due to the uncertain position of Albanian among Paleo-Balkan languages and their scarce attestation. Albanian language_sentence_114

Some loanwords, however, have been proposed such as shegë ("pomegranate") or lëpjetë ("orach", compare with Pre-Greek lápathon, λάπαθον, "monk's rhubarb"). Albanian language_sentence_115

Proto-IE features Albanian language_section_11

Although Albanian has several words that do not correspond to IE cognates, it has retained many proto-IE features: for example, the demonstrative pronoun *ḱi- is ancestral to Albanian ky/kjo, English he, and Russian sej but not to English this or Russian etot. Albanian language_sentence_116

Albanian is compared to other Indo-European languages below, but note that Albanian has exhibited some notable instances of semantic drift, such as motër meaning "sister" rather than "mother". Albanian language_sentence_117

Albanian language_table_general_1

Vocabulary of Albanian and other Indo-European languagesAlbanian language_table_caption_1
AlbanianAlbanian language_cell_1_0_0 muajAlbanian language_cell_1_0_1 riAlbanian language_cell_1_0_2 nënëAlbanian language_cell_1_0_3 motërAlbanian language_cell_1_0_4 natëAlbanian language_cell_1_0_5 hundëAlbanian language_cell_1_0_6 tre / triAlbanian language_cell_1_0_7 ziAlbanian language_cell_1_0_8 kuqAlbanian language_cell_1_0_9 verdhëAlbanian language_cell_1_0_10 kaltërAlbanian language_cell_1_0_11 ujkAlbanian language_cell_1_0_12
Proto-Indo-EuropeanAlbanian language_cell_1_1_0 *meh₁ns-Albanian language_cell_1_1_1 *neu-(i)o-Albanian language_cell_1_1_2 *méh₂tērAlbanian language_cell_1_1_3 *swésōrAlbanian language_cell_1_1_4 *nókʷtsAlbanian language_cell_1_1_5 *neh₂-s-Albanian language_cell_1_1_6 *treiesAlbanian language_cell_1_1_7 *kʷr̥snós
  • mel-n-Albanian language_cell_1_1_8
*h₁reudʰ-ó- ~

h₁roudʰ-ó-Albanian language_cell_1_1_9

*ǵʰelh₃-Albanian language_cell_1_1_10 *bʰléh₁-uo-Albanian language_cell_1_1_11 *wĺ̥kʷosAlbanian language_cell_1_1_12
EnglishAlbanian language_cell_1_2_0 monthAlbanian language_cell_1_2_1 newAlbanian language_cell_1_2_2 motherAlbanian language_cell_1_2_3 sisterAlbanian language_cell_1_2_4 nightAlbanian language_cell_1_2_5 noseAlbanian language_cell_1_2_6 threeAlbanian language_cell_1_2_7 blackAlbanian language_cell_1_2_8 redAlbanian language_cell_1_2_9 yellowAlbanian language_cell_1_2_10 blueAlbanian language_cell_1_2_11 wolfAlbanian language_cell_1_2_12
LatinAlbanian language_cell_1_3_0 mēnsisAlbanian language_cell_1_3_1 novusAlbanian language_cell_1_3_2 māterAlbanian language_cell_1_3_3 sororAlbanian language_cell_1_3_4 noct-Albanian language_cell_1_3_5 nāsusAlbanian language_cell_1_3_6 trēsAlbanian language_cell_1_3_7 āter, nigerAlbanian language_cell_1_3_8 ruberAlbanian language_cell_1_3_9 helvusAlbanian language_cell_1_3_10 flāvusAlbanian language_cell_1_3_11 lupusAlbanian language_cell_1_3_12
LithuanianAlbanian language_cell_1_4_0 mė́nuo / mėnesisAlbanian language_cell_1_4_1 naũjasAlbanian language_cell_1_4_2 motė / motinaAlbanian language_cell_1_4_3 sesuõAlbanian language_cell_1_4_4 naktìsAlbanian language_cell_1_4_5 nósisAlbanian language_cell_1_4_6 trỹsAlbanian language_cell_1_4_7 júodasAlbanian language_cell_1_4_8 raűdas / raudonasAlbanian language_cell_1_4_9 gel̃tas / geltonasAlbanian language_cell_1_4_10 mė́lynasAlbanian language_cell_1_4_11 vil̃kasAlbanian language_cell_1_4_12
Old Church SlavonicAlbanian language_cell_1_5_0 мѣсѧць
měsęcьAlbanian language_cell_1_5_1
новъ
novъAlbanian language_cell_1_5_2
мати
matiAlbanian language_cell_1_5_3
сестра
sestraAlbanian language_cell_1_5_4
ношть
noštьAlbanian language_cell_1_5_5
носъ
nosъAlbanian language_cell_1_5_6
три, триѥ
tri, trijeAlbanian language_cell_1_5_7
чрънъ
črъnъAlbanian language_cell_1_5_8
чръвенъ
črъvenъAlbanian language_cell_1_5_9
жлътъ
žlъtъAlbanian language_cell_1_5_10
син҄ь
siņьAlbanian language_cell_1_5_11
влькъ
vlьkъAlbanian language_cell_1_5_12
Ancient GreekAlbanian language_cell_1_6_0 μην-
men-Albanian language_cell_1_6_1
νέος
néosAlbanian language_cell_1_6_2
μήτηρ
mḗtērAlbanian language_cell_1_6_3
ἀδελφή
adelphḗAlbanian language_cell_1_6_4
νυκτ-
nukt-Albanian language_cell_1_6_5
ῥιν-
rhin-Albanian language_cell_1_6_6
τρεῖς
treîsAlbanian language_cell_1_6_7
μέλας
mélasAlbanian language_cell_1_6_8
ἐρυθρός
eruthrósAlbanian language_cell_1_6_9
ξανθός
xanthósAlbanian language_cell_1_6_10
κυανός
kyanósAlbanian language_cell_1_6_11
λύκος
lýkosAlbanian language_cell_1_6_12
ArmenianAlbanian language_cell_1_7_0 ամիս
amisAlbanian language_cell_1_7_1
նոր
norAlbanian language_cell_1_7_2
մայր
mayrAlbanian language_cell_1_7_3
քույր
k'uyrAlbanian language_cell_1_7_4
գիշեր
gišerAlbanian language_cell_1_7_5
քիթ
k'itAlbanian language_cell_1_7_6
երեք
yerek'Albanian language_cell_1_7_7
սեւ
sevAlbanian language_cell_1_7_8
կարմիր
karmirAlbanian language_cell_1_7_9
դեղին
deġinAlbanian language_cell_1_7_10
Կապույտ

kapuytAlbanian language_cell_1_7_11

գայլ
gaylAlbanian language_cell_1_7_12
IrishAlbanian language_cell_1_8_0 Albanian language_cell_1_8_1 nuaAlbanian language_cell_1_8_2 máthairAlbanian language_cell_1_8_3 deirfiúrAlbanian language_cell_1_8_4 oícheAlbanian language_cell_1_8_5 srónAlbanian language_cell_1_8_6 tríAlbanian language_cell_1_8_7 dubhAlbanian language_cell_1_8_8 deargAlbanian language_cell_1_8_9 buíAlbanian language_cell_1_8_10 gormAlbanian language_cell_1_8_11 faolchúAlbanian language_cell_1_8_12
SanskritAlbanian language_cell_1_9_0 मास
māsaAlbanian language_cell_1_9_1
नव
navaAlbanian language_cell_1_9_2
मातृ
mātr̥Albanian language_cell_1_9_3
स्वसृ
svasr̥Albanian language_cell_1_9_4
नक्त/निश्
nakta/niśAlbanian language_cell_1_9_5
नस
nasaAlbanian language_cell_1_9_6
त्रि
triAlbanian language_cell_1_9_7
काल/कृष्ण
kāla/kr̥ṣṇaAlbanian language_cell_1_9_8
रुधिर
rudhiraAlbanian language_cell_1_9_9
पीत/हिरण्य
pīta/hiraṇyaAlbanian language_cell_1_9_10
नील
nīlaAlbanian language_cell_1_9_11
वृक
vr̥kaAlbanian language_cell_1_9_12

Albanian–PIE phonological correspondences Albanian language_section_12

Phonologically, Albanian is not so conservative. Albanian language_sentence_118

Like many IE stocks, it has merged the two series of voiced stops (e.g. both *d and *dʰ became d). Albanian language_sentence_119

In addition, voiced stops tend to disappear in between vowels. Albanian language_sentence_120

There is almost complete loss of final syllables and very widespread loss of other unstressed syllables (e.g. mik 'friend' from Lat. amicus). Albanian language_sentence_121

PIE *o appears as a (also as e if a high front vowel i follows), while *ē and *ā become o, and PIE *ō appears as e. Albanian language_sentence_122

The palatals, velars, and labiovelars show distinct developments, with Albanian showing the three-way distinction also found in Luwian. Albanian language_sentence_123

Labiovelars are for the most part differentiated from all other Indo-European velar series before front vowels, but they merge with the "pure" (back) velars elsewhere. Albanian language_sentence_124

The palatal velar series, consisting of Proto-Indo-European *ḱ and the merged *ģ and ģʰ, usually developed into th and dh, but were depalatalised to merge with the back velars when in contact with sonorants. Albanian language_sentence_125

Because the original Proto-Indo-European tripartite distinction between dorsals is preserved in such reflexes, Albanian is therefore neither centum nor satem, despite having a "satem-like" realization of the palatal dorsals in most cases. Albanian language_sentence_126

Thus PIE *ḱ, *k, and *kʷ become th, q, and s, respectively (before back vowels *ḱ becomes th, while *k and *kʷ merge as k). Albanian language_sentence_127

A minority of scholars reconstruct a fourth laryngeal *h₄ allegedly surfacing as Alb. Albanian language_sentence_128

h word-initially, e.g. Alb. Albanian language_sentence_129

herdhe 'testicles' presumably from PIE *h₄órǵʰi- (rather than the usual reconstruction *h₃erǵʰi-), but this is generally not followed elsewhere, as h- has arisen elsewhere idiosyncratically (for example hark < Latin arcus). Albanian language_sentence_130

Albanian language_table_general_2

Reflexes of PIE bilabial plosives in AlbanianAlbanian language_table_caption_2
PIEAlbanian language_header_cell_2_0_0 AlbanianAlbanian language_header_cell_2_0_1 PIEAlbanian language_header_cell_2_0_2 AlbanianAlbanian language_header_cell_2_0_3
*pAlbanian language_cell_2_1_0 pAlbanian language_cell_2_1_1 *pékʷ- 'to cook'Albanian language_cell_2_1_2 pjek 'to bake'Albanian language_cell_2_1_3
*bʰ / bAlbanian language_cell_2_2_0 bAlbanian language_cell_2_2_1 *srobʰ-éi̯e- 'to sip, gulp'Albanian language_cell_2_2_2 gjerb 'to sip'Albanian language_cell_2_2_3

Albanian language_table_general_3

Reflexes of PIE coronal plosives in AlbanianAlbanian language_table_caption_3
PIEAlbanian language_header_cell_3_0_0 AlbanianAlbanian language_header_cell_3_0_1 PIEAlbanian language_header_cell_3_0_2 AlbanianAlbanian language_header_cell_3_0_3
*tAlbanian language_cell_3_1_0 tAlbanian language_cell_3_1_1 *túh₂ 'thou'Albanian language_cell_3_1_2 ti 'you (singular)'Albanian language_cell_3_1_3
*dAlbanian language_cell_3_2_0 dAlbanian language_cell_3_2_1 *dih₂tis 'light'Albanian language_cell_3_2_2 ditë 'day'Albanian language_cell_3_2_3
Albanian language_cell_3_3_0 dhAlbanian language_cell_3_3_1 *pérd- 'to fart'Albanian language_cell_3_3_2 pjerdh 'to fart'Albanian language_cell_3_3_3
Albanian language_cell_3_4_0 gAlbanian language_cell_3_4_1 *dl̥h₁-tó- 'long'Albanian language_cell_3_4_2 gjatë 'long' (Tosk dial. glatë)Albanian language_cell_3_4_3
*dʰAlbanian language_cell_3_5_0 dAlbanian language_cell_3_5_1 *dʰégʷʰ- 'burn'Albanian language_cell_3_5_2 djeg 'to burn'Albanian language_cell_3_5_3
Albanian language_cell_3_6_0 dhAlbanian language_cell_3_6_1 *gʰórdʰos 'enclosure'Albanian language_cell_3_6_2 gardh 'fence'Albanian language_cell_3_6_3

Albanian language_table_general_4

Reflexes of PIE palatal plosives in AlbanianAlbanian language_table_caption_4
PIEAlbanian language_header_cell_4_0_0 AlbanianAlbanian language_header_cell_4_0_1 PIEAlbanian language_header_cell_4_0_2 AlbanianAlbanian language_header_cell_4_0_3
*ḱAlbanian language_cell_4_1_0 thAlbanian language_cell_4_1_1 *ḱéh₁smi 'I say'Albanian language_cell_4_1_2 them 'I say'Albanian language_cell_4_1_3
Albanian language_cell_4_2_0 sAlbanian language_cell_4_2_1 *ḱupo- 'shoulder'Albanian language_cell_4_2_2 sup 'shoulder'Albanian language_cell_4_2_3
Albanian language_cell_4_3_0 kAlbanian language_cell_4_3_1 *smeḱ-r̥ 'chin'Albanian language_cell_4_3_2 mjekër 'chin; beard'Albanian language_cell_4_3_3
Albanian language_cell_4_4_0 ç/cAlbanian language_cell_4_4_1 *ḱentro- 'to stick'Albanian language_cell_4_4_2 çandër 'prop'Albanian language_cell_4_4_3
Albanian language_cell_4_5_0 dhAlbanian language_cell_4_5_1 *ǵómbʰos 'tooth, peg'Albanian language_cell_4_5_2 dhëmb 'tooth'Albanian language_cell_4_5_3
*ǵʰAlbanian language_cell_4_6_0 dhAlbanian language_cell_4_6_1 *ǵʰed-ioH 'I defecate'Albanian language_cell_4_6_2 dhjes 'I defecate'Albanian language_cell_4_6_3
Albanian language_cell_4_7_0 dAlbanian language_cell_4_7_1 *ǵʰr̥sdʰi 'grain, barley'Albanian language_cell_4_7_2 drithë 'grain'Albanian language_cell_4_7_3

Albanian language_table_general_5

Reflexes of PIE velar plosives in AlbanianAlbanian language_table_caption_5
PIEAlbanian language_header_cell_5_0_0 AlbanianAlbanian language_header_cell_5_0_1 PIEAlbanian language_header_cell_5_0_2 AlbanianAlbanian language_header_cell_5_0_3
*kAlbanian language_cell_5_1_0 kAlbanian language_cell_5_1_1 *kágʰmi 'I catch, grasp'Albanian language_cell_5_1_2 kam 'I have'Albanian language_cell_5_1_3
Albanian language_cell_5_2_0 qAlbanian language_cell_5_2_1 *kluH-i̯o- 'to weep'Albanian language_cell_5_2_2 qaj 'to weep, cry' (dial. kla(n)j)Albanian language_cell_5_2_3
*gAlbanian language_cell_5_3_0 gAlbanian language_cell_5_3_1 *h₃lígos 'sick'Albanian language_cell_5_3_2 ligë 'bad'Albanian language_cell_5_3_3
Albanian language_cell_5_4_0 gjAlbanian language_cell_5_4_1 *h₁reug- 'to retch'Albanian language_cell_5_4_2 regj 'to tan hides'Albanian language_cell_5_4_3
*gʰAlbanian language_cell_5_5_0 gAlbanian language_cell_5_5_1 *gʰórdʰos 'enclosure'Albanian language_cell_5_5_2 gardh 'fence'Albanian language_cell_5_5_3
Albanian language_cell_5_6_0 gjAlbanian language_cell_5_6_1 *gʰédn-i̯e/o- 'to get'Albanian language_cell_5_6_2 gjej 'to find' (Old Alb. gjãnj)Albanian language_cell_5_6_3

Albanian language_table_general_6

Reflexes of PIE labiovelar plosives in AlbanianAlbanian language_table_caption_6
PIEAlbanian language_header_cell_6_0_0 AlbanianAlbanian language_header_cell_6_0_1 PIEAlbanian language_header_cell_6_0_2 AlbanianAlbanian language_header_cell_6_0_3
*kʷAlbanian language_cell_6_1_0 kAlbanian language_cell_6_1_1 *kʷeh₂sleh₂ 'cough'Albanian language_cell_6_1_2 kollë 'cough'Albanian language_cell_6_1_3
Albanian language_cell_6_2_0 sAlbanian language_cell_6_2_1 *kʷélH- 'to turn'Albanian language_cell_6_2_2 sjell 'to fetch, bring'Albanian language_cell_6_2_3
Albanian language_cell_6_3_0 qAlbanian language_cell_6_3_1 *kʷṓdAlbanian language_cell_6_3_2 që 'that, which'Albanian language_cell_6_3_3
*gʷAlbanian language_cell_6_4_0 gAlbanian language_cell_6_4_1 *gʷr̥H 'stone'Albanian language_cell_6_4_2 gur 'stone'Albanian language_cell_6_4_3
Albanian language_cell_6_5_0 zAlbanian language_cell_6_5_1 *gʷréh₂us 'heavy'Albanian language_cell_6_5_2 zor 'hard, difficult'Albanian language_cell_6_5_3
*gʷʰAlbanian language_cell_6_6_0 gAlbanian language_cell_6_6_1 *dʰégʷʰ- 'to burn'Albanian language_cell_6_6_2 djeg 'to burn'Albanian language_cell_6_6_3
Albanian language_cell_6_7_0 zAlbanian language_cell_6_7_1 *dʰogʷʰéi̯e- 'to ignite'Albanian language_cell_6_7_2 ndez 'to kindle, light a fire'Albanian language_cell_6_7_3

Albanian language_table_general_7

Reflexes of PIE *s in AlbanianAlbanian language_table_caption_7
PIEAlbanian language_header_cell_7_0_0 AlbanianAlbanian language_header_cell_7_0_1 PIEAlbanian language_header_cell_7_0_2 AlbanianAlbanian language_header_cell_7_0_3
*sAlbanian language_cell_7_1_0 gjAlbanian language_cell_7_1_1 *séḱstis 'six'Albanian language_cell_7_1_2 gjashtë 'six'Albanian language_cell_7_1_3
Albanian language_cell_7_2_0 hAlbanian language_cell_7_2_1 *nosōm 'us' (gen.)Albanian language_cell_7_2_2 nahe 'us' (dat.)Albanian language_cell_7_2_3
Albanian language_cell_7_3_0 shAlbanian language_cell_7_3_1 *bʰreusos 'broken'Albanian language_cell_7_3_2 breshër 'hail'Albanian language_cell_7_3_3
Albanian language_cell_7_4_0 thAlbanian language_cell_7_4_1 *suh₁s 'swine'Albanian language_cell_7_4_2 thi 'pig'Albanian language_cell_7_4_3
Albanian language_cell_7_5_0 Albanian language_cell_7_5_1 h₁ésmi 'I am'Albanian language_cell_7_5_2 jam 'I am'Albanian language_cell_7_5_3
*-sd-Albanian language_cell_7_6_0 thAlbanian language_cell_7_6_1 *gʷésdos 'leaf'Albanian language_cell_7_6_2 gjeth 'leaf'Albanian language_cell_7_6_3
*-sḱ-Albanian language_cell_7_7_0 hAlbanian language_cell_7_7_1 *sḱi-eh₂ 'shadow'Albanian language_cell_7_7_2 hije 'shadow'Albanian language_cell_7_7_3
*-sp-Albanian language_cell_7_8_0 fAlbanian language_cell_7_8_1 *spélnom 'speech'Albanian language_cell_7_8_2 fjalë 'word'Albanian language_cell_7_8_3
*-st-Albanian language_cell_7_9_0 shtAlbanian language_cell_7_9_1 *h₂osti 'bone'Albanian language_cell_7_9_2 asht 'bone'Albanian language_cell_7_9_3
*-su̯-Albanian language_cell_7_10_0 dAlbanian language_cell_7_10_1 *su̯eíd-r̥- 'sweat'Albanian language_cell_7_10_2 dirsë 'sweat'Albanian language_cell_7_10_3

Albanian language_table_general_8

Reflexes of PIE sonorants in AlbanianAlbanian language_table_caption_8
PIEAlbanian language_header_cell_8_0_0 AlbanianAlbanian language_header_cell_8_0_1 PIEAlbanian language_header_cell_8_0_2 AlbanianAlbanian language_header_cell_8_0_3
*i̯Albanian language_cell_8_1_0 gjAlbanian language_cell_8_1_1 *i̯éh₃s- 'to gird'Albanian language_cell_8_1_2 (n)gjesh 'I gird; squeeze, knead'Albanian language_cell_8_1_3
Albanian language_cell_8_2_0 jAlbanian language_cell_8_2_1 *i̯uH 'you' (nom.)Albanian language_cell_8_2_2 ju 'you (plural)'Albanian language_cell_8_2_3
Albanian language_cell_8_3_0 Albanian language_cell_8_3_1 *trei̯es 'three' (masc.)Albanian language_cell_8_3_2 tre 'three'Albanian language_cell_8_3_3
*u̯Albanian language_cell_8_4_0 vAlbanian language_cell_8_4_1 *u̯os-éi̯e- 'to dress'Albanian language_cell_8_4_2 vesh 'to wear, dress'Albanian language_cell_8_4_3
*mAlbanian language_cell_8_5_0 mAlbanian language_cell_8_5_1 *meh₂tr-eh₂ 'maternal'Albanian language_cell_8_5_2 motër 'sister'Albanian language_cell_8_5_3
*nAlbanian language_cell_8_6_0 nAlbanian language_cell_8_6_1 *nōs 'we' (acc.)Albanian language_cell_8_6_2 ne 'we'Albanian language_cell_8_6_3
Albanian language_cell_8_7_0 njAlbanian language_cell_8_7_1 *eni-h₁ói-no 'that one'Albanian language_cell_8_7_2 një 'one' (Gheg njâ, njo, nji )Albanian language_cell_8_7_3
Albanian language_cell_8_8_0 ∅ (Tosk) ~ nasal vowel (Gheg)Albanian language_cell_8_8_1 *pénkʷe 'five'Albanian language_cell_8_8_2 pesë 'five' (vs. Gheg pês)Albanian language_cell_8_8_3
Albanian language_cell_8_9_0 r (Tosk only)Albanian language_cell_8_9_1 *ǵʰeimen 'winter'Albanian language_cell_8_9_2 dimër 'winter' (vs. Gheg dimën)Albanian language_cell_8_9_3
*lAlbanian language_cell_8_10_0 lAlbanian language_cell_8_10_1 *h₃lígos 'sick'Albanian language_cell_8_10_2 ligë 'bad'Albanian language_cell_8_10_3
Albanian language_cell_8_11_0 llAlbanian language_cell_8_11_1 *kʷélH- 'turn'Albanian language_cell_8_11_2 sjell 'to fetch, bring'Albanian language_cell_8_11_3
*rAlbanian language_cell_8_12_0 rAlbanian language_cell_8_12_1 *repe/o 'take'Albanian language_cell_8_12_2 rjep 'peel'Albanian language_cell_8_12_3
Albanian language_cell_8_13_0 rrAlbanian language_cell_8_13_1 *u̯rh₁ḗn 'sheep'Albanian language_cell_8_13_2 rrunjë 'yearling lamb'Albanian language_cell_8_13_3
*n̥Albanian language_cell_8_14_0 eAlbanian language_cell_8_14_1 *h₁n̥men 'name'Albanian language_cell_8_14_2 emër 'name'Albanian language_cell_8_14_3
*m̥Albanian language_cell_8_15_0 eAlbanian language_cell_8_15_1 *u̯iḱm̥ti 'twenty'Albanian language_cell_8_15_2 (një)zet 'twenty'Albanian language_cell_8_15_3
*l̥Albanian language_cell_8_16_0 li, il / lu, ulAlbanian language_cell_8_16_1 *u̯ĺ̥kʷos 'wolf'Albanian language_cell_8_16_2 ujk 'wolf' (Chamian ulk)Albanian language_cell_8_16_3
*r̥Albanian language_cell_8_17_0 ri, ir / ru, urAlbanian language_cell_8_17_1 *ǵʰr̥sdom 'grain, barley'Albanian language_cell_8_17_2 drithë 'grain'Albanian language_cell_8_17_3

Albanian language_table_general_9

Reflexes of PIE laryngeals in AlbanianAlbanian language_table_caption_9
PIEAlbanian language_header_cell_9_0_0 AlbanianAlbanian language_header_cell_9_0_1 PIEAlbanian language_header_cell_9_0_2 AlbanianAlbanian language_header_cell_9_0_3
*h₁Albanian language_cell_9_1_0 Albanian language_cell_9_1_1 *h₁ésmi 'I am'Albanian language_cell_9_1_2 jam 'to be'Albanian language_cell_9_1_3
*h₂Albanian language_cell_9_2_0 Albanian language_cell_9_2_1 *h₂r̥tḱos 'bear'Albanian language_cell_9_2_2 ari 'bear'Albanian language_cell_9_2_3
*h₃Albanian language_cell_9_3_0 Albanian language_cell_9_3_1 *h₃ónr̥ 'dream'Albanian language_cell_9_3_2 ëndërr 'dream'Albanian language_cell_9_3_3

Albanian language_table_general_10

Reflexes of PIE vowels in AlbanianAlbanian language_table_caption_10
PIEAlbanian language_header_cell_10_0_0 AlbanianAlbanian language_header_cell_10_0_1 PIEAlbanian language_header_cell_10_0_2 AlbanianAlbanian language_header_cell_10_0_3
*iAlbanian language_cell_10_1_0 iAlbanian language_cell_10_1_1 *sínos 'bosom'Albanian language_cell_10_1_2 gji 'bosom, breast'Albanian language_cell_10_1_3
Albanian language_cell_10_2_0 eAlbanian language_cell_10_2_1 *dwigʰeh₂ 'twig'Albanian language_cell_10_2_2 degë 'branch'Albanian language_cell_10_2_3
*ī < *iHAlbanian language_cell_10_3_0 iAlbanian language_cell_10_3_1 *dih₂tis 'light'Albanian language_cell_10_3_2 ditë 'day'Albanian language_cell_10_3_3
*eAlbanian language_cell_10_4_0 eAlbanian language_cell_10_4_1 *pénkʷe 'five'Albanian language_cell_10_4_2 pesë 'five' (Gheg pês)Albanian language_cell_10_4_3
Albanian language_cell_10_5_0 jeAlbanian language_cell_10_5_1 *wétos 'year' (loc.)Albanian language_cell_10_5_2 vjet 'last year'Albanian language_cell_10_5_3
Albanian language_cell_10_6_0 oAlbanian language_cell_10_6_1 *ǵʰēsreh₂ 'hand'Albanian language_cell_10_6_2 dorë 'hand'Albanian language_cell_10_6_3
*aAlbanian language_cell_10_7_0 aAlbanian language_cell_10_7_1 *bʰaḱeh₂ 'bean'Albanian language_cell_10_7_2 bathë 'bean'Albanian language_cell_10_7_3
Albanian language_cell_10_8_0 eAlbanian language_cell_10_8_1 *h₂élbʰit 'barley'Albanian language_cell_10_8_2 elb 'barley'Albanian language_cell_10_8_3
*oAlbanian language_cell_10_9_0 aAlbanian language_cell_10_9_1 *gʰórdʰos 'enclosure'Albanian language_cell_10_9_2 gardh 'fence'Albanian language_cell_10_9_3
Albanian language_cell_10_10_0 eAlbanian language_cell_10_10_1 *h₂oḱtōtis 'eight'Albanian language_cell_10_10_2 tetë 'eight'Albanian language_cell_10_10_3
*uAlbanian language_cell_10_11_0 uAlbanian language_cell_10_11_1 *súpnom 'sleep'Albanian language_cell_10_11_2 gjumë 'sleep'Albanian language_cell_10_11_3
*ū < *uHAlbanian language_cell_10_12_0 yAlbanian language_cell_10_12_1 *suHsos 'grandfather'Albanian language_cell_10_12_2 gjysh 'grandfather'Albanian language_cell_10_12_3
Albanian language_cell_10_13_0 iAlbanian language_cell_10_13_1 *muh₂s 'mouse'Albanian language_cell_10_13_2 mi 'mouse'Albanian language_cell_10_13_3

Standard Albanian Albanian language_section_13

Since World War II, standard Albanian used in Albania has been based on the Tosk dialect. Albanian language_sentence_131

Kosovo and other areas where Albanian is official adopted the Tosk standard in 1969. Albanian language_sentence_132

Elbasan-based standard Albanian language_section_14

Until the early 20th century, Albanian writing developed in three main literary traditions: Gheg, Tosk, and Arbëreshë. Albanian language_sentence_133

Throughout this time, an intermediate subdialect spoken around Elbasan served as lingua franca among the Albanians, but was less prevalent in writing. Albanian language_sentence_134

The Congress of Manastir of Albanian writers held in 1908 recommended the use of the Elbasan subdialect for literary purposes and as a basis of a unified national language. Albanian language_sentence_135

While technically classified as a southern Gheg variety, the Elbasan speech is closer to Tosk in phonology and practically a hybrid between other Gheg subdialects and literary Tosk. Albanian language_sentence_136

Between 1916 and 1918, the Albanian Literary Commission met in Shkodër under the leadership of Luigj Gurakuqi with the purpose of establishing a unified orthography for the language. Albanian language_sentence_137

The commission, made up of representatives from the north and south of Albania, reaffirmed the Elbasan subdialect as the basis of a national tongue. Albanian language_sentence_138

The rules published in 1917 defined spelling for the Elbasan variety for official purposes. Albanian language_sentence_139

The Commission did not, however, discourage publications in one of the dialects, but rather laid a foundation for Gheg and Tosk to gradually converge into one. Albanian language_sentence_140

When the Congress of Lushnje met in the aftermath of World War I to form a new Albanian government, the 1917 decisions of the Literary Commission were upheld. Albanian language_sentence_141

The Elbasan subdialect remained in use for administrative purposes and many new writers embraced for creative writing. Albanian language_sentence_142

Gheg and Tosk continued to develop freely and interaction between the two dialects increased. Albanian language_sentence_143

Tosk standard Albanian language_section_15

Further information: Albanian Orthography Congress Albanian language_sentence_144

At the end of World War II, however, the new communist regime radically imposed the use of the Tosk dialect in all facets of life in Albania: administration, education, and literature. Albanian language_sentence_145

Most Communist leaders were Tosks from the south. Albanian language_sentence_146

Standardisation was directed by the Albanian Institute of Linguistics and Literature of the Academy of Sciences of Albania. Albanian language_sentence_147

Two dictionaries were published in 1954: an Albanian language dictionary and a Russian–Albanian dictionary. Albanian language_sentence_148

New orthography rules were eventually published in 1967 and 1973 Drejtshkrimi i gjuhës shqipe (Orthography of the Albanian Language). Albanian language_sentence_149

Until 1968, Kosovo and other Albanian-speaking areas in Yugoslavia followed the 1917 standard based on the Elbasan dialect, though it was gradually infused with Gheg elements in an effort to develop a Kosovan language separate from communist Albania's Tosk-based standard. Albanian language_sentence_150

Albanian intellectuals in the former Yugoslavia consolidated the 1917 twice in the 1950s, culminating with a thorough codification of orthographic rules in 1964. Albanian language_sentence_151

The rules already provided for a balanced variety that accounted for both Gheg and Tosk dialects, but only lasted through 1968. Albanian language_sentence_152

Viewing divergences with Albania as a threat to their identity, Kosovars arbitrarily adopted the Tosk project that Tirana had published the year before. Albanian language_sentence_153

Although it was never intended to serve outside of Albania, the project became the "unified literary language" in 1972, when approved by a rubberstamp Orthography Congress. Albanian language_sentence_154

Only about 1 in 9 participants were from Kosovo. Albanian language_sentence_155

The Congress, held at Tirana, authorized the orthography rules that came out the following year, in 1973. Albanian language_sentence_156

More recent dictionaries from the Albanian government are Fjalori Drejtshkrimor i Gjuhës Shqipe (1976) (Orthographic Dictionary of the Albanian Language) and Dictionary of Today's Albanian language (Fjalori Gjuhës së Sotme Shqipe) (1980). Albanian language_sentence_157

Prior to World War II, dictionaries consulted by developers of the standard have included Lexikon tis Alvanikis glossis (Albanian: Fjalori i Gjuhës Shqipe (Kostandin Kristoforidhi, 1904), Fjalori i Bashkimit (1908), and Fjalori i Gazullit (1941). Albanian language_sentence_158

Calls for reform Albanian language_section_16

Since the fall of the communist regime, Albanian orthography has stirred heated debate among scholars, writers, and public opinion in Albania and Kosovo, with hardliners opposed to any changes in the orthography, moderates supporting varying degrees of reform, and radicals calling for a return to the Elbasan dialect. Albanian language_sentence_159

Criticism of Standard Albanian has centred on the exclusion of the 'me+' infinitive and the Gheg lexicon. Albanian language_sentence_160

Critics say that Standard Albanian disenfranchises and stigmatises Gheg speakers, affecting the quality of writing and impairing effective public communication. Albanian language_sentence_161

Supporters of the Tosk standard view the 1972 Congress as a milestone achievement in Albanian history and dismiss calls for reform as efforts to "divide the nation" or "create two languages." Albanian language_sentence_162

Moderates, who are especially prevalent in Kosovo, generally stress the need for a unified Albanian language, but believe that the 'me+' infinitive and Gheg words should be included. Albanian language_sentence_163

Proponents of the Elbasan dialect have been vocal, but have gathered little support in the public opinion. Albanian language_sentence_164

In general, those involved in the language debate come from diverse backgrounds and there is no significant correlation between one's political views, geographic origin, and position on Standard Albanian. Albanian language_sentence_165

Many writers continue to write in the Elbasan dialect but other Gheg variants have found much more limited use in literature. Albanian language_sentence_166

Most publications adhere to a strict policy of not accepting submissions that are not written in Tosk. Albanian language_sentence_167

Some print media even translate direct speech, replacing the 'me+' infinitive with other verb forms and making other changes in grammar and word choice. Albanian language_sentence_168

Even authors who have published in the Elbasan dialect will frequently write in the Tosk standard. Albanian language_sentence_169

In 2013, a group of academics for Albania and Kosovo proposed minor changes to the orthography. Albanian language_sentence_170

Hardline academics boycotted the initiative, while other reformers have viewed it as well-intentioned but flawed and superficial. Albanian language_sentence_171

Media such as Rrokum and Java have offered content that is almost exclusively in the Elbasan dialect. Albanian language_sentence_172

Meanwhile, author and linguist Agim Morina has promoted Shqipe e Përbashkët or Common Albanian, a neostandard or a reformed version of the Tosk standard that aims at reflecting the natural development of the language among all Albanians. Albanian language_sentence_173

Common Albanian incorporates the 'me+' infinitive, accommodates for Gheg features, provides for dialect-neutral rules that favor simplicity, predictability, and usage trends. Albanian language_sentence_174

Many modern writers have embraced Common Albanian to various extents, especially in less formal writing. Albanian language_sentence_175

Education Albanian language_section_17

Albanian is the medium of instruction in most Albanian schools. Albanian language_sentence_176

The literacy rate in Albania for the total population, age 9 or older, is about 99%. Albanian language_sentence_177

Elementary education is compulsory (grades 1–9), but most students continue at least until a secondary education. Albanian language_sentence_178

Students must pass graduation exams at the end of the 9th grade and at the end of the 12th grade in order to continue their education. Albanian language_sentence_179

Phonology Albanian language_section_18

Standard Albanian has seven vowels and 29 consonants. Albanian language_sentence_180

Like English, Albanian has dental fricatives /θ/ (like the th in thin) and /ð/ (like the th in this), written as th and dh, which are rare cross-linguistically. Albanian language_sentence_181

Gheg uses long and nasal vowels, which are absent in Tosk, and the mid-central vowel ë is lost at the end of the word. Albanian language_sentence_182

The stress is fixed mainly on the last syllable. Albanian language_sentence_183

Gheg n (femën: compare English feminine) changes to r by rhotacism in Tosk (femër). Albanian language_sentence_184

Consonants Albanian language_section_19

Albanian language_table_general_11

IPAAlbanian language_header_cell_11_0_0 DescriptionAlbanian language_header_cell_11_0_1 Written asAlbanian language_header_cell_11_0_2 English approximationAlbanian language_header_cell_11_0_3
mAlbanian language_cell_11_1_0 Bilabial nasalAlbanian language_cell_11_1_1 mAlbanian language_cell_11_1_2 manAlbanian language_cell_11_1_3
nAlbanian language_cell_11_2_0 Alveolar nasalAlbanian language_cell_11_2_1 nAlbanian language_cell_11_2_2 notAlbanian language_cell_11_2_3
ɲAlbanian language_cell_11_3_0 Palatal nasalAlbanian language_cell_11_3_1 njAlbanian language_cell_11_3_2 ~onionAlbanian language_cell_11_3_3
ŋAlbanian language_cell_11_4_0 Velar nasalAlbanian language_cell_11_4_1 ngAlbanian language_cell_11_4_2 bangAlbanian language_cell_11_4_3
pAlbanian language_cell_11_5_0 Voiceless bilabial plosiveAlbanian language_cell_11_5_1 pAlbanian language_cell_11_5_2 spinAlbanian language_cell_11_5_3
bAlbanian language_cell_11_6_0 Voiced bilabial plosiveAlbanian language_cell_11_6_1 bAlbanian language_cell_11_6_2 batAlbanian language_cell_11_6_3
tAlbanian language_cell_11_7_0 Voiceless alveolar plosiveAlbanian language_cell_11_7_1 tAlbanian language_cell_11_7_2 standAlbanian language_cell_11_7_3
dAlbanian language_cell_11_8_0 Voiced alveolar plosiveAlbanian language_cell_11_8_1 dAlbanian language_cell_11_8_2 debtAlbanian language_cell_11_8_3
kAlbanian language_cell_11_9_0 Voiceless velar plosiveAlbanian language_cell_11_9_1 kAlbanian language_cell_11_9_2 scarAlbanian language_cell_11_9_3
ɡAlbanian language_cell_11_10_0 Voiced velar plosiveAlbanian language_cell_11_10_1 gAlbanian language_cell_11_10_2 goAlbanian language_cell_11_10_3
t͡sAlbanian language_cell_11_11_0 Voiceless alveolar affricateAlbanian language_cell_11_11_1 cAlbanian language_cell_11_11_2 hatsAlbanian language_cell_11_11_3
d͡zAlbanian language_cell_11_12_0 Voiced alveolar affricateAlbanian language_cell_11_12_1 xAlbanian language_cell_11_12_2 goodsAlbanian language_cell_11_12_3
t͡ʃAlbanian language_cell_11_13_0 Voiceless postalveolar affricateAlbanian language_cell_11_13_1 çAlbanian language_cell_11_13_2 chinAlbanian language_cell_11_13_3
d͡ʒAlbanian language_cell_11_14_0 Voiced postalveolar affricateAlbanian language_cell_11_14_1 xhAlbanian language_cell_11_14_2 jetAlbanian language_cell_11_14_3
c͡çAlbanian language_cell_11_15_0 Voiceless palatal affricateAlbanian language_cell_11_15_1 qAlbanian language_cell_11_15_2 ~cuteAlbanian language_cell_11_15_3
ɟ͡ʝAlbanian language_cell_11_16_0 Voiced palatal affricateAlbanian language_cell_11_16_1 gjAlbanian language_cell_11_16_2 ~gearAlbanian language_cell_11_16_3
fAlbanian language_cell_11_17_0 Voiceless labiodental fricativeAlbanian language_cell_11_17_1 fAlbanian language_cell_11_17_2 farAlbanian language_cell_11_17_3
vAlbanian language_cell_11_18_0 Voiced labiodental fricativeAlbanian language_cell_11_18_1 vAlbanian language_cell_11_18_2 vanAlbanian language_cell_11_18_3
θAlbanian language_cell_11_19_0 Voiceless dental fricativeAlbanian language_cell_11_19_1 thAlbanian language_cell_11_19_2 thinAlbanian language_cell_11_19_3
ðAlbanian language_cell_11_20_0 Voiced dental fricativeAlbanian language_cell_11_20_1 dhAlbanian language_cell_11_20_2 thenAlbanian language_cell_11_20_3
sAlbanian language_cell_11_21_0 Voiceless alveolar fricativeAlbanian language_cell_11_21_1 sAlbanian language_cell_11_21_2 sonAlbanian language_cell_11_21_3
zAlbanian language_cell_11_22_0 Voiced alveolar fricativeAlbanian language_cell_11_22_1 zAlbanian language_cell_11_22_2 zipAlbanian language_cell_11_22_3
ʃAlbanian language_cell_11_23_0 Voiceless postalveolar fricativeAlbanian language_cell_11_23_1 shAlbanian language_cell_11_23_2 showAlbanian language_cell_11_23_3
ʒAlbanian language_cell_11_24_0 Voiced postalveolar fricativeAlbanian language_cell_11_24_1 zhAlbanian language_cell_11_24_2 visionAlbanian language_cell_11_24_3
hAlbanian language_cell_11_25_0 Voiceless glottal fricativeAlbanian language_cell_11_25_1 hAlbanian language_cell_11_25_2 hatAlbanian language_cell_11_25_3
rAlbanian language_cell_11_26_0 Alveolar trillAlbanian language_cell_11_26_1 rrAlbanian language_cell_11_26_2 Spanish perroAlbanian language_cell_11_26_3
ɾAlbanian language_cell_11_27_0 Alveolar tapAlbanian language_cell_11_27_1 rAlbanian language_cell_11_27_2 Spanish peroAlbanian language_cell_11_27_3
lAlbanian language_cell_11_28_0 Alveolar lateral approximantAlbanian language_cell_11_28_1 lAlbanian language_cell_11_28_2 leanAlbanian language_cell_11_28_3
ɫAlbanian language_cell_11_29_0 Velarized alveolar lateral approximantAlbanian language_cell_11_29_1 llAlbanian language_cell_11_29_2 ballAlbanian language_cell_11_29_3
jAlbanian language_cell_11_30_0 Palatal approximantAlbanian language_cell_11_30_1 jAlbanian language_cell_11_30_2 yesAlbanian language_cell_11_30_3

Notes: Albanian language_sentence_185

Albanian language_unordered_list_0

  • The contrast between flapped r and trilled rr is the same as in Spanish or Armenian. In most of the dialects, as also in standard Albanian, the single "r" changes from an alveolar flap /ɾ/ into a retroflex flap [ɽ], or even an alveolar approximant [ɹ] when it is at the end of a word.Albanian language_item_0_0
  • The palatal nasal /ɲ/ corresponds to the Spanish ñ and the French and Italian gn. It is pronounced as one sound, not a nasal plus a glide.Albanian language_item_0_1
  • The ll sound is a velarised lateral, close to English dark L.Albanian language_item_0_2
  • The letter ç is sometimes written ch due to technical limitations because of its use in English sound and its analogy to the other digraphs xh, sh, and zh. Usually it is written simply c or more rarely q with context resolving any ambiguities.Albanian language_item_0_3
  • The position of q and gj sound is not clear. Many speakers merge them into the palatoalveolar sounds ç and xh. This is especially common in Northern Gheg, but is increasingly the case in Tosk as well. Other speakers reduced them into /j/ in consonant clusters, such as in the word fjollë, which before standardisation was written as fqollë ( < Medieval Greek φακιολης).Albanian language_item_0_4
  • The ng can pronounced as /ŋ/ in final position, otherwise is an allophone of n before k and g.Albanian language_item_0_5
  • Before q and gj, the n is always pronounced /ɲ/ but this is not reflected in the orthography.Albanian language_item_0_6
  • /θ, ð, ɫ/ are interdental.Albanian language_item_0_7

Vowels Albanian language_section_20

Albanian language_table_general_12

Albanian language_header_cell_12_0_0 FrontAlbanian language_header_cell_12_0_1 CentralAlbanian language_header_cell_12_0_2 BackAlbanian language_header_cell_12_0_3
CloseAlbanian language_header_cell_12_1_0 i yAlbanian language_cell_12_1_1 Albanian language_cell_12_1_2 uAlbanian language_cell_12_1_3
Open-mid / MidAlbanian language_header_cell_12_2_0 ɛAlbanian language_cell_12_2_1 əAlbanian language_cell_12_2_2 ɔAlbanian language_cell_12_2_3
OpenAlbanian language_header_cell_12_3_0 Albanian language_cell_12_3_1 aAlbanian language_cell_12_3_2 Albanian language_cell_12_3_3

Albanian language_table_general_13

IPAAlbanian language_header_cell_13_0_0 DescriptionAlbanian language_header_cell_13_0_1 Written asAlbanian language_header_cell_13_0_2 English approximationAlbanian language_header_cell_13_0_3
iAlbanian language_cell_13_1_0 Close front unrounded vowelAlbanian language_cell_13_1_1 iAlbanian language_cell_13_1_2 seedAlbanian language_cell_13_1_3
yAlbanian language_cell_13_2_0 Close front rounded vowelAlbanian language_cell_13_2_1 yAlbanian language_cell_13_2_2 French tu, German LügeAlbanian language_cell_13_2_3
ɛAlbanian language_cell_13_3_0 Open-mid front unrounded vowelAlbanian language_cell_13_3_1 eAlbanian language_cell_13_3_2 bedAlbanian language_cell_13_3_3
aAlbanian language_cell_13_4_0 Open central unrounded vowelAlbanian language_cell_13_4_1 aAlbanian language_cell_13_4_2 cowAlbanian language_cell_13_4_3
əAlbanian language_cell_13_5_0 SchwaAlbanian language_cell_13_5_1 ëAlbanian language_cell_13_5_2 about, theAlbanian language_cell_13_5_3
ɔAlbanian language_cell_13_6_0 Open-mid back rounded vowelAlbanian language_cell_13_6_1 oAlbanian language_cell_13_6_2 lawAlbanian language_cell_13_6_3
uAlbanian language_cell_13_7_0 Close back rounded vowelAlbanian language_cell_13_7_1 uAlbanian language_cell_13_7_2 bootAlbanian language_cell_13_7_3

Schwa Albanian language_section_21

Although the Indo-European schwa (ə or -h2-) was preserved in Albanian, in some cases it was lost, possibly when a stressed syllable preceded it. Albanian language_sentence_186

Until the standardisation of the modern Albanian alphabet, in which the schwa is spelled as ë, as in the work of Gjon Buzuku in the 16th century, various vowels and gliding vowels were employed, including ae by Lekë Matrënga and é by Pjetër Bogdani in the late 16th and early 17th century. Albanian language_sentence_187

The schwa in Albanian has a great degree of variability from extreme back to extreme front articulation. Albanian language_sentence_188

Within the borders of Albania, the phoneme is pronounced about the same in both the Tosk and the Gheg dialect due to the influence of standard Albanian. Albanian language_sentence_189

However, in the Gheg dialects spoken in the neighbouring Albanian-speaking areas of Kosovo and North Macedonia, the phoneme is still pronounced as back and rounded. Albanian language_sentence_190

Grammar Albanian language_section_22

See also: Albanian morphology Albanian language_sentence_191

Albanian has a canonical word order of SVO (subject–verb–object) like English and many other Indo-European languages. Albanian language_sentence_192

Albanian nouns are categorised by gender (masculine, feminine and neuter) and inflected for number (singular and plural) and case. Albanian language_sentence_193

There are five declensions and six cases (nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative, and vocative), although the vocative only occurs with a limited number of words, and the forms of the genitive and dative are identical (a genitive is produced when the prepositions i/e/të/së are used with the dative). Albanian language_sentence_194

Some dialects also retain a locative case, which is not present in standard Albanian. Albanian language_sentence_195

The cases apply to both definite and indefinite nouns, and there are numerous cases of syncretism. Albanian language_sentence_196

The following shows the declension of mal (mountain), a masculine noun which takes "i" in the definite singular: Albanian language_sentence_197

Albanian language_table_general_14

Albanian language_header_cell_14_0_0 Indefinite singularAlbanian language_header_cell_14_0_1 Indefinite pluralAlbanian language_header_cell_14_0_2 Definite singularAlbanian language_header_cell_14_0_3 Definite pluralAlbanian language_header_cell_14_0_4
NominativeAlbanian language_cell_14_1_0 një mal (a mountain)Albanian language_cell_14_1_1 male (mountains)Albanian language_cell_14_1_2 mali (the mountain)Albanian language_cell_14_1_3 malet (the mountains)Albanian language_cell_14_1_4
AccusativeAlbanian language_cell_14_2_0 një malAlbanian language_cell_14_2_1 maleAlbanian language_cell_14_2_2 malinAlbanian language_cell_14_2_3 maletAlbanian language_cell_14_2_4
GenitiveAlbanian language_cell_14_3_0 i/e/të/së një maliAlbanian language_cell_14_3_1 i/e/të/së maleveAlbanian language_cell_14_3_2 i/e/të/së malitAlbanian language_cell_14_3_3 i/e/të/së maleveAlbanian language_cell_14_3_4
DativeAlbanian language_cell_14_4_0 një maliAlbanian language_cell_14_4_1 maleveAlbanian language_cell_14_4_2 malitAlbanian language_cell_14_4_3 maleveAlbanian language_cell_14_4_4
AblativeAlbanian language_cell_14_5_0 (prej) një maliAlbanian language_cell_14_5_1 (prej) maleshAlbanian language_cell_14_5_2 (prej) malitAlbanian language_cell_14_5_3 (prej) maleveAlbanian language_cell_14_5_4

The following shows the declension of the masculine noun zog (bird), a masculine noun which takes "u" in the definite singular: Albanian language_sentence_198

Albanian language_table_general_15

Albanian language_header_cell_15_0_0 Indefinite singularAlbanian language_header_cell_15_0_1 Indefinite pluralAlbanian language_header_cell_15_0_2 Definite singularAlbanian language_header_cell_15_0_3 Definite pluralAlbanian language_header_cell_15_0_4
NominativeAlbanian language_cell_15_1_0 një zog (a bird)Albanian language_cell_15_1_1 zogj (birds)Albanian language_cell_15_1_2 zogu (the bird)Albanian language_cell_15_1_3 zogjtë (the birds)Albanian language_cell_15_1_4
AccusativeAlbanian language_cell_15_2_0 një zogAlbanian language_cell_15_2_1 zogjAlbanian language_cell_15_2_2 zogunAlbanian language_cell_15_2_3 zogjtëAlbanian language_cell_15_2_4
GenitiveAlbanian language_cell_15_3_0 i/e/të/së një zoguAlbanian language_cell_15_3_1 i/e/të/së zogjveAlbanian language_cell_15_3_2 i/e/të/së zogutAlbanian language_cell_15_3_3 i/e/të/së zogjveAlbanian language_cell_15_3_4
DativeAlbanian language_cell_15_4_0 një zoguAlbanian language_cell_15_4_1 zogjveAlbanian language_cell_15_4_2 zogutAlbanian language_cell_15_4_3 zogjveAlbanian language_cell_15_4_4
AblativeAlbanian language_cell_15_5_0 (prej) një zoguAlbanian language_cell_15_5_1 (prej) zogjshAlbanian language_cell_15_5_2 (prej) zogutAlbanian language_cell_15_5_3 (prej) zogjveAlbanian language_cell_15_5_4

The following table shows the declension of the feminine noun vajzë (girl): Albanian language_sentence_199

Albanian language_table_general_16

Albanian language_header_cell_16_0_0 Indefinite singularAlbanian language_header_cell_16_0_1 Indefinite pluralAlbanian language_header_cell_16_0_2 Definite singularAlbanian language_header_cell_16_0_3 Definite pluralAlbanian language_header_cell_16_0_4
NominativeAlbanian language_cell_16_1_0 një vajzë (a girl)Albanian language_cell_16_1_1 vajza (girls)Albanian language_cell_16_1_2 vajza (the girl)Albanian language_cell_16_1_3 vajzat (the girls)Albanian language_cell_16_1_4
AccusativeAlbanian language_cell_16_2_0 një vajzëAlbanian language_cell_16_2_1 vajzaAlbanian language_cell_16_2_2 vajzënAlbanian language_cell_16_2_3 vajzatAlbanian language_cell_16_2_4
GenitiveAlbanian language_cell_16_3_0 i/e/të/së një vajzeAlbanian language_cell_16_3_1 i/e/të/së vajzaveAlbanian language_cell_16_3_2 i/e/të/së vajzësAlbanian language_cell_16_3_3 i/e/të/së vajzaveAlbanian language_cell_16_3_4
DativeAlbanian language_cell_16_4_0 një vajzeAlbanian language_cell_16_4_1 vajzaveAlbanian language_cell_16_4_2 vajzësAlbanian language_cell_16_4_3 vajzaveAlbanian language_cell_16_4_4
AblativeAlbanian language_cell_16_5_0 (prej) një vajzeAlbanian language_cell_16_5_1 (prej) vajzashAlbanian language_cell_16_5_2 (prej) vajzësAlbanian language_cell_16_5_3 (prej) vajzaveAlbanian language_cell_16_5_4

The definite article is placed after the noun as in many other Balkan languages, like in Romanian, Macedonian and Bulgarian. Albanian language_sentence_200

Albanian language_unordered_list_1

  • The definite article can be in the form of noun suffixes, which vary with gender and case.Albanian language_item_1_8
    • For example, in singular nominative, masculine nouns add -i, or those ending in -g/-k/-h take -u (to avoid palatalization):Albanian language_item_1_9
      • mal (mountain) / mali (the mountain);Albanian language_item_1_10
      • libër (book) / libri (the book);Albanian language_item_1_11
      • zog (bird) / zogu (the bird).Albanian language_item_1_12
    • Feminine nouns take the suffix -(i/j)a:Albanian language_item_1_13
      • veturë (car) / vetura (the car);Albanian language_item_1_14
      • shtëpi (house) / shtëpia (the house);Albanian language_item_1_15
      • lule (flower) / lulja (the flower).Albanian language_item_1_16
  • Neuter nouns take -t.Albanian language_item_1_17

Albanian has developed an analytical verbal structure in place of the earlier synthetic system, inherited from Proto-Indo-European. Albanian language_sentence_201

Its complex system of moods (six types) and tenses (three simple and five complex constructions) is distinctive among Balkan languages. Albanian language_sentence_202

There are two general types of conjugations. Albanian language_sentence_203

Albanian verbs, like those of other Balkan languages, have an "admirative" mood (mënyra habitore) that is used to indicate surprise on the part of the speaker or to imply that an event is known to the speaker by report and not by direct observation. Albanian language_sentence_204

In some contexts, this mood can be translated using English "apparently". Albanian language_sentence_205

Albanian language_unordered_list_2

  • Ti flet shqip. "You speak Albanian." (indicative)Albanian language_item_2_18
  • Ti fliske shqip! "You (surprisingly) speak Albanian!" (admirative)Albanian language_item_2_19
  • Rruga është e mbyllur. "The street is closed." (indicative)Albanian language_item_2_20
  • Rruga qenka e mbyllur. "(Apparently,) The street is closed." (admirative)Albanian language_item_2_21

For more information on verb conjugation and on inflection of other parts of speech, see Albanian morphology. Albanian language_sentence_206

Word order Albanian language_section_23

Albanian word order is relatively free. Albanian language_sentence_207

To say 'Agim ate all the oranges' in Albanian, one may use any of the following orders, with slight pragmatic differences: Albanian language_sentence_208

Albanian language_unordered_list_3

  • SVO: Agimi i hëngri të gjithë portokallët.Albanian language_item_3_22
  • SOV: Agimi të gjithë portokallët i hëngri.Albanian language_item_3_23
  • OVS: Të gjithë portokallët i hëngri Agimi.Albanian language_item_3_24
  • OSV: Të gjithë portokallët Agimi i hëngri.Albanian language_item_3_25
  • VSO: I hëngri Agimi të gjithë portokallët.Albanian language_item_3_26
  • VOS: I hëngri të gjithë portokallët Agimi.Albanian language_item_3_27

However, the most common order is subject–verb–object. Albanian language_sentence_209

The verb can optionally occur in sentence-initial position, especially with verbs in the non-active form (forma joveprore): Albanian language_sentence_210

Albanian language_unordered_list_4

  • Parashikohet një ndërprerje "An interruption is anticipated".Albanian language_item_4_28

Negation Albanian language_section_24

Verbal negation in Albanian is mood-dependent, a trait shared with some fellow Indo-European languages such as Greek. Albanian language_sentence_211

In indicative, conditional, or admirative sentences, negation is expressed by the particles nuk or s' in front of the verb, for example: Albanian language_sentence_212

Albanian language_unordered_list_5

  • Toni nuk flet anglisht "Tony does not speak English";Albanian language_item_5_29
  • Toni s'flet anglisht "Tony doesn't speak English";Albanian language_item_5_30
  • Nuk e di "I do not know";Albanian language_item_5_31
  • S'e di "I don't know".Albanian language_item_5_32

Subjunctive, imperative, optative, or non-finite forms of verbs are negated with the particle mos: Albanian language_sentence_213

Albanian language_unordered_list_6

  • Mos harro "do not forget!".Albanian language_item_6_33

Numerals Albanian language_section_25

Literary tradition Albanian language_section_26

Earliest undisputed texts Albanian language_section_27

The earliest known texts in Albanian: Albanian language_sentence_214

Albanian language_unordered_list_7

  • the "formula e pagëzimit" (Baptismal Formula), which dates back to 1462 and was authored by Pal Engjëlli (or Paulus Angelus) (c. 1417 – 1470), Archbishop of Durrës. Engjëlli was a close friend and counsellor of Skanderbeg. It was written in a pastoral letter for a synod at the Holy Trinity in Mat and read in Latin characters as follows: Unte paghesont premenit Atit et Birit et Spertit Senit (standard Albanian: "Unë të pagëzoj në emër të Atit, të Birit e të Shpirtit të Shenjtë"; English: "I baptise you in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit"). It was discovered and published in 1915 by Nicolae Iorga.Albanian language_item_7_34
  • the Fjalori i Arnold von Harfit (Arnold Ritter von Harff's lexicon), a short list of Albanian phrases with German glosses, dated 1496.Albanian language_item_7_35
  • a song, recorded in the Greek alphabet, retrieved from an old codex that was written in Greek. The document is also called "Perikopeja e Ungjillit të Pashkëve" or "Perikopeja e Ungjillit të Shën Mateut" ("The Song of the Easter Gospel, or "The Song of Saint Matthew's Gospel"). Although the codex is dated to during the 14th century, the song, written in Albanian by an anonymous writer, seems to be a 16th-century writing. The document was found by Arbëreshë people who had emigrated to Italy in the 15th century.Albanian language_item_7_36
  • The first book in Albanian is the Meshari ("The Missal"), written by Gjon Buzuku between 20 March 1554 and 5 January 1555. The book was written in the Gheg dialect in the Latin script with some Slavic letters adapted for Albanian vowels. The book was discovered in 1740 by Gjon Nikollë Kazazi, the Albanian archbishop of Skopje. It contains the liturgies of the main holidays. There are also texts of prayers and rituals and catechetical texts. The grammar and the vocabulary are more archaic than those in the Gheg texts from the 17th century. The 188 pages of the book comprise about 154,000 words with a total vocabulary of c. 1,500 different words. The text is archaic yet easily interpreted because it is mainly a translation of known texts, in particular portions of the Bible. The book also contains passages from the Psalms, the Book of Isaiah, the Book of Jeremiah, the Letters to the Corinthians, and many illustrations. The uniformity of spelling seems to indicate an earlier tradition of writing. The only known copy of the Meshari is held by the Apostolic Library. In 1968 the book was published with transliterations and comments by linguists.Albanian language_item_7_37

Albanian scripts were produced earlier than the first attested document, "formula e pagëzimit", but none yet have been discovered. Albanian language_sentence_215

We know of their existence by earlier references. Albanian language_sentence_216

For example, a French monk signed as "Broccardus" notes, in 1332, that "Although the Albanians have another language totally different from Latin, they still use Latin letters in all their books". Albanian language_sentence_217

Disputed earlier texts Albanian language_section_28

In 1967 two scholars claimed to have found a brief text in Albanian inserted into the Bellifortis text, a book written in Latin dating to 1402–1405. Albanian language_sentence_218

Dr. Robert Elsie, a specialist in Albanian studies, considers that "The Todericiu/Polena Romanian translation of the non-Latin lines, although it may offer some clues if the text is indeed Albanian, is fanciful and based, among other things, on a false reading of the manuscript, including the exclusion of a whole line." Albanian language_sentence_219

Ottoman period Albanian language_section_29

In 1635, Frang Bardhi (1606–1643) published in Rome his Dictionarum latinum-epiroticum, the first known Latin-Albanian dictionary. Albanian language_sentence_220

Other scholars who studied the language during the 17th century include Andrea Bogdani (1600–1685), author of the first Latin-Albanian grammar book, Nilo Katalanos (1637–1694) and others. Albanian language_sentence_221

Lexicon Albanian language_section_30

Albanian is known within historical linguistics as a case of a language which, although surviving through many periods of foreign rule and multilingualism, saw a "disproportionately high" influx of loans from other languages augmenting and replacing much of its original vocabulary. Albanian language_sentence_222

Some scholars suggest that Albanian seems to have lost more than 90% of its original vocabulary in favour of Latin, Greek, Slavic, Italian and Turkish loanwords, but according to other scholars this percentage is definitely overstated. Albanian language_sentence_223

Of all the foreign influences in Albanian, the deepest reaching and most impactful was the absorption of loans from Latin in the Classical period and its Romance successors afterward, with over 60% of Albanian vocabulary consisting of Latin roots, causing Albanian to once have been mistakenly identified as a Romance language. Albanian language_sentence_224

Major work in reconstructing Proto-Albanian has been done with the help of knowledge of the original forms of loans from Ancient Greek, Latin and Slavic, while Ancient Greek loanwords are scarce the Latin loanwords are of extreme importance in phonology. Albanian language_sentence_225

The presence of loanwords from more well-studied languages from time periods before Albanian was attested, reaching deep back into the Classical Era, has been of great use in phonological reconstructions for earlier ancient and medieval forms of Albanian. Albanian language_sentence_226

Some words in the core vocabulary of Albanian have no known etymology linking them to Proto-Indo-European or any known source language, and as of 2018 are thus tentatively attributed to an unknown, unattested, pre-Indo-European substrate language; some words among these include zemër (heart) and hekur (iron). Albanian language_sentence_227

Some among these putative pre-IE words are thought to be related to putative pre-IE substrate words in neighboring Indo-European languages, such as lule (flower), which has been tentatively linked to Latin lilia and Greek leirion. Albanian language_sentence_228

Lexical distance of Albanian in a lexicostatistical analysis of the Ukrainian linguist Tyshchenko (the lower figure – the higher similarity): 49% Slovenian, 53% Romanian, 56% Greek, 82% French, 86% Macedonian, 86% Bulgarian. Albanian language_sentence_229

Cognates with Illyrian Albanian language_section_31

See also: Illyrian languages Albanian language_sentence_230

Albanian language_unordered_list_8

  • Andena/Andes/Andio/Antis — personal Illyrian names based on a root-word and- or ant-, found in both the southern and the Dalmatian-Pannonian (including modern Bosnia and Herzegovina) onomastic provinces; cf. Alb. andë (northern Albanian dialect, or Gheg) and ëndë (southern Albanian dialect or Tosk) "appetite, pleasure, desire, wish"; Andi proper name, Andizetes, an Illyrian people inhabiting the Roman province of Panonia.Albanian language_item_8_38
  • aran "field"; cf. Alb. arë; plural araAlbanian language_item_8_39
  • Ardiaioi/Ardiaei, name of an Illyrian people, cf. Alb. ardhja "arrival" or "descent", connected to hardhi "vine-branch, grape-vine", with a sense development similar to Germanic *stamniz, meaning both stem, tree stalk and tribe, lineage. However, the insufficiency of this hypothesis is that so far there is no certainty as to the historical or etymological development of either ardhja/hardhi or Ardiaioi, as with many other words.Albanian language_item_8_40
  • Bilia "daughter"; cf. Alb. bijë, dial. bilëAlbanian language_item_8_41
  • Bindo/Bindus, an Illyrian deity from Bihać, Bosnia and Herzegovina; cf. Alb. bind "to convince" or "to make believe", përbindësh "monster".Albanian language_item_8_42
  • bounon, "hut, cottage"; cf. Alb bunAlbanian language_item_8_43
  • brisa, "husk of grapes"; cf. Alb bërsí "lees, dregs; mash" ( < PA *brutiā)Albanian language_item_8_44
  • Barba- "swamp", a toponym from Metubarbis; possibly related to Alb. bërrakë "swampy soil"Albanian language_item_8_45
  • can- "dog"; related to Alb. qenAlbanian language_item_8_46
  • Daesitiates, a name of an Illyrian people, cf. Alb. dash "ram", corresponding contextually with south Slavonic dasa "ace", which might represent a borrowing and adaptation from Illyrian (or some other ancient language).Albanian language_item_8_47
  • mal, "mountain"; cf. Alb malAlbanian language_item_8_48
  • bardi, "white"; cf. Alb bardhëAlbanian language_item_8_49
  • drakoina "supper"; cf. Alb. darke, drekeAlbanian language_item_8_50
  • drenis, "deer"; cf. Alb dre, dreniAlbanian language_item_8_51
  • delme "sheep"; cf. Alb dele, Gheg dialect delmeAlbanian language_item_8_52
  • dard, "pear"; cf. Alb dardhëAlbanian language_item_8_53
  • Hyllus (the name of an Illyrian king); cf. Alb. yll (hyll in some northern dialects) "star", also Alb. hyj "god", Ylli proper name.Albanian language_item_8_54
  • sīca, "dagger"; cf. Alb thikë or thika "knife"Albanian language_item_8_55
  • Ulc-, "wolf" (pln. Ulcinium); cf. Alb ujk "wolf", ulk (Northern Dialect)Albanian language_item_8_56
  • loúgeon, "pool"; cf. Alb lag, legen "to wet, soak, bathe, wash" ( < PA *lauga), lëgatë "pool" ( < PA *leugatâ), lakshte "dew" ( < PA laugista)Albanian language_item_8_57
  • mag- "great"; cf. Alb. i madh "big, great"Albanian language_item_8_58
  • mantía "bramblebush"; Old and dial. Alb mandë "berry, mulberry" (mod. Alb mën, man)Albanian language_item_8_59
  • rhinos, "fog, mist"; cf. Old Alb ren "cloud" (mod. Alb re, rê) ( < PA *rina)Albanian language_item_8_60
  • Vendum "place"; cf. Proto-Alb. wen-ta (Mod. Alb. vend)Albanian language_item_8_61

Early linguistic influences Albanian language_section_32

The earliest loanwords attested in Albanian come from Doric Greek, whereas the strongest influence came from Latin. Albanian language_sentence_231

According to Matthew C. Curtis, the loanwords do not necessarily indicate the geographical location of the ancestor of Albanian language. Albanian language_sentence_232

However, according to other linguists, the borrowed words can help to get an idea about the place of origin and the evolution of the Albanian language. Albanian language_sentence_233

Some scholars argue that Albanian originated from an area located east of its present geographic spread due to the several common lexical items found between the Albanian and Romanian languages. Albanian language_sentence_234

However it does not necessarily define the genealogical history of Albanian language, and it does not exclude the possibility of Proto-Albanian presence in both Illyrian and Thracian territory. Albanian language_sentence_235

The period during which Proto-Albanian and Latin interacted was protracted, lasting from the 2nd century BC to the 5th century AD. Albanian language_sentence_236

Over this period, the lexical borrowings can be roughly divided into three layers, the second of which is the largest. Albanian language_sentence_237

The first and smallest occurred at the time of less significant interaction. Albanian language_sentence_238

The final period, probably preceding the Slavic or Germanic invasions, also has a notably smaller number of borrowings. Albanian language_sentence_239

Each layer is characterised by a different treatment of most vowels: the first layer follows the evolution of Early Proto-Albanian into Albanian; while later layers reflect vowel changes endemic to Late Latin (and presumably Proto-Romance). Albanian language_sentence_240

Other formative changes include the syncretism of several noun case endings, especially in the plural, as well as a large-scale palatalisation. Albanian language_sentence_241

A brief period followed, between the 7th and the 9th centuries, that was marked by heavy borrowings from Southern Slavic, some of which predate the "o-a" shift common to the modern forms of this language group. Albanian language_sentence_242

Starting in the latter 9th century, there was a period characterised by protracted contact with the Proto-Romanians, or Vlachs, though lexical borrowing seems to have been mostly one sided: from Albanian into Romanian. Albanian language_sentence_243

Such borrowing indicates that the Romanians migrated from an area where the majority was Slavic (i.e. Middle Bulgarian) to an area with a majority of Albanian speakers (i.e. Dardania, where Vlachs are recorded in the 10th century). Albanian language_sentence_244

Their movement is presumably related to the expansion of the Bulgarian Empire into Albania around that time. Albanian language_sentence_245

Early Greek loans Albanian language_section_33

There are some 30 Ancient Greek loanwords in Albanian. Albanian language_sentence_246

Many of these reflect a dialect which voiced its aspirants, as did the Macedonian dialect. Albanian language_sentence_247

Other loanwords are Doric; these words mainly refer to commodity items and trade goods and probably came through trade with a now-extinct intermediary. Albanian language_sentence_248

Albanian language_unordered_list_9

  • bletë; "hive, bee" < Attic mélitta "bee" (vs. Ionic mélissa).Albanian language_item_9_62
  • drapër; "sickle" < (NW) drápanonAlbanian language_item_9_63
  • kumbull; "plum" < kokkúmelonAlbanian language_item_9_64
  • lakër; "cabbage, green vegetables" < láchanon "green; vegetable"Albanian language_item_9_65
  • lëpjetë; "orach, dock" < lápathonAlbanian language_item_9_66
  • leva (lyej); "to smear, oil" < *liwenj < *elaiwā < Gk elai(w)ṓn "oil"Albanian language_item_9_67
  • mokër; "millstone" < (NW) māchaná "device, instrument"Albanian language_item_9_68
  • mollë; "apple" < mēlon "fruit"Albanian language_item_9_69
  • pjepër; "melon" < pépōnAlbanian language_item_9_70
  • presh; "leek" < prásonAlbanian language_item_9_71
  • shpellë; "cave" < spḗlaionAlbanian language_item_9_72
  • trumzë; "thyme" < (NW) thýmbrā, thrýmbrēAlbanian language_item_9_73

Latin influence Albanian language_section_34

See also: Albanian-Romanian linguistic relationship Albanian language_sentence_249

In total Latin roots comprise over 60% of the Albanian lexicon. Albanian language_sentence_250

They include many frequently used core vocabulary items, including shumë ("very", from Latin summus), pak ("few", Latin paucus), ngushtë ("narrow", Latin angustus), pemë ("tree", Latin poma), vij ("to come", Latin venio), rërë ("sand", Latin arena), drejt ("straight", Latin "directus"), kafshë ("beast", Latin causa, meaning "thing"), and larg ("far away", Latin largus). Albanian language_sentence_251

Jernej Kopitar (1780–1844) was the first to note Latin's influence on Albanian and claimed "the Latin loanwords in the Albanian language had the pronunciation of the time of Emperor Augustus". Albanian language_sentence_252

Kopitar gave examples such as Albanian qiqer 'chickpea' from Latin cicer, qytet 'city, town' from civitas, peshk 'fish' from piscis, and shigjetë 'arrow' from sagitta. Albanian language_sentence_253

The hard pronunciations of Latin ⟨c⟩ and ⟨g⟩ are retained as palatal and velar stops in the Albanian loanwords. Albanian language_sentence_254

Gustav Meyer (1888) and Wilhelm Meyer-Lübke (1914) later corroborated this. Albanian language_sentence_255

Meyer noted the similarity between the Albanian verbs shqipoj "to speak clearly, enunciate" and shqiptoj "to pronounce, articulate" and the Latin word excipio (meaning "to welcome"). Albanian language_sentence_256

Therefore, he believed that the word Shqiptar "Albanian person" was derived from shqipoj, which in turn was derived from the Latin word excipere. Albanian language_sentence_257

Johann Georg von Hahn, an Austrian linguist, had proposed the same hypothesis in 1854. Albanian language_sentence_258

Eqrem Çabej also noticed, among other things, the archaic Latin elements in Albanian: Albanian language_sentence_259

Albanian language_ordered_list_10

  1. Latin /au/ becomes Albanian /a/ in the earliest loanwords: aurum → ar 'gold'; gaudium → gaz 'joy'; laurus → lar 'laurel'. Latin /au/ is retained in later loans, but is altered in a way similar to Greek: causa 'thing' → kafshë 'thing; beast, brute'; laud → lavd.Albanian language_item_10_74
  2. Latin /oː/ becomes Albanian /e/ in the oldest Latin loans: pōmus → pemë 'fruit tree'; hōra → ora 'hour'. An analogous mutation occurred from Proto-Indo-European to Albanian; PIE *nōs became Albanian ne 'we', PIE *oḱtō + suffix -ti- became Albanian tetë 'eight', etc.Albanian language_item_10_75
  3. Latin unstressed internal and initial syllables become lost in Albanian: cubitus → kub 'elbow'; medicus → mjek 'physician'; palūdem 'swamp' → VL padūle → pyll 'forest'. An analogous mutation occurred from Proto-Indo-European to Albanian. In contrast, in later Latin loanwords, the internal syllable is retained: paganus → pagan; plaga → plagë 'wound', etc.Albanian language_item_10_76
  4. Latin /tj/, /dj/, /kj/ palatalized to Albanian /s/, /z/, /c/: vitium → ves 'vice; worries'; rationem → arsye 'reason'; radius → rreze 'ray; spoke'; facies → faqe 'face, cheek'; socius → shok 'mate, comrade', shoq 'husband', etc. In turn, Latin /s/ was altered to /ʃ/ in Albanian.Albanian language_item_10_77

Haralambie Mihăescu demonstrated that: Albanian language_sentence_260

Albanian language_unordered_list_11

  • Some 85 Latin words have survived in Albanian but not (as inherited) in any Romance language. A few examples include Late Latin celsydri → dial. kulshedër → kuçedër 'hydra', hībernus → vërri 'winter pasture', sarcinārius 'used for packing, loading' → shelqëror 'forked peg, grapnel, forked hanger', solanum 'nightshade', lit. 'sun plant' → shullë(r) 'sunny place out of the wind, sunbathed area', splēnēticus → shpretkë 'spleen', trifurcus → tërfurk 'pitchfork'.Albanian language_item_11_78
  • 151 Albanian words of Latin origin were not inherited in Romanian. A few examples include Latin amicus → Albanian mik 'friend', inimicus → armik 'foe, enemy', rationem → arsye, benedicere → bekoj, bubulcus 'ploughman, herdsman' → bulk, bujk 'peasant', calicis → qelq 'drinking glass', castellum → kështjellë 'castle', centum → qind 'hundred', gallus → gjel 'rooster', iunctūra → gjymtyrë 'limb; joint', medicus → mjek 'doctor', retem → rrjetë 'net', spērāre → dial. shp(ë)rej shpresoj 'to hope' pres 'await', voluntās (voluntātis) → vullnet 'will; volunteer'.Albanian language_item_11_79
  • Some Albanian church terminology has phonetic features which demonstrate their very early borrowing from Latin. A few examples include Albanian bekoj 'to bless' from benedīcere, engjëll 'angel' from angelus, kishë 'church' from ecclēsia, i krishterë 'Christian' from christiānus, kryq 'cross' from crux (crucis), (obsolete) lter 'altar' from Latin altārium, mallkoj 'to curse' from maledīcere, meshë 'mass' from missa, murg 'monk' from monacus, peshkëp 'bishop' from episcopus, and ungjill 'gospel' from ēvangelium.Albanian language_item_11_80

Other authors have detected Latin loanwords in Albanian with an ancient sound pattern from the 1st century BC, for example, Albanian qingël(ë) 'saddle girth; dwarf elder' from Latin cingula and Albanian e vjetër 'old, aged; former' from vjet but influenced by Latin veteris. Albanian language_sentence_261

The Romance languages inherited these words from Vulgar Latin: cingula became Romanian chinga 'girdle; saddle girth', and Vulgar Latin veterānus became Romanian bătrân 'old'. Albanian language_sentence_262

Albanian, Basque, and the surviving Celtic languages such as Breton and Welsh are the non-Romance languages today that have this sort of extensive Latin element dating from ancient Roman times, which has undergone the sound changes associated with the languages. Albanian language_sentence_263

Other languages in or near the former Roman area either came on the scene later (Turkish, the Slavic languages, Arabic) or borrowed little from Latin despite coexisting with it (Greek, German), although German does have a few such ancient Latin loanwords (Fenster 'window', Käse 'cheese', Köln). Albanian language_sentence_264

Romanian scholars such as Vatasescu and Mihaescu, using lexical analysis of the Albanian language, have concluded that Albanian was heavily influenced by an extinct Romance language that was distinct from both Romanian and Dalmatian. Albanian language_sentence_265

Because the Latin words common to only Romanian and Albanian are significantly fewer in number than those that are common to only Albanian and Western Romance, Mihaescu argues that the Albanian language evolved in a region with much greater contact with Western Romance regions than with Romanian-speaking regions, and located this region in present-day Albania, Kosovo and Western Macedonia, spanning east to Bitola and Pristina. Albanian language_sentence_266

Gothic loans Albanian language_section_35

Some Gothic loanwords were borrowed through Late Latin, while others came from the Ostrogothic expansion into parts of Praevalitana around Nikšić and the Gulf of Kotor in Montenegro. Albanian language_sentence_267

Albanian language_unordered_list_12

  • fat; "groom, husband" < Goth brūþfaþs "bridegroom"Albanian language_item_12_81
  • horr; "scoundrel", horrë; "hussy, whore" < Goth hors "adulterer", *hora "whore"Albanian language_item_12_82
  • shkulkë; "boundary marker for pastures made of branches" < Late Latin sculca < Goth skulka "guardian"Albanian language_item_12_83
  • shkumë; "foam" < Late Latin < Goth skūmaAlbanian language_item_12_84
  • tirq; "trousers" < Late Latin tubrucus < Goth *þiobrok "knee-britches"; cf. OHG dioh-bruoh, Eng thigh, breechesAlbanian language_item_12_85

Other loans Albanian language_section_36

It is assumed that Greek and Balkan Latin (the ancestor of Romanian and other Balkan Romance languages) exerted a great influence on Albanian. Albanian language_sentence_268

Examples of words borrowed from Latin: qytet < civitas (city), qiell < caelum (sky), mik < amicus (friend), kape ditën < carpe diem (seize the day). Albanian language_sentence_269

After the Slavs arrived in the Balkans, the Slavic languages became an additional source of loanwords. Albanian language_sentence_270

The rise of the Ottoman Empire meant an influx of Turkish words; this also entailed the borrowing of Persian and Arabic words through Turkish. Albanian language_sentence_271

Some Turkish personal names, such as Altin, are common. Albanian language_sentence_272

There are some loanwords from Modern Greek, especially in the south of Albania. Albanian language_sentence_273

Many borrowed words have been replaced by words with Albanian roots or modern Latinised (international) words. Albanian language_sentence_274

Patterns in loaning Albanian language_section_37

Although Albanian is characterised by the absorption of many loans, even, in the case of Latin, reaching deep into the core vocabulary, certain semantic fields nevertheless remained more resistant. Albanian language_sentence_275

Terms pertaining to social organisation are often preserved, though not those pertaining to political organisation, while those pertaining to trade are all loaned or innovated. Albanian language_sentence_276

Hydronyms present a complicated picture; the term for "sea" (det) is native and an "Albano-Germanic" innovation referring to the concept of depth, but a large amount of maritime vocabulary is loaned. Albanian language_sentence_277

Words referring to large streams and their banks tend to be loans, but lumë ("river") is native, as is rrymë (the flow of water). Albanian language_sentence_278

Words for smaller streams and stagnant pools of water are more often native, but the word for "pond", pellg is in fact a semantically shifted descendant of the old Greek word for "high sea", suggesting a change in location after Greek contact. Albanian language_sentence_279

Albanian has maintained since Proto-Indo-European a specific term referring to a riverside forest (gjazë), as well as its words for marshes. Albanian language_sentence_280

Curiously, Albanian has maintained native terms for "whirlpool", "water pit" and (aquatic) "deep place", leading Orel to speculate that the Albanian Urheimat likely had an excess of dangerous whirlpools and depths. Albanian language_sentence_281

Regarding forests, words for most conifers and shrubs are native, as are the terms for "alder", "elm", "oak", "beech", and "linden", while "ash", "chestnut", "birch", "maple", "poplar", and "willow" are loans. Albanian language_sentence_282

The original kinship terminology of Indo-European was radically reshaped; changes included a shift from "mother" to "sister", and were so thorough that only three terms retained their original function, the words for "son-in-law", "mother-in-law" and "father-in-law". Albanian language_sentence_283

All the words for second-degree blood kinship, including "aunt", "uncle", "nephew", "niece", and terms for grandchildren, are ancient loans from Latin. Albanian language_sentence_284

The Proto-Albanians appear to have been cattle breeders given the vastness of preserved native vocabulary pertaining to cow breeding, milking and so forth, while words pertaining to dogs tend to be loaned. Albanian language_sentence_285

Many words concerning horses are preserved, but the word for horse itself is a Latin loan. Albanian language_sentence_286

See also Albanian language_section_38

Albanian language_unordered_list_13


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albanian language.