Alexander von Humboldt

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For other uses, see Alexander von Humboldt (disambiguation). Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_0

Alexander von Humboldt_table_infobox_0

Alexander von HumboldtAlexander von Humboldt_header_cell_0_0_0
BornAlexander von Humboldt_header_cell_0_1_0 14 September 1769

Berlin, Prussia, Holy Roman EmpireAlexander von Humboldt_cell_0_1_1

DiedAlexander von Humboldt_header_cell_0_2_0 6 May 1859(1859-05-06) (aged 89)

Berlin, Prussia, German ConfederationAlexander von Humboldt_cell_0_2_1

Resting placeAlexander von Humboldt_header_cell_0_3_0 Schloss TegelAlexander von Humboldt_cell_0_3_1
NationalityAlexander von Humboldt_header_cell_0_4_0 GermanAlexander von Humboldt_cell_0_4_1
Alma materAlexander von Humboldt_header_cell_0_5_0 Freiberg School of Mines (diploma, 1792)

University of Frankfurt (Oder) (no degree) University of Göttingen (no degree) University of Berlin (no degree)Alexander von Humboldt_cell_0_5_1

Known forAlexander von Humboldt_header_cell_0_6_0 Biogeography, Kosmos (1845–1862), Humboldt Current, magnetic storm, Humboldtian science, Berlin RomanticismAlexander von Humboldt_cell_0_6_1
AwardsAlexander von Humboldt_header_cell_0_7_0 Copley Medal (1852)Alexander von Humboldt_cell_0_7_1
FieldsAlexander von Humboldt_header_cell_0_8_0 GeographyAlexander von Humboldt_cell_0_8_1
Academic advisorsAlexander von Humboldt_header_cell_0_9_0 Markus Herz, Carl Ludwig WilldenowAlexander von Humboldt_cell_0_9_1
Notable studentsAlexander von Humboldt_header_cell_0_10_0 Louis AgassizAlexander von Humboldt_cell_0_10_1
InfluencesAlexander von Humboldt_header_cell_0_11_0 F. W. J. SchellingAlexander von Humboldt_cell_0_11_1
InfluencedAlexander von Humboldt_header_cell_0_12_0 Darwin, Wallace, Thoreau, Whitman, Emerson, Muir, Irving, Ida Laura PfeifferAlexander von Humboldt_cell_0_12_1
SignatureAlexander von Humboldt_header_cell_0_13_0

Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 1769 – 6 May 1859) was a Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and proponent of Romantic philosophy and science. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_1

He was the younger brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher, and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767–1835). Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_2

Humboldt's quantitative work on botanical geography laid the foundation for the field of biogeography. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_3

Humboldt's advocacy of long-term systematic geophysical measurement laid the foundation for modern geomagnetic and meteorological monitoring. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_4

Between 1799 and 1804, Humboldt travelled extensively in the Americas, exploring and describing them for the first time from a modern scientific point of view. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_5

His description of the journey was written up and published in several volumes over 21 years. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_6

Humboldt was one of the first people to propose that the lands bordering the Atlantic Ocean were once joined (South America and Africa in particular). Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_7

Humboldt resurrected the use of the word cosmos from the ancient Greek and assigned it to his multivolume treatise, Kosmos, in which he sought to unify diverse branches of scientific knowledge and culture. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_8

This important work also motivated a holistic perception of the universe as one interacting entity. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_9

He was the first person to describe the phenomenon and cause of human-induced climate change, in 1800 and again in 1831, based on observations generated during his travels. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_10

Early life and education Alexander von Humboldt_section_0

Alexander von Humboldt was born in Berlin in Prussia on 14 September 1769. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_11

He was baptized as a baby in the Lutheran faith, with the Duke of Brunswick serving as godfather. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_12

Humboldt's father, Alexander Georg von Humboldt, belonged to a prominent Pomeranian family. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_13

Although not one of the titled gentry, he was a major in the Prussian Army, who had served with the Duke of Brunswick. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_14

At age 42, Alexander Georg was rewarded for his services in the Seven Years' War with the post of royal chamberlain. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_15

He profited from the contract to lease state lotteries and tobacco sales. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_16

He first married the daughter of Prussian General Adjutant Schweder. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_17

In 1766, Alexander Georg married Maria Elisabeth Colomb, a well-educated woman and widow of Baron Hollwede, with whom she had a son. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_18

Alexander Georg and Maria Elisabeth had three children, a daughter, who died young, and then two sons, Wilhelm and Alexander. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_19

Her first-born son, Wilhelm and Alexander's half-brother, was something of a ne'er do well, not often mentioned in the family history. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_20

Alexander Georg died in 1779, leaving the brothers Humboldt in the care of their emotionally distant mother. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_21

She had high ambitions for Alexander and his older brother Wilhelm, hiring excellent tutors, who were Enlightenment thinkers, including Kantian physician Marcus Herz and botanist Karl Ludwig Willdenow, who became one of the most important botanists in Germany. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_22

Humboldt's mother expected them to become civil servants of the Prussian state. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_23

The money Baron Holwede left to Alexander's mother became, after her death, instrumental in funding Alexander's explorations, contributing more than 70% of his private income. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_24

Due to his youthful penchant for collecting and labeling plants, shells, and insects, Alexander received the playful title of "the little apothecary". Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_25

Marked for a political career, Alexander studied finance for six months in 1787 at the University of Frankfurt (Oder), which his mother might have chosen less for its academic excellence than its closeness to their home in Berlin. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_26

On 25 April 1789, he matriculated at the University of Göttingen, then known for the lectures of C. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_27 G. Heyne and anatomist J. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_28 F. Blumenbach. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_29

His brother Wilhelm was already a student at Göttingen, but they did not interact much, since their intellectual interests were quite different. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_30

His vast and varied interests were by this time fully developed. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_31

At Göttingen, he met Georg Forster, a naturalist who had been with Captain James Cook on his second voyage. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_32

Humboldt traveled with Forster in Europe. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_33

The two traveled to England, Humboldt's first sea voyage, the Netherlands, and France. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_34

In England, he met Sir Joseph Banks, president of the Royal Society, who had traveled with Captain Cook; Banks showed Humboldt his huge herbarium, with specimens of the South Sea tropics. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_35

The scientific friendship between Banks and Humboldt lasted until Banks's death in 1820, and the two shared botanical specimens for study. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_36

Banks also mobilized his scientific contacts in later years to aid Humboldt's work. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_37

Humboldt's scientific excursion up the Rhine resulted in his 1790 treatise Mineralogische Beobachtungen über einige Basalte am Rhein (Brunswick, 1790) (Mineralogic Observations on Several Basalts on the River Rhine). Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_38

Humboldt's passion for travel was of long standing. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_39

Humboldt's talents were devoted to the purpose of preparing himself as a scientific explorer. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_40

With this emphasis, he studied commerce and foreign languages at Hamburg, geology at Freiberg School of Mines in 1791 under A.G. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_41 Werner, leader of the Neptunist school of geology; from anatomy at Jena under J.C. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_42 Loder; and astronomy and the use of scientific instruments under F.X. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_43 von Zach and J.G. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_44 Köhler. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_45

At Freiberg, he met a number of men who were to prove important to him in his later career, including Spaniard Manuel del Rio, who became director of the School of Mines the crown established in Mexico; Christian Leopold von Buch, who became a regional geologist; and, most importantly, Karl Freiesleben, who became Humboldt's tutor and close friend. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_46

During this period, his brother Wilhelm married, but Alexander did not attend the nuptials. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_47

Travels and work in Europe Alexander von Humboldt_section_1

Humboldt graduated from the Freiberg School of Mines in 1792 and was appointed to a Prussian government position in the Department of Mines as an inspector in Bayreuth and the Fichtel mountains. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_48

Humboldt was excellent at his job, with production of gold ore in his first year outstripping the previous eight years. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_49

During his period as a mine inspector, Humboldt demonstrated his deep concern for the men laboring in the mines. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_50

He opened a free school for miners, paid for out of his own pocket, which became an unchartered government training school for labor. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_51

He also sought to establish an emergency relief fund for miners, aiding them following accidents. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_52

Humboldt's researches into the vegetation of the mines of Freiberg led to the publication in Latin (1793) of his Florae Fribergensis, accedunt Aphorismi ex Doctrina, Physiologiae Chemicae Plantarum, which was a compendium of his botanical researches. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_53

That publication brought him to the attention of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who had met Humboldt at the family home when Alexander was a boy, but Goethe was now interested in meeting the young scientist to discuss metamorphism of plants. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_54

An introduction was arranged by Humboldt's brother, who lived in the university town of Jena, not far from Goethe. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_55

Goethe had developed his own extensive theories on comparative anatomy. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_56

Working before Darwin, he believed that animals had an internal force, an urform, that gave them a basic shape and then they were further adapted to their environment by an external force. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_57

Humboldt urged him to publish his theories. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_58

Together, the two discussed and expanded these ideas. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_59

Goethe and Humboldt soon became close friends. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_60

Humboldt often returned to Jena in the years that followed. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_61

Goethe remarked about Humboldt to friends that he had never met anyone so versatile. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_62

Humboldt's drive served as an inspiration for Goethe. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_63

In 1797, Humboldt returned to Jena for three months. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_64

During this time, Goethe moved from his residence in Weimar to reside in Jena. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_65

Together, Humboldt and Goethe attended university lectures on anatomy and conducted their own experiments. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_66

One experiment involved hooking up a frog leg to various metals. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_67

They found no effect until the moisture of Humboldt's breath triggered a reaction that caused the frog leg to leap off the table. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_68

Humboldt described this as one of his favorite experiments because it was as if he were "breathing life into" the leg. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_69

During this visit, a thunderstorm killed a farmer and his wife. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_70

Humboldt obtained their corpses and analyzed them in the anatomy tower of the university. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_71

In 1794, Humboldt was admitted to the famous group of intellectuals and cultural leaders of Weimar Classicism. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_72

Goethe and Schiller were the key figures at the time. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_73

Humboldt contributed (7 June 1795) to Schiller's new periodical, Die Horen, a philosophical allegory entitled Die Lebenskraft, oder der rhodische Genius. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_74

In 1792 and 1797, Humboldt was in Vienna; in 1795 he made a geological and botanical tour through Switzerland and Italy. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_75

Although this service to the state was regarded by him as only an apprenticeship to the service of science, he fulfilled its duties with such conspicuous ability that not only did he rise rapidly to the highest post in his department, but he was also entrusted with several important diplomatic missions. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_76

Neither brother attended the funeral of their mother on 19 November 1796. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_77

Humboldt had not hidden his aversion to his mother, with one correspondent writing of him after her death, "her death... must be particularly welcomed by you". Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_78

After severing his official connections, he awaited an opportunity to fulfill his long-cherished dream of travel. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_79

Humboldt was able to spend more time on writing up his research. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_80

He had used his own body for experimentation on muscular irritability, recently discovered by Luigi Galvani and published his results, Versuche über die gereizte Muskel- und Nervenfaser(Berlin, 1797) (Experiments on Stimulated Muscle and Nerve Fibres), enriched in the French translation with notes by Blumenbach. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_81

Spanish American expedition, 1799–1804 Alexander von Humboldt_section_2

Seeking a foreign expedition Alexander von Humboldt_section_3

With the financial resources to finance his scientific travels, he sought a ship on a major expedition. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_82

Meantime, he went to Paris, where his brother Wilhelm was now living. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_83

Paris was a great center of scientific learning and his brother and sister-in-law Caroline were well connected in those circles. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_84

Louis-Antoine de Bougainville urged Humboldt to accompany him on a major expedition, likely to last five years, but the French revolutionary Directoire placed Nicolas Baudin at the head of it rather than the aging scientific traveler. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_85

On the postponement of Captain Baudin's proposed voyage of circumnavigation due to continuing warfare in Europe, which Humboldt had been officially invited to accompany, Humboldt was deeply disappointed. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_86

He had already selected scientific instruments for his voyage. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_87

He did, however, have a stroke of luck with meeting Aimé Bonpland, the botanist and physician for the voyage. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_88

Discouraged, the two left Paris for Marseilles, where they hoped to join Napoleon Bonaparte in Egypt, but North Africans were in revolt against the French invasion in Egypt and French authorities refused permission to travel. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_89

Humboldt and Bonpland eventually found their way to Madrid, where their luck changed spectacularly. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_90

Spanish royal authorization, 1799 Alexander von Humboldt_section_4

In Madrid, Humboldt sought authorization to travel to Spain's realms in the Americas; he was aided in obtaining it by the German representative of Saxony at the royal Bourbon court. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_91

Baron Forell had an interest in mineralogy and science endeavors and was inclined to help Humboldt. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_92

At that time, the Bourbon Reforms sought to reform administration of the realms and revitalize their economies. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_93

At the same time, the Spanish Enlightenment was in florescence. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_94

For Humboldt "the confluent effect of the Bourbon revolution in government and the Spanish Enlightenment had created ideal conditions for his venture". Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_95

The Bourbon monarchy had already authorized and funded expeditions, with the Botanical Expedition to the Viceroyalty of Peru to Chile and Peru (1777–88), New Granada (1783–1816), New Spain (Mexico) (1787–1803), and the Malaspina Expedition (1789–94). Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_96

These were lengthy, state-sponsored enterprises to gather information about plants and animals from the Spanish realms, assess economic possibilities, and provide plants and seeds for the Royal Botanical Garden in Madrid (founded 1755). Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_97

These expeditions took naturalists and artists, who created visual images as well as careful written observations as well as collecting seeds and plants themselves. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_98

Crown officials as early as 1779 issued and systematically distributed Instructions concerning the most secure and economic means to transport live plants by land and sea from the most distant countries, with illustrations, including one for the crates to transport seeds and plants. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_99

When Humboldt requested authorization from the crown to travel to Spanish America, most importantly, with his own financing, it was given positive response. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_100

Spain under the Habsburg monarchy had guarded its realms against foreigner travelers and intruders. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_101

The Bourbon monarch was open to Humboldt's proposal. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_102

Spanish Foreign Minister Don Mariano Luis de Urquijo received the formal proposal and Humboldt was presented to the monarch in March 1799. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_103

Humboldt was granted access to crown officials and written documentation on Spain's empire. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_104

With Humboldt's experience working for the absolutist Prussian monarchy as a government mining official, Humboldt had both the academic training and experience of working well within a bureaucratic structure. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_105

Before leaving Madrid in 1799, Humboldt and Bonpland visited the Natural History Museum, which held results of Martín de Sessé y Lacasta and José Mariano Mociño's botanical expedition to New Spain. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_106

Humboldt and Bonpland met Hipólito Ruiz López and José Antonio Pavón y Jiménez of the royal expedition to Peru and Chile in person in Madrid and examined their botanical collections. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_107

Venezuela, 1799–1800 Alexander von Humboldt_section_5

Armed with authorization from the King of Spain, Humboldt and Bonpland made haste to sail, taking the ship Pizarro from A Coruña, on 5 June 1799. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_108

The ship stopped six days on the island of Tenerife, where Humboldt climbed the volcano Teide, and then sailed on to the New World, landing at Cumaná, Venezuela, on 16 July. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_109

The ship's destination was not originally Cumaná, but an outbreak of typhoid on board meant that the captain changed course from Havana to land in northern South America. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_110

Humboldt had not mapped out a specific plan of exploration, so that the change did not upend a fixed itinerary. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_111

He later wrote that the diversion to Venezuela made possible his explorations along the Orinoco River to the border of Portuguese Brazil. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_112

With the diversion, the Pizarro encountered two large dugout canoes each carrying 18 Guayaqui Indians. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_113

The Pizarro's captain accepted the offer of one of them to serve as pilot. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_114

Humboldt hired this Indian, named Carlos del Pino, as a guide. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_115

Venezuela from the 16th to the 18th centuries was a relative backwater compared to the seats of the Spanish viceroyalties based in New Spain (Mexico) and Peru, but during the Bourbon reforms, the northern portion of Spanish South America was reorganized administratively, with the 1777 establishment of a captaincy-general based at Caracas. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_116

A great deal of information on the new jurisdiction had already been compiled by François de Pons, but was not published until 1806. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_117

Rather than describe the administrative center of Caracas, Humboldt started his researches with the valley of Aragua, where export crops of sugar, coffee, cacao, and cotton were cultivated. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_118

Cacao plantations were the most profitable, as world demand for chocolate rose. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_119

It is here that Humboldt is said to have developed his idea of human-induced climate change. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_120

Investigating evidence of a rapid fall in the water level of valley's Lake Valencia, Humboldt credited the desiccation to the clearance of tree cover and to the inability of the exposed soils in retain water. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_121

With their clear cutting of trees, the agriculturalists were removing the woodland's "threefold" moderating influence upon temperature: cooling shade, evaporation and radiation. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_122

Humboldt visited the mission at Caripe and explored the Guácharo cavern, where he found the oilbird, which he was to make known to science as Steatornis caripensis. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_123

Also described the Guanoco asphalt lake as "The spring of the good priest" ("Quelle des guten Priesters"). Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_124

Returning to Cumaná, Humboldt observed, on the night of 11–12 November, a remarkable meteor shower (the Leonids). Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_125

He proceeded with Bonpland to Caracas where he climbed the Avila mount with the young poet Andrés Bello, the former tutor of Simón Bolívar, who later became the leader of independence in northern South America. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_126

Humboldt met the Venezuelan Bolívar himself in 1804 in Paris and spent time with him in Rome. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_127

The documentary record does not support the supposition that Humboldt inspired Bolívar to participate in the struggle for independence, but it does indicate Bolívar's admiration for Humboldt's production of new knowledge on Spanish America. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_128

In February 1800, Humboldt and Bonpland left the coast with the purpose of exploring the course of the Orinoco River and its tributaries. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_129

This trip, which lasted four months and covered 1,725 miles (2,776 km) of wild and largely uninhabited country, had an aim of establishing the existence of the Casiquiare canal (a communication between the water systems of the rivers Orinoco and Amazon). Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_130

Although, unbeknownst to Humboldt, this existence had been established decades before, his expedition had the important results of determining the exact position of the bifurcation, and documenting the life of several native tribes such as the Maipures and their extinct rivals the Atures (several words of the latter tribe were transferred to Humboldt by one parrot). Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_131

Around 19 March 1800, Humboldt and Bonpland discovered dangerous electric eels, whose shock could kill a man. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_132

To catch them, locals suggested they drive wild horses into the river, which brought the eels out from the river mud, and resulted in a violent confrontation of eels and horses, some of which died. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_133

Humboldt and Bonpland captured and dissected some eels, which retained their ability to shock; both received potentially dangerous electric shocks during their investigations. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_134

The encounter made Humboldt think more deeply about electricity and magnetism, typical of his ability to extrapolate from an observation to more general principles. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_135

Humboldt returned to the incident in several of his later writings, including his travelogue Personal Narrative (1814–29), Views of Nature (1807), and Aspects of Nature (1849). Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_136

Two months later, they explored the territory of the Maypures and that of the then-recently extinct Aturès Indians. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_137

Humboldt laid to rest the persistent myth of Walter Raleigh's Lake Parime by proposing that the seasonal flooding of the Rupununi savannah had been misidentified as a lake. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_138

Cuba, 1800, 1804 Alexander von Humboldt_section_6

On 24 November 1800, the two friends set sail for Cuba, landing on 19 December, where they met fellow botanist and plant collector John Fraser. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_139

Fraser and his son had been shipwrecked off the Cuban coast, and did not have a license to be in the Spanish Indies. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_140

Humboldt, who was already in Cuba, interceded with crown officials in Havana, as well as giving them money and clothing. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_141

Fraser obtained permission to remain in Cuba and explore. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_142

Humboldt entrusted Fraser with taking two cases of Humboldt and Bonpland's botanical specimens to England when he returned, for eventual conveyance to the German botanist Willdenow in Berlin. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_143

Humboldt and Bonpland stayed in Cuba until 5 March 1801, when they left for the mainland of northern South America again, arriving there on 30 March. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_144

Humboldt is considered to be the "second discoverer of Cuba" due to the scientific and social research he conducted on this Spanish colony. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_145

During an initial three-month stay at Havana, his first tasks were to properly survey that city and the nearby towns of Guanabacoa, Regla, and Bejucal. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_146

He befriended Cuban landowner and thinker Francisco de Arango y Parreño; together they visited the Guines area in south Havana, the valleys of Matanzas Province, and the Valley of the Sugar Mills in Trinidad. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_147

Those three areas were, at the time, the first frontier of sugar production in the island. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_148

During those trips, Humboldt collected statistical information on Cuba's population, production, technology and trade, and with Arango, made suggestions for enhancing them. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_149

He predicted that the agricultural and commercial potential of Cuba was huge and could be vastly improved with proper leadership in the future. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_150

On their way back to Europe from Mexico on their way to the United States, Humboldt and Bonpland stopped again in Cuba, leaving from the port of Veracruz and arriving in Cuba on 7 January 1804, staying until 29 April 1804. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_151

In Cuba, he collected plant material and made extensive notes. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_152

During this time, he socialized with his scientific and landowner friends, conducted mineralogical surveys, and finished his vast collection of the island's flora and fauna that he eventually published as Essai politique sur l'îsle de Cuba. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_153

The Andes, 1801–1803 Alexander von Humboldt_section_7

After their first stay in Cuba of three months, they returned to the mainland at Cartagena de Indias (now in Colombia), a major center of trade in northern South America. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_154

Ascending the swollen stream of the Magdalena River to Honda, they arrived in Bogotá on 6 July 1801, where they met the Spanish botanist José Celestino Mutis, head of the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada, staying there until 8 September 1801. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_155

Mutis was generous with his time and gave Humboldt access to the huge pictorial record he had compiled since 1783. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_156

Mutis was based in Bogotá, but as with other Spanish expeditions, he had access to local knowledge and a workshop of artists, who created highly accurate and detailed images. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_157

This type of careful recording meant that even if specimens were not available to study at a distance, "because the images traveled, the botanists did not have to". Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_158

Humboldt was astounded at Mutis's accomplishment; when Humboldt published his first volume on botany, he dedicated it to Mutis "as a simply mark of our admiration and acknowledgement". Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_159

Humboldt had hopes of connecting with the French sailing expedition of Baudin, now finally underway, so Bonpland and Humboldt hurried to Ecuador. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_160

They crossed the frozen ridges of the Cordillera Real, they reached Quito on 6 January 1802, after a tedious and difficult journey. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_161

Their stay in Ecuador was marked by the ascent of Pichincha and their climb of Chimborazo, where Humboldt and his party reached an altitude of 19,286 feet (5,878 m). Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_162

This was a world record at the time, but 1000 feet short of the summit. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_163

Humboldt's journey concluded with an expedition to the sources of the Amazon en route for Lima, Peru. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_164

At Callao, the main port for Peru, Humboldt observed the transit of Mercury on 9 November and studied the fertilizing properties of guano, rich in nitrogen, the subsequent introduction of which into Europe was due mainly to his writings. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_165

New Spain (Mexico), 1803–1804 Alexander von Humboldt_section_8

Humboldt and Bonpland had not intended to go to New Spain, but when they were unable to join a voyage to the Pacific, they left the Ecuadorian port of Guayaquil and headed for Acapulco on Mexico's west coast. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_166

Even before Humboldt and Bonpland started on their way to New Spain's capital on Mexico's central plateau, Humboldt realized the captain of the vessel that brought them to Acapulco had reckoned its location incorrectly. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_167

Since Acapulco was the main west-coast port and the terminus of the Asian trade from the Spanish Philippines, having accurate maps of its location was extremely important. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_168

Humboldt set up his instruments, surveying the deep-water bay of Acapulco, to determine its longitude. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_169

Humboldt and Bonpland landed in Acapulco on 15 February 1803, and from there they went to Taxco, a silver-mining town in modern Guerrero. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_170

In April 1803, he visited Cuernavaca, Morelos. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_171

Impressed by its climate, he nicknamed the city the City of Eternal Spring. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_172

Humboldt and Bonpland arrived in Mexico City, having been officially welcomed via a letter from the king's representative in New Spain, Viceroy Don José de Iturrigaray. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_173

Humboldt was also given a special passport to travel throughout New Spain and letters of introduction to intendants, the highest officials in New Spain's administrative districts (intendancies). Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_174

This official aid to Humboldt allowed him to have access to crown records, mines, landed estates, canals, and Mexican antiquities from the prehispanic era. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_175

Humboldt read the writings of Bishop-elect of the important diocese of Michoacan Manuel Abad y Queipo, a classical liberal, that were directed to the crown for the improvement of New Spain. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_176

They spent the year in the viceroyalty, traveling to different Mexican cities in the central plateau and the northern mining region. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_177

The first journey was from Acapulco to Mexico City, through what is now the Mexican state of Guerrero. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_178

The route was suitable only for mule train, and all along the way, Humboldt took measurements of elevation. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_179

When he left Mexico a year later in 1804, from the east coast port of Veracruz, he took a similar set of measures, which resulted in a chart in the Political Essay, the physical plan of Mexico with the dangers of the road from Acapulco to Mexico City, and from Mexico City to Veracruz. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_180

This visual depiction of elevation was part of Humboldt's general insistence that the data he collected be presented in a way more easily understood than statistical charts. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_181

A great deal of his success in gaining a more general readership for his works was his understanding that "anything that has to do with extent or quantity can be represented geometrically. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_182

Statistical projections [charts and graphs], which speak to the senses without tiring the intellect have the advantage of bringing attention to a large number of important facts". Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_183

Humboldt was impressed with Mexico City, which at the time was the largest city in the Americas, and one that could be counted as modern. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_184

He declared "no city of the new continent, without even excepting those of the United States, can display such great and solid scientific establishments as the capital of Mexico". Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_185

He pointed to the Royal College of Mines, the Royal Botanical Garden and the Royal Academy of San Carlos as exemplars of a metropolitan capital in touch with the latest developments on the continent and insisting on its modernity. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_186

He also recognized important creole savants in Mexico, including José Antonio de Alzate y Ramírez, who died in 1799, just before Humboldt's visit; Miguel Velásquez de León; and Antonio de León y Gama. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_187

Humboldt spent time at the Valenciana silver mine in Guanajuato, central New Spain, at the time the most important in the Spanish empire. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_188

The bicentennial of his visit in Guanajuato was celebrated with a conference at the University of Guanajuato, with Mexican academics highlighting various aspects of his impact on the city. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_189

Humboldt could have simply examined the geology of the fabulously rich mine, but he took the opportunity to study the entire mining complex as well as analyze mining statistics of its output. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_190

His report on silver mining is a major contribution, and considered the strongest and best informed section of his Political Essay. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_191

Although Humboldt was himself a trained geologist and mining inspector, he drew on mining experts in Mexico. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_192

One was Fausto Elhuyar, then head of the General Mining Court in Mexico City, who, like Humboldt was trained in Freiberg. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_193

Another was Andrés Manuel del Río, director of Royal College of Mines, whom Humboldt knew when they were both students in Freiberg. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_194

The Bourbon monarchs had established the mining court and the college to elevate mining as a profession, since revenues from silver constituted the crown's largest source of income. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_195

Humboldt also consulted other German mining experts, who were already in Mexico. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_196

While Humboldt was a welcome foreign scientist and mining expert, the Spanish crown had established fertile ground for Humboldt's investigations into mining. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_197

Spanish America's ancient civilizations were a source of interest for Humboldt, who included images of Mexican manuscripts (or codices) and Inca ruins in his richly illustrated Vues des cordillères et monuments des peuples indigènes de l'Amerique (1810–1813), the most experimental of Humboldt's publications, since it does not have "a single ordering principle" but his opinions and contentions based on observation. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_198

For Humboldt, a key question was the influence of climate on the development of these civilizations. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_199

When he published his Vues des cordillères, he included a color image of the Aztec calendar stone, which had been discovered buried in the main plaza of Mexico City in 1790, along with select drawings of the Dresden codex and others he sought out later in European collections. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_200

His aim was to muster evidence that these pictorial and sculptural images could allow the reconstruction of prehispanic history. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_201

He sought out Mexican experts in the interpretation of sources from there, especially Antonio Pichardo, who was the literary executor of Antonio de León y Gama's work. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_202

For American-born Spaniards (creoles) who were seeking sources of pride in Mexico's ancient past, Humboldt's recognition of these ancient works and dissemination in his publications was a boon. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_203

He read the work of exiled Jesuit Francisco Javier Clavijero, which celebrated Mexico's prehispanic civilization, and which Humboldt invoked to counter the pejorative assertions about the new world by Buffon, de Pauw, and Raynal. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_204

Humboldt ultimately viewed both the prehispanic realms of Mexico and Peru as despotic and barbaric. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_205

However, he also drew attention to indigenous monuments and artifacts as cultural productions that had "both ... historical and artistic significance". Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_206

One of his most widely read publications resulting from his travels and investigations in Spanish America was the Essai politique sur le royaum de la Nouvelle Espagne, quickly translated to English as Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain (1811). Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_207

This treatise was the result of Humboldt's own investigations as well as the generosity of Spanish colonial officials for statistical data. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_208

The United States, 1804 Alexander von Humboldt_section_9

Leaving from Cuba, Humboldt decided to take an unplanned short visit to the United States. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_209

Knowing that the current U.S. president, Thomas Jefferson, was himself a scientist, Humboldt wrote to him saying that he would be in the United States. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_210

Jefferson warmly replied, inviting him to visit the White House in the nation's new capital. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_211

In his letter Humboldt had gained Jefferson's interest by mentioning that he had discovered mammoth teeth near the Equator. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_212

Jefferson had previously written that he believed mammoths had never lived so far south. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_213

Humboldt had also hinted at his knowledge of New Spain. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_214

Arriving in Philadelphia, which was a center of learning in the U.S., Humboldt met with some of the major scientific figures of the era, including chemist and anatomist Caspar Wistar, who pushed for compulsory smallpox vaccination, and botanist Benjamin Smith Barton, as well as physician Benjamin Rush, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, who wished to hear about cinchona bark from a South American tree, which cured fevers. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_215

Humboldt later published a treatise in English on cinchona. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_216

After arriving in Washington D.C, Humboldt held numerous intense discussions with Jefferson on both scientific matters and also his year-long stay in New Spain. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_217

Jefferson had only recently concluded the Louisiana Purchase, which now placed New Spain on the southwest border of the United States. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_218

The Spanish minister in Washington, D.C. had declined to furnish the U.S. government with information about Spanish territories, and access to the territories was strictly controlled. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_219

Humboldt was able to supply Jefferson with the latest information on the population, trade agriculture and military of New Spain. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_220

This information would later be the basis for his Essay on the Political Kingdom of New Spain (1810). Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_221

Jefferson was unsure of where the border of the newly-purchased Louisiana was precisely, and Humboldt wrote him a two-page report on the matter. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_222

Jefferson would later refer to Humboldt as "the most scientific man of the age". Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_223

Albert Gallatin, Secretary of the Treasury, said of Humboldt "I was delighted and swallowed more information of various kinds in less than two hours than I had for two years past in all I had read or heard." Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_224

Gallatin, in turn, supplied Humboldt with information he sought on the United States. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_225

After six weeks, Humboldt set sail for Europe from the mouth of the Delaware and landed at Bordeaux on 3 August 1804. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_226

Travel diaries Alexander von Humboldt_section_10

Humboldt kept a detailed diary of his sojourn to Spanish America, running some 4,000 pages, which he drew on directly for his multiple publications following the expedition. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_227

The leather-bound diaries themselves are now in Germany, having been returned from Russia to East Germany, where they were taken by the Red Army after World War II. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_228

Following German reunification, the diaries were returned to a descendant of Humboldt. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_229

For a time, there was concern about their being sold, but that was averted. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_230

A government-funded project to digitize the Spanish American expedition as well as his later Russian expedition has been undertaken (2014–2017) by the University of Potsdam and the German State Library—Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_231

Achievements of the Latin American expedition Alexander von Humboldt_section_11

See also: Humboldtian science Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_232

Humboldt's decades' long endeavor to publish the results of this expedition not only resulted in multiple volumes, but also made his international reputation in scientific circles. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_233

Humboldt came to be well-known with the reading public as well, with popular, densely illustrated, condensed versions of his work in multiple languages. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_234

Bonpland, his fellow scientist and collaborator on the expedition, collected botanical specimens and preserved them, but unlike Humboldt who had a passion to publish, Bonpland had to be prodded to do the formal descriptions. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_235

Many scientific travelers and explorers produced huge visual records, which remained unseen by the general public until the late nineteenth century, in the case of the Malaspina Expedition, and even the late twentieth century, when Mutis's botanical, some 12,000 drawings from New Granada, was published. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_236

Humboldt, by contrast, published immediately and continuously, using and ultimately exhausting his personal fortune, to produce both scientific and popular texts. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_237

Humboldt's name and fame were made by his travels to Spanish America, particularly his publication of the Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_238

His image as the premier European scientist was a later development. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_239

For the Bourbon crown, which had authorized the expedition, the returns were not only tremendous in terms of sheer volume of data on their New World realms, but in dispelling the vague and pejorative assessments of the New World by Guillaume-Thomas Raynal, Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, and William Robertson. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_240

The achievements of the Bourbon regime, especially in New Spain, were evident in the precise data Humboldt systematized and published. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_241

This memorable expedition may be regarded as having laid the foundation of the sciences of physical geography, plant geography, and meteorology. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_242

Key to that was Humboldt's meticulous and systematic measurement of phenomena with the most advanced instruments then available. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_243

He closely observed plant and animal species in situ, not just in isolation, noting all elements in relation to one other. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_244

He collected specimens of plants and animals, dividing the growing collection so that if a portion was lost, other parts might survive. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_245

Humboldt saw the need for an approach to science that could account for the harmony of nature among the diversity of the physical world. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_246

For Humboldt, "the unity of nature" meant that it was the interrelation of all physical sciences—such as the conjoining between biology, meteorology and geology—that determined where specific plants grew. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_247

He found these relationships by unraveling myriad, painstakingly collected data, data extensive enough that it became an enduring foundation upon which others could base their work. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_248

Humboldt viewed nature holistically, and tried to explain natural phenomena without the appeal to religious dogma. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_249

He believed in the central importance of observation, and as a consequence had amassed a vast array of the most sophisticated scientific instruments then available. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_250

Each had its own velvet lined box and was the most accurate and portable of its time; nothing quantifiable escaped measurement. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_251

According to Humboldt, everything should be measured with the finest and most modern instruments and sophisticated techniques available, for that collected data was the basis of all scientific understanding. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_252

This quantitative methodology would become known as Humboldtian science. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_253

Humboldt wrote "Nature herself is sublimely eloquent. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_254

The stars as they sparkle in firmament fill us with delight and ecstasy, and yet they all move in orbit marked out with mathematical precision." Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_255

His Essay on the Geography of Plants (published first in French and then German, both in 1807) was based on the then novel idea of studying the distribution of organic life as affected by varying physical conditions. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_256

This was most famously depicted in his published cross-section of Chimborazo, approximately two feet by three feet (54 cm x 84 cm) color pictorial, he called Ein Naturgemälde der Anden and what is also called the Chimborazo Map. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_257

It was a fold-out at the back of the publication. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_258

Humboldt first sketched the map when he was in South America, which included written descriptions on either side of the cross-section of Chimborazo. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_259

These detailed the information on temperature, altitude, humidity, atmosphere pressure, and the animal and plants (with their scientific names) found at each elevation. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_260

Plants from the same genus appear at different elevations. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_261

The depiction is on an east-west axis going from the Pacific coast lowlands to the Andean range of which Chimborazo was a part, and the eastern Amazonian basin. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_262

Humboldt showed the three zones of coast, mountains, and Amazonia, based on his own observations, but he also drew on existing Spanish sources, particularly Pedro Cieza de León, which he explicitly referred to. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_263

The Spanish American scientist Francisco José de Caldas had also measured and observed mountain environments and had earlier come to similar ideas about environmental factors in the distribution of life forms. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_264

Humboldt was thus not putting forward something entirely new, but it is argued that his finding is not derivative either. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_265

The Chimborazo map displayed complex information in an accessible fashion. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_266

The map was the basis for comparison with other major peaks. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_267

"The Naturgemälde showed for the first time that nature was a global force with corresponding climate zones across continents." Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_268

Another assessment of the map is that it "marked the beginning of a new era of environmental science, not only of mountain ecology but also of global-scale biogeophysical patterns and processes." Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_269

By his delineation (in 1817) of isothermal lines, he at once suggested the idea and devised the means of comparing the climatic conditions of various countries. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_270

He first investigated the rate of decrease in mean temperature with the increase in elevation above sea level, and afforded, by his inquiries regarding the origin of tropical storms, the earliest clue to the detection of the more complicated law governing atmospheric disturbances in higher latitudes. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_271

This was a major contribution to climatology. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_272

His discovery of the decrease in intensity of Earth's magnetic field from the poles to the equator was communicated to the Paris Institute in a memoir read by him on 7 December 1804. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_273

Its importance was attested by the speedy emergence of rival claims. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_274

His services to geology were based on his attentive study of the volcanoes of the Andes and Mexico, which he observed and sketched, climbed, and measured with a variety of instruments. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_275

By climbing Chimborazo, he established an altitude record which became the basis for measurement of other volcanoes in the Andes and the Himalayas. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_276

As with other aspects of his investigations, he developed methods to show his synthesized results visually, using the graphic method of geologic-cross sections. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_277

He showed that volcanoes fell naturally into linear groups, presumably corresponding with vast subterranean fissures; and by his demonstration of the igneous origin of rocks previously held to be of aqueous formation, he contributed largely to the elimination of erroneous views, such as Neptunism. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_278

Humboldt was a significant contributor to cartography, creating maps, particularly of New Spain, that became the template for later mapmakers in Mexico. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_279

His careful recording of latitude and longitude led to accurate maps of Mexico, the port of Acapulco, the port of Veracruz, and the Valley of Mexico, and a map showing trade patterns among continents. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_280

His maps also included schematic information on geography, converting areas of administrative districts (intendancies) using proportional squares. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_281

The U.S. was keen to see his maps and statistics on New Spain, since they had implication for territorial claims following the Louisiana Purchase. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_282

Later in life, Humboldt published three volumes (1836–39) examining sources that dealt with the early voyages to the Americas, pursuing his interest in nautical astronomy in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_283

His research yielded the origin of the name "America", put on a map of the Americas by Martin Waldseemüller. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_284

Humboldt conducted a census of the indigenous and European inhabitants in New Spain, publishing a schematized drawing of racial types and populations distribution, grouping them by region and social characteristics. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_285

He estimated the population to be six million individuals. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_286

He estimated Indians to be forty percent of New Spain's population, but their distribution being uneven; the most dense were in the center and south of Mexico, the least dense in the north. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_287

He presented these data in chart form, for easier understanding. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_288

He also surveyed the non-Indian population, categorized as Whites (Spaniards), Negroes, and castes (castas). Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_289

American-born Spaniards, so-called creoles had been painting depictions of mixed-race family groupings in the eighteenth century, showing father of one racial category, mother of another, and the offspring in a third category in hierarchical order, so racial hierarchy was an essential way elites viewed Mexican society. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_290

Humboldt reported that American-born Spaniards were legally racial equals of those born in Spain, but the crown policy since the Bourbons took the Spanish throne privileged those born in Iberia. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_291

Humboldt observed that "the most miserable European, without education and without intellectual cultivation, thinks himself superior to whites born in the new continent". Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_292

The truth in this assertion, and the conclusions derived from them, have been often disputed as superficial, or politically motivated, by some authors, considering that between 40% and 60% of high offices in the new world were held by creoles. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_293

The enmity between some creoles and the peninsular-born whites increasingly became an issue in the late period of Spanish rule, with creoles increasingly alienated from the crown. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_294

Humboldt's assessment was that royal government abuses and the example of a new model of rule in the United States were eroding the unity of whites in New Spain. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_295

Humboldt's writings on race in New Spain were shaped by the memorials of the classical liberal, enlightened Bishop-elect of Michoacán, Manuel Abad y Queipo, who personally presented Humboldt with his printed memorials to the Spanish crown critiquing social and economic conditions and his recommendations for eliminating them. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_296

One scholar says that his writings contain fantastical descriptions of America, while leaving out its inhabitants, stating that Humboldt, coming from the Romantic school of thought, believed '... nature is perfect till man deforms it with care'. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_297

The further assessment is that he largely neglected the human societies amidst nature. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_298

Views of indigenous peoples as 'savage' or 'unimportant' leaves them out of the historical picture. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_299

Other scholars counter that Humboldt dedicated large parts of his work to describing the conditions of slaves, indigenous peoples, mixed-race castas, and society in general. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_300

He often showed his disgust for the slavery and inhumane conditions in which indigenous peoples and others were treated and he often criticized Spanish colonial policies. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_301

Humboldt was not primarily an artist, but he could draw well, allowing him to record a visual record of particular places and their natural environment. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_302

Many of his drawings became the basis for illustrations of his many scientific and general publications. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_303

Artists whom Humboldt influenced, such as Johann Moritz Rugendas, followed in his path and painted the same places Humboldt had visited and recorded, such as the basalt formations in Mexico, which was an illustration in his Vues des Cordillères. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_304

The editing and publication of the encyclopedic mass of scientific, political and archaeological material that had been collected by him during his absence from Europe was now Humboldt's most urgent desire. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_305

After a short trip to Italy with Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac for the purpose of investigating the law of magnetic declination and a stay of two and a half years in Berlin, in the spring of 1808, he settled in Paris. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_306

His purpose for being located there was to secure the scientific cooperation required for bringing his great work through the press. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_307

This colossal task, which he at first hoped would occupy but two years, eventually cost him twenty-one, and even then it remained incomplete. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_308

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Scholarly and public recognition Alexander von Humboldt_section_12

During his lifetime Humboldt became one of the most famous men in Europe. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_309

Academies, both native and foreign, were eager to elect him to their membership, the first being The American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia, which he visited at the tail end of his travel through the Americas. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_310

He was elected to the Prussian Academy of Sciences in 1805. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_311

Over the years other learned societies in the U.S. elected him a member, including the American Antiquarian Society (Worcester, MA) in 1816; the Linnean Society of London in 1818; the New York Historical Society in 1820; a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1822.; the American Ethnological Society (New York) in 1843; and the American Geographical and Statistical Society, (New York) in 1856. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_312

He was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1810. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_313

The Royal Society, whose president Sir Joseph Banks had aided Humboldt as a young man, now welcomed him as a foreign member. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_314

After Mexican independence from Spain in 1821, the Mexican government recognized him with high honors for his services to the nation. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_315

In 1827, the first President of Mexico, Guadalupe Victoria granted Humboldt Mexican citizenship and in 1859, the President of Mexico, Benito Juárez, named Humboldt a hero of the nation (benemérito de la nación). Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_316

The gestures were purely honorary; he never returned to the Americas following his expedition. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_317

Importantly for Humboldt's long-term financial stability, King Frederick William III of Prussia conferred upon him the honor of the post of royal chamberlain, without at the time exacting the duties. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_318

The appointment had a pension of 2,500 thalers, afterwards doubled. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_319

This official stipend became his main source of income in later years when he exhausted his fortune on the publications of his research. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_320

Financial necessity forced his permanent relocation to Berlin in 1827 from Paris. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_321

In Paris he found not only scientific sympathy, but the social stimulus which his vigorous and healthy mind eagerly craved. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_322

He was equally in his element as the lion of the salons and as the savant of the Institut de France and the observatory. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_323

On 12 May 1827 he settled permanently in Berlin, where his first efforts were directed towards the furtherance of the science of terrestrial magnetism. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_324

In 1827, he began giving public lectures in Berlin, which became the basis for his last major publication, Kosmos (1845–62). Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_325

For many years, it had been one of his favorite schemes to secure, by means of simultaneous observations at distant points, a thorough investigation of the nature and law of "magnetic storms" (a term invented by him to designate abnormal disturbances of Earth's magnetism). Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_326

The meeting at Berlin, on 18 September 1828, of a newly formed scientific association, of which he was elected president, gave him the opportunity of setting on foot an extensive system of research in combination with his diligent personal observations. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_327

His appeal to the Russian government, in 1829, led to the establishment of a line of magnetic and meteorological stations across northern Asia. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_328

Meanwhile, his letter to the Duke of Sussex, then (April 1836) president of the Royal Society, secured for the undertaking, the wide basis of the British dominions. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_329

The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, observes, "Thus that scientific conspiracy of nations which is one of the noblest fruits of modern civilization was by his exertions first successfully organized". Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_330

However, earlier examples of international scientific cooperation exist, notably the 18th-century observations of the transits of Venus. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_331

In 1869, the 100th year of his birth, Humboldt's fame was so great that cities all over America celebrated his birth with large festivals. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_332

In New York City, a bust of his head was unveiled in Central Park. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_333

Scholars have speculated about the reasons for Humboldt's declining renown among the public. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_334

Sandra Nichols has argued that there are three reasons for this. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_335

First, a trend towards specialization in scholarship. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_336

Humboldt was a generalist who connected many disciplines in his work. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_337

Today, academics have become more and more focused on narrow fields of work. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_338

Humboldt combined ecology, geography and even social sciences. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_339

Second, a change in writing style. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_340

Humboldt's works, which were considered essential to a library in 1869, had flowery prose that fell out of fashion. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_341

One critic said they had a "laborious picturesqueness". Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_342

Humboldt himself said that, "If I only knew how to describe adequately how and what I felt, I might, after this long journey of mine, really be able to give happiness to people. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_343

The disjointed life I lead makes me hardly certain of my way of writing". Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_344

Third, a rising anti-German sentiment in the late 1800s and the early 1900s due to heavy German immigration to the United States and later World War 1. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_345

On the eve of the 1959 hundredth anniversary of the death of Humboldt, the government of West Germany planned significant celebrations in conjunction with nations that Humboldt visited. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_346

Expedition in Russia, 1829 Alexander von Humboldt_section_13

In 1811, and again in 1818, projects of Asiatic exploration were proposed to Humboldt, first by Czar Nicolas I's Russian government, and afterwards by the Prussian government; but on each occasion, untoward circumstances interposed. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_347

It was not until he had begun his sixtieth year that he resumed his early role of traveler in the interests of science. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_348

The Russian Foreign Minister, Count Georg von Cancrin contacted Humboldt about whether a platinum-based currency was possible in Russia and invited him to visit the Ural Mountains. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_349

Humboldt was not encouraging about a platinum-based currency, when silver was the standard as a world currency. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_350

But the invitation to visit the Urals was intriguing, especially since Humboldt had long dreamed of going to Asia. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_351

He had wanted to travel to India and made considerable efforts to persuade the British East India Company to authorize a trip, but those efforts were fruitless. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_352

When Russia renewed its earlier invitation to Humboldt, Humboldt accepted. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_353

The Russians sought to entice Humboldt by engaging his enduring interest in mining sites, for comparative scientific purposes for Humboldt, but for the Russians to gain expert knowledge about their resources. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_354

For Humboldt, the Russian monarch's promise to fund the trip was extremely important, since Humboldt's inherited 100,000 thaler fortune was gone and he lived on the Prussian government pension of 2,500–3,000 thalers as the monarch's chamberlain. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_355

The Russian government gave an advance of 1200 chervontsev in Berlin and another 20,000 when he arrived in St. Petersburg. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_356

Humboldt was eager to travel not just to the Urals, but also across the steppes of Siberia to Russia's border with China. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_357

Humboldt wrote Cancrin saying that he intended to learn Russian to read mining journals in the language. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_358

As the details of the expedition were worked out, Humboldt said that he would travel to Russia in his own French coach, with a German servant, as well as Gustav Rose, a professor of chemistry and mineralogy. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_359

He also invited Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg to join the expedition, to study water micro-organisms in Lake Baikal and the Caspian Sea. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_360

Humboldt himself was keen to continue his studies of magnetism of mountains and mineral deposits. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_361

As was usual for his research, he brought scientific instruments to take the most accurate measurements. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_362

The Russians organized the local arrangements, including lodging, horses, accompanying crew. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_363

Humboldt's title for the expedition was as an official of the Department of Mines. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_364

As the expedition neared dangerous areas, he had to travel in a convoy with an escort. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_365

Physically Humboldt was in good condition, despite his advancing years, writing to Cancrin "I still walk very lightly on foot, nine to ten hours without resting, despite my age and my white hair". Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_366

Between May and November 1829 he and the growing expedition traversed the wide expanse of the Russian empire from the Neva to the Yenisei, accomplishing in twenty-five weeks a distance of 9,614 miles (15,472 km). Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_367

Humboldt and the expedition party traveled by coach on well maintained roads, with rapid progress being made because of changes of horses at way stations. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_368

The party had grown, with Johann Seifert, who was a huntsman and collector of animal specimens; a Russian mining official; Count Adolphe Polier, one of Humboldt's friends from Paris; a cook; plus a contingent of Cossacks for security. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_369

Three carriages were filled with people, supplies, and scientific instruments. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_370

For Humboldt's magnetic readings to be accurate, they carried an iron-free tent. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_371

This expedition was unlike his Spanish American travels with Bonpland, with the two alone and sometimes accompanied by local guides. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_372

The Russian government was interested in Humboldt finding prospects for mining and commercial advancement of the realm and made it clear that Humboldt was not to investigate social issues, nor criticize social conditions of Russian serfs. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_373

In his publications on Spanish America, he did comment on the conditions of the indigenous populations, and deplored black slavery, but well after he had left those territories. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_374

As Humboldt discovered, the government kept tight control of the expedition, even when it was 1,000 miles (1,600 km) from Moscow, with local government officials greeting the expedition at every stop. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_375

The itinerary was planned with Tobolsk the farthest destination, then a return to St Petersburg. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_376

Humboldt wrote to the Russian Minister Cancrin that he was extending his travel, knowing that the missive would not reach him in time to scuttle the plan. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_377

The further east he journeyed into wilder territory, the more Humboldt enjoyed it. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_378

They still followed the Siberian Highway and made excellent progress, sometimes a hundred miles (160 km) in a day. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_379

Although they were halted at the end of July and warned of an anthrax outbreak, Humboldt decided to continue despite the danger. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_380

"At my age, nothing should be postponed". Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_381

The journey though carried out with all the advantages afforded by the immediate patronage of the Russian government, was too rapid to be profitable scientifically. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_382

The correction of the prevalent exaggerated estimate of the height of the Central Asian plateau, and the prediction of the discovery of diamonds in the gold-washings of the Urals, were important aspects of these travels. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_383

In the end, the expedition took 8 months, traveled 15,500 km, stopped at 658 post stations, and used 12,244 horses. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_384

One writer claims that "Nothing was quite as Humboldt wanted it. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_385

The entire expedition was a compromise." Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_386

The Russian emperor offered Humboldt an invitation to return to Russia, but Humboldt declined, due to his disapproval of Nicholas's restrictions on his freedom of movement during the expedition and his ability to freely report on it. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_387

Humboldt published two works on the Russian expedition, first Fragments de géologie et de climatologie asiatiques in 1831, based on lectures he gave on the topic. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_388

In 1843, he completed the three-volume Asie Centrale, which he dedicated to Czar Nicholas, which he called "an unavoidable step, as the expedition was accomplished at his expense". Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_389

As of 2016, these works have not been translated to English. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_390

His 1829 expedition to Russia when he was an old man is much less known than his five-year travels in Spanish America, which had resulted in many published volumes over the decades since his 1804 return. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_391

Nevertheless, it gave Humboldt comparative data for his various later scientific publications. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_392

Publications Alexander von Humboldt_section_14

Cosmos Alexander von Humboldt_section_15

See also: Kosmos (Humboldt) Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_393

Kosmos was Humboldt's multi-volume effort in his later years to write a work bringing together all the research from his long career. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_394

The writing took shape in lectures he delivered before the University of Berlin in the winter of 1827–28. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_395

These lectures would form "the cartoon for the great fresco of the [K]osmos". Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_396

His 1829 expedition to Russia supplied him with data comparative to his Latin American expedition. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_397

The first two volumes of the Kosmos were published between the years 1845 and 1847 were intended to comprise the entire work, but Humboldt published three more volumes, one of which was posthumous. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_398

Humboldt had long aimed to write a comprehensive work about geography and the natural sciences. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_399

The work attempted to unify the sciences then known in a Kantian framework. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_400

With inspiration from German Romanticism, Humboldt sought to create a compendium of the world's environment. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_401

He spent the last decade of his long life—as he called them, his "improbable" years—continuing this work. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_402

The third and fourth volumes were published in 1850–58; a fragment of a fifth appeared posthumously in 1862. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_403

His reputation had long since been made with his publications on the Latin American expedition. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_404

There is not a consensus on the importance of Kosmos. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_405

One scholar, who stresses the importance of Humboldt's Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain as essential reading, dismisses Kosmos as "little more than an academic curiosity". Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_406

A different opinion is that Kosmos was his "most influential book". Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_407

As with most of Humboldt's works, Kosmos was also translated into multiple languages in editions of uneven quality. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_408

It was very popular in Britain and America. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_409

In 1849 a German newspaper commented that in England two of the three different translations were made by women, "while in Germany most of the men do not understand it". Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_410

The first translation by Augustin Pritchard—published anonymously by Mr. Baillière (volume I in 1845 and volume II in 1848)—suffered from being hurriedly made. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_411

In a letter Humboldt said of it: "It will damage my reputation. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_412

All the charm of my description is destroyed by an English sounding like Sanskrit." Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_413

The other two translations were made by Elizabeth Juliana Leeves Sabine under the superintendence of her husband Col. Edward Sabine (4 volumes 1846–1858), and by Elise Otté (5 volumes 1849–1858, the only complete translation of the 4 German volumes). Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_414

These three translations were also published in the United States. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_415

The numbering of the volumes differs between the German and the English editions. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_416

Volume 3 of the German edition corresponds to the volumes 3 and 4 of the English translation, as the German volume appeared in 2 parts in 1850 and 1851. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_417

Volume 5 of the German edition was not translated until 1981, again by a woman. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_418

Otté's translation benefited from a detailed table of contents, and an index for every volume; of the German edition only volumes 4 and 5 had (extremely short) tables of contents, and the index to the whole work only appeared with volume 5 in 1862. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_419

Less well known in Germany is the atlas belonging to the German edition of the Cosmos "Berghaus' Physikalischer Atlas", better known as the pirated version by Traugott Bromme under the title "Atlas zu Alexander von Humboldt's Kosmos" (Stuttgart 1861). Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_420

In Britain, Heinrich Berghaus planned to publish together with Alexander Keith Johnston a "Physical Atlas". Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_421

But later Johnston published it alone under the title "The Physical Atlas of Natural Phenomena". Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_422

In Britain its connection to the Cosmos seems not have been recognized. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_423

Other publications Alexander von Humboldt_section_16

Alexander von Humboldt published prolifically throughout his life. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_424

Many works were published originally in French or German, then translated to other languages, sometimes with competing translation editions. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_425

Humboldt himself did not keep track of all the various editions. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_426

He wrote specialized works on particular topics of botany, zoology, astronomy, mineralogy, among others, but he also wrote general works that attracted a wide readership, especially his Personal Narrative of Travels to the Equinoctial Regions of the New Continent during the years 1799–1804 His Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain was widely read in Mexico itself, the United States, as well as in Europe. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_427

Many of the original works have been digitally scanned by the Biodiversity Library. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_428

There have been new editions of print works, including his Views of the Cordilleras and Monuments of the Indigenous Peoples of the Americas (2014), which includes reproductions of all the color and black and white plates. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_429

In the original edition, the publication was in a large format and quite expensive. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_430

There is a 2009 translation of his Geography of Plants and a 2014 English edition of Views of Nature. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_431

Influence on scientists and artists Alexander von Humboldt_section_17

Humboldt was generous toward his friends and mentored young scientists. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_432

He and Bonpland parted ways after their return to Europe, and Humboldt largely took on the task of publishing the results of their Latin American expedition at Humboldt's expense, but he included Bonpland as co-author on the nearly published 30 volumes. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_433

Bonpland returned to Latin America, settling in Buenos Aires, Argentina, then moved to the countryside near the border with Paraguay. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_434

The forces of Dr. José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia, the strong man of Paraguay, abducted Bonpland after killing Bonpland's estate workers. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_435

Bonpland was accused of "agricultural espionage" and of threatening Paraguay's virtual monopoly on the cultivation of yerba mate. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_436

Despite international pressure, including the British government and Simón Bolívar's, along with European scientists including Humboldt, Francia kept Bonpland prisoner until 1831. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_437

He was released after nearly 10 years in Paraguay. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_438

Humboldt and Bonpland maintained a warm correspondence about science and politics until Bonpland's death in 1858. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_439

During Humboldt's time in Paris, he met in 1818 the young and brilliant Peruvian student of the Royal Mining School of Paris, Mariano Eduardo de Rivero y Ustariz. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_440

Subsequently, Humboldt acted as a mentor of the career of this promising Peruvian scientist. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_441

Another recipient of Humboldt's aid was Louis Agassiz (1807–1873), who was directly aided with needed cash from Humboldt, assistance in securing an academic position, and help with getting his research on zoology published. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_442

Agassiz sent him copies of his publications and went on to gain considerable scientific recognition as a professor at Harvard. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_443

Agassiz delivered an address to the Boston Society of Natural History in 1869, on the centenary of his patron's birth. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_444

When Humboldt was an elderly man, he aided another young scholar, Gotthold Eisenstein, a brilliant, young, Jewish mathematician in Berlin, for whom he obtained a small crown pension and whom he nominated for the Academy of Science. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_445

Humboldt's popular writings inspired many scientists and naturalists, including Charles Darwin, Henry David Thoreau, John Muir, George Perkins Marsh, Ernst Haeckel, Ida Laura Pfeiffer as well as brothers Richard and Robert Schomburgk. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_446

Humboldt carried on correspondence with many contemporaries and two volumes of letters to Karl August Varnhagen von Ense have been published. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_447

Charles Darwin made frequent reference to Humboldt's work in his Voyage of the Beagle, where Darwin described his own scientific exploration of the Americas. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_448

In one note, he placed Humboldt first on the "list of American travellers". Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_449

Darwin's work was influenced by Humboldt's writing style as well. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_450

Darwin's sister remarked to him "you had, probably from reading so much of Humboldt, got his phraseology and the kind of flower French expressions he uses". Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_451

When Darwin's Journal was published, he sent a copy to Humboldt, who responded, "You told me in your kind letter that, when you were young, the manner in which I studied and depicted nature in the torrid zones contributed toward exciting in you the ardour and desire to travel in distant lands. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_452

Considering the importance of your work, Sir, this may be the greatest success that my humble work could bring." Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_453

In his autobiography, Darwin recalled, reading "with care and profound interest Humboldt's Personal Narrative" and finding it one of the two most influential books on his work, which stirred in him "a burning zeal to add even the most humble contribution to the noble structure of Natural Science". Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_454

Humboldt would later reveal to Darwin in the 1840s that he had been a fan of Darwin's grandfather's poetry. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_455

Erasmus Darwin had published the poem The Loves of the Plants in the early 1800s. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_456

Humboldt praised the poem for combining nature and imagination, a theme that permeated Humboldt's own work. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_457

A number of nineteenth-century artists traveled to Latin America, following in the footsteps of Humboldt, painting landscapes and scenes of everyday life. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_458

Johann Moritz Rugendas, Ferdinand Bellermann, and Eduard Hildebrandt were three important European painters. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_459

Frederic Edwin Church was the most famous landscape painter in the U.S. in the nineteenth century. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_460

His paintings of Andean volcanoes that Humboldt climbed helped make Church's reputation. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_461

His 5 foot by 10 foot painting entitled The Heart of the Andes "caused a sensation" when it was completed. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_462

Church had hoped to ship the painting to Berlin to show the painting to Humboldt, but Humboldt died a few days after Church's letter was written. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_463

Church painted Cotopaxi three times, twice in 1855 and then in 1859 in eruption. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_464

George Catlin, most famous for his portraits of North American Indians and paintings of life among various North American tribes also traveled to South America, producing a number of paintings. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_465

He wrote to Humboldt in 1855, sending him his proposal for South American travels. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_466

Humboldt replied, thanking him and sending a memorandum helping guide his travels. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_467

Ida Laura Pfeiffer, one of the first female travelers who completed two trips around the world from 1846 to 1855, followed in Humboldt's footsteps. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_468

The two explorers met in Berlin in 1851 before Pfeiffer's second tour and again in 1855 when she returned to Europe. Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_469

Humboldt provided Pfeiffer with an open letter of introduction in which he bade anyone who knew of his name to assist Madame Pfeiffer for her "inextinguishable energy of character which she has everywhere shown, to wheresoever's she has been called or better put, driven by her unconquerable passion to study nature and man." Alexander von Humboldt_sentence_470

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: von Humboldt.