Alexandria

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This article is about the city in Egypt. Alexandria_sentence_0

For other uses, see Alexandria (disambiguation). Alexandria_sentence_1

Alexandria (/ˌælɪɡˈzændriə/ or /-ˈzɑːnd-/; Arabic: الإسكندرية‎ al-ʾIskandariyya; Egyptian Arabic: اسكندرية‎ Eskendereyya; Coptic: ⲣⲁⲕⲟϯ Rakodī; Greek: Αλεξάνδρεια Alexandria) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre. Alexandria_sentence_2

With a population of 5,200,000, Alexandria is the largest city on the Mediterranean - also called the Bride of the Mediterranean by locals - the sixth-largest city in the Arab world and the ninth-largest in Africa. Alexandria_sentence_3

The city extends about 40 km (25 mi) at the northern coast of Egypt along the Mediterranean Sea. Alexandria_sentence_4

Alexandria is a popular tourist destination, and also an important industrial centre because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez. Alexandria_sentence_5

Alexandria was founded in c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great, king of Macedon and leader of the Greek League of Corinth, during his conquest of the Achaemenid Empire. Alexandria_sentence_6

An Egyptian village named Rhacotis existed at the location and grew into the Egyptian quarter of Alexandria. Alexandria_sentence_7

Alexandria grew rapidly to become an important centre of Hellenistic civilization and remained the capital of Ptolemaic Egypt and Roman and Byzantine Egypt for almost 1,000 years, until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD 641, when a new capital was founded at Fustat (later absorbed into Cairo). Alexandria_sentence_8

Hellenistic Alexandria was best known for the Lighthouse of Alexandria (Pharos), one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World; its Great Library (the largest in the ancient world); and the Necropolis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages. Alexandria_sentence_9

Alexandria was the intellectual and cultural centre of the ancient Mediterranean world for much of the Hellenistic age and late antiquity. Alexandria_sentence_10

It was at one time the largest city in the ancient world before being eventually overtaken by Rome. Alexandria_sentence_11

The city was a major centre of early Christianity and was the centre of the Patriarchate of Alexandria, which was one of the major centres of Christianity in the Eastern Roman Empire. Alexandria_sentence_12

In the modern world, the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria both lay claim to this ancient heritage. Alexandria_sentence_13

By the time of the Arab conquest of Egypt in 641 AD, the city had already been largely plundered and lost its significance before re-emerging in the modern era. Alexandria_sentence_14

From the late 18th century, Alexandria became a major centre of the international shipping industry and one of the most important trading centres in the world, both because it profited from the easy overland connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, and the lucrative trade in Egyptian cotton. Alexandria_sentence_15

History Alexandria_section_0

Main articles: History of Alexandria and Timeline of Alexandria Alexandria_sentence_16

Ancient era Alexandria_section_1

Recent radiocarbon dating of seashell fragments and lead contamination show human activity at the location during the period of the Old Kingdom (27th-21st centuries BC) and again in the period 1000-800 BC, followed by the absence of activity thereafter. Alexandria_sentence_17

From ancient sources it is known there existed a trading post at this location during the time of Rameses the Great for trade with Crete, but it had long been lost by the time of Alexander's arrival. Alexandria_sentence_18

A small Egyptian fishing village named Rhakotis (Egyptian: rꜥ-qdy.t, 'That which is built up') existed since the 13th century BC in the vicinity and eventually grew into the Egyptian quarter of the city. Alexandria_sentence_19

Just east of Alexandria (where Abu Qir Bay is now), there was in ancient times marshland and several islands. Alexandria_sentence_20

As early as the 7th century BC, there existed important port cities of Canopus and Heracleion. Alexandria_sentence_21

The latter was recently rediscovered under water. Alexandria_sentence_22

Alexandria was founded by Alexander the Great in April 331 BC as Ἀλεξάνδρεια (Alexandreia). Alexandria_sentence_23

Passing through Egypt, Alexander wanted to build a large Greek city on Egypt's coast that would bear his name. Alexandria_sentence_24

He chose the site of Alexandria, envisioning the building of a causeway to the nearby island of Pharos that would generate two great natural harbours. Alexandria_sentence_25

Alexandria was intended to supersede the older Greek colony of Naucratis as a Hellenistic centre in Egypt, and to be the link between Greece and the rich Nile valley. Alexandria_sentence_26

A few months after the foundation, Alexander left Egypt and never returned to the city during his life. Alexandria_sentence_27

After Alexander's departure, his viceroy Cleomenes continued the expansion. Alexandria_sentence_28

The architect Dinocrates of Rhodes designed the city, using a Hippodamian grid plan. Alexandria_sentence_29

Following Alexander's death in 323 BC, his general Ptolemy Lagides took possession of Egypt and brought Alexander's body to Egypt with him. Alexandria_sentence_30

Ptolemy at first ruled from the old Egyptian capital of Memphis. Alexandria_sentence_31

In 322/321 BC he had Cleomenes executed. Alexandria_sentence_32

Finally, in 305 BC, Ptolemy declared himself Pharaoh as Ptolemy I Soter ("Savior") and moved his capital to Alexandria. Alexandria_sentence_33

Although Cleomenes was mainly in charge of overseeing Alexandria's early development, the Heptastadion and the mainland quarters seem to have been primarily Ptolemaic work. Alexandria_sentence_34

Inheriting the trade of ruined Tyre and becoming the centre of the new commerce between Europe and the Arabian and Indian East, the city grew in less than a generation to be larger than Carthage. Alexandria_sentence_35

In a century, Alexandria had become the largest city in the world and, for some centuries more, was second only to Rome. Alexandria_sentence_36

It became Egypt's main Greek city, with Greek people from diverse backgrounds. Alexandria_sentence_37

Alexandria was not only a centre of Hellenism, but was also home to the largest urban Jewish community in the world. Alexandria_sentence_38

The Septuagint, a Greek version of the Tanakh, was produced there. Alexandria_sentence_39

The early Ptolemies kept it in order and fostered the development of its museum into the leading Hellenistic centre of learning (Library of Alexandria), but were careful to maintain the distinction of its population's three largest ethnicities: Greek, Jewish, and Egyptian. Alexandria_sentence_40

By the time of Augustus, the city walls encompassed an area of 5.34 km, and the total population in Roman times was around 500–600,000. Alexandria_sentence_41

According to Philo of Alexandria, in the year 38 of the Common era, disturbances erupted between Jews and Greek citizens of Alexandria during a visit paid by the Jewish king Agrippa I to Alexandria, principally over the respect paid by the Jewish nation to the Roman emperor, and which quickly escalated to open affronts and violence between the two ethnic groups and the desecration of Alexandrian synagogues. Alexandria_sentence_42

The violence was quelled after Caligula intervened and had the Roman governor, Flaccus, removed from the city. Alexandria_sentence_43

In AD 115, large parts of Alexandria were destroyed during the Kitos War, which gave Hadrian and his architect, Decriannus, an opportunity to rebuild it. Alexandria_sentence_44

In 215, the emperor Caracalla visited the city and, because of some insulting satires that the inhabitants had directed at him, abruptly commanded his troops to put to death all youths capable of bearing arms. Alexandria_sentence_45

On 21 July 365, Alexandria was devastated by a tsunami (365 Crete earthquake), an event annually commemorated years later as a "day of horror". Alexandria_sentence_46

Islamic era Alexandria_section_2

In 619, Alexandria fell to the Sassanid Persians. Alexandria_sentence_47

Although the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius recovered it in 629, in 641 the Arabs under the general 'Amr ibn al-'As invaded it during the Muslim conquest of Egypt, after a siege that lasted 14 months. Alexandria_sentence_48

The first Arab governor of Egypt recorded to have visited Alexandria was Utba ibn Abi Sufyan, who strengthened the Arab presence and built a governor's palace in the city in 664–665. Alexandria_sentence_49

After the Battle of Ridaniya in 1517, the city was conquered by the Ottoman Turks and remained under Ottoman rule until 1798. Alexandria_sentence_50

Alexandria lost much of its former importance to the Egyptian port city of Rosetta during the 9th to 18th centuries, and only regained its former prominence with the construction of the Mahmoudiyah Canal in 1807. Alexandria_sentence_51

Alexandria figured prominently in the military operations of Napoleon's expedition to Egypt in 1798. Alexandria_sentence_52

French troops stormed the city on 2 July 1798, and it remained in their hands until the arrival of a British expedition in 1801. Alexandria_sentence_53

The British won a considerable victory over the French at the Battle of Alexandria on 21 March 1801, following which they besieged the city, which fell to them on 2 September 1801. Alexandria_sentence_54

Muhammad Ali, the Ottoman governor of Egypt, began rebuilding and redevelopment around 1810, and by 1850, Alexandria had returned to something akin to its former glory. Alexandria_sentence_55

Egypt turned to Europe in their effort to modernize the country. Alexandria_sentence_56

Greeks, followed by other Europeans and others, began moving to the city. Alexandria_sentence_57

In the early 20th century, the city became a home for novelists and poets. Alexandria_sentence_58

In July 1882, the city came under bombardment from British naval forces and was occupied. Alexandria_sentence_59

In July 1954, the city was a target of an Israeli bombing campaign that later became known as the Lavon Affair. Alexandria_sentence_60

On 26 October 1954, Alexandria's Mansheya Square was the site of a failed assassination attempt on Gamal Abdel Nasser. Alexandria_sentence_61

Europeans began leaving Alexandria following the 1956 Suez Crisis that led to an outburst of Arab nationalism. Alexandria_sentence_62

The nationalization of property by Nasser, which reached its highest point in 1961, drove out nearly all the rest. Alexandria_sentence_63

Ibn Battuta in Alexandria Alexandria_section_3

In reference to Alexandria, Egypt, Ibn Battuta speaks of great saints that resided here. Alexandria_sentence_64

One of them being Imam Borhan Oddin El Aaraj. Alexandria_sentence_65

He was said to have the power of working miracles. Alexandria_sentence_66

He told Ibn Battuta that he should go find his three brothers, Farid Oddin, who lived in India, Rokn Oddin Ibn Zakarya, who lived in Sindia, and Borhan Oddin, who lived in China. Alexandria_sentence_67

Battuta then made it his purpose to find these people and give them his compliments. Alexandria_sentence_68

Sheikh Yakut was another great man. Alexandria_sentence_69

He was the disciple of Sheikh Abu Abbas El Mursi, who was the disciple of Abu El Hasan El Shadali, who is known to be a servant of God. Alexandria_sentence_70

Abu Abbas was the author of the Hizb El Bahr and was famous for piety and miracles. Alexandria_sentence_71

Abu Abd Allah El Murshidi was a great interpreting saint that lived secluded in the Minyat of Ibn Murshed. Alexandria_sentence_72

He lived alone but was visited daily by emirs, viziers, and crowds that wished to eat with him. Alexandria_sentence_73

The Sultan of Egypt (El Malik El Nasir) visited him, as well. Alexandria_sentence_74

Ibn Battuta left Alexandria with the intent of visiting him. Alexandria_sentence_75

Ibn Battuta also visited the Pharos lighthouse on 2 occasions; in 1326 he found it to be partly in ruins and in 1349 it had deteriorated further, making entrance to the edifice impossible. Alexandria_sentence_76

Timeline Alexandria_section_4

The most important battles and sieges of Alexandria include: Alexandria_sentence_77

Alexandria_unordered_list_0

Ancient layout Alexandria_section_5

Greek Alexandria was divided into three regions: Alexandria_sentence_78

Alexandria_description_list_1

  • Brucheum: Brucheum is the Royal or Greek quarter and forms the most magnificent portion of the city. In Roman times Brucheum was enlarged by the addition of an official quarter, making four regions in all. The city was laid out as a grid of parallel streets, each of which had an attendant subterranean canal;Alexandria_item_1_8
  • The Jewish quarter: This quarter is the northeast portion of the city;Alexandria_item_1_9
  • Rhakotis: Rhakotis is the old city that was absorbed into Alexandria. It was occupied chiefly by Egyptians. (from Coptic Rakotə "Alexandria").Alexandria_item_1_10

Two main streets, lined with colonnades and said to have been each about 60 meters (200 ft) wide, intersected in the centre of the city, close to the point where the Sema (or Soma) of Alexander (his Mausoleum) rose. Alexandria_sentence_79

This point is very near the present mosque of Nebi Daniel; and the line of the great East–West "Canopic" street, only slightly diverged from that of the modern Boulevard de Rosette (now Sharia Fouad). Alexandria_sentence_80

Traces of its pavement and canal have been found near the Rosetta Gate, but remnants of streets and canals were exposed in 1899 by German excavators outside the east fortifications, which lie well within the area of the ancient city. Alexandria_sentence_81

Alexandria consisted originally of little more than the island of Pharos, which was joined to the mainland by a 1,260-metre-long (4,130 ft) mole and called the Heptastadion ("seven stadia"—a stadium was a Greek unit of length measuring approximately 180 metres or 590 feet). Alexandria_sentence_82

The end of this abutted on the land at the head of the present Grand Square, where the "Moon Gate" rose. Alexandria_sentence_83

All that now lies between that point and the modern "Ras al-Tin" quarter is built on the silt which gradually widened and obliterated this mole. Alexandria_sentence_84

The Ras al-Tin quarter represents all that is left of the island of Pharos, the site of the actual lighthouse having been weathered away by the sea. Alexandria_sentence_85

On the east of the mole was the Great Harbour, now an open bay; on the west lay the port of Eunostos, with its inner basin Kibotos, now vastly enlarged to form the modern harbour. Alexandria_sentence_86

In Strabo's time, (latter half of the 1st century BC) the principal buildings were as follows, enumerated as they were to be seen from a ship entering the Great Harbour. Alexandria_sentence_87

Alexandria_ordered_list_2

  1. The Royal Palaces, filling the northeast angle of the town and occupying the promontory of Lochias, which shut in the Great Harbour on the east. Lochias (the modern Pharillon) has almost entirely disappeared into the sea, together with the palaces, the "Private Port," and the island of Antirrhodus. There has been a land subsidence here, as throughout the northeast coast of Africa.Alexandria_item_2_11
  2. The Great Theater, on the modern Hospital Hill near the Ramleh station. This was used by Julius Caesar as a fortress, where he withstood a siege from the city mob after he took Egypt after the battle of PharsalusAlexandria_item_2_12
  3. The Poseidon, or Temple of the Sea God, close to the theaterAlexandria_item_2_13
  4. The Timonium built by Marc AntonyAlexandria_item_2_14
  5. The Emporium (Exchange)Alexandria_item_2_15
  6. The Apostases (Magazines)Alexandria_item_2_16
  7. The Navalia (Docks), lying west of the Timonium, along the seafront as far as the moleAlexandria_item_2_17
  8. Behind the Emporium rose the Great Caesareum, by which stood the two great obelisks, which become known as "Cleopatra's Needles," and were transported to New York City and London. This temple became, in time, the Patriarchal Church, though some ancient remains of the temple have been discovered. The actual Caesareum, the parts not eroded by the waves, lies under the houses lining the new seawall.Alexandria_item_2_18
  9. The Gymnasium and the Palaestra are both inland, near the Boulevard de Rosette in the eastern half of the town; sites unknown.Alexandria_item_2_19
  10. The Temple of Saturn; alexandria west.Alexandria_item_2_20
  11. The Mausolea of Alexander (Soma) and the Ptolemies in one ring-fence, near the point of intersection of the two main streets.Alexandria_item_2_21
  12. The Musaeum with its famous Library and theater in the same region; site unknown.Alexandria_item_2_22
  13. The Serapeum of Alexandria, the most famous of all Alexandrian temples. Strabo tells us that this stood in the west of the city; and recent discoveries go far as to place it near "Pompey's Pillar," which was an independent monument erected to commemorate Diocletian's siege of the city.Alexandria_item_2_23

The names of a few other public buildings on the mainland are known, but there is little information as to their actual position. Alexandria_sentence_88

None, however, are as famous as the building that stood on the eastern point of Pharos island. Alexandria_sentence_89

There, The Great Lighthouse, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, reputed to be 138 metres (453 feet) high, was situated. Alexandria_sentence_90

The first Ptolemy began the project, and the second Ptolemy (Ptolemy II Philadelphus) completed it, at a total cost of 800 talents. Alexandria_sentence_91

It took 12 years to complete and served as a prototype for all later lighthouses in the world. Alexandria_sentence_92

The light was produced by a furnace at the top and the tower was built mostly with solid blocks of limestone. Alexandria_sentence_93

The Pharos lighthouse was destroyed by an earthquake in the 14th century, making it the second longest surviving ancient wonder, after the Great Pyramid of Giza. Alexandria_sentence_94

A temple of Hephaestus also stood on Pharos at the head of the mole. Alexandria_sentence_95

In the 1st century, the population of Alexandria contained over 180,000 adult male citizens, according to a census dated from 32 CE, in addition to a large number of freedmen, women, children and slaves. Alexandria_sentence_96

Estimates of the total population range from 216,000 to 500,000 making it one of the largest cities ever built before the Industrial Revolution and the largest pre-industrial city that was not an imperial capital. Alexandria_sentence_97

Geography Alexandria_section_6

Alexandria is located in the country of Egypt, on the southern coast of the Mediterranean. Alexandria_sentence_98

Climate Alexandria_section_7

Alexandria has a borderline hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification: BWh), approaching a hot semi-arid climate (BSh). Alexandria_sentence_99

As the rest of Egypt's northern coast, the prevailing north wind, blowing across the Mediterranean, gives the city a less severe climate from the desert hinterland. Alexandria_sentence_100

Rafah and Alexandria are the wettest places in Egypt; the other wettest places are Rosetta, Baltim, Kafr el-Dawwar, and Mersa Matruh. Alexandria_sentence_101

The city's climate is influenced by the Mediterranean Sea, moderating its temperatures, causing variable rainy winters and moderately hot and slightly prolonged summers that, at times, can be very humid; January and February are the coolest months, with daily maximum temperatures typically ranging from 12 to 18 °C (54 to 64 °F) and minimum temperatures that could reach 5 °C (41 °F). Alexandria_sentence_102

temperature sometimes gets lower than 5 and it sometimes rains snow. Alexandria_sentence_103

Alexandria experiences violent storms, rain and sometimes sleet and hail during the cooler months; these events, combined with a poor drainage system, have been responsible for occasional flooding in the city in the past though they rarely occur anymore. Alexandria_sentence_104

July and August are the hottest and driest months of the year, with an average daily maximum temperature of 30 °C (86 °F). Alexandria_sentence_105

The average annual rainfall is around 200 mm (7.9 in) but has been as high as 417 mm (16.4 in) Alexandria_sentence_106

Port Said, Kosseir, Baltim, Damietta and Alexandria have the least temperature variation in Egypt. Alexandria_sentence_107

The highest recorded temperature was 45 °C (113 °F) on 30 May 1961, and the coldest recorded temperature was 0 °C (32 °F) on 31 January 1994. Alexandria_sentence_108

Alexandria_table_general_0

Alexandria mean sea temperatureAlexandria_table_caption_0
JanAlexandria_header_cell_0_0_0 FebAlexandria_header_cell_0_0_1 MarAlexandria_header_cell_0_0_2 AprAlexandria_header_cell_0_0_3 MayAlexandria_header_cell_0_0_4 JunAlexandria_header_cell_0_0_5 JulAlexandria_header_cell_0_0_6 AugAlexandria_header_cell_0_0_7 SepAlexandria_header_cell_0_0_8 OctAlexandria_header_cell_0_0_9 NovAlexandria_header_cell_0_0_10 DecAlexandria_header_cell_0_0_11
18 °C (64 °F)Alexandria_cell_0_1_0 17 °C (63 °F)Alexandria_cell_0_1_1 17 °C (63 °F)Alexandria_cell_0_1_2 18 °C (64 °F)Alexandria_cell_0_1_3 20 °C (68 °F)Alexandria_cell_0_1_4 23 °C (73 °F)Alexandria_cell_0_1_5 25 °C (77 °F)Alexandria_cell_0_1_6 26 °C (79 °F)Alexandria_cell_0_1_7 26 °C (79 °F)Alexandria_cell_0_1_8 25 °C (77 °F)Alexandria_cell_0_1_9 22 °C (72 °F)Alexandria_cell_0_1_10 20 °C (68 °F)Alexandria_cell_0_1_11

Cityscape Alexandria_section_8

Due to the constant presence of war in Alexandria in ancient times, very little of the ancient city has survived into the present day. Alexandria_sentence_109

Much of the royal and civic quarters sank beneath the harbour and the rest has been built over in modern times. Alexandria_sentence_110

"Pompey's Pillar", a Roman triumphal column, is one of the best-known ancient monuments still standing in Alexandria today. Alexandria_sentence_111

It is located on Alexandria's ancient acropolis—a modest hill located adjacent to the city's Arab cemetery—and was originally part of a temple colonnade. Alexandria_sentence_112

Including its pedestal, it is 30 m (99 ft) high; the shaft is of polished red granite, 2.7 m (8.9 ft) in diameter at the base, tapering to 2.4 m (7.9 ft) at the top. Alexandria_sentence_113

The shaft is 88 feet (27 m) high, and made out of a single piece of granite. Alexandria_sentence_114

Its volume is 132 cubic meters (4,662 cubic feet) and weight approximately 396 tons. Alexandria_sentence_115

Pompey's Pillar may have been erected using the same methods that were used to erect the ancient obelisks. Alexandria_sentence_116

The Romans had cranes but they were not strong enough to lift something this heavy. Alexandria_sentence_117

Roger Hopkins and Mark Lehrner conducted several obelisk erecting experiments including a successful attempt to erect a 25-ton obelisk in 1999. Alexandria_sentence_118

This followed two experiments to erect smaller obelisks and two failed attempts to erect a 25-ton obelisk. Alexandria_sentence_119

The structure was plundered and demolished in the 4th century when a bishop decreed that Paganism must be eradicated. Alexandria_sentence_120

"Pompey's Pillar" is a misnomer, as it has nothing to do with Pompey, having been erected in 293 for Diocletian, possibly in memory of the rebellion of Domitius Domitianus. Alexandria_sentence_121

Beneath the acropolis itself are the subterranean remains of the Serapeum, where the mysteries of the god Serapis were enacted, and whose carved wall niches are believed to have provided overflow storage space for the ancient Library. Alexandria_sentence_122

In more recent years, many ancient artifacts have been discovered from the surrounding sea, mostly pieces of old pottery. Alexandria_sentence_123

Alexandria's catacombs, known as Kom El Shoqafa, are a short distance southwest of the pillar, consist of a multi-level labyrinth, reached via a large spiral staircase, and featuring dozens of chambers adorned with sculpted pillars, statues, and other syncretic Romano-Egyptian religious symbols, burial niches, and sarcophagi, as well as a large Roman-style banquet room, where memorial meals were conducted by relatives of the deceased. Alexandria_sentence_124

The catacombs were long forgotten by the citizens until they were discovered by accident in 1900. Alexandria_sentence_125

The most extensive ancient excavation currently being conducted in Alexandria is known as Kom El Deka. Alexandria_sentence_126

It has revealed the ancient city's well-preserved theater, and the remains of its Roman-era baths. Alexandria_sentence_127

Persistent efforts have been made to explore the antiquities of Alexandria. Alexandria_sentence_128

Encouragement and help have been given by the local Archaeological Society, and by many individuals, notably Greeks proud of a city which is one of the glories of their national history. Alexandria_sentence_129

Excavations were performed in the city by Greeks seeking the tomb of Alexander the Great without success. Alexandria_sentence_130

The past and present directors of the museum have been enabled from time to time to carry out systematic excavations whenever opportunity is offered; D. Alexandria_sentence_131 G. Hogarth made tentative researches on behalf of the Egypt Exploration Fund and the Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies in 1895; and a German expedition worked for two years (1898–1899). Alexandria_sentence_132

But two difficulties face the would-be excavator in Alexandria: lack of space for excavation and the underwater location of some areas of interest. Alexandria_sentence_133

Since the great and growing modern city stands immediately over the ancient one, it is almost impossible to find any considerable space in which to dig, except at enormous cost. Alexandria_sentence_134

Cleopatra VII's royal quarters were inundated by earthquakes and tsunami, leading to gradual subsidence in the 4th century AD. Alexandria_sentence_135

This underwater section, containing many of the most interesting sections of the Hellenistic city, including the palace quarter, was explored in 1992 and is still being extensively investigated by the French underwater archaeologist Franck Goddio and his team. Alexandria_sentence_136

It raised a noted head of Caesarion. Alexandria_sentence_137

These are being opened up to tourists, to some controversy. Alexandria_sentence_138

The spaces that are most open are the low grounds to northeast and southwest, where it is practically impossible to get below the Roman strata. Alexandria_sentence_139

The most important results were those achieved by Dr. G. Botti, late director of the museum, in the neighborhood of "Pompey's Pillar", where there is a good deal of open ground. Alexandria_sentence_140

Here, substructures of a large building or group of buildings have been exposed, which are perhaps part of the Serapeum. Alexandria_sentence_141

Nearby, immense catacombs and columbaria have been opened which may have been appendages of the temple. Alexandria_sentence_142

These contain one very remarkable vault with curious painted reliefs, now artificially lit and open to visitors. Alexandria_sentence_143

The objects found in these researches are in the museum, the most notable being a great basalt bull, probably once an object of cult in the Serapeum. Alexandria_sentence_144

Other catacombs and tombs have been opened in Kom El Shoqafa (Roman) and Ras El Tin (painted). Alexandria_sentence_145

The German excavation team found remains of a Ptolemaic colonnade and streets in the north-east of the city, but little else. Alexandria_sentence_146

Hogarth explored part of an immense brick structure under the mound of Kom El Deka, which may have been part of the Paneum, the Mausolea, or a Roman fortress. Alexandria_sentence_147

The making of the new foreshore led to the dredging up of remains of the Patriarchal Church; and the foundations of modern buildings are seldom laid without some objects of antiquity being discovered. Alexandria_sentence_148

The wealth underground is doubtlessly immense; but despite all efforts, there is not much for antiquarians to see in Alexandria outside the museum and the neighborhood of "Pompey's Pillar". Alexandria_sentence_149

Temple of Taposiris Magna Alexandria_section_9

The temple was built in the Ptolemy era and dedicated to Osiris, which finished the construction of Alexandria. Alexandria_sentence_150

It is located in Abusir, the western suburb of Alexandria in Borg el Arab city. Alexandria_sentence_151

Only the outer wall and the pylons remain from the temple. Alexandria_sentence_152

There is evidence to prove that sacred animals were worshiped there. Alexandria_sentence_153

Archaeologists found an animal necropolis near the temple. Alexandria_sentence_154

Remains of a Christian church show that the temple was used as a church in later centuries. Alexandria_sentence_155

Also found in the same area are remains of public baths built by the emperor Justinian, a seawall, quays and a bridge. Alexandria_sentence_156

Near the beach side of the area, there are the remains of a tower built by Ptolemy II Philadelphus. Alexandria_sentence_157

The tower was an exact scale replica of the destroyed Alexandrine Pharos Lighthouse. Alexandria_sentence_158

Places of worship Alexandria_section_10

Among the places of worship, there are Muslim mosques. Alexandria_sentence_159

Coptic Christian churches are most common churches .There are also other Christian churches as: Greek, Latin and Armenian . Alexandria_sentence_160

Orthodox Christian churches are most common but Catholic, Anglican and Evangelical churches are present. Alexandria_sentence_161

Also there is a Jewish synagogue Alexandria_sentence_162

Islam Alexandria_section_11

See also: List of mosques in Alexandria Alexandria_sentence_163

The most famous mosque in Alexandria is Abu al-Abbas al-Mursi Mosque in Bahary. Alexandria_sentence_164

Other notable mosques in the city include Ali ibn Abi Talib mosque in Somouha, Bilal mosque, al-Gamaa al-Bahari in Mandara, Hatem mosque in Somouha, Hoda el-Islam mosque in Sidi Bishr, al-Mowasah mosque in Hadara, Sharq al-Madina mosque in Miami, al-Shohadaa mosque in Mostafa Kamel, Al Qa'ed Ibrahim Mosque, Yehia mosque in Zizinia, Sidi Gaber mosque in Sidi Gaber, Sidi B esher mosque, Rokay el-Islam mosque in Elessway, Elsadaka Mosque in Sidibesher Qebly, Elshatbi mosque and Sultan mosque. Alexandria_sentence_165

Alexandria is the base of the Salafi movements in Egypt. Alexandria_sentence_166

Al-Nour Party, which is based in the city and overwhelmingly won most of the Salafi votes in the 2011–12 parliamentary election, supports the president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi. Alexandria_sentence_167

Christianity Alexandria_section_12

After Rome and Constantinople, Alexandria was considered the third-most important seat of Christianity in the world. Alexandria_sentence_168

The Pope of Alexandria was second only to the bishop of Rome, the capital of the Roman Empire until 430. Alexandria_sentence_169

The Church of Alexandria had jurisdiction over most of the continent of Africa. Alexandria_sentence_170

After the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, the Church of Alexandria was split between the Miaphysites and the Melkites. Alexandria_sentence_171

The Miaphysites went on to constitute what is known today as the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. Alexandria_sentence_172

The Melkites went on to constitute what is known today as the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria. Alexandria_sentence_173

In the 19th century, Catholic and Protestant missionaries converted some of the adherents of the Orthodox churches to their respective faiths. Alexandria_sentence_174

Today, the Patriarchal seat of the Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church is Saint Mark Cathedral . Alexandria_sentence_175

The most important Coptic Orthodox churches in Alexandria include Pope Cyril I Church in Cleopatra, Saint Georges Church in Sporting, Saint Mark & Pope Peter I Church in Sidi Bishr, Saint Mary Church in Assafra, Saint Mary Church in Gianaclis, Saint Mina Church in Fleming, Saint Mina Church in Mandara and Saint Takla Haymanot's Church in Ibrahimeya. Alexandria_sentence_176

The most important Eastern Orthodox churches in Alexandria are Agioi Anárgyroi Church, Church of the Annunciation, Saint Anthony Church, Archangels Gabriel & Michael Church, Taxiarchon Church, Saint Catherine Church, Cathedral of the Dormition in Mansheya, Church of the Dormition, Prophet Elijah Church, Saint George Church, Saint Joseph Church in Fleming, Saint Joseph of Arimathea Church, Saint Mark & Saint Nektarios Chapel in Ramleh, Saint Nicholas Church, Saint Paraskevi Church, Saint Sava Cathedral in Ramleh, Saint Theodore Chapel and the Russian church of Saint Alexander Nevsky in Alexandria, which serves the Russian speaking community in the city. Alexandria_sentence_177

The Apostolic Vicariate of Alexandria in Egypt-Heliopolis-Port Said has jurisdiction over all Latin Church Catholics in Egypt. Alexandria_sentence_178

Member churches include Saint Catherine Church in Mansheya and Church of the Jesuits in Cleopatra. Alexandria_sentence_179

The city is also the nominal see of the Melkite Greek Catholic titular Patriarchate of Alexandria (generally vested in its leading Patriarch of Antioch) and the actual cathedral see of its Patriarchal territory of Egypt, Sudan and South Sudan, which uses the Byzantine Rite, and the nominal see of the Armenian Catholic Eparchy of Alexandria (for all Egypt and Sudan, whose actual cathedral is in Cairo), a suffragan of the Armenian Catholic Patriarch of Cilicia, using the Armenian Rite. Alexandria_sentence_180

The Saint Mark Church in Shatby, founded as part of Collège Saint Marc, is multi-denominational and holds liturgies according to Latin Catholic, Coptic Catholic and Coptic Orthodox rites. Alexandria_sentence_181

In antiquity, Alexandria was a major centre of the cosmopolitan religious movement called Gnosticism (today mainly remembered as a Christian heresy). Alexandria_sentence_182

Judaism Alexandria_section_13

See also: History of the Jews in Egypt Alexandria_sentence_183

Alexandria's once-flourishing Jewish community declined rapidly following the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, after which negative reactions towards Zionism among Egyptians led to Jewish residents in the city, and elsewhere in Egypt, being perceived as Zionist collaborators. Alexandria_sentence_184

Most Jewish residents of Egypt fled to the newly established Israel, France, Brazil and other countries in the 1950s and 1960s. Alexandria_sentence_185

The community once numbered 50,000 but is now estimated at below 50. Alexandria_sentence_186

The most important synagogue in Alexandria is the Eliyahu Hanavi Synagogue. Alexandria_sentence_187

Education Alexandria_section_14

Colleges and universities Alexandria_section_15

Alexandria has a number of higher education institutions. Alexandria_sentence_188

Alexandria University is a public university that follows the Egyptian system of higher education. Alexandria_sentence_189

Many of its faculties are internationally renowned, most notably its Faculty of Medicine & Faculty of Engineering. Alexandria_sentence_190

In addition, the Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology in New Borg El Arab city is a research university set up in collaboration between the Japanese and Egyptian governments in 2010. Alexandria_sentence_191

The Arab Academy for Science, Technology & Maritime Transport is a semi-private educational institution that offers courses for high school, undergraduate level, and postgraduate students. Alexandria_sentence_192

It is considered the most reputable university in Egypt after the AUC American University in Cairo because of its worldwide recognition from board of engineers at UK & ABET in US. Alexandria_sentence_193

Université Senghor is a private French university that focuses on the teaching of humanities, politics and international relations, which mainly recruits students from the African continent. Alexandria_sentence_194

Other institutions of higher education in Alexandria include Alexandria Institute of Technology (AIT) and Pharos University in Alexandria. Alexandria_sentence_195

Schools Alexandria_section_16

Alexandria has a long history of foreign educational institutions. Alexandria_sentence_196

The first foreign schools date to the early 19th century, when French missionaries began establishing French charitable schools to educate the Egyptians. Alexandria_sentence_197

Today, the most important French schools in Alexandria run by Catholic missionaries include Collège de la Mère de Dieu, Collège Notre Dame de Sion, Collège Saint Marc, Ecoles des Soeurs Franciscaines (four different schools), École Girard, École Saint Gabriel, École Saint-Vincent de Paul, École Saint Joseph, École Sainte Catherine, and Institution Sainte Jeanne-Antide. Alexandria_sentence_198

As a reaction to the establishment of French religious institutions, a secular (laic) mission established Lycée el-Horreya, which initially followed a French system of education, but is currently a public school run by the Egyptian government. Alexandria_sentence_199

The only school in Alexandria that completely follows the French educational system is Lycée Français d'Alexandrie (École Champollion). Alexandria_sentence_200

It is usually frequented by the children of French expatriates and diplomats in Alexandria. Alexandria_sentence_201

The Italian school is the Istituto "Don Bosco". Alexandria_sentence_202

English schools in Alexandria are becoming the most popular. Alexandria_sentence_203

English-language schools in the city include: Riada American School, Riada Language School, Alexandria Language School, Future Language School, Future International Schools (Future IGCSE, Future American School and Future German school), Alexandria American School, British School of Alexandria, Egyptian American School, Pioneers Language School, Egyptian English Language School, Princesses Girls' School, Sidi Gaber Language School, Taymour English School, Sacred Heart Girls' School, Schutz American School, Victoria College, El Manar Language School for Girls (previously called Scottish School for Girls), Kawmeya Language School, El Nasr Boys' School (previously called British Boys' School), and El Nasr Girls' College. Alexandria_sentence_204

There are only two German schools in Alexandria which are Deutsche Schule der Borromärinnen (DSB of Saint Charles Borromé) and Neue Deutsche Schule Alexandria, which is run by Frau Sally Hammam. Alexandria_sentence_205

The Montessori educational system was first introduced in Alexandria in 2009 at Alexandria Montessori. Alexandria_sentence_206

The most notable public schools in Alexandria include El Abbassia High School and Gamal Abdel Nasser High School. Alexandria_sentence_207

Women Alexandria_section_17

Circa the 1890s, twice the percentage of women in Alexandria knew how to read compared to the same percentage in Cairo. Alexandria_sentence_208

As a result, specialist women's publications like al-Fatāh by Hind Nawal, the country's first women's journal, appeared. Alexandria_sentence_209

Transport Alexandria_section_18

Airports Alexandria_section_19

The city's principal airport is currently Borg El Arab Airport, which is located about 25 km (16 mi) away from the city centre. Alexandria_sentence_210

From late 2011, El Nouzha Airport (Alexandria International Airport) was to be closed to commercial operations for two years as it underwent expansion, with all airlines operating out of Borg El Arab Airport from then onwards, where a brand new terminal was completed there in February 2010. Alexandria_sentence_211

In 2017, the government announced that Alexandria International Airport will shut down permanently for operational reasons. Alexandria_sentence_212

Port Alexandria_section_20

Main article: Alexandria Port Alexandria_sentence_213

Alexandria has four ports; namely the Western Port also known as(Alexandria Port), which is the main port of the country that handles about 60% of the country's exports and imports, Dekhela Port west of the Western Port, the Eastern Port which is a yachting harbour, and Abu Qir Port at the northern east of the governorate. Alexandria_sentence_214

It is a commercial port for general cargo and phosphates. Alexandria_sentence_215

Highways Alexandria_section_21

Alexandria_unordered_list_3

  • International Coastal Road (Mersa Matruh – Alexandria – Port Said)Alexandria_item_3_24
  • Cairo–Alexandria Desert Road (Alexandria – Cairo – 220 km (137 mi), 6–8 lanes)Alexandria_item_3_25
  • Cairo-Alexandria Agriculture Road (Alexandria – Cairo)Alexandria_item_3_26
  • Mehwar El Ta'meer – (Alexandria – Borg El Arab)Alexandria_item_3_27

Rail Alexandria_section_22

Alexandria's intracity commuter rail system extends from Misr Station (Alexandria's primary intercity railway station) to Abu Qir, parallel to the tram line. Alexandria_sentence_216

The commuter line's locomotives operate on diesel, as opposed to the overhead-electric tram. Alexandria_sentence_217

Alexandria plays host to two intercity railway stations: the aforementioned Misr Station (in the older Manshia district in the western part of the city) and Sidi Gaber railway station (in the district of Sidi Gaber in the centre of the eastern expansion in which most Alexandrines reside), both of which also serve the commuter rail line. Alexandria_sentence_218

Intercity passenger service is operated by Egyptian National Railways. Alexandria_sentence_219

Trams Alexandria_section_23

Main article: Trams in Alexandria Alexandria_sentence_220

An extensive tramway network was built in 1860 and is the oldest in Africa. Alexandria_sentence_221

The network begins at the El Raml district in the west and ends in the Victoria district in the east. Alexandria_sentence_222

Most of the vehicles are blue in colour. Alexandria_sentence_223

Some smaller yellow-coloured vehicles have further routes beyond the two main endpoints. Alexandria_sentence_224

The tram routes have one of four numbers: 1, 2, 5, and 6. Alexandria_sentence_225

All four start at El Raml, but only two (1 and 2) reach Victoria. Alexandria_sentence_226

There are two converging and diverging points. Alexandria_sentence_227

The first starts at Bolkly (Isis) and ends at San Stefano. Alexandria_sentence_228

The other begins at Sporting and ends at Mostafa Kamel. Alexandria_sentence_229

Route 5 starts at San Stefano and takes the inner route to Bolkly. Alexandria_sentence_230

Route 6 starts at Sidi Gaber El Sheikh in the outer route between Sporting and Mustafa Kamel. Alexandria_sentence_231

Route 1 takes the inner route between San Stefano and Bolkly and the outer route between Sporting and Mustafa Kamel. Alexandria_sentence_232

Route 2 takes the route opposite to Route 1 in both these areas. Alexandria_sentence_233

The tram fares used to be 50 piastres (0.50 pounds), and 100 piastres (1.00 pounds) for the middle car, but have been doubled sometime in 2019. Alexandria_sentence_234

Some trams (that date back the 30s) charge a pound. Alexandria_sentence_235

The tram is considered the cheapest method of public transport. Alexandria_sentence_236

A café operates in the second floor of the first car of tram 1 (a women-only car) which costs 5 L.E per person, also offering a WiFi service. Alexandria_sentence_237

A luxury light blue tram car operates from San Stefano to Ras El Tin, with free WiFi and movies and songs played inside for 5 L.E per ticket. Alexandria_sentence_238

Stations: Alexandria_sentence_239

Route 2 serves: Alexandria_sentence_240

Metro Alexandria_section_24

Construction of the Alexandria Metro is due to begin in 2020 at a cost of $1.05 billion. Alexandria_sentence_241

Taxis and minibuses Alexandria_section_25

See also: Taxicabs by country § Egypt Alexandria_sentence_242

Taxis in Alexandria sport a yellow-and-black livery and are widely available. Alexandria_sentence_243

While Egyptian law requires all cabs to carry meters, these generally do not work and fares must be negotiated with the driver on either departure or arrival. Alexandria_sentence_244

The minibus share taxi system, or mashrū' operates along well-known traffic arteries. Alexandria_sentence_245

The routes can be identified by both their endpoints and the route between them: Alexandria_sentence_246

Alexandria_unordered_list_4

  • Corniche routes:Alexandria_item_4_28
  • Abu Qir routes:Alexandria_item_4_34
  • Interior routes:Alexandria_item_4_39
    • Cabo – BahariAlexandria_item_4_40
    • El Mansheya – El AwayidAlexandria_item_4_41
    • El Mansheya – El Maw'af El Gedid (the New Bus Station)Alexandria_item_4_42
    • HadaraEl MahataAlexandria_item_4_43

The route is generally written in Arabic on the side of the vehicle, although some drivers change their route without changing the paint. Alexandria_sentence_247

Some drivers also drive only a segment of a route rather than the whole path; such drivers generally stop at a point known as a major hub of the transportation system (for example, Victoria) to allow riders to transfer to another car or to another mode of transport. Alexandria_sentence_248

Fare is generally L.E. Alexandria_sentence_249

3.00 to travel the whole route. Alexandria_sentence_250

Shorter trips may have a lower fare, depending on the driver and the length of the trip. Alexandria_sentence_251

Culture Alexandria_section_26

Libraries Alexandria_section_27

The Royal Library of Alexandria, in Alexandria, Egypt, was once the largest library in the world. Alexandria_sentence_252

It is generally thought to have been founded at the beginning of the 3rd century BC, during the reign of Ptolemy II of Egypt. Alexandria_sentence_253

It was likely created after his father had built what would become the first part of the library complex, the temple of the Muses—the Museion, Greek Μουσείον (from which the Modern English word museum is derived). Alexandria_sentence_254

It has been reasonably established that the library, or parts of the collection, were destroyed by fire on a number of occasions (library fires were common and replacement of handwritten manuscripts was very difficult, expensive, and time-consuming). Alexandria_sentence_255

To this day the details of the destruction (or destructions) remain a lively source of controversy. Alexandria_sentence_256

The Bibliotheca Alexandrina was inaugurated in 2002, near the site of the old Library. Alexandria_sentence_257

Museums Alexandria_section_28

Alexandria_unordered_list_5

  • The Alexandria National Museum was inaugurated 31 December 2003. It is located in a restored Italian style palace in Tariq El Horreya Street (formerly Rue Fouad), near the centre of the city. It contains about 1,800 artifacts that narrate the story of Alexandria and Egypt. Most of these pieces came from other Egyptian museums. The museum is housed in the old Al-Saad Bassili Pasha Palace, who was one of the wealthiest wood merchants in Alexandria. Construction on the site was first undertaken in 1926.Alexandria_item_5_44
  • Cavafy MuseumAlexandria_item_5_45
  • The Graeco-Roman MuseumAlexandria_item_5_46
  • The Museum of Fine ArtsAlexandria_item_5_47
  • The Royal Jewelry MuseumAlexandria_item_5_48

Theaters Alexandria_section_29

Alexandria_unordered_list_6

  • Alexandria Opera House, where classical music, Arabic music, ballet, and opera are performed and bearm basha theatre in elshatby.Alexandria_item_6_49

Architecture Alexandria_section_30

Throughout Alexandria, there is art that resembles some of the oldest architectural styles of the Hellenic city, and its ancient decorations, especially in the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, is based on reviving the ancient Library of Alexandria. Alexandria_sentence_258

The Kom el shoqafa Catacombs are considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages and date back to the 2nd century. Alexandria_sentence_259

The remnants of Pompey's Pillar still remain today. Alexandria_sentence_260

This single pillar represents the elaborate temple which once stood in Alexandria. Alexandria_sentence_261

It remains at the site of the Serapeum, Alexandria's acropolis. Alexandria_sentence_262

The Serapeum, which stood for ancient tradition, conflicted with the rise of Christianity. Alexandria_sentence_263

It is a large tourist destination, today. Alexandria_sentence_264

the Roman Amphitheatre of Alexandria is another popular destination. Alexandria_sentence_265

Here, there remains a stage with around seven hundred to eight hundred seats. Alexandria_sentence_266

They also have numerous galleries of statues and details leftover form this time. Alexandria_sentence_267

Alexandria's tourism office announced plans to reserve some beaches for tourists in July 2018. Alexandria_sentence_268

Alexandria_unordered_list_7

  • Alexandria_item_7_50
  • Alexandria_item_7_51
  • Alexandria_item_7_52
  • Alexandria_item_7_53
  • Alexandria_item_7_54
  • Alexandria_item_7_55
  • Alexandria_item_7_56
  • Alexandria_item_7_57

Sports Alexandria_section_31

The main sport that interests Alexandrians is football, as is the case in the rest of Egypt and Africa. Alexandria_sentence_269

Alexandria Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Alexandria, Egypt. Alexandria_sentence_270

It is currently used mostly for football matches, and was used for the 2006 African Cup of Nations. Alexandria_sentence_271

The stadium is the oldest stadium in Egypt, being built in 1929. Alexandria_sentence_272

The stadium holds 20,000 people. Alexandria_sentence_273

Alexandria was one of three cities that participated in hosting the African Cup of Nations in January 2006, which Egypt won. Alexandria_sentence_274

Sea sports such as surfing, jet-skiing and water polo are practiced on a lower scale. Alexandria_sentence_275

The Skateboarding culture in Egypt started in this city. Alexandria_sentence_276

The city is also home to the Alexandria Sporting Club, which is especially known for its basketball team, which traditionally provides the country's national team with key players. Alexandria_sentence_277

The city hosted the AfroBasket, the continent's most prestigious basketball tournament, on four occasions (1970, 1975, 1983, 2003). Alexandria_sentence_278

Alexandria has four stadiums: Alexandria_sentence_279

Other less popular sports like tennis and squash are usually played in private social and sports clubs, like: Alexandria_sentence_280

Started in 2011, Cross Egypt Challenge is an international cross-country motorcycle and scooter rally conducted throughout the most difficult tracks and roads of Egypt. Alexandria_sentence_281

Alexandria is known as the yearly starting point of Cross Egypt Challenge and a huge celebration is conducted the night before the rally starts after all the international participants arrive to the city. Alexandria_sentence_282

Twin towns – sister cities Alexandria_section_32

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Egypt Alexandria_sentence_283

Alexandria is twinned with: Alexandria_sentence_284

See also Alexandria_section_33

Alexandria_unordered_list_8


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandria.