Algeria

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For the unincorporated community in West Virginia, see Algeria, West Virginia. Algeria_sentence_0

Algeria_table_infobox_0

People's Democratic Republic of Algeria

الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية (Arabic) République algérienne démocratique et populaire  (French)Algeria_header_cell_0_0_0

Capital

and largest cityAlgeria_header_cell_0_1_0

AlgiersAlgeria_cell_0_1_1
Official languagesAlgeria_header_cell_0_2_0 Arabic BerberAlgeria_cell_0_2_1
Other languagesAlgeria_header_cell_0_3_0 Algerian Arabic (Darja) (lingua franca)

French (administration, business and education)Algeria_cell_0_3_1

Ethnic groupsAlgeria_header_cell_0_4_0 Algeria_cell_0_4_1
ReligionAlgeria_header_cell_0_5_0 Algeria_cell_0_5_1
Demonym(s)Algeria_header_cell_0_6_0 AlgerianAlgeria_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentAlgeria_header_cell_0_7_0 Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republicAlgeria_cell_0_7_1
PresidentAlgeria_header_cell_0_8_0 Abdelmadjid TebbouneAlgeria_cell_0_8_1
Prime MinisterAlgeria_header_cell_0_9_0 Abdelaziz DjeradAlgeria_cell_0_9_1
Council PresidentAlgeria_header_cell_0_10_0 Salah Goudjil (interim)Algeria_cell_0_10_1
Assembly PresidentAlgeria_header_cell_0_11_0 Slimane ChenineAlgeria_cell_0_11_1
LegislatureAlgeria_header_cell_0_12_0 ParliamentAlgeria_cell_0_12_1
Upper houseAlgeria_header_cell_0_13_0 Council of the NationAlgeria_cell_0_13_1
Lower houseAlgeria_header_cell_0_14_0 People's National AssemblyAlgeria_cell_0_14_1
FormationAlgeria_header_cell_0_15_0
Zirid dynastyAlgeria_header_cell_0_16_0 960Algeria_cell_0_16_1
Hammadid dynastyAlgeria_header_cell_0_17_0 1014Algeria_cell_0_17_1
Zayyanid dynastyAlgeria_header_cell_0_18_0 1235Algeria_cell_0_18_1
Al Jazâ'irAlgeria_header_cell_0_19_0 1515Algeria_cell_0_19_1
French OccupationAlgeria_header_cell_0_20_0 5 July 1830Algeria_cell_0_20_1
Independence from FranceAlgeria_header_cell_0_21_0 5 July 1962Algeria_cell_0_21_1
Area Algeria_header_cell_0_22_0
TotalAlgeria_header_cell_0_23_0 2,381,741 km (919,595 sq mi) (10th)Algeria_cell_0_23_1
Water (%)Algeria_header_cell_0_24_0 1.1Algeria_cell_0_24_1
PopulationAlgeria_header_cell_0_25_0
2020 estimateAlgeria_header_cell_0_26_0 43,900,000 (32nd)Algeria_cell_0_26_1
DensityAlgeria_header_cell_0_27_0 17.7/km (45.8/sq mi) (168)Algeria_cell_0_27_1
GDP (PPP)Algeria_header_cell_0_28_0 2019 estimateAlgeria_cell_0_28_1
TotalAlgeria_header_cell_0_29_0 $684.649 billion (35th)Algeria_cell_0_29_1
Per capitaAlgeria_header_cell_0_30_0 $15,765 (82nd)Algeria_cell_0_30_1
GDP (nominal)Algeria_header_cell_0_31_0 2019 estimateAlgeria_cell_0_31_1
TotalAlgeria_header_cell_0_32_0 $183.687 billion (53rd)Algeria_cell_0_32_1
Per capitaAlgeria_header_cell_0_33_0 $4,229 (109th)Algeria_cell_0_33_1
Gini (2011)Algeria_header_cell_0_34_0 27.6

lowAlgeria_cell_0_34_1

HDI (2018)Algeria_header_cell_0_35_0 0.759

high · 82ndAlgeria_cell_0_35_1

CurrencyAlgeria_header_cell_0_36_0 Dinar (DZD)Algeria_cell_0_36_1
Time zoneAlgeria_header_cell_0_37_0 UTC+1 (CET)Algeria_cell_0_37_1
Date formatAlgeria_header_cell_0_38_0 dd/mm/yyyyAlgeria_cell_0_38_1
Driving sideAlgeria_header_cell_0_39_0 rightAlgeria_cell_0_39_1
Calling codeAlgeria_header_cell_0_40_0 +213Algeria_cell_0_40_1
ISO 3166 codeAlgeria_header_cell_0_41_0 DZAlgeria_cell_0_41_1
Internet TLDAlgeria_header_cell_0_42_0 .dz

الجزائر.Algeria_cell_0_42_1

Algeria (/ælˈdʒɪəriə/ (listen) al-JEER-ee-ə, Arabic: الجزائر‎ al-Jazā'ir), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. Algeria_sentence_1

The capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north of the country on the Mediterranean coast. Algeria_sentence_2

With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres (919,595 sq mi), Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, and the largest by area in the African Union and the Arab world. Algeria_sentence_3

With an estimated population of over 44 million, it is the eighth-most populous country in Africa. Algeria_sentence_4

Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the southeast by Niger, to the southwest by Mali, Mauritania, and the Western Saharan territory, to the west by Morocco, and to the north by the Mediterranean Sea. Algeria_sentence_5

The country has a semi-arid geography, with most of the population living in the fertile north and the Sahara dominating the geography of the south. Algeria_sentence_6

This arid geography makes the country very vulnerable to climate change. Algeria_sentence_7

Pre-1962 Algeria has known many empires and dynasties, including ancient Numidians, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals, Byzantines, Umayyads, Abbasids, Rustamid, Idrisid, Aghlabids, Fatimids, Zirid, Hammadids, Almoravids, Almohads, Zayyanids, Spaniards, Ottomans and finally, the French colonial empire. Algeria_sentence_8

Most of the population is Arab-Berber, practicing Islam and using the official languages of Arabic and Berber. Algeria_sentence_9

However, French serves as an administrative and education language in some contexts, and Algerian Arabic is the main spoken language. Algeria_sentence_10

Algeria has a semi-presidential republic, with local constituencies consisting of 58 provinces and 1,541 communes. Algeria_sentence_11

Algeria is a regional and middle power. Algeria_sentence_12

It has the highest Human Development Index of all non-island African countries and one of the largest economies on the continent, based largely on energy exports. Algeria_sentence_13

Algeria has the 16th largest oil reserves in the world and the second largest in Africa, while it has the ninth largest reserves of natural gas. Algeria_sentence_14

Sonatrach, the national oil company, is the largest company in Africa, supplying large amounts of natural gas to Europe. Algeria_sentence_15

Algeria has one of the largest militaries in Africa and the largest defence budget. Algeria_sentence_16

It is a member of the African Union, the Arab League, OPEC, the United Nations, and the Arab Maghreb Union, of which it is a founding member. Algeria_sentence_17

Name Algeria_section_0

Other forms of the name are: Arabic: الجزائر‎, romanized: al-Jazāʾir, Algerian Arabic: الدزاير‎, romanized: al-dzāyīr; French: Algérie. Algeria_sentence_18

It is officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria (Arabic: الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية‎, romanized: al-Jumhūriyya al-Jazāʾiriyya ad-Dīmuqrāṭiyya aš-Šaʿbiyya, French: République algérienne démocratique et populaire, abbreviated as RADP). Algeria_sentence_19

The country's name derives from the city of Algiers which in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazāʾir (الجزائر, "The Islands"), a truncated form of the older Jazāʾir Banī Mazghanna (جزائر بني مزغنة, "Islands of the Mazghanna Tribe"), employed by medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi. Algeria_sentence_20

History Algeria_section_1

Main article: History of Algeria Algeria_sentence_21

Prehistory and ancient history Algeria_section_2

Middle Ages Algeria_section_3

Main article: Medieval Muslim Algeria Algeria_sentence_22

After negligible resistance from the locals, Muslim Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate conquered Algeria in the early 8th century. Algeria_sentence_23

Large numbers of the indigenous Berber people converted to Islam. Algeria_sentence_24

Christians, Berber and Latin speakers remained in the great majority in Tunisia until the end of the 9th century and Muslims only became a vast majority some time in the 10th. Algeria_sentence_25

After the fall of the Umayyad Caliphate, numerous local dynasties emerged, including the Rustamids, Aghlabids, Fatimids, Zirids, Hammadids, Almoravids, Almohads and the Abdalwadid. Algeria_sentence_26

The Christians left in three waves: after the initial conquest, in the 10th century and the 11th. Algeria_sentence_27

The last were evacuated to Sicily by the Normans and the few remaining died out in the 14th century. Algeria_sentence_28

During the Middle Ages, North Africa was home to many great scholars, saints and sovereigns including Judah Ibn Quraysh, the first grammarian to mention Semitic and Berber languages, the great Sufi masters Sidi Boumediene (Abu Madyan) and Sidi El Houari, and the Emirs Abd Al Mu'min and Yāghmūrasen. Algeria_sentence_29

It was during this time that the Fatimids or children of Fatima, daughter of Muhammad, came to the Maghreb. Algeria_sentence_30

These "Fatimids" went on to found a long lasting dynasty stretching across the Maghreb, Hejaz and the Levant, boasting a secular inner government, as well as a powerful army and navy, made up primarily of Arabs and Levantines extending from Algeria to their capital state of Cairo. Algeria_sentence_31

The Fatimid caliphate began to collapse when its governors the Zirids seceded. Algeria_sentence_32

In order to punish them the Fatimids sent the Arab Banu Hilal and Banu Sulaym against them. Algeria_sentence_33

The resultant war is recounted in the epic Tāghribāt. Algeria_sentence_34

In Al-Tāghrībāt the Amazigh Zirid Hero Khālīfā Al-Zānatī asks daily, for duels, to defeat the Hilalan hero Ābu Zayd al-Hilalī and many other Arab knights in a string of victories. Algeria_sentence_35

The Zirids, however, were ultimately defeated ushering in an adoption of Arab customs and culture. Algeria_sentence_36

The indigenous Amazigh tribes, however, remained largely independent, and depending on tribe, location and time controlled varying parts of the Maghreb, at times unifying it (as under the Fatimids). Algeria_sentence_37

The Fatimid Islamic state, also known as Fatimid Caliphate made an Islamic empire that included North Africa, Sicily, Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Egypt, the Red Sea coast of Africa, Tihamah, Hejaz and Yemen. Algeria_sentence_38

Caliphates from Northern Africa traded with the other empires of their time, as well as forming part of a confederated support and trade network with other Islamic states during the Islamic Era. Algeria_sentence_39

The Amazighs historically consisted of several tribes. Algeria_sentence_40

The two main branches were the Botr and Barnès tribes, who were divided into tribes, and again into sub-tribes. Algeria_sentence_41

Each region of the Maghreb contained several tribes (for example, Sanhadja, Houara, Zenata, Masmouda, Kutama, Awarba, and Berghwata). Algeria_sentence_42

All these tribes made independent territorial decisions. Algeria_sentence_43

Several Amazigh dynasties emerged during the Middle Ages in the Maghreb and other nearby lands. Algeria_sentence_44

Ibn Khaldun provides a table summarising the Amazigh dynasties of the Maghreb region, the Zirid, Banu Ifran, Maghrawa, Almoravid, Hammadid, Almohad, Merinid, Abdalwadid, Wattasid, Meknassa and Hafsid dynasties. Algeria_sentence_45

Main article: Banu Hilal Algeria_sentence_46

There reigned in Ifriqiya, current Tunisia, a Berber family, Zirid, somehow recognising the suzerainty of the Fatimid caliph of Cairo. Algeria_sentence_47

Probably in 1048, the Zirid ruler or viceroy, el-Mu'izz, decided to end this suzerainty. Algeria_sentence_48

The Fatimid state was too weak to attempt a punitive expedition; The Viceroy, el-Mu'izz, also found another means of revenge. Algeria_sentence_49

Between the Nile and the Red Sea were living Bedouin tribes expelled from Arabia for their disruption and turbulent influence, both Banu Hilal and Banu Sulaym among others, whose presence disrupted farmers in the Nile Valley since the nomads would often loot. Algeria_sentence_50

The then Fatimid vizier devised to relinquish control of the Maghreb and obtained the agreement of his sovereign. Algeria_sentence_51

This not only prompted the Bedouins to leave, but the Fatimid treasury even gave them a light expatriation cash allowance. Algeria_sentence_52

Whole tribes set off with women, children, ancestors, animals and camping equipment. Algeria_sentence_53

Some stopped on the way, especially in Cyrenaica, where they are still one of the essential elements of the settlement but most arrived in Ifriqiya by the Gabes region. Algeria_sentence_54

The Zirid ruler tried to stop this rising tide, but with each encounter, the last under the walls of Kairouan, his troops were defeated and the Arabs remained masters of the field. Algeria_sentence_55

The flood was still rising, and in 1057, the Arabs spread on the high plains of Constantine where they gradually choked Qalaa of Banu Hammad, as they had done in Kairouan a few decades ago. Algeria_sentence_56

From there they gradually gained the upper Algiers and Oran plains. Algeria_sentence_57

Some were forcibly taken by the Almohads in the second half of the 12th century. Algeria_sentence_58

We can say that in the 13th century the Arabs were in all of North Africa, with the exception of the main mountain ranges and certain coastal regions which remained entirely Berber. Algeria_sentence_59

The influx of Bedouin tribes was a major factor in the linguistic, cultural Arabization of the Maghreb and in the spread of nomadism in areas where agriculture had previously been dominant. Algeria_sentence_60

Ibn Khaldun noted that the lands ravaged by Banu Hilal tribes had become completely arid desert. Algeria_sentence_61

In the early 16th century, Spain constructed fortified outposts (presidios) on or near the Algerian coast. Algeria_sentence_62

Spain took control of few coastal towns like Mers el Kebir in 1505; Oran in 1509; and Tlemcen, Mostaganem and Ténès in 1510. Algeria_sentence_63

In the same year, a few merchants of Algiers ceded one of the rocky islets in their harbour to Spain, which built a fort on it. Algeria_sentence_64

The presidios in North Africa turned out to be a costly and largely ineffective military endeavour that did not guarantee access for Spain's merchant fleet. Algeria_sentence_65

Ottoman era Algeria_section_4

Main article: Ottoman Algeria Algeria_sentence_66

The region of Algeria was partially ruled by Ottomans for three centuries from 1516 to 1830. Algeria_sentence_67

In 1516 the Turkish privateer brothers Aruj and Hayreddin Barbarossa, who operated successfully under the Hafsids, moved their base of operations to Algiers. Algeria_sentence_68

They succeeded in conquering Jijel and Algiers from the Spaniards but eventually assumed control over the city and the surrounding region, forcing the previous ruler, Abu Hamo Musa III of the Bani Ziyad dynasty, to flee. Algeria_sentence_69

When Aruj was killed in 1518 during his invasion of Tlemcen, Hayreddin succeeded him as military commander of Algiers. Algeria_sentence_70

The Ottoman sultan gave him the title of beylerbey and a contingent of some 2,000 janissaries. Algeria_sentence_71

With the aid of this force, Hayreddin conquered the whole area between Constantine and Oran (although the city of Oran remained in Spanish hands until 1792). Algeria_sentence_72

The next beylerbey was Hayreddin's son Hasan, who assumed the position in 1544. Algeria_sentence_73

Until 1587 the area was governed by officers who served terms with no fixed limits. Algeria_sentence_74

Subsequently, with the institution of a regular Ottoman administration, governors with the title of pasha ruled for three-year terms. Algeria_sentence_75

The pasha was assisted by janissaries, known in Algeria as the ojaq and led by an agha. Algeria_sentence_76

Discontent among the ojaq rose in the mid-1600s because they were not paid regularly, and they repeatedly revolted against the pasha. Algeria_sentence_77

As a result, the agha charged the pasha with corruption and incompetence and seized power in 1659. Algeria_sentence_78

Plague had repeatedly struck the cities of North Africa. Algeria_sentence_79

Algiers lost from 30,000 to 50,000 inhabitants to the plague in 1620–21, and suffered high fatalities in 1654–57, 1665, 1691 and 1740–42. Algeria_sentence_80

In 1671, the taifa rebelled, killed the agha, and placed one of its own in power. Algeria_sentence_81

The new leader received the title of Dey. Algeria_sentence_82

After 1689, the right to select the dey passed to the divan, a council of some sixty nobles. Algeria_sentence_83

It was at first dominated by the ojaq; but by the 18th century, it had become the dey's instrument. Algeria_sentence_84

In 1710, the dey persuaded the sultan to recognise him and his successors as regent, replacing the pasha in that role, although Algiers remained a part of the Ottoman Empire. Algeria_sentence_85

The dey was in effect a constitutional autocrat. Algeria_sentence_86

The dey was elected for a life term, but in the 159 years (1671–1830) that the system survived, fourteen of the twenty-nine deys were assassinated. Algeria_sentence_87

Despite usurpation, military coups and occasional mob rule, the day-to-day operation of Ottoman government was remarkably orderly. Algeria_sentence_88

Although the regency patronised the tribal chieftains, it never had the unanimous allegiance of the countryside, where heavy taxation frequently provoked unrest. Algeria_sentence_89

Autonomous tribal states were tolerated, and the regency's authority was seldom applied in the Kabylie. Algeria_sentence_90

The Barbary pirates preyed on Christian and other non-Islamic shipping in the western Mediterranean Sea. Algeria_sentence_91

The pirates often took the passengers and crew on the ships and sold them or used them as slaves. Algeria_sentence_92

They also did a brisk business in ransoming some of the captives. Algeria_sentence_93

According to Robert Davis, from the 16th to 19th century, pirates captured 1 million to 1.25 million Europeans as slaves. Algeria_sentence_94

They often made raids, called Razzias, on European coastal towns to capture Christian slaves to sell at slave markets in North Africa and other parts of the Ottoman Empire. Algeria_sentence_95

In 1544, for example, Hayreddin Barbarossa captured the island of Ischia, taking 4,000 prisoners, and enslaved some 9,000 inhabitants of Lipari, almost the entire population. Algeria_sentence_96

In 1551, the Ottoman governor of Algiers, Turgut Reis, enslaved the entire population of the Maltese island of Gozo. Algeria_sentence_97

Barbary pirates often attacked the Balearic Islands. Algeria_sentence_98

The threat was so severe that residents abandoned the island of Formentera. Algeria_sentence_99

The introduction of broad-sail ships from the beginning of the 17th century allowed them to branch out into the Atlantic. Algeria_sentence_100

In July 1627 two pirate ships from Algiers under the command of Dutch pirate Jan Janszoon sailed as far as Iceland, raiding and capturing slaves. Algeria_sentence_101

Two weeks earlier another pirate ship from Salé in Morocco had also raided in Iceland. Algeria_sentence_102

Some of the slaves brought to Algiers were later ransomed back to Iceland, but some chose to stay in Algeria. Algeria_sentence_103

In 1629 pirate ships from Algeria raided the Faroe Islands. Algeria_sentence_104

Barbary raids in the Mediterranean continued to attack Spanish merchant shipping, and as a result, the Spanish Navy bombarded Algiers in 1783 and 1784. Algeria_sentence_105

For the attack in 1784, the Spanish fleet was to be joined by ships from such traditional enemies of Algiers as Naples, Portugal and the Knights of Malta. Algeria_sentence_106

Over 20,000 cannonballs were fired, much of the city and its fortifications were destroyed and most of the Algerian fleet was sunk. Algeria_sentence_107

In the 19th century, the pirates forged affiliations with Caribbean powers, paying a "licence tax" in exchange for safe harbour of their vessels. Algeria_sentence_108

Piracy on American vessels in the Mediterranean resulted in the United States initiating the First (1801–1805) and Second Barbary Wars (1815). Algeria_sentence_109

Following those wars, Algeria was weaker and Europeans, with an Anglo-Dutch fleet commanded by the British Lord Exmouth, attacked Algiers. Algeria_sentence_110

After a nine-hour bombardment, they obtained a treaty from the Dey that reaffirmed the conditions imposed by Captain (later Commodore) Stephen Decatur (U.S. Navy) concerning the demands of tributes. Algeria_sentence_111

In addition, the Dey agreed to end the practice of enslaving Christians. Algeria_sentence_112

Despite being removed from Algeria in the 19th century, Spain retained a presence in Morocco. Algeria_sentence_113

Algeria consistently opposed Spanish fortresses and control in nearby Morocco through the 20th century. Algeria_sentence_114

French colonization (1830–1962) Algeria_section_5

Main articles: French Algeria and Algerian War Algeria_sentence_115

See also: French North Africa Algeria_sentence_116

Under the pretext of a slight to their consul, the French invaded and captured Algiers in 1830. Algeria_sentence_117

Historian Ben Kiernan wrote on the French conquest of Algeria: "By 1875, the French conquest was complete. Algeria_sentence_118

The war had killed approximately 825,000 indigenous Algerians since 1830." Algeria_sentence_119

French losses from 1831 to 1851 were 92,329 dead in the hospital and only 3,336 killed in action. Algeria_sentence_120

The population of Algeria, which stood at about 2.9 million in 1872, reached nearly 11 million in 1960. Algeria_sentence_121

French policy was predicated on "civilizing" the country. Algeria_sentence_122

The slave trade and piracy in Algeria ceased following the French conquest. Algeria_sentence_123

The conquest of Algeria by the French took some time and resulted in considerable bloodshed. Algeria_sentence_124

A combination of violence and disease epidemics caused the indigenous Algerian population to decline by nearly one-third from 1830 to 1872. Algeria_sentence_125

During this period, a small but influential French-speaking indigenous elite was formed, made up of Berbers, mostly Kabyles. Algeria_sentence_126

As a consequence, French government favored the Kabyles. Algeria_sentence_127

About 80% of Indigenous schools were constructed for Kabyles. Algeria_sentence_128

From 1848 until independence, France administered the whole Mediterranean region of Algeria as an integral part and département of the nation. Algeria_sentence_129

One of France's longest-held overseas territories, Algeria became a destination for hundreds of thousands of European immigrants, who became known as colons and later, as Pied-Noirs. Algeria_sentence_130

Between 1825 and 1847, 50,000 French people emigrated to Algeria. Algeria_sentence_131

These settlers benefited from the French government's confiscation of communal land from tribal peoples, and the application of modern agricultural techniques that increased the amount of arable land. Algeria_sentence_132

Many Europeans settled in Oran and Algiers, and by the early 20th century they formed a majority of the population in both cities. Algeria_sentence_133

During the late 19th and early 20th century; the European share was almost a fifth of the population. Algeria_sentence_134

The French government aimed at making Algeria an assimilated part of France, and this included substantial educational investments especially after 1900. Algeria_sentence_135

The indigenous cultural and religious resistance heavily opposed this tendency, but in contrast to the other colonised countries' path in central Asia and Caucasus, Algeria kept its individual skills and a relatively human-capital intensive agriculture. Algeria_sentence_136

On 3 July 1940, the British Royal Navy attacked the French Navy's fleet at Mers El Kébir, killing nearly 1,300 men, with the goal of preventing the French warships from falling into German hands. Algeria_sentence_137

On 8 November 1942, Allied forces launched Operation Torch landing in various places across French North Africa. Algeria_sentence_138

Gradually, dissatisfaction among the Muslim population, which lacked political and economic status in the colonial system, gave rise to demands for greater political autonomy and eventually independence from France. Algeria_sentence_139

In May 1945, the uprising against the occupying French forces was suppressed through what is now known as the Sétif and Guelma massacre. Algeria_sentence_140

Tensions between the two population groups came to a head in 1954, when the first violent events of what was later called the Algerian War began. Algeria_sentence_141

Historians have estimated that between 30,000 and 150,000 Harkis and their dependants were killed by the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) or by lynch mobs in Algeria. Algeria_sentence_142

The FLN used hit and run attacks in Algeria and France as part of its war, and the French conducted severe reprisals. Algeria_sentence_143

The war led to the death of hundreds of thousands of Algerians and hundreds of thousands of injuries. Algeria_sentence_144

Historians, like Alistair Horne and Raymond Aron, state that the actual number of Algerian Muslim war dead was far greater than the original FLN and official French estimates but was less than the 1 million deaths claimed by the Algerian government after independence. Algeria_sentence_145

Horne estimated Algerian casualties during the span of eight years to be around 700,000. Algeria_sentence_146

The war uprooted more than 2 million Algerians. Algeria_sentence_147

The war against French rule concluded in 1962, when Algeria gained complete independence following the March 1962 Evian agreements and the July 1962 self-determination referendum. Algeria_sentence_148

Some estimates put the Algerian death toll during the French colonial rule at over 10 million. Algeria_sentence_149

The first three decades of independence (1962–1991) Algeria_section_6

Main article: History of Algeria (1962–99) Algeria_sentence_150

The number of European Pied-Noirs who fled Algeria totaled more than 900,000 between 1962 and 1964. Algeria_sentence_151

The exodus to mainland France accelerated after the Oran massacre of 1962, in which hundreds of militants entered European sections of the city, and began attacking civilians. Algeria_sentence_152

Algeria's first president was the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) leader Ahmed Ben Bella. Algeria_sentence_153

Morocco's claim to portions of western Algeria led to the Sand War in 1963. Algeria_sentence_154

Ben Bella was overthrown in 1965 by Houari Boumédiène, his former ally and defence minister. Algeria_sentence_155

Under Ben Bella, the government had become increasingly socialist and authoritarian; Boumédienne continued this trend. Algeria_sentence_156

But, he relied much more on the army for his support, and reduced the sole legal party to a symbolic role. Algeria_sentence_157

He collectivised agriculture and launched a massive industrialisation drive. Algeria_sentence_158

Oil extraction facilities were nationalised. Algeria_sentence_159

This was especially beneficial to the leadership after the international 1973 oil crisis. Algeria_sentence_160

In the 1960s and 1970s under President Houari Boumediene, Algeria pursued a program of industrialisation within a state-controlled socialist economy. Algeria_sentence_161

Boumediene's successor, Chadli Bendjedid, introduced some liberal economic reforms. Algeria_sentence_162

He promoted a policy of Arabisation in Algerian society and public life. Algeria_sentence_163

Teachers of Arabic, brought in from other Muslim countries, spread conventional Islamic thought in schools and sowed the seeds of a return to Orthodox Islam. Algeria_sentence_164

The Algerian economy became increasingly dependent on oil, leading to hardship when the price collapsed during the 1980s oil glut. Algeria_sentence_165

Economic recession caused by the crash in world oil prices resulted in Algerian social unrest during the 1980s; by the end of the decade, Bendjedid introduced a multi-party system. Algeria_sentence_166

Political parties developed, such as the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), a broad coalition of Muslim groups. Algeria_sentence_167

Civil War (1991–2002) and aftermath Algeria_section_7

Main article: Algerian Civil War Algeria_sentence_168

In December 1991 the Islamic Salvation Front dominated the first of two rounds of legislative elections. Algeria_sentence_169

Fearing the election of an Islamist government, the authorities intervened on 11 January 1992, cancelling the elections. Algeria_sentence_170

Bendjedid resigned and a High Council of State was installed to act as the Presidency. Algeria_sentence_171

It banned the FIS, triggering a civil insurgency between the Front's armed wing, the Armed Islamic Group, and the national armed forces, in which more than 100,000 people are thought to have died. Algeria_sentence_172

The Islamist militants conducted a violent campaign of civilian massacres. Algeria_sentence_173

At several points in the conflict, the situation in Algeria became a point of international concern, most notably during the crisis surrounding Air France Flight 8969, a hijacking perpetrated by the Armed Islamic Group. Algeria_sentence_174

The Armed Islamic Group declared a ceasefire in October 1997. Algeria_sentence_175

Algeria held elections in 1999, considered biased by international observers and most opposition groups which were won by President Abdelaziz Bouteflika. Algeria_sentence_176

He worked to restore political stability to the country and announced a "Civil Concord" initiative, approved in a referendum, under which many political prisoners were pardoned, and several thousand members of armed groups were granted exemption from prosecution under a limited amnesty, in force until 13 January 2000. Algeria_sentence_177

The AIS disbanded and levels of insurgent violence fell rapidly. Algeria_sentence_178

The Groupe Salafiste pour la Prédication et le Combat (GSPC), a splinter group of the Armed Islamic Group, continued a terrorist campaign against the Government. Algeria_sentence_179

Bouteflika was re-elected in the April 2004 presidential election after campaigning on a programme of national reconciliation. Algeria_sentence_180

The programme comprised economic, institutional, political and social reform to modernise the country, raise living standards, and tackle the causes of alienation. Algeria_sentence_181

It also included a second amnesty initiative, the Charter for Peace and National Reconciliation, which was approved in a referendum in September 2005. Algeria_sentence_182

It offered amnesty to most guerrillas and Government security forces. Algeria_sentence_183

In November 2008, the Algerian Constitution was amended following a vote in Parliament, removing the two-term limit on Presidential incumbents. Algeria_sentence_184

This change enabled Bouteflika to stand for re-election in the 2009 presidential elections, and he was re-elected in April 2009. Algeria_sentence_185

During his election campaign and following his re-election, Bouteflika promised to extend the programme of national reconciliation and a $150-billion spending programme to create three million new jobs, the construction of one million new housing units, and to continue public sector and infrastructure modernisation programmes. Algeria_sentence_186

A continuing series of protests throughout the country started on 28 December 2010, inspired by similar protests across the Middle East and North Africa. Algeria_sentence_187

On 24 February 2011, the government lifted Algeria's 19-year-old state of emergency. Algeria_sentence_188

The government enacted legislation dealing with political parties, the electoral code, and the representation of women in elected bodies. Algeria_sentence_189

In April 2011, Bouteflika promised further constitutional and political reform. Algeria_sentence_190

However, elections are routinely criticized by opposition groups as unfair and international human rights groups say that media censorship and harassment of political opponents continue. Algeria_sentence_191

On 2 April 2019, Bouteflika resigned from the presidency after mass protests against his candidacy for a fifth term in office. Algeria_sentence_192

Geography Algeria_section_8

Main article: Geography of Algeria Algeria_sentence_193

Since the 2011 breakup of Sudan, Algeria has been the largest country in Africa, and the Mediterranean Basin. Algeria_sentence_194

Its southern part includes a significant portion of the Sahara. Algeria_sentence_195

To the north, the Tell Atlas form with the Saharan Atlas, further south, two parallel sets of reliefs in approaching eastbound, and between which are inserted vast plains and highlands. Algeria_sentence_196

Both Atlas tend to merge in eastern Algeria. Algeria_sentence_197

The vast mountain ranges of Aures and Nememcha occupy the entire northeastern Algeria and are delineated by the Tunisian border. Algeria_sentence_198

The highest point is Mount Tahat (3,003 metres or 9,852 feet). Algeria_sentence_199

Algeria lies mostly between latitudes 19° and 37°N (a small area is north of 37°N and south of 19°N), and longitudes 9°W and 12°E. Algeria_sentence_200

Most of the coastal area is hilly, sometimes even mountainous, and there are a few natural harbours. Algeria_sentence_201

The area from the coast to the Tell Atlas is fertile. Algeria_sentence_202

South of the Tell Atlas is a steppe landscape ending with the Saharan Atlas; farther south, there is the Sahara desert. Algeria_sentence_203

The Hoggar Mountains (Arabic: جبال هقار‎), also known as the Hoggar, are a highland region in central Sahara, southern Algeria. Algeria_sentence_204

They are located about 1,500 km (932 mi) south of the capital, Algiers, and just east of Tamanghasset. Algeria_sentence_205

Algiers, Oran, Constantine, and Annaba are Algeria's main cities. Algeria_sentence_206

Climate and hydrology Algeria_section_9

Main article: Climate of Algeria Algeria_sentence_207

In this region, midday desert temperatures can be hot year round. Algeria_sentence_208

After sunset, however, the clear, dry air permits rapid loss of heat, and the nights are cool to chilly. Algeria_sentence_209

Enormous daily ranges in temperature are recorded. Algeria_sentence_210

Rainfall is fairly plentiful along the coastal part of the Tell Atlas, ranging from 400 to 670 mm (15.7 to 26.4 in) annually, the amount of precipitation increasing from west to east. Algeria_sentence_211

Precipitation is heaviest in the northern part of eastern Algeria, where it reaches as much as 1,000 mm (39.4 in) in some years. Algeria_sentence_212

Farther inland, the rainfall is less plentiful. Algeria_sentence_213

Algeria also has ergs, or sand dunes, between mountains. Algeria_sentence_214

Among these, in the summer time when winds are heavy and gusty, temperatures can go up to 43.3 °C (110 °F). Algeria_sentence_215

Climate change Algeria_section_10

Fauna and flora Algeria_section_11

Main article: Wildlife of Algeria Algeria_sentence_216

The varied vegetation of Algeria includes coastal, mountainous and grassy desert-like regions which all support a wide range of wildlife. Algeria_sentence_217

Many of the creatures comprising the Algerian wildlife live in close proximity to civilisation. Algeria_sentence_218

The most commonly seen animals include the wild boars, jackals, and gazelles, although it is not uncommon to spot fennecs (foxes), and jerboas. Algeria_sentence_219

Algeria also has a small African leopard and Saharan cheetah population, but these are seldom seen. Algeria_sentence_220

A species of deer, the Barbary stag, inhabits the dense humid forests in the north-eastern areas. Algeria_sentence_221

A variety of bird species makes the country an attraction for bird watchers. Algeria_sentence_222

The forests are inhabited by boars and jackals. Algeria_sentence_223

Barbary macaques are the sole native monkey. Algeria_sentence_224

Snakes, monitor lizards, and numerous other reptiles can be found living among an array of rodents throughout the semi arid regions of Algeria. Algeria_sentence_225

Many animals are now extinct, including the Barbary lions, Atlas bears and crocodiles. Algeria_sentence_226

In the north, some of the native flora includes Macchia scrub, olive trees, oaks, cedars and other conifers. Algeria_sentence_227

The mountain regions contain large forests of evergreens (Aleppo pine, juniper, and evergreen oak) and some deciduous trees. Algeria_sentence_228

Fig, eucalyptus, agave, and various palm trees grow in the warmer areas. Algeria_sentence_229

The grape vine is indigenous to the coast. Algeria_sentence_230

In the Sahara region, some oases have palm trees. Algeria_sentence_231

Acacias with wild olives are the predominant flora in the remainder of the Sahara. Algeria_sentence_232

Camels are used extensively; the desert also abounds with venomous and nonvenomous snakes, scorpions, and numerous insects. Algeria_sentence_233

Politics Algeria_section_12

Main article: Politics of Algeria Algeria_sentence_234

Elected politicians have relatively little sway over Algeria. Algeria_sentence_235

Instead, a group of unelected civilian and military "décideurs" ("deciders"), known as "le pouvoir" ("the power"), actually rule the country, even deciding who should be president. Algeria_sentence_236

The most powerful man might have been Mohamed Mediène, the head of military intelligence, before he was brought down during the 2019 protests. Algeria_sentence_237

In recent years, many of these generals have died, retired, or been imprisoned. Algeria_sentence_238

After the death of General Larbi Belkheir, Previous president Bouteflika put loyalists in key posts, notably at Sonatrach, and secured constitutional amendments that made him re-electable indefinitely, until he was brought down in 2019 during protests. Algeria_sentence_239

The head of state is the President of Algeria, who is elected for a five-year term. Algeria_sentence_240

The president was formerly limited to two five-year terms, but a constitutional amendment passed by the Parliament on 11 November 2008 removed this limitation. Algeria_sentence_241

The next presidential election was planned to be in April 2019, but widespread protests erupted on 22 February against the president's decision to participate in the election, which resulted in President Bouteflika announcing his resignation on 3 April. Algeria_sentence_242

Algeria has universal suffrage at 18 years of age. Algeria_sentence_243

The President is the head of the army, the Council of Ministers and the High Security Council. Algeria_sentence_244

He appoints the Prime Minister who is also the head of government. Algeria_sentence_245

The Algerian parliament is bicameral; the lower house, the People's National Assembly, has 462 members who are directly elected for five-year terms, while the upper house, the Council of the Nation, has 144 members serving six-year terms, of which 96 members are chosen by local assemblies and 48 are appointed by the president. Algeria_sentence_246

According to the constitution, no political association may be formed if it is "based on differences in religion, language, race, gender, profession, or region". Algeria_sentence_247

In addition, political campaigns must be exempt from the aforementioned subjects. Algeria_sentence_248

Parliamentary elections were last held in May 2012, and were judged to be largely free by international monitors, though local groups alleged fraud and irregularities. Algeria_sentence_249

In the elections, the FLN won 221 seats, the military-backed National Rally for Democracy won 70, and the Islamist Green Algeria Alliance won 47. Algeria_sentence_250

Foreign relations Algeria_section_13

Main article: Foreign relations of Algeria Algeria_sentence_251

Algeria is included in the European Union's European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) which aims at bringing the EU and its neighbours closer. Algeria_sentence_252

Giving incentives and rewarding best performers, as well as offering funds in a faster and more flexible manner, are the two main principles underlying the European Neighbourhood Instrument (ENI) that came into force in 2014. Algeria_sentence_253

It has a budget of €15.4 billion and provides the bulk of funding through a number of programmes. Algeria_sentence_254

In 2009, the French government agreed to compensate victims of nuclear tests in Algeria. Algeria_sentence_255

Defense Minister Herve Morin stated that "It's time for our country to be at peace with itself, at peace thanks to a system of compensation and reparations," when presenting the draft law on the payouts. Algeria_sentence_256

Algerian officials and activists believe that this is a good first step and hope that this move would encourage broader reparation. Algeria_sentence_257

Tensions between Algeria and Morocco in relation to the Western Sahara have been an obstacle to tightening the Arab Maghreb Union, nominally established in 1989, but which has carried little practical weight. Algeria_sentence_258

Military Algeria_section_14

Main article: Military of Algeria Algeria_sentence_259

The military of Algeria consists of the People's National Army (ANP), the Algerian National Navy (MRA), and the Algerian Air Force (QJJ), plus the Territorial Air Defence Forces. Algeria_sentence_260

It is the direct successor of the National Liberation Army (Armée de Libération Nationale or ALN), the armed wing of the nationalist National Liberation Front which fought French colonial occupation during the Algerian War of Independence (1954–62). Algeria_sentence_261

Total military personnel include 147,000 active, 150,000 reserve, and 187,000 paramilitary staff (2008 estimate). Algeria_sentence_262

Service in the military is compulsory for men aged 19–30, for a total of 12 months. Algeria_sentence_263

The military expenditure was 4.3% of the gross domestic product (GDP) in 2012. Algeria_sentence_264

Algeria has the second largest military in North Africa with the largest defence budget in Africa ($10 billion). Algeria_sentence_265

Most of Algeria's weapons are imported from Russia, with whom they are a close ally. Algeria_sentence_266

In 2007, the Algerian Air Force signed a deal with Russia to purchase 49 MiG-29SMT and 6 MiG-29UBT at an estimated cost of $1.9 billion. Algeria_sentence_267

Russia is also building two 636-type diesel submarines for Algeria. Algeria_sentence_268

Human rights Algeria_section_15

Main article: Human rights in Algeria Algeria_sentence_269

Algeria has been categorized by Freedom House as "not free" since it began publishing such ratings in 1972, with the exception of 1989, 1990, and 1991, when the country was labeled "partly free." Algeria_sentence_270

In December 2016, the Euro-Mediterranean Human Rights Monitor issued a report regarding violation of media freedom in Algeria. Algeria_sentence_271

It clarified that the Algerian government imposed restriction on freedom of the press; expression; and right to peaceful demonstration, protest and assembly as well as intensified censorship of the media and websites. Algeria_sentence_272

Due to the fact that the journalists and activists criticize the ruling government, some media organizations' licenses are cancelled. Algeria_sentence_273

Independent and autonomous trade unions face routine harassment from the government, with many leaders imprisoned and protests suppressed. Algeria_sentence_274

In 2016 a number of unions, many of which were involved in the 2010–2012 Algerian Protests, have been deregistered by the government. Algeria_sentence_275

Homosexuality is illegal in Algeria. Algeria_sentence_276

Public homosexual behavior is punishable by up to two years in prison. Algeria_sentence_277

Human Rights Watch has accused the Algerian authorities of using the COVID-19 pandemic as an excuse to prevent pro-democracy movements and protests in the country, leading to the arrest of youths as part of social distancing. Algeria_sentence_278

Administrative divisions Algeria_section_16

Main articles: Provinces of Algeria, Districts of Algeria, and Municipalities of Algeria Algeria_sentence_279

Algeria is divided into 58 provinces (wilayas), 553 districts (daïras) and 1,541 municipalities (baladiyahs). Algeria_sentence_280

Each province, district, and municipality is named after its seat, which is usually the largest city. Algeria_sentence_281

The administrative divisions have changed several times since independence. Algeria_sentence_282

When introducing new provinces, the numbers of old provinces are kept, hence the non-alphabetical order. Algeria_sentence_283

With their official numbers, currently (since 1983) they are Algeria_sentence_284

Algeria_table_general_1

#Algeria_header_cell_1_0_0 WilayaAlgeria_header_cell_1_0_1 Area (km)Algeria_header_cell_1_0_2 PopulationAlgeria_header_cell_1_0_3 mapAlgeria_header_cell_1_0_4 #Algeria_header_cell_1_0_5 WilayaAlgeria_header_cell_1_0_6 Area (km)Algeria_header_cell_1_0_7 PopulationAlgeria_header_cell_1_0_8
1Algeria_cell_1_1_0 AdrarAlgeria_cell_1_1_1 402,197Algeria_cell_1_1_2 439,700Algeria_cell_1_1_3 Algeria_cell_1_1_4 30Algeria_cell_1_1_5 OuarglaAlgeria_cell_1_1_6 211,980Algeria_cell_1_1_7 552,539Algeria_cell_1_1_8
2Algeria_cell_1_2_0 ChlefAlgeria_cell_1_2_1 4,975Algeria_cell_1_2_2 1,013,718Algeria_cell_1_2_3 31Algeria_cell_1_2_4 OranAlgeria_cell_1_2_5 2,114Algeria_cell_1_2_6 1,584,607Algeria_cell_1_2_7
3Algeria_cell_1_3_0 LaghouatAlgeria_cell_1_3_1 25,057Algeria_cell_1_3_2 477,328Algeria_cell_1_3_3 32Algeria_cell_1_3_4 El BayadhAlgeria_cell_1_3_5 78,870Algeria_cell_1_3_6 262,187Algeria_cell_1_3_7
4Algeria_cell_1_4_0 Oum El BouaghiAlgeria_cell_1_4_1 6,768Algeria_cell_1_4_2 644,364Algeria_cell_1_4_3 33Algeria_cell_1_4_4 IlliziAlgeria_cell_1_4_5 285,000Algeria_cell_1_4_6 54,490Algeria_cell_1_4_7
5Algeria_cell_1_5_0 BatnaAlgeria_cell_1_5_1 12,192Algeria_cell_1_5_2 1,128,030Algeria_cell_1_5_3 34Algeria_cell_1_5_4 Bordj Bou ArréridjAlgeria_cell_1_5_5 4,115Algeria_cell_1_5_6 634,396Algeria_cell_1_5_7
6Algeria_cell_1_6_0 BéjaïaAlgeria_cell_1_6_1 3,268Algeria_cell_1_6_2 915,835Algeria_cell_1_6_3 35Algeria_cell_1_6_4 BoumerdesAlgeria_cell_1_6_5 1,591Algeria_cell_1_6_6 795,019Algeria_cell_1_6_7
7Algeria_cell_1_7_0 BiskraAlgeria_cell_1_7_1 20,986Algeria_cell_1_7_2 730,262Algeria_cell_1_7_3 36Algeria_cell_1_7_4 El TarefAlgeria_cell_1_7_5 3,339Algeria_cell_1_7_6 411,783Algeria_cell_1_7_7
8Algeria_cell_1_8_0 BécharAlgeria_cell_1_8_1 161,400Algeria_cell_1_8_2 274,866Algeria_cell_1_8_3 37Algeria_cell_1_8_4 TindoufAlgeria_cell_1_8_5 58,193Algeria_cell_1_8_6 159,000Algeria_cell_1_8_7
9Algeria_cell_1_9_0 BlidaAlgeria_cell_1_9_1 1,696Algeria_cell_1_9_2 1,009,892Algeria_cell_1_9_3 38Algeria_cell_1_9_4 TissemsiltAlgeria_cell_1_9_5 3,152Algeria_cell_1_9_6 296,366Algeria_cell_1_9_7
10Algeria_cell_1_10_0 BouïraAlgeria_cell_1_10_1 4,439Algeria_cell_1_10_2 694,750Algeria_cell_1_10_3 39Algeria_cell_1_10_4 El OuedAlgeria_cell_1_10_5 54,573Algeria_cell_1_10_6 673,934Algeria_cell_1_10_7
11Algeria_cell_1_11_0 TamanrassetAlgeria_cell_1_11_1 556,200Algeria_cell_1_11_2 198,691Algeria_cell_1_11_3 40Algeria_cell_1_11_4 KhenchelaAlgeria_cell_1_11_5 9,811Algeria_cell_1_11_6 384,268Algeria_cell_1_11_7
12Algeria_cell_1_12_0 TébessaAlgeria_cell_1_12_1 14,227Algeria_cell_1_12_2 657,227Algeria_cell_1_12_3 41Algeria_cell_1_12_4 Souk AhrasAlgeria_cell_1_12_5 4,541Algeria_cell_1_12_6 440,299Algeria_cell_1_12_7
13Algeria_cell_1_13_0 TlemcenAlgeria_cell_1_13_1 9,061Algeria_cell_1_13_2 945,525Algeria_cell_1_13_3 42Algeria_cell_1_13_4 TipazaAlgeria_cell_1_13_5 2,166Algeria_cell_1_13_6 617,661Algeria_cell_1_13_7
14Algeria_cell_1_14_0 TiaretAlgeria_cell_1_14_1 20,673Algeria_cell_1_14_2 842,060Algeria_cell_1_14_3 43Algeria_cell_1_14_4 MilaAlgeria_cell_1_14_5 9,375Algeria_cell_1_14_6 768,419Algeria_cell_1_14_7
15Algeria_cell_1_15_0 Tizi OuzouAlgeria_cell_1_15_1 3,568Algeria_cell_1_15_2 1,119,646Algeria_cell_1_15_3 44Algeria_cell_1_15_4 Ain DeflaAlgeria_cell_1_15_5 4,897Algeria_cell_1_15_6 771,890Algeria_cell_1_15_7
16Algeria_cell_1_16_0 AlgiersAlgeria_cell_1_16_1 273Algeria_cell_1_16_2 2,947,461Algeria_cell_1_16_3 45Algeria_cell_1_16_4 NaâmaAlgeria_cell_1_16_5 29,950Algeria_cell_1_16_6 209,470Algeria_cell_1_16_7
17Algeria_cell_1_17_0 DjelfaAlgeria_cell_1_17_1 66,415Algeria_cell_1_17_2 1,223,223Algeria_cell_1_17_3 46Algeria_cell_1_17_4 Ain TimouchentAlgeria_cell_1_17_5 2,376Algeria_cell_1_17_6 384,565Algeria_cell_1_17_7
18Algeria_cell_1_18_0 JijelAlgeria_cell_1_18_1 2,577Algeria_cell_1_18_2 634,412Algeria_cell_1_18_3 47Algeria_cell_1_18_4 GhardaiaAlgeria_cell_1_18_5 86,105Algeria_cell_1_18_6 375,988Algeria_cell_1_18_7
19Algeria_cell_1_19_0 SétifAlgeria_cell_1_19_1 6,504Algeria_cell_1_19_2 1,496,150Algeria_cell_1_19_3 48Algeria_cell_1_19_4 RelizaneAlgeria_cell_1_19_5 4,870Algeria_cell_1_19_6 733,060Algeria_cell_1_19_7
20Algeria_cell_1_20_0 SaïdaAlgeria_cell_1_20_1 6,764Algeria_cell_1_20_2 328,685Algeria_cell_1_20_3 49Algeria_cell_1_20_4 El M'GhairAlgeria_cell_1_20_5 8,835Algeria_cell_1_20_6 162,267Algeria_cell_1_20_7
21Algeria_cell_1_21_0 SkikdaAlgeria_cell_1_21_1 4,026Algeria_cell_1_21_2 904,195Algeria_cell_1_21_3 50Algeria_cell_1_21_4 El MeniaAlgeria_cell_1_21_5 62,215Algeria_cell_1_21_6 57,276Algeria_cell_1_21_7
22Algeria_cell_1_22_0 Sidi Bel AbbèsAlgeria_cell_1_22_1 9,150Algeria_cell_1_22_2 603,369Algeria_cell_1_22_3 51Algeria_cell_1_22_4 Ouled DjellalAlgeria_cell_1_22_5 11,410Algeria_cell_1_22_6 174,219Algeria_cell_1_22_7
23Algeria_cell_1_23_0 AnnabaAlgeria_cell_1_23_1 1,439Algeria_cell_1_23_2 640,050Algeria_cell_1_23_3 52Algeria_cell_1_23_4 Bordj Baji MokhtarAlgeria_cell_1_23_5 120,026Algeria_cell_1_23_6 16,437Algeria_cell_1_23_7
24Algeria_cell_1_24_0 GuelmaAlgeria_cell_1_24_1 4,101Algeria_cell_1_24_2 482,261Algeria_cell_1_24_3 53Algeria_cell_1_24_4 Béni AbbèsAlgeria_cell_1_24_5 101,350Algeria_cell_1_24_6 50,163Algeria_cell_1_24_7
25Algeria_cell_1_25_0 ConstantineAlgeria_cell_1_25_1 2,187Algeria_cell_1_25_2 943,112Algeria_cell_1_25_3 54Algeria_cell_1_25_4 TimimounAlgeria_cell_1_25_5 65,203Algeria_cell_1_25_6 122,019Algeria_cell_1_25_7
26Algeria_cell_1_26_0 MédéaAlgeria_cell_1_26_1 8,866Algeria_cell_1_26_2 830,943Algeria_cell_1_26_3 55Algeria_cell_1_26_4 TouggourtAlgeria_cell_1_26_5 17,428Algeria_cell_1_26_6 247,221Algeria_cell_1_26_7
27Algeria_cell_1_27_0 MostaganemAlgeria_cell_1_27_1 2,269Algeria_cell_1_27_2 746,947Algeria_cell_1_27_3 56Algeria_cell_1_27_4 DjanetAlgeria_cell_1_27_5 86,185Algeria_cell_1_27_6 17,618Algeria_cell_1_27_7
28Algeria_cell_1_28_0 M'SilaAlgeria_cell_1_28_1 18,718Algeria_cell_1_28_2 991,846Algeria_cell_1_28_3 57Algeria_cell_1_28_4 In SalahAlgeria_cell_1_28_5 131,220Algeria_cell_1_28_6 50,392Algeria_cell_1_28_7
29Algeria_cell_1_29_0 MascaraAlgeria_cell_1_29_1 5,941Algeria_cell_1_29_2 780,959Algeria_cell_1_29_3 58Algeria_cell_1_29_4 In GuezzamAlgeria_cell_1_29_5 88,126Algeria_cell_1_29_6 11,202Algeria_cell_1_29_7

Economy Algeria_section_17

Main article: Economy of Algeria Algeria_sentence_285

Algeria is classified as an upper middle income country by the World Bank. Algeria_sentence_286

Algeria's currency is the dinar (DZD). Algeria_sentence_287

The economy remains dominated by the state, a legacy of the country's socialist post-independence development model. Algeria_sentence_288

In recent years, the Algerian government has halted the privatization of state-owned industries and imposed restrictions on imports and foreign involvement in its economy. Algeria_sentence_289

These restrictions are just starting to be lifted off recently although questions about Algeria's slowly-diversifying economy remain. Algeria_sentence_290

Algeria has struggled to develop industries outside hydrocarbons in part because of high costs and an inert state bureaucracy. Algeria_sentence_291

The government's efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector have done little to reduce high youth unemployment rates or to address housing shortages. Algeria_sentence_292

The country is facing a number of short-term and medium-term problems, including the need to diversify the economy, strengthen political, economic and financial reforms, improve the business climate and reduce inequalities amongst regions. Algeria_sentence_293

A wave of economic protests in February and March 2011 prompted the Algerian government to offer more than $23 billion in public grants and retroactive salary and benefit increases. Algeria_sentence_294

Public spending has increased by 27% annually during the past 5 years. Algeria_sentence_295

The 2010–14 public-investment programme will cost US$286 billion, 40% of which will go to human development. Algeria_sentence_296

The Algerian economy grew by 2.6% in 2011, driven by public spending, in particular in the construction and public-works sector, and by growing internal demand. Algeria_sentence_297

If hydrocarbons are excluded, growth has been estimated at 4.8%. Algeria_sentence_298

Growth of 3% is expected in 2012, rising to 4.2% in 2013. Algeria_sentence_299

The rate of inflation was 4% and the budget deficit 3% of GDP. Algeria_sentence_300

The current-account surplus is estimated at 9.3% of GDP and at the end of December 2011, official reserves were put at US$182 billion. Algeria_sentence_301

Inflation, the lowest in the region, has remained stable at 4% on average between 2003 and 2007. Algeria_sentence_302

In 2011 Algeria announced a budgetary surplus of $26.9 billion, 62% increase in comparison to 2010 surplus. Algeria_sentence_303

In general, the country exported $73 billion worth of commodities while it imported $46 billion. Algeria_sentence_304

Thanks to strong hydrocarbon revenues, Algeria has a cushion of $173 billion in foreign currency reserves and a large hydrocarbon stabilization fund. Algeria_sentence_305

In addition, Algeria's external debt is extremely low at about 2% of GDP. Algeria_sentence_306

The economy remains very dependent on hydrocarbon wealth, and, despite high foreign exchange reserves (US$178 billion, equivalent to three years of imports), current expenditure growth makes Algeria's budget more vulnerable to the risk of prolonged lower hydrocarbon revenues. Algeria_sentence_307

In 2011, the agricultural sector and services recorded growth of 10% and 5.3%, respectively. Algeria_sentence_308

About 14% of the labor force are employed in the agricultural sector. Algeria_sentence_309

Fiscal policy in 2011 remained expansionist and made it possible to maintain the pace of public investment and to contain the strong demand for jobs and housing. Algeria_sentence_310

Algeria has not joined the WTO, despite several years of negotiations. Algeria_sentence_311

In March 2006, Russia agreed to erase $4.74 billion of Algeria's Soviet-era debt during a visit by Russian President Vladimir Putin to the country, the first by a Russian leader in half a century. Algeria_sentence_312

In return, Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika agreed to buy $7.5 billion worth of combat planes, air-defence systems and other arms from Russia, according to the head of Russia's state arms exporter Rosoboronexport. Algeria_sentence_313

Dubai-based conglomerate Emarat Dzayer Group said it had signed a joint venture agreement to develop a $1.6 billion steel factory in Algeria. Algeria_sentence_314

Oil and Natural Resources Algeria_section_18

See also: Mining industry of Algeria Algeria_sentence_315

Algeria, whose economy is reliant on petroleum, has been an OPEC member since 1969. Algeria_sentence_316

Its crude oil production stands at around 1.1 million barrels/day, but it is also a major gas producer and exporter, with important links to Europe. Algeria_sentence_317

Hydrocarbons have long been the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP, and over 95% of export earnings. Algeria_sentence_318

Algeria has the 10th-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the sixth-largest gas exporter. Algeria_sentence_319

The U.S. Energy Information Administration reported that in 2005, Algeria had 4.5 trillion cubic metres (160×10^ cu ft) of proven natural-gas reserves. Algeria_sentence_320

It also ranks 16th in oil reserves. Algeria_sentence_321

Non-hydrocarbon growth for 2011 was projected at 5%. Algeria_sentence_322

To cope with social demands, the authorities raised expenditure, especially on basic food support, employment creation, support for SMEs, and higher salaries. Algeria_sentence_323

High hydrocarbon prices have improved the current account and the already large international reserves position. Algeria_sentence_324

Income from oil and gas rose in 2011 as a result of continuing high oil prices, though the trend in production volume is downwards. Algeria_sentence_325

Production from the oil and gas sector in terms of volume, continues to decline, dropping from 43.2 million tonnes to 32 million tonnes between 2007 and 2011. Algeria_sentence_326

Nevertheless, the sector accounted for 98% of the total volume of exports in 2011, against 48% in 1962, and 70% of budgetary receipts, or US$71.4 billion. Algeria_sentence_327

The Algerian national oil company is Sonatrach, which plays a key role in all aspects of the oil and natural gas sectors in Algeria. Algeria_sentence_328

All foreign operators must work in partnership with Sonatrach, which usually has majority ownership in production-sharing agreements. Algeria_sentence_329

Access to biocapacity in Algeria is lower than world average. Algeria_sentence_330

In 2016, Algeria had 0.53 global hectares of biocapacity per person within its territory, much less than the world average of 1.6 global hectares per person. Algeria_sentence_331

In 2016 Algeria used 2.4 global hectares of biocapacity per person - their ecological footprint of consumption. Algeria_sentence_332

This means they use just under 4.5 times as much biocapacity as Algeria contains. Algeria_sentence_333

As a result, Algeria is running a biocapacity deficit. Algeria_sentence_334

Research and alternative energy sources Algeria_section_19

Algeria has invested an estimated 100 billion dinars towards developing research facilities and paying researchers. Algeria_sentence_335

This development program is meant to advance alternative energy production, especially solar and wind power. Algeria_sentence_336

Algeria is estimated to have the largest solar energy potential in the Mediterranean, so the government has funded the creation of a solar science park in Hassi R'Mel. Algeria_sentence_337

Currently, Algeria has 20,000 research professors at various universities and over 780 research labs, with state-set goals to expand to 1,000. Algeria_sentence_338

Besides solar energy, areas of research in Algeria include space and satellite telecommunications, nuclear power and medical research. Algeria_sentence_339

Labour market Algeria_section_20

Despite a decline in total unemployment, youth and women unemployment is high. Algeria_sentence_340

Unemployment particularly affects the young, with a jobless rate of 21.5% among the 15–24 age group. Algeria_sentence_341

The overall rate of unemployment was 10% in 2011, but remained higher among young people, with a rate of 21.5% for those aged between 15 and 24. Algeria_sentence_342

The government strengthened in 2011 the job programmes introduced in 1988, in particular in the framework of the programme to aid those seeking work (Dispositif d'Aide à l'Insertion Professionnelle). Algeria_sentence_343

Tourism Algeria_section_21

Main article: Tourism in Algeria Algeria_sentence_344

The development of the tourism sector in Algeria had previously been hampered by a lack of facilities, but since 2004 a broad tourism development strategy has been implemented resulting in many hotels of a high modern standard being built. Algeria_sentence_345

There are several UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Algeria including Al Qal'a of Beni Hammad, the first capital of the Hammadid empire; Tipasa, a Phoenician and later Roman town; and Djémila and Timgad, both Roman ruins; M'Zab Valley, a limestone valley containing a large urbanized oasis; and the Casbah of Algiers, an important citadel. Algeria_sentence_346

The only natural World Heritage Site is the Tassili n'Ajjer, a mountain range. Algeria_sentence_347

Transport Algeria_section_22

Main article: Transport in Algeria Algeria_sentence_348

The Algerian road network is the densest in Africa; its length is estimated at 180,000 km (110,000 mi) of highways, with more than 3,756 structures and a paving rate of 85%. Algeria_sentence_349

This network will be complemented by the East-West Highway, a major infrastructure project currently under construction. Algeria_sentence_350

It is a 3-way, 1,216-kilometre-long (756 mi) highway, linking Annaba in the extreme east to the Tlemcen in the far west. Algeria_sentence_351

Algeria is also crossed by the Trans-Sahara Highway, which is now completely paved. Algeria_sentence_352

This road is supported by the Algerian government to increase trade between the six countries crossed: Algeria, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Chad, and Tunisia. Algeria_sentence_353

Demographics Algeria_section_23

Main article: Demographics of Algeria Algeria_sentence_354

In January 2016 Algeria's population was an estimated 40.4 million, who are mainly Arab-Berber ethnically. Algeria_sentence_355

At the outset of the 20th century, its population was approximately four million. Algeria_sentence_356

About 90% of Algerians live in the northern, coastal area; the inhabitants of the Sahara desert are mainly concentrated in oases, although some 1.5 million remain nomadic or partly nomadic. Algeria_sentence_357

28.1% of Algerians are under the age of 15. Algeria_sentence_358

Women make up 70% of the country's lawyers and 60% of its judges and also dominate the field of medicine. Algeria_sentence_359

Increasingly, women are contributing more to household income than men. Algeria_sentence_360

60% of university students are women, according to university researchers. Algeria_sentence_361

Between 90,000 and 165,000 Sahrawis from Western Sahara live in the Sahrawi refugee camps, in the western Algerian Sahara desert. Algeria_sentence_362

There are also more than 4,000 Palestinian refugees, who are well integrated and have not asked for assistance from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Algeria_sentence_363

In 2009, 35,000 Chinese migrant workers lived in Algeria. Algeria_sentence_364

The largest concentration of Algerian migrants outside Algeria is in France, which has reportedly over 1.7 million Algerians of up to the second generation. Algeria_sentence_365

Ethnic groups Algeria_section_24

Main article: Ethnic groups in Algeria Algeria_sentence_366

Indigenous Berbers as well as Phoenicians, Romans, Byzantine Greeks, Arabs, Turks, various Sub-Saharan Africans, and French have contributed to the history of Algeria. Algeria_sentence_367

Descendants of Andalusian refugees are also present in the population of Algiers and other cities. Algeria_sentence_368

Moreover, Spanish was spoken by these Aragonese and Castillian Morisco descendants deep into the 18th century, and even Catalan was spoken at the same time by Catalan Morisco descendants in the small town of Grish El-Oued. Algeria_sentence_369

Despite the dominance of the Berber ethnicity in Algeria, the majority of Algerians identify with an Arabic-based identity, especially after the Arab nationalism rising in the 20th century. Algeria_sentence_370

Berbers and Berber-speaking Algerians are divided into many groups with varying languages. Algeria_sentence_371

The largest of these are the Kabyles, who live in the Kabylie region east of Algiers, the Chaoui of Northeast Algeria, the Tuaregs in the southern desert and the Shenwa people of North Algeria. Algeria_sentence_372

During the colonial period, there was a large (10% in 1960) European population who became known as Pied-Noirs. Algeria_sentence_373

They were primarily of French, Spanish and Italian origin. Algeria_sentence_374

Almost all of this population left during the war of independence or immediately after its end. Algeria_sentence_375

Languages Algeria_section_25

Main article: Languages of Algeria Algeria_sentence_376

Modern Standard Arabic and Berber are the official languages. Algeria_sentence_377

Algerian Arabic (Darja) is the language used by the majority of the population. Algeria_sentence_378

Colloquial Algerian Arabic is heavily infused with borrowings from French and Berber. Algeria_sentence_379

Berber has been recognised as a "national language" by the constitutional amendment of 8 May 2002. Algeria_sentence_380

Kabyle, the predominant Berber language, is taught and is partially co-official (with a few restrictions) in parts of Kabylie. Algeria_sentence_381

In February 2016, the Algerian constitution passed a resolution that would make Berber an official language alongside Arabic. Algeria_sentence_382

Although French has no official status, Algeria is the second-largest Francophone country in the world in terms of speakers, and French is widely used in government, media (newspapers, radio, local television), and both the education system (from primary school onwards) and academia due to Algeria's colonial history. Algeria_sentence_383

It can be regarded as a lingua franca of Algeria. Algeria_sentence_384

In 2008, 11.2 million Algerians could read and write in French. Algeria_sentence_385

An Abassa Institute study in April 2000 found that 60% of households could speak and understand French or 18 million in a population of 30 million then. Algeria_sentence_386

After an earlier period during which the Algerian government tried to phase out French, in recent decades the government has backtracked and reinforced the study of French, and some television programs are broadcast in the language. Algeria_sentence_387

Algeria emerged as a bilingual state after 1962. Algeria_sentence_388

Colloquial Algerian Arabic is spoken by about 72% of the population and Berber by 27–30%. Algeria_sentence_389

Religion Algeria_section_26

Main article: Religion in Algeria Algeria_sentence_390

See also: Early African Church Algeria_sentence_391

See also: History of the Jews in Algeria Algeria_sentence_392

Islam is the predominant religion in Algeria, with its adherents, mostly Sunnis, accounting for 99% of the population according to a 2012 CIA World Factbook estimate, and 97.9% according to Pew Research in 2010. Algeria_sentence_393

There are about 150,000 Ibadis in the M'zab Valley in the region of Ghardaia. Algeria_sentence_394

Estimates of the Christian population range from 60,000 to 200,000. Algeria_sentence_395

Algerian citizens who are Christians predominantly belong to Protestant groups, which have seen increased pressure from the government in recent years including many forced closures. Algeria_sentence_396

Algeria has given the Muslim world a number of prominent thinkers, including Emir Abdelkader, Abdelhamid Ben Badis, Mouloud Kacem Naît Belkacem, Malek Bennabi and Mohamed Arkoun. Algeria_sentence_397

Cities Algeria_section_27

Main article: List of cities in Algeria Algeria_sentence_398

Below is a list of the most important Algerian cities: Algeria_sentence_399

Culture Algeria_section_28

Main article: Culture of Algeria Algeria_sentence_400

Modern Algerian literature, split between Arabic, Tamazight and French, has been strongly influenced by the country's recent history. Algeria_sentence_401

Famous novelists of the 20th century include Mohammed Dib, Albert Camus, Kateb Yacine and Ahlam Mosteghanemi while Assia Djebar is widely translated. Algeria_sentence_402

Among the important novelists of the 1980s were Rachid Mimouni, later vice-president of Amnesty International, and Tahar Djaout, murdered by an Islamist group in 1993 for his secularist views. Algeria_sentence_403

Malek Bennabi and Frantz Fanon are noted for their thoughts on decolonization; Augustine of Hippo was born in Tagaste (modern-day Souk Ahras); and Ibn Khaldun, though born in Tunis, wrote the Muqaddima while staying in Algeria. Algeria_sentence_404

The works of the Sanusi family in pre-colonial times, and of Emir Abdelkader and Sheikh Ben Badis in colonial times, are widely noted. Algeria_sentence_405

The Latin author Apuleius was born in Madaurus (Mdaourouch), in what later became Algeria. Algeria_sentence_406

Contemporary Algerian cinema is various in terms of genre, exploring a wider range of themes and issues. Algeria_sentence_407

There has been a transition from cinema which focused on the war of independence to films more concerned with the everyday lives of Algerians. Algeria_sentence_408

Media Algeria_section_29

Main article: Media of Algeria Algeria_sentence_409

Art Algeria_section_30

Algerian painters, like or Baya, attempted to revive the prestigious Algerian past prior to French colonization, at the same time that they have contributed to the preservation of the authentic values of Algeria. Algeria_sentence_410

In this line, Mohamed Temam, Abdelkhader Houamel have also returned through this art, scenes from the history of the country, the habits and customs of the past and the country life. Algeria_sentence_411

Other new artistic currents including the one of M'hamed Issiakhem, Mohammed Khadda and Bachir Yelles, appeared on the scene of Algerian painting, abandoning figurative classical painting to find new pictorial ways, in order to adapt Algerian paintings to the new realities of the country through its struggle and its aspirations. Algeria_sentence_412

Mohammed Khadda and M'hamed Issiakhem have been notable in recent years. Algeria_sentence_413

Literature Algeria_section_31

Main articles: Algerian literature and List of Algerian writers Algeria_sentence_414

The historic roots of Algerian literature go back to the Numidian and Roman African era, when Apuleius wrote The Golden Ass, the only Latin novel to survive in its entirety. Algeria_sentence_415

This period had also known Augustine of Hippo, Nonius Marcellus and Martianus Capella, among many others. Algeria_sentence_416

The Middle Ages have known many Arabic writers who revolutionized the Arab world literature, with authors like Ahmad al-Buni, Ibn Manzur and Ibn Khaldoun, who wrote the Muqaddimah while staying in Algeria, and many others. Algeria_sentence_417

Albert Camus was an Algerian-born French Pied-Noir author. Algeria_sentence_418

In 1957 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature. Algeria_sentence_419

Today Algeria contains, in its literary landscape, big names having not only marked the Algerian literature, but also the universal literary heritage in Arabic and French. Algeria_sentence_420

As a first step, Algerian literature was marked by works whose main concern was the assertion of the Algerian national entity, there is the publication of novels as the Algerian trilogy of Mohammed Dib, or even Nedjma of Kateb Yacine novel which is often regarded as a monumental and major work. Algeria_sentence_421

Other known writers will contribute to the emergence of Algerian literature whom include Mouloud Feraoun, Malek Bennabi, Malek Haddad, Moufdi Zakaria, Abdelhamid Ben Badis, Mohamed Laïd Al-Khalifa, Mouloud Mammeri, Frantz Fanon, and Assia Djebar. Algeria_sentence_422

In the aftermath of the independence, several new authors emerged on the Algerian literary scene, they will attempt through their works to expose a number of social problems, among them there are Rachid Boudjedra, Rachid Mimouni, Leila Sebbar, Tahar Djaout and Tahir Wattar. Algeria_sentence_423

Currently, a part of Algerian writers tends to be defined in a literature of shocking expression, due to the terrorism that occurred during the 1990s, the other party is defined in a different style of literature who staged an individualistic conception of the human adventure. Algeria_sentence_424

Among the most noted recent works, there is the writer, the swallows of Kabul and the attack of Yasmina Khadra, the oath of barbarians of Boualem Sansal, memory of the flesh of Ahlam Mosteghanemi and the last novel by Assia Djebar nowhere in my father's House. Algeria_sentence_425

Music Algeria_section_32

Main article: Music of Algeria Algeria_sentence_426

Chaâbi music is a typically Algerian musical genre characterized by specific rhythms and of Qacidate (popular poems) in Arabic dialect. Algeria_sentence_427

The undisputed master of this music is El Hadj M'Hamed El Anka. Algeria_sentence_428

The Constantinois Malouf style is saved by musician from whom Mohamed Tahar Fergani is a performer. Algeria_sentence_429

Folk music styles include Bedouin music, characterized by the poetic songs based on long kacida (poems); Kabyle music, based on a rich repertoire that is poetry and old tales passed through generations; Shawiya music, a folklore from diverse areas of the Aurès Mountains. Algeria_sentence_430

Rahaba music style is unique to the Aures. Algeria_sentence_431

Souad Massi is a rising Algerian folk singer. Algeria_sentence_432

Other Algerian singers of the diaspora include Manel Filali in Germany and Kenza Farah in France. Algeria_sentence_433

Tergui music is sung in Tuareg languages generally, Tinariwen had a worldwide success. Algeria_sentence_434

Finally, the staïfi music is born in Sétif and remains a unique style of its kind. Algeria_sentence_435

Modern music is available in several facets, Raï music is a style typical of western Algeria. Algeria_sentence_436

Rap, a relatively recent style in Algeria, is experiencing significant growth. Algeria_sentence_437

Cinema Algeria_section_33

Main article: Cinema of Algeria Algeria_sentence_438

The Algerian state's interest in film-industry activities can be seen in the annual budget of DZD 200 million (EUR 1.3 million) allocated to production, specific measures and an ambitious programme plan implemented by the Ministry of Culture in order to promote national production, renovate the cinema stock and remedy the weak links in distribution and exploitation. Algeria_sentence_439

The financial support provided by the state, through the Fund for the Development of the Arts, Techniques and the Film Industry (FDATIC) and the Algerian Agency for Cultural Influence (AARC), plays a key role in the promotion of national production. Algeria_sentence_440

Between 2007 and 2013, FDATIC subsidised 98 films (feature films, documentaries and short films). Algeria_sentence_441

In mid-2013, AARC had already supported a total of 78 films, including 42 feature films, 6 short films and 30 documentaries. Algeria_sentence_442

According to the European Audiovisual Observatory's LUMIERE database, 41 Algerian films were distributed in Europe between 1996 and 2013; 21 films in this repertoire were Algerian-French co-productions. Algeria_sentence_443

Days of Glory (2006) and Outside the Law (2010) recorded the highest number of admissions in the European Union, 3,172,612 and 474,722, respectively. Algeria_sentence_444

Algeria won the Palme d'Or for Chronicle of the Years of Fire (1975), two Oscars for Z (1969), and other awards for the Italian-Algerian movie The Battle of Algiers. Algeria_sentence_445

Sports Algeria_section_34

Main article: Sport in Algeria Algeria_sentence_446

Various games have existed in Algeria since antiquity. Algeria_sentence_447

In the Aures, people played several games such as El Kherba or El khergueba (chess variant). Algeria_sentence_448

Playing cards, checkers and chess games are part of Algerian culture. Algeria_sentence_449

Racing (fantasia) and rifle shooting are part of cultural recreation of the Algerians. Algeria_sentence_450

The first Algerian and African gold medalist is Boughera El Ouafi in 1928 Olympics of Amsterdam in the Marathon. Algeria_sentence_451

The second Algerian Medalist was Alain Mimoun in 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne. Algeria_sentence_452

Several men and women were champions in athletics in the 1990s including Noureddine Morceli, Hassiba Boulmerka, Nouria Merah-Benida, and Taoufik Makhloufi, all specialized in middle-distance running. Algeria_sentence_453

Football is the most popular sport in Algeria. Algeria_sentence_454

Several names are engraved in the history of the sport, including Lakhdar Belloumi, Rachid Mekhloufi, Hassen Lalmas, Rabah Madjer, Salah Assad and Djamel Zidane. Algeria_sentence_455

The Algeria national football team qualified for the 1982 FIFA World Cup, 1986 FIFA World Cup, 2010 FIFA World Cup and 2014 FIFA World Cup. Algeria_sentence_456

In addition, several football clubs have won continental and international trophies as the club ES Sétif or JS Kabylia. Algeria_sentence_457

The Algerian Football Federation is an association of Algeria football clubs organizing national competitions and international matches of the selection of Algeria national football team. Algeria_sentence_458

Cuisine Algeria_section_35

Main article: Algerian cuisine Algeria_sentence_459

Algerian cuisine is rich and diverse. Algeria_sentence_460

The country was considered as the "granary of Rome". Algeria_sentence_461

It offers a component of dishes and varied dishes, depending on the region and according to the seasons. Algeria_sentence_462

The cuisine uses cereals as the main products, since they are always produced with abundance in the country. Algeria_sentence_463

There is not a dish where cereals are not present. Algeria_sentence_464

Algerian cuisine varies from one region to another, according to seasonal vegetables. Algeria_sentence_465

It can be prepared using meat, fish and vegetables. Algeria_sentence_466

Among the dishes known, couscous, chorba, rechta, chakhchoukha, berkoukes, shakshouka, mthewem, chtitha, mderbel, dolma, brik or bourek, garantita, lham'hlou, etc. Merguez sausage is widely used in Algeria, but it differs, depending on the region and on the added spices. Algeria_sentence_467

Cakes are marketed and can be found in cities either in Algeria, in Europe or North America. Algeria_sentence_468

However, traditional cakes are also made at home, following the habits and customs of each family. Algeria_sentence_469

Among these cakes, there are Tamina, Baklawa, Chrik, Garn logzelles, Griouech, Kalb el-louz, Makroud, Mbardja, Mchewek, Samsa, Tcharak, Baghrir, Khfaf, Zlabia, Aarayech, Ghroubiya and Mghergchette. Algeria_sentence_470

Algerian pastry also contains Tunisian or French cakes. Algeria_sentence_471

Marketed and home-made bread products include varieties such as Kessra or Khmira or Harchaya, chopsticks and so-called washers Khoubz dar or Matloue. Algeria_sentence_472

Other traditional meals sold often as street food include mhadjeb or mahjouba, karantika, doubara, chakhchoukha, hassouna, and t'chicha. Algeria_sentence_473

Health Algeria_section_36

Main article: Health in Algeria Algeria_sentence_474

In 2002, Algeria had inadequate numbers of physicians (1.13 per 1,000 people), nurses (2.23 per 1,000 people), and dentists (0.31 per 1,000 people). Algeria_sentence_475

Access to "improved water sources" was limited to 92% of the population in urban areas and 80% of the population in the rural areas. Algeria_sentence_476

Some 99% of Algerians living in urban areas, but only 82% of those living in rural areas, had access to "improved sanitation". Algeria_sentence_477

According to the World Bank, Algeria is making progress toward its goal of "reducing by half the number of people without sustainable access to improved drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015". Algeria_sentence_478

Given Algeria's young population, policy favors preventive health care and clinics over hospitals. Algeria_sentence_479

In keeping with this policy, the government maintains an immunization program. Algeria_sentence_480

However, poor sanitation and unclean water still cause tuberculosis, hepatitis, measles, typhoid fever, cholera and dysentery. Algeria_sentence_481

The poor generally receive health care free of charge. Algeria_sentence_482

Health records have been maintained in Algeria since 1882 and began adding Muslims living in the south to their vital record database in 1905 during French rule. Algeria_sentence_483

Education Algeria_section_37

Main articles: Education in Algeria and List of universities in Algeria Algeria_sentence_484

Since the 1970s, in a centralised system that was designed to significantly reduce the rate of illiteracy, the Algerian government introduced a decree by which school attendance became compulsory for all children aged between 6 and 15 years who have the ability to track their learning through the 20 facilities built since independence, now the literacy rate is around 78.7%. Algeria_sentence_485

Since 1972, Arabic is used as the language of instruction during the first nine years of schooling. Algeria_sentence_486

From the third year, French is taught and it is also the language of instruction for science classes. Algeria_sentence_487

The students can also learn English, Italian, Spanish and German. Algeria_sentence_488

In 2008, new programs at the elementary appeared, therefore the compulsory schooling does not start at the age of six anymore, but at the age of five. Algeria_sentence_489

Apart from the 122 private schools, the Universities of the State are free of charge. Algeria_sentence_490

After nine years of primary school, students can go to the high school or to an educational institution. Algeria_sentence_491

The school offers two programs: general or technical. Algeria_sentence_492

At the end of the third year of secondary school, students pass the exam of the baccalaureate, which allows once it is successful to pursue graduate studies in universities and institutes. Algeria_sentence_493

Education is officially compulsory for children between the ages of six and 15. Algeria_sentence_494

In 2008, the illiteracy rate for people over 10 was 22.3%, 15.6% for men and 29.0% for women. Algeria_sentence_495

The province with the lowest rate of illiteracy was Algiers Province at 11.6%, while the province with the highest rate was Djelfa Province at 35.5%. Algeria_sentence_496

Algeria has 26 universities and 67 institutions of higher education, which must accommodate a million Algerians and 80,000 foreign students in 2008. Algeria_sentence_497

The University of Algiers, founded in 1879, is the oldest, it offers education in various disciplines (law, medicine, science and letters). Algeria_sentence_498

25 of these universities and almost all of the institutions of higher education were founded after the independence of the country. Algeria_sentence_499

Even if some of them offer instruction in Arabic like areas of law and the economy, most of the other sectors as science and medicine continue to be provided in French and English. Algeria_sentence_500

Among the most important universities, there are the University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene, the University of Mentouri Constantine, and University of Oran Es-Senia. Algeria_sentence_501

The University of Abou Bekr Belkaïd in Tlemcen and University of Batna Hadj Lakhdar occupy the 26th and 45th row in Africa. Algeria_sentence_502

See also Algeria_section_38

Algeria_unordered_list_0


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algeria.