Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi

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Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_table_infobox_0

Mohammad-Baqer MaljesiMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_header_cell_0_0_0
PersonalMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_header_cell_0_1_0
BornMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_header_cell_0_2_0 1627

Isfahan, Safavid IranMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_cell_0_2_1

DiedMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_header_cell_0_3_0 29 March 1699(1699-03-29) (aged 71–72)

Isfahan, Safavid IranMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_cell_0_3_1

ReligionMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_header_cell_0_4_0 Shi'ismMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_cell_0_4_1
JurisprudenceMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_header_cell_0_5_0 Ja'fari (Akhbari)Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_cell_0_5_1
CreedMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_header_cell_0_6_0 TwelverMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_cell_0_6_1
Main interest(s)Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_header_cell_0_7_0 Hadith, FiqhMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_cell_0_7_1
Notable work(s)Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_header_cell_0_8_0 Bihar al-AnwarMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_cell_0_8_1
ProfessionMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_header_cell_0_9_0 Clergyman, juristMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_cell_0_9_1
Senior postingMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_header_cell_0_10_0
Period in officeMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_header_cell_0_11_0 1687 - 1699Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_cell_0_11_1
SuccessorMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_header_cell_0_12_0 Muhammad Salih KhatunabadiMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_cell_0_12_1
ProfessionMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_header_cell_0_13_0 Clergyman, juristMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_cell_0_13_1
PostMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_header_cell_0_14_0 Shaykh al-Islām of IsfahanMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_cell_0_14_1

Mohammad Baqer Majlesi (b. Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_0

1037/1628-29 – d. 1110/1699) (Persian: علامه مجلسی‎ Allameh Majlesi; also Romanized as: Majlessi, Majlisi, Madjlessi), known as Allamah Majlesi or Majlesi Al-Thani (Majlesi the Second), was a renowned and very powerful Iranian Twelver Shia cleric, during the Safavid era. Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_1

He has been described as "one of the most powerful and influential Shi'a ulema of all time", whose "policies and actions reoriented Twelver Shia'ism in the direction that it was to develop from his day on." Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_2

He is buried next to his father in a family mausoleum located next to the Jamé Mosque of Isfahan. Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_3

Early life and education Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_section_0

Born in Isfahan in 1617, his father, Mulla Mohammad Taqi Majlesi (Majlesi-ye Awwal—Majlesi the First, 1594 AD-1660 AD), was a cleric of Islamic jurisprudence. Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_4

The genealogy of his family is traced back to Abu Noaym Ahámad b. Abdallah Esfahani (d. 1038 AD), the author, inter alia, of a History of Isfahan, entitled Zikr-i akhbar-i Isfahan. Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_5

By the age of 25, he gained certification of "riwāyat" from Mulla Sadra to teach. Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_6

He is said to have completed studies under 21 masters (ustadh). Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_7

He is reported to have trained 181 students to become masters themselves. Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_8

Influence and beliefs Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_section_1

In 1687, the Safavid King, Sultan Husayn, appointed Majlesi as "Sheikh ul-Islam" (Chief Religious Leader of the land) in Isfahan, the capital of the Persian Empire. Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_9

In this influential position, he was given a free hand by the Sultan to encourage and to punish as he saw fit. Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_10

"The three inter-related areas in which Majlisi exerted his efforts were": the suppression of Sufism, mystical philosophies, philosophic views known as Falsafah that he claimed were contrary to Islam and "the suppression of Sunnism and other religious groups." Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_11

According to scholar Moojan Momen, Majlisi's era marked a breaking point, as he successfully undercut the influence of Sufism and philosophic rationalism in Shiism. Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_12

"Up to the time of Majlisi, Shiism and Sufism were closely linked and indeed Sufism had been a vehicle for pro-Shii sentiment among the Sunnis. Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_13

Even the most eminent members of the Shii ulama in the preceding centuries had come under the influence of Sufiism." Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_14

After the death of Majlisi, "this process continued among the succeeding generations of ulama" so that Sufism became "divorced from Shiism and ceased to influence the main stream of Shii development. Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_15

Philosophy was also down-graded and ceased to be an important part of studies at the religious colleges." Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_16

Legalism Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_section_2

He also reestablished clerical authority under his leadership, "and renewed the impetus for conversion from Sunni to Shi'a school." Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_17

Majlesi is "credited with propagating numerous Shi'a rituals that Iranians regularly practice", such as mourning ceremonies for the fallen Twelve Imams, particularly the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali at Karbala, and pilgrimages to shrines of imams and their families. Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_18

Majlesi "fervently upheld the concepts of 'enjoining the good' and 'prohibiting evil'", and in so doing endeavoured to provide fatwa (judgements) for "all of the hypothetical situations a true believer could or might face." Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_19

In one "exposition of virtues of proper behavior", he gave directions on everything from how to "wear clothes to sexual intercourse and association with females, clipping fingernails, sleeping, waking, urination and defecation, enemas, sneezing, entering and leaving a domicile, and treatments and cures for many illnesses and diseases." Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_20

More controversially, Majlesi defined "science" very narrowly as "knowledge of the clear, secure ayat; of the religious duties and obligations which God has fixed in His Justice; and of the Prophetic Traditions (Hadith), which are valid until the day of Resurrection." Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_21

Beyond this, he warned, the seeking of knowledge is "a waste of one's life," and worse would "generally lead to apostasy and heresy, in which case the likelihood of salvation is remote." Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_22

He opposed the school of mystical philosophy developed by Mir Damad and Mulla Sadra, who argued that the Quran was always open to reinterpretation, and valued insights that came from intuition and ecstasy rather than reason. Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_23

Work and contribution Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_section_3

Allamah Al-Majlisi's most important field of interest was the hadith. Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_24

He popularized his teaching by writing numerous works in an easily understandable style, in which he summarized the essential doctrines for the common people. Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_25

Allamah Majlisi was also a very prolific writer. Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_26

He wrote more than 100 books, both in Arabic and Persian. Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_27

Some of his more famous works are: Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_sentence_28

Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_unordered_list_0

  • Bihar al-Anwar ("Seas of Light") in 110 volumes.Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_item_0_0
  • Reality of CertaintyMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_item_0_1
  • Mirror of Intellects, a 26-volume commentary.Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_item_0_2
  • Shelter of the Upright People, a 16-volume commentary.Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_item_0_3
  • Provisions for the HereafterMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_item_0_4
  • A Gift for the PilgrimsMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_item_0_5
  • Essence of LifeMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_item_0_6
  • Adornment of the PiousMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_item_0_7
  • Al-Fara'edh al-TarifahMohammad-Baqer Majlesi_item_0_8

See also Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_section_4

Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi_unordered_list_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi.