Altiplano Cundiboyacense

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Altiplano Cundiboyacense_table_infobox_0

Altiplano CundiboyacenseAltiplano Cundiboyacense_header_cell_0_0_0
LocationAltiplano Cundiboyacense_header_cell_0_1_0 Bogotá, Cundinamarca & Boyacá

 ColombiaAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_0_1_1

CoordinatesAltiplano Cundiboyacense_header_cell_0_2_0 Altiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_0_2_1
RangeAltiplano Cundiboyacense_header_cell_0_3_0 AndesAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_0_3_1
Part ofAltiplano Cundiboyacense_header_cell_0_4_0 Eastern RangesAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_0_4_1
Offshore water bodiesAltiplano Cundiboyacense_header_cell_0_5_0 Water bodiesAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_0_5_1
ElevationAltiplano Cundiboyacense_header_cell_0_6_0 2,600 metres (8,530 ft)Altiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_0_6_1
AreaAltiplano Cundiboyacense_header_cell_0_7_0 25,000 km (9,700 sq mi)Altiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_0_7_1
GeologyAltiplano Cundiboyacense_header_cell_0_8_0 GeologyAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_0_8_1
AgeAltiplano Cundiboyacense_header_cell_0_9_0 Miocene-recentAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_0_9_1
OrogenyAltiplano Cundiboyacense_header_cell_0_10_0 AndeanAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_0_10_1
Volcanic fieldAltiplano Cundiboyacense_header_cell_0_11_0 Paipa-Iza volcanic complexAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_0_11_1
Last eruptionAltiplano Cundiboyacense_header_cell_0_12_0 Late PlioceneAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_0_12_1

The Altiplano Cundiboyacense [altiˈplano kundiβoʝaˈsense is a high plateau located in the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes covering parts of the departments of Cundinamarca and Boyacá. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_0

The altiplano corresponds to the ancient territory of the Muisca. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_1

The Altiplano Cundiboyacense comprises three distinctive flat regions; the Bogotá savanna, the valleys of Ubaté and Chiquinquirá, and the valleys of Duitama and Sogamoso. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_2

The average altitude of the altiplano is about 2,600 metres (8,500 ft) above sea level but ranges from roughly 2,500 metres (8,200 ft) to 4,000 metres (13,000 ft). Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_3

Etymology Altiplano Cundiboyacense_section_0

Altiplano in Spanish means "high plain" or "high plateau", the second part is a combination of the departments Cundinamarca and Boyacá. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_4

Geography Altiplano Cundiboyacense_section_1

The limits of the Altiplano are not strictly defined. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_5

The high plateau is enclosed by the higher mountains of the Eastern Ranges, with the Sumapaz mountains in the south and Chingaza to the east. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_6

The Tenza Valley is located to the east of the Altiplano and the Ocetá Páramo and Chicamocha Canyon are situated to the northeast. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_7

Subdivision Altiplano Cundiboyacense_section_2

The Altiplano is subdivided into three major valleys, from northeast to southwest: Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_8

Altiplano Cundiboyacense_unordered_list_0

Climate Altiplano Cundiboyacense_section_3

The average temperature on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense is 14 °C (57 °F), ranging from 0 °C (32 °F) to 24 °C (75 °F). Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_9

The dryest months of the year are from December to March, while rain is more common in April, May, September, October and November. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_10

From June to August strong winds are present. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_11

Hail is common on the Altiplano. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_12

Páramos Altiplano Cundiboyacense_section_4

The Altiplano Cundiboyacense is surrounded by and contains various Andean unique ecosystems; páramos. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_13

60% of all páramos in the world are situated in Colombia and Boyacá has the most relative area of páramos. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_14

Boyacá is the department where 18.3% of the national total area is located. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_15

To the south the Sumapaz Páramo (largest in the world) forms a natural boundary of the Altiplano. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_16

Chingaza contains páramo vegetation, as does the most beautiful Ocetá Páramo in the northeast. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_17

On the Altiplano the microclimate of the surroundings of Lake Iguaque produces a páramo. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_18

Regional geology Altiplano Cundiboyacense_section_5

History Altiplano Cundiboyacense_section_6

Prehistory Altiplano Cundiboyacense_section_7

See also: Muisca Confederation § Prehistory Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_19

The Altiplano Cundiboyacense is formed as part of the uplift of the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes since Neogene times. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_20

Hydrothermal activity in fractures of the forming Andean chain left its trace in the form of the many emeralds found in the western and eastern parts of the Altiplano. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_21

From the Early Cretaceous until the Eocene, the region of the present-day Altiplano was dominated by a marine environment, as part of the long inland sea of northern South America. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_22

In these warm tropical seas a fauna of ichthyosaurs and pliosaurs developed, with important finds (Kronosaurus boyacensis (El Fósil), Muiscasaurus, with four nostrils) in the Paja Formation of Villa de Leyva. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_23

During the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene (35-30 Mya) epochs, South America became detached from its longest connected former member of Pangea; Antarctica. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_24

The isolation of the South American paleocontinent led to a large biodiversity of New World species. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_25

The dominating group of top predators and scavengers for decades of millions of years on the continent were the terror birds. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_26

Fossils of terror birds have been found throughout South America, with a major collection from current Argentina, where the biggest terror bird, Kelenken, roamed the paleopampas in the early Miocene. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_27

The forming Andes created a hilly landscape in the regions bordering the former sea inlet from the proto-Caribbean. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_28

Other land animals in the Tertiary were the xenungulate Etayoa bacatensis, evidence for which has been found in 1987 in the Bogotá Formation of the southern Altiplano. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_29

The biodiversity and former tranquility of the isolated ecosystem changed during the Pliocene, when the Panama Block emerged from the seas and formed a transferable connection with formerly isolated North America. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_30

This Great American Biotic Interchange led to a drastic rearrangement of South American fauna. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_31

Migrating species from North America replaced many formerly successful South American animals, among which the terror birds. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_32

The Late Pleistocene of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense has been analysed in detail through various methods based on fossils found on the Altiplano. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_33

Pleistocene megafauna inhabited the glacial highlands of the eastern Andean chain. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_34

The climate in the glacials and stadials led to the formation of various prehistoric lakes in the valleys of the Altiplano. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_35

The Ubaté-Chiquinquirá Valley in the northwest of the Altiplano was covered with a lake, of which the current Lake Fúquene is a retreating remainder. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_36

To the extreme northeast, in Soatá, another Pleistocene lake was present. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_37

The largest paleolake in the latest Pleistocene was Lake Humboldt or Lake Bogotá covering the Bogotá savanna. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_38

The lake, some 4,000 square kilometres (1,500 sq mi) in size, at that time would have been seventy times larger than the biggest lake of Colombia; present-day Lake Tota. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_39

Lake Tota is the remnant of a Pleistocene glacial lake higher up the Altiplano to the east. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_40

Lake Humboldt is thought to have existed until around 30,000 years ago with as modern remaining water bodies Lake Herrera, wetlands of Bogotá and the Bogotá River. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_41

Lake Humboldt had an irregular shoreline with an island in the centre; the present-day Suba Hills. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_42

The Altiplano Cundiboyacense is regarded one of eleven archaeological regions of Colombia. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_43

The earliest evidence of human occupation in the region has been found in Pubenza, to the west of the Altiplano, dating to 16,000 years BP. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_44

On the Altiplano, the oldest findings are dated at 12,400 ± 160 years in El Abra. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_45

Slightly younger occurrences of settlement by hunter-gatherers have been discovered at Tibitó, with an estimated age of 11,740 +/- 110 years BP and Tequendama dated at 10,920 ± 260 years BP. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_46

In the earliest ages of human population prehistoric animals as the Cuvieronius, Haplomastodon and Equus amerhippus were living on the Altiplano. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_47

Andean preceramic Altiplano Cundiboyacense_section_8

See also: Andean preceramic Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_48

Later dated excavations have revealed a transition from a hunter-gatherer society living in rock shelters to open area settlements with Checua and Aguazuque as examples. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_49

Various burial sites at Checua have been dated between 8200 and 7800 years BP. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_50

During the earliest phases, the first humans lived together with Pleistocene now extinct mastodons, as the fossil remains of Haplomastodon waringi, Neochoerus and Odocoileus in Soatá indicate. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_51

The main part of the diet of the people was formed by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_52

Other mammals included little red brocket (Mazama rufina), guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), crab-eating fox (Dusicyon thous), spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), ocelot (Felis pardalis), puma (Felis concolor), lowland paca (Agouti paca), Agouti taczamawskii, Dasyprocta, ring-tailed coati (Nasua nasua), western mountain coati (Nasuella olivacea), common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) and collared anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla). Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_53

Rock art Altiplano Cundiboyacense_section_9

Main article: Muisca art § Rock art Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_54

Various archaeological sites with petroglyphs or pictographs have been discovered on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, among others in Bojacá, Bogotá, Chía, Usme, Cogua, Cota, Facatativá, Nemocón, Madrid, Mosquera, Sáchica, Sibaté, Soacha, Subachoque, Suesca, Sutatausa, Tenjo, Tocancipá, Zipacón, Zipaquirá. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_55

Ceramic pre-Columbian Altiplano Cundiboyacense_section_10

See also: Herrera Period and Muisca Confederation Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_56

The ages between 3000 and 1000 years before present corresponds to the Herrera Period, and the era between 1000 BP and 1537, the year of the Spanish conquest, to the Muisca Confederation. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_57

The Muisca were the inhabitants of the central Andean highlands of Colombia before the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_58

They were organised in a loose confederation of different rulers; the zipa of Bacatá, with his headquarters in Funza, the zaque of Hunza, the iraca of the sacred City of the Sun Sugamuxi, the Tundama of Tundama, and several independent caciques. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_59

The leaders of the Confederation at the time of conquest were zipa Tisquesusa, zaque Quemuenchatocha, iraca Sugamuxi and Tundama in the northernmost portion of their territories. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_60

The Muisca were organised in small communities of circular enclosures (ca in their language Muysccubbun; literally "language of the people"), with a central square where the bohío of the cacique was located. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_61

They were called "Salt People" because of their extraction of salt in various locations throughout their territories, mainly in Zipaquirá, Nemocón and Tausa. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_62

For the main part self-sufficient in their well-organised economy, the Muisca traded with the European conquistadors valuable products as gold, tumbaga (a copper-silver-gold alloy) and emeralds with their neighbouring indigenous groups. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_63

In the Tenza Valley, to the east of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense where the majority of the Muisca lived, they extracted emeralds in Chivor and Somondoco. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_64

The economy of the Muisca was rooted in their agriculture with main products maize, yuca, potatoes and various other cultivations elaborated on elevated fields (in their language called tá). Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_65

Agriculture had started around 3000 BCE on the Altiplano. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_66

The agriculture of the Muisca was performed on small-scale cropfields, part of more extensive lands, and in a rather egalitarian manner; the higher social classes did not have access to more agricultural products than the lower class Muisca people. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_67

Their main difference was in the construction of their houses and access to meat. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_68

The predominant agricultural product of the Muisca was maize and they had numerous words in their language, Muysccubun for the plant, kernels and processing of it. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_69

Evidence for maize cultivation predates the Muisca; already in the Herrera Period maize cultivation has been identified based on pollen analysis. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_70

The cacicazgos were self-sufficient in their agricultural products and surpluses of maize (abitago) were traded for more tropical climate fruits such as pineapples, avocados and Ipomea batatas. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_71

The Muisca used terraces for their agriculture on the often flooded highlands and a system of irrigation and drainage was developed. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_72

They cultivated their crops in rows of mounds. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_73

Spanish conquest Altiplano Cundiboyacense_section_11

Main article: Spanish conquest of the Muisca Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_74

A delegation of more than 900 men left the tropical city of Santa Marta in April 1536 and went on a harsh expedition through the heartlands of Colombia in search of El Dorado and the civilisation that produced all that precious gold. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_75

The leader of the first and main expedition under Spanish flag was Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, with his brother Hernán second in command. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_76

Several other soldiers were participating in the journey, who would later become encomenderos and take part in the conquest of other parts of Colombia. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_77

Other contemporaneous expeditions into the unknown interior of the Andes, all searching for the mythical land of gold, were starting from later Venezuela, led by Bavarian and other German conquistadors and from the south, starting in the previously founded Kingdom of Quito in what is now Ecuador. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_78

The conquest of the Muisca on the Altiplano started in March 1537, when the greatly reduced troops of De Quesada entered Muisca territories in Chipatá, the first settlement they founded on March 8. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_79

The expedition went further inland and up the slopes of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense into later Boyacá and Cundinamarca. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_80

The towns of Moniquirá (Boyacá) and Guachetá and Lenguazaque (Cundinamarca) were founded before the conquistadors arrived at the northern edge of the Bogotá savanna in Suesca. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_81

continued to Lenguazaque that was founded the next day, En route towards the domain of zipa Tisquesusa, the Spanish founded Cajicá and Chía. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_82

In April 1537 they arrived at Funza, where Tisquesusa was beaten by the Spanish. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_83

This formed the onset for further expeditions, starting a month later towards the eastern Tenza Valley and the northern territories of zaque Quemuenchatocha. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_84

On August 20, 1537, the zaque was submitted in his bohío in Hunza. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_85

The Spanish continued their journey northeastward into the Iraca Valley, where the iraca Sugamuxi fell to the Spanish troops and the Sun Temple was accidentally burned by two soldiers of the army of De Quesada in early September. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_86

Meanwhile, other soldiers from the conquest expedition went south and conquered Pasca and other settlements. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_87

The Spanish leader returned with his men to the Bogotá savanna and planned new conquest expeditions executed in the second half of 1537 and first months of 1538. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_88

On August 6, 1538, Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada founded Bogotá as the capital of the New Kingdom of Granada, named after his home region of Granada, Spain. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_89

That same month, on August 20, the zipa who succeeded his brother Tisquesusa upon his death; Sagipa, allied with the Spanish to fight the Panche, eternal enemies of the Muisca in the southwest. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_90

In the Battle of Tocarema, the allied forces claimed victory over the bellicose western neighbours. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_91

In late 1538, other conquest undertakings resulted in more founded settlements in the heart of the Andes. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_92

Two other expeditions that were taking place at the same time; of De Belalcázar from the south and Federmann from the east, reached the newly founded capital and the three leaders embarked in May 1539 on a ship on the Magdalena River that took them to Cartagena and from there back to Spain. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_93

Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada had installed his younger brother Hernán as new governor of Bogotá and the latter organised new conquest campaigns in search of El Dorado during the second half of 1539 and 1540. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_94

His captain Gonzalo Suárez Rendón founded Tunja on August 6, 1539 and captain Baltasar Maldonado, who had served under De Belalcázar, defeated the cacique of Tundama at the end of 1539. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_95

The last zaque Aquiminzaque was decapitated in early 1540, establishing the new rule over the former Muisca Confederation. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_96

Colonial period Altiplano Cundiboyacense_section_12

Main article: New Kingdom of Granada Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_97

See also: History of Bogotá Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_98

Modern day Altiplano Cundiboyacense_section_13

Present-day, due to the large population and agriculture of the Altiplano, the original vegetation is at risk. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_99

Timeline of inhabitation Altiplano Cundiboyacense_section_14

Altiplano Cundiboyacense_table_general_1

Timeline of inhabitation of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, ColombiaAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_1_0_0
Altiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_1_1_0 Altiplano

Muisca ConfederationAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_1_1_1

Cities Altiplano Cundiboyacense_section_15

Most important city of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense is the Colombian capital Bogotá. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_100

Other cities are, from northeast to southwest: Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_101

Altiplano Cundiboyacense_unordered_list_1

  • SogamosoAltiplano Cundiboyacense_item_1_3
  • DuitamaAltiplano Cundiboyacense_item_1_4
  • ChiquinquiráAltiplano Cundiboyacense_item_1_5
  • Villa de LeyvaAltiplano Cundiboyacense_item_1_6
  • TunjaAltiplano Cundiboyacense_item_1_7
  • UbatéAltiplano Cundiboyacense_item_1_8
  • SuescaAltiplano Cundiboyacense_item_1_9
  • TocancipáAltiplano Cundiboyacense_item_1_10
  • ZipaquiráAltiplano Cundiboyacense_item_1_11
  • CajicáAltiplano Cundiboyacense_item_1_12
  • ChíaAltiplano Cundiboyacense_item_1_13
  • FacatativáAltiplano Cundiboyacense_item_1_14
  • SoachaAltiplano Cundiboyacense_item_1_15

Hydrology Altiplano Cundiboyacense_section_16

The Altiplano Cundiboyacense hosts a number of rivers and lakes. Altiplano Cundiboyacense_sentence_102

Rivers Altiplano Cundiboyacense_section_17

Altiplano Cundiboyacense_description_list_2

Altiplano Cundiboyacense_unordered_list_3

Altiplano Cundiboyacense_description_list_4

Altiplano Cundiboyacense_unordered_list_5

Altiplano Cundiboyacense_description_list_6

Altiplano Cundiboyacense_unordered_list_7

Altiplano Cundiboyacense_description_list_8

Altiplano Cundiboyacense_unordered_list_9

Lakes Altiplano Cundiboyacense_section_18

Natural Altiplano Cundiboyacense_section_19

Altiplano Cundiboyacense_unordered_list_10

Artificial Altiplano Cundiboyacense_section_20

Altiplano Cundiboyacense_unordered_list_11

Waterfalls Altiplano Cundiboyacense_section_21

Altiplano Cundiboyacense_unordered_list_12

Wetlands Altiplano Cundiboyacense_section_22

Altiplano Cundiboyacense_unordered_list_13

Altiplanos in Latin America Altiplano Cundiboyacense_section_23

Altiplano Cundiboyacense_table_general_2

Latin AmericaAltiplano Cundiboyacense_header_cell_2_0_0 Valley of MexicoAltiplano Cundiboyacense_header_cell_2_0_1 Altiplano CundiboyacenseAltiplano Cundiboyacense_header_cell_2_0_2 Altiplano BolivianoAltiplano Cundiboyacense_header_cell_2_0_3
M


C


BAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_1_0

Altiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_1_1 Altiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_1_2 Altiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_1_3
PaleolakeAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_2_0 Lake TexcocoAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_2_1 Lake HumboldtAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_2_2 Lake TaucaAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_2_3
Human occupation (yr BP)Altiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_3_0 11,100 – TocuilaAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_3_1 12,560 – El AbraAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_3_2 3530 – TiwanakuAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_3_3
Pre-Columbian civilisationAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_4_0 AztecAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_4_1 MuiscaAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_4_2 IncaAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_4_3
TodayAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_5_0 Mexico Mexico CityAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_5_1 Colombia BogotáTunjaAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_5_2 Peru Lake Titicaca

Bolivia Salar de UyuniAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_5_3

ElevationAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_6_0 2,236 m (7,336 ft)Altiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_6_1 2,780 m (9,120 ft)Altiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_6_2 3,800 m (12,500 ft)Altiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_6_3
AreaAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_7_0 9,738 km (3,760 sq mi)Altiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_7_1 25,000 km (9,700 sq mi)Altiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_7_2 175,773 km (67,866 sq mi)Altiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_7_3
ReferencesAltiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_8_0 Altiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_8_1 Altiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_8_2 Altiplano Cundiboyacense_cell_2_8_3

See also Altiplano Cundiboyacense_section_24

Altiplano Cundiboyacense_unordered_list_14


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altiplano Cundiboyacense.