American Civil War

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For other uses, see Civil War (disambiguation). American Civil War_sentence_0

American Civil War_table_infobox_0

American Civil WarAmerican Civil War_header_cell_0_0_0
DateApril 12, 1861 – May 9, 1865
(4 years and 27 days)

LocationSouthern United States, Northeastern United States, Western United States, Atlantic OceanResult Union victory:American Civil War_cell_0_1_0

DateAmerican Civil War_header_cell_0_2_0 April 12, 1861 – May 9, 1865
(4 years and 27 days)American Civil War_cell_0_2_1
LocationAmerican Civil War_header_cell_0_3_0 Southern United States, Northeastern United States, Western United States, Atlantic OceanAmerican Civil War_cell_0_3_1
ResultAmerican Civil War_header_cell_0_4_0 Union victory:American Civil War_cell_0_4_1
BelligerentsAmerican Civil War_header_cell_0_5_0
United StatesAmerican Civil War_cell_0_6_0 Confederate StatesAmerican Civil War_cell_0_6_1
Commanders and leadersAmerican Civil War_header_cell_0_7_0
Abraham Lincoln
Ulysses S. Grant

and others...American Civil War_cell_0_8_0

Jefferson Davis
Robert E. Lee

and others...American Civil War_cell_0_8_1

StrengthAmerican Civil War_header_cell_0_9_0
2,200,000

698,000 (peak)American Civil War_cell_0_10_0

750,000–1,000,000

360,000 (peak)American Civil War_cell_0_10_1

Casualties and lossesAmerican Civil War_header_cell_0_11_0
365,000+ total dead


Total: 828,000+ casualtiesAmerican Civil War_cell_0_12_0

290,000+ total dead


Total: 864,000+ casualtiesAmerican Civil War_cell_0_12_1

The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865, fought between northern states loyal to the Union and southern states that had seceded to form the Confederate States of America. American Civil War_sentence_1

The civil war began primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of Black people. American Civil War_sentence_2

War broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina, just over a month after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. American Civil War_sentence_3

The loyalists of the Union in the North, which also included some geographically western and southern states, proclaimed support for the Constitution. American Civil War_sentence_4

They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. American Civil War_sentence_5

Of the 34 U.S. American Civil War_sentence_6 states in February 1861, seven Southern slave states were declared by their state governments to have seceded from the country, and the Confederate States of America was organized in rebellion against the U.S. constitutional government. American Civil War_sentence_7

The Confederacy grew to control at least a majority of territory in eleven states, and it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from native secessionists fleeing Union authority. American Civil War_sentence_8

These states were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. American Civil War_sentence_9

The two remaining slave states, Delaware and Maryland, were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed due to intervention by federal troops. American Civil War_sentence_10

The Confederate states were never diplomatically recognized as a joint entity by the government of the United States, nor by that of any foreign country. American Civil War_sentence_11

The states that remained loyal to the U.S. American Civil War_sentence_12

were known as the Union. American Civil War_sentence_13

The Union and the Confederacy quickly raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought mostly in the South for four years. American Civil War_sentence_14

Intense combat left between 620,000 and 750,000 soldiers dead, along with an undetermined number of civilians. American Civil War_sentence_15

The Civil War remains the deadliest military conflict in American history, and accounted for more American military deaths than all other wars combined until the Vietnam War. American Civil War_sentence_16

The war effectively ended on April 9, 1865, when Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. American Civil War_sentence_17

Confederate generals throughout the Southern states followed suit, the last surrender on land occurring June 23. American Civil War_sentence_18

Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed, especially its railroads. American Civil War_sentence_19

The Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, and four million enslaved Black people were freed. American Civil War_sentence_20

The war-torn nation then entered the Reconstruction era in a partially successful attempt to rebuild the country and grant civil rights to freed slaves. American Civil War_sentence_21

The war is one of the most studied and written about episodes in U.S. American Civil War_sentence_22 history, and remains the subject of cultural and historiographical debate. American Civil War_sentence_23

Of particular interest are the causes of the Civil War and the persisting myth of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy. American Civil War_sentence_24

The American Civil War was among the earliest industrial wars. American Civil War_sentence_25

Railroads, the telegraph, steamships and iron-clad ships, and mass-produced weapons were employed extensively. American Civil War_sentence_26

The mobilization of civilian factories, mines, shipyards, banks, transportation, and food supplies all foreshadowed the impact of industrialization in World War I, World War II, and subsequent conflicts. American Civil War_sentence_27

It remains the deadliest war in American history. American Civil War_sentence_28

By one estimate, the war claimed the lives of 10 percent of all Northern men 20–45 years old, and 30 percent of all Southern white men aged 18–40. American Civil War_sentence_29

Overview American Civil War_section_0

The practice of slavery in the United States was one of the key political issues of the 19th century. American Civil War_sentence_30

Slavery had been a controversial issue during the framing of the Constitution, but the issue was left unsettled. American Civil War_sentence_31

In the 1860 presidential election, Republicans, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U.S. American Civil War_sentence_32 territories (parts of the U.S. that are not states). American Civil War_sentence_33

The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights, and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to eventually abolish slavery. American Civil War_sentence_34

The three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia. American Civil War_sentence_35

The Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally; thus Lincoln was elected president. American Civil War_sentence_36

He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency. American Civil War_sentence_37

The South was outraged, and before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. American Civil War_sentence_38

The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. American Civil War_sentence_39

Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell (Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%), or with sizable minorities for those unionists (Alabama with 46%, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, and South Carolina, which cast Electoral College votes without a popular vote for president). American Civil War_sentence_40

Eight remaining slave-holding states continued to reject calls for secession. American Civil War_sentence_41

Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. American Civil War_sentence_42

Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. American Civil War_sentence_43

Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. American Civil War_sentence_44

I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so." American Civil War_sentence_45

After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. American Civil War_sentence_46

The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America. American Civil War_sentence_47

Hostilities began on April 12, 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. American Civil War_sentence_48

While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the conflict was inconclusive during 1861–1862. American Civil War_sentence_49

In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. American Civil War_sentence_50

To the west, the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy by summer 1862, then much of its western armies, and seized New Orleans. American Civil War_sentence_51

The successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. American Civil War_sentence_52

In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg. American Civil War_sentence_53

Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. American Civil War_sentence_54

Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William Tecumseh Sherman and his march to the sea. American Civil War_sentence_55

The last significant battles raged around the Siege of Petersburg. American Civil War_sentence_56

Lee's escape attempt ended with his surrender at Appomattox Court House, on April 9, 1865. American Civil War_sentence_57

While the military war was coming to an end, the political reintegration of the nation was to take another 12 years, known as the Reconstruction era. American Civil War_sentence_58

Causes of secession American Civil War_section_1

Main articles: Origins of the American Civil War and Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War American Civil War_sentence_59

The causes of secession were complex and have been controversial since the war began, but most academic scholars identify slavery as a central cause of the war. American Civil War_sentence_60

James C. Bradford wrote that the issue has been further complicated by historical revisionists, who have tried to offer a variety of reasons for the war. American Civil War_sentence_61

Slavery was the central source of escalating political tension in the 1850s. American Civil War_sentence_62

The Republican Party was determined to prevent any spread of slavery to newly formed states, and many Southern leaders had threatened secession if the Republican candidate, Lincoln, won the 1860 election. American Civil War_sentence_63

After Lincoln won, many Southern leaders felt that disunion was their only option, fearing that the loss of representation would hamper their ability to promote pro-slavery acts and policies. American Civil War_sentence_64

Slavery American Civil War_section_2

Further information: Slave Power American Civil War_sentence_65

Slavery was a major cause of disunion. American Civil War_sentence_66

Although there were opposing views even in the Union States, most Northern soldiers were mostly indifferent on the subject of slavery, while Confederates fought the war mainly to protect a Southern society of which slavery was an integral part. American Civil War_sentence_67

From the anti-slavery perspective, the issue was primarily about whether the system of slavery was an anachronistic evil that was incompatible with republicanism. American Civil War_sentence_68

The strategy of the anti-slavery forces was containment—to stop the expansion and thus put slavery on a path to gradual extinction. American Civil War_sentence_69

The slave-holding interests in the South denounced this strategy as infringing upon their Constitutional rights. American Civil War_sentence_70

Southern whites believed that the emancipation of slaves would destroy the South's economy, due to the large amount of capital invested in slaves and fears of integrating the ex-slave black population. American Civil War_sentence_71

In particular, Southerners feared a repeat of "the horrors of Santo Domingo", in which nearly all white people – including men, women, children, and even many sympathetic to abolition – were killed after the successful slave revolt in Haiti. American Civil War_sentence_72

Historian Thomas Fleming points to the historical phrase "a disease in the public mind" used by critics of this idea, and proposes it contributed to the segregation in the Jim Crow era following emancipation. American Civil War_sentence_73

These fears were exacerbated by the 1859 attempt of John Brown to instigate an armed slave rebellion in the South. American Civil War_sentence_74

Slavery was illegal in much of the North, having been outlawed in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. American Civil War_sentence_75

It was also fading in the border states and Southern cities, but it was expanding in the highly profitable cotton districts of the rural South and Southwest. American Civil War_sentence_76

Subsequent writers on the American Civil War looked to several factors explaining the geographic divide. American Civil War_sentence_77

Abolitionists American Civil War_section_3

Main article: Abolitionism in the United States American Civil War_sentence_78

The abolitionists – those advocating the abolition of slavery – were very active in the decades leading up to the Civil War. American Civil War_sentence_79

They traced their philosophical roots back to the Puritans, who strongly believed that slavery was morally wrong. American Civil War_sentence_80

One of the early Puritan writings on this subject was "The Selling of Joseph," by Samuel Sewall in 1700. American Civil War_sentence_81

In it, Sewall condemned slavery and the slave trade and refuted many of the era's typical justifications for slavery. American Civil War_sentence_82

The American Revolution and the cause of liberty added tremendous impetus to the abolitionist cause. American Civil War_sentence_83

Slavery, which had been around for thousands of years, was considered "normal" and was not a significant issue of public debate prior to the Revolution. American Civil War_sentence_84

The Revolution changed that and made it into an issue that had to be addressed. American Civil War_sentence_85

As a result, shortly after the Revolution, the northern states quickly started outlawing slavery. American Civil War_sentence_86

Even in southern states, laws were changed to limit slavery and facilitate manumission. American Civil War_sentence_87

The amount of indentured servitude (temporary slavery) dropped dramatically throughout the country. American Civil War_sentence_88

An Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves sailed through Congress with little opposition. American Civil War_sentence_89

President Thomas Jefferson supported it, and it went in effect on January 1, 1808. American Civil War_sentence_90

Benjamin Franklin and James Madison each helped found manumission societies. American Civil War_sentence_91

Influenced by the Revolution, many individual slave owners, such as George Washington, freed their slaves, often in their wills. American Civil War_sentence_92

The number of free blacks as a proportion of the black population in the upper South increased from less than 1 percent to nearly 10 percent between 1790 and 1810 as a result of these actions. American Civil War_sentence_93

The establishment of the Northwest Territory as “free soil” – no slavery – by Manasseh Cutler and Rufus Putnam (who both came from Puritan New England) would also prove crucial. American Civil War_sentence_94

This territory (which became the states of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and part of Minnesota) doubled the size of the United States. American Civil War_sentence_95

If these had been slave states, and their electoral votes gone to Abraham Lincoln’s main opponent, Lincoln would not have been elected president. American Civil War_sentence_96

The Civil War would not have been fought. American Civil War_sentence_97

In the decades leading up to the Civil War, the abolitionists, such as Theodore Parker, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau and Frederick Douglass, repeatedly used the Puritan heritage of the country to bolster their cause. American Civil War_sentence_98

The most radical anti-slavery newspaper, The Liberator, invoked the Puritans and Puritan values over a thousand times. American Civil War_sentence_99

Parker, in urging New England Congressmen to support the abolition of slavery, wrote that "The son of the Puritan ... is sent to Congress to stand up for Truth and Right..." American Civil War_sentence_100

By 1840 more than 15,000 people were members of abolitionist societies in the United States. American Civil War_sentence_101

Abolitionism in the United States became a popular expression of moralism, and led directly to the Civil War. American Civil War_sentence_102

In churches, conventions and newspapers, reformers promoted an absolute and immediate rejection of slavery. American Civil War_sentence_103

Territorial crisis American Civil War_section_4

Further information: Slave states and free states American Civil War_sentence_104

Between 1803 and 1854, the United States achieved a vast expansion of territory through purchase, negotiation, and conquest. American Civil War_sentence_105

At first, the new states carved out of these territories entering the union were apportioned equally between slave and free states. American Civil War_sentence_106

Pro- and anti-slavery forces collided over the territories west of the Mississippi. American Civil War_sentence_107

With the conquest of northern Mexico west to California in 1848, slaveholding interests looked forward to expanding into these lands and perhaps Cuba and Central America as well. American Civil War_sentence_108

Northern "free soil" interests vigorously sought to curtail any further expansion of slave territory. American Civil War_sentence_109

The Compromise of 1850 over California balanced a free-soil state with stronger fugitive slave laws for a political settlement after four years of strife in the 1840s. American Civil War_sentence_110

But the states admitted following California were all free: Minnesota (1858), Oregon (1859), and Kansas (1861). American Civil War_sentence_111

In the Southern states the question of the territorial expansion of slavery westward again became explosive. American Civil War_sentence_112

Both the South and the North drew the same conclusion: "The power to decide the question of slavery for the territories was the power to determine the future of slavery itself." American Civil War_sentence_113

By 1860, four doctrines had emerged to answer the question of federal control in the territories, and they all claimed they were sanctioned by the Constitution, implicitly or explicitly. American Civil War_sentence_114

The first of these "conservative" theories, represented by the Constitutional Union Party, argued that the Missouri Compromise apportionment of territory north for free soil and south for slavery should become a Constitutional mandate. American Civil War_sentence_115

The Crittenden Compromise of 1860 was an expression of this view. American Civil War_sentence_116

The second doctrine of Congressional preeminence, championed by Abraham Lincoln and the Republican Party, insisted that the Constitution did not bind legislators to a policy of balance—that slavery could be excluded in a territory as it was done in the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 at the discretion of Congress; thus Congress could restrict human bondage, but never establish it. American Civil War_sentence_117

The Wilmot Proviso announced this position in 1846. American Civil War_sentence_118

Senator Stephen A. Douglas proclaimed the doctrine of territorial or "popular" sovereignty—which asserted that the settlers in a territory had the same rights as states in the Union to establish or disestablish slavery as a purely local matter. American Civil War_sentence_119

The Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854 legislated this doctrine. American Civil War_sentence_120

In the Kansas Territory, years of pro and anti-slavery violence and political conflict erupted; the congressional House of Representatives voted to admit Kansas as a free state in early 1860, but its admission did not pass the Senate until January 1861, after the departure of Southern senators. American Civil War_sentence_121

The fourth theory was advocated by Mississippi Senator Jefferson Davis, one of state sovereignty ("states' rights"), also known as the "Calhoun doctrine", named after the South Carolinian political theorist and statesman John C. Calhoun. American Civil War_sentence_122

Rejecting the arguments for federal authority or self-government, state sovereignty would empower states to promote the expansion of slavery as part of the federal union under the U.S. Constitution. American Civil War_sentence_123

"States' rights" was an ideology formulated and applied as a means of advancing slave state interests through federal authority. American Civil War_sentence_124

As historian Thomas L. Krannawitter points out, the "Southern demand for federal slave protection represented a demand for an unprecedented expansion of federal power." American Civil War_sentence_125

These four doctrines comprised the dominant ideologies presented to the American public on the matters of slavery, the territories, and the U.S. Constitution before the 1860 presidential election. American Civil War_sentence_126

States' rights American Civil War_section_5

The South argued that just as each state had decided to join the Union, a state had the right to secede—leave the Union—at any time. American Civil War_sentence_127

Northerners (including President Buchanan) rejected that notion as opposed to the will of the Founding Fathers, who said they were setting up a perpetual union. American Civil War_sentence_128

Historian James McPherson writes concerning states' rights and other non-slavery explanations: American Civil War_sentence_129

Sectionalism American Civil War_section_6

Sectionalism resulted from the different economies, social structure, customs, and political values of the North and South. American Civil War_sentence_130

Regional tensions came to a head during the War of 1812, resulting in the Hartford Convention, which manifested Northern dissatisfaction with a foreign trade embargo that affected the industrial North disproportionately, the Three-Fifths Compromise, dilution of Northern power by new states, and a succession of Southern presidents. American Civil War_sentence_131

Sectionalism increased steadily between 1800 and 1860 as the North, which phased slavery out of existence, industrialized, urbanized, and built prosperous farms, while the deep South concentrated on plantation agriculture based on slave labor, together with subsistence agriculture for poor whites. American Civil War_sentence_132

In the 1840s and 1850s, the issue of accepting slavery (in the guise of rejecting slave-owning bishops and missionaries) split the nation's largest religious denominations (the Methodist, Baptist, and Presbyterian churches) into separate Northern and Southern denominations. American Civil War_sentence_133

Historians have debated whether economic differences between the mainly industrial North and the mainly agricultural South helped cause the war. American Civil War_sentence_134

Most historians now disagree with the economic determinism of historian Charles A. American Civil War_sentence_135 Beard in the 1920s, and emphasize that Northern and Southern economies were largely complementary. American Civil War_sentence_136

While socially different, the sections economically benefited each other. American Civil War_sentence_137

Protectionism American Civil War_section_7

Owners of slaves preferred low-cost manual labor with no mechanization. American Civil War_sentence_138

Northern manufacturing interests supported tariffs and protectionism while Southern planters demanded free trade. American Civil War_sentence_139

The Democrats in Congress, controlled by Southerners, wrote the tariff laws in the 1830s, 1840s, and 1850s, and kept reducing rates so that the 1857 rates were the lowest since 1816. American Civil War_sentence_140

The Republicans called for an increase in tariffs in the 1860 election. American Civil War_sentence_141

The increases were only enacted in 1861 after Southerners resigned their seats in Congress. American Civil War_sentence_142

The tariff issue was a Northern grievance. American Civil War_sentence_143

However, neo-Confederate writers have claimed it as a Southern grievance. American Civil War_sentence_144

In 1860–61 none of the groups that proposed compromises to head off secession raised the tariff issue. American Civil War_sentence_145

Pamphleteers North and South rarely mentioned the tariff. American Civil War_sentence_146

Nationalism and honor American Civil War_section_8

Nationalism was a powerful force in the early 19th century, with famous spokesmen such as Andrew Jackson and Daniel Webster. American Civil War_sentence_147

While practically all Northerners supported the Union, Southerners were split between those loyal to the entire United States (called "Unionists") and those loyal primarily to the Southern region and then the Confederacy. American Civil War_sentence_148

Perceived insults to Southern collective honor included the enormous popularity of Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852) and the actions of abolitionist John Brown in trying to incite a rebellion of slaves in 1859. American Civil War_sentence_149

While the South moved towards a Southern nationalism, leaders in the North were also becoming more nationally minded, and they rejected any notion of splitting the Union. American Civil War_sentence_150

The Republican national electoral platform of 1860 warned that Republicans regarded disunion as treason and would not tolerate it. American Civil War_sentence_151

The South ignored the warnings; Southerners did not realize how ardently the North would fight to hold the Union together. American Civil War_sentence_152

Lincoln's election American Civil War_section_9

Main article: 1860 United States presidential election American Civil War_sentence_153

The election of Abraham Lincoln in November 1860 was the final trigger for secession. American Civil War_sentence_154

Efforts at compromise, including the Corwin Amendment and the Crittenden Compromise, failed. American Civil War_sentence_155

Southern leaders feared that Lincoln would stop the expansion of slavery and put it on a course toward extinction. American Civil War_sentence_156

The slave states, which had already become a minority in the House of Representatives, were now facing a future as a perpetual minority in the Senate and Electoral College against an increasingly powerful North. American Civil War_sentence_157

Before Lincoln took office in March 1861, seven slave states had declared their secession and joined to form the Confederacy. American Civil War_sentence_158

According to Lincoln, the American people had shown that they had been successful in establishing and administering a republic, but a third challenge faced the nation, maintaining a republic based on the people's vote against an attempt to overthrow it. American Civil War_sentence_159

Outbreak of the war American Civil War_section_10

Secession crisis American Civil War_section_11

The election of Lincoln provoked the legislature of South Carolina to call a state convention to consider secession. American Civil War_sentence_160

Before the war, South Carolina did more than any other Southern state to advance the notion that a state had the right to nullify federal laws, and even to secede from the United States. American Civil War_sentence_161

The convention summoned unanimously voted to secede on December 20, 1860, and adopted the "Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union". American Civil War_sentence_162

It argued for states' rights for slave owners in the South, but contained a complaint about states' rights in the North in the form of opposition to the Fugitive Slave Act, claiming that Northern states were not fulfilling their federal obligations under the Constitution. American Civil War_sentence_163

The "cotton states" of Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas followed suit, seceding in January and February 1861. American Civil War_sentence_164

Among the ordinances of secession passed by the individual states, those of three—Texas, Alabama, and Virginia—specifically mentioned the plight of the "slaveholding states" at the hands of Northern abolitionists. American Civil War_sentence_165

The rest make no mention of the slavery issue and are often brief announcements of the dissolution of ties by the legislatures. American Civil War_sentence_166

However, at least four states—South Carolina, Mississippi, Georgia, and Texas—also passed lengthy and detailed explanations of their causes for secession, all of which laid the blame squarely on the movement to abolish slavery and that movement's influence over the politics of the Northern states. American Civil War_sentence_167

The Southern states believed slaveholding was a constitutional right because of the Fugitive Slave Clause of the Constitution. American Civil War_sentence_168

These states agreed to form a new federal government, the Confederate States of America, on February 4, 1861. American Civil War_sentence_169

They took control of federal forts and other properties within their boundaries with little resistance from outgoing President James Buchanan, whose term ended on March 4, 1861. American Civil War_sentence_170

Buchanan said that the Dred Scott decision was proof that the South had no reason for secession, and that the Union "was intended to be perpetual", but that "The power by force of arms to compel a State to remain in the Union" was not among the "enumerated powers granted to Congress". American Civil War_sentence_171

One-quarter of the U.S. Army—the entire garrison in Texas—was surrendered in February 1861 to state forces by its commanding general, David E. Twiggs, who then joined the Confederacy. American Civil War_sentence_172

As Southerners resigned their seats in the Senate and the House, Republicans were able to pass projects that had been blocked by Southern senators before the war. American Civil War_sentence_173

These included the Morrill Tariff, land grant colleges (the Morrill Act), a Homestead Act, a transcontinental railroad (the Pacific Railroad Acts), the National Bank Act, the authorization of United States Notes by the Legal Tender Act of 1862, and the ending of slavery in the District of Columbia. American Civil War_sentence_174

The Revenue Act of 1861 introduced the income tax to help finance the war. American Civil War_sentence_175

On December 18, 1860, the Crittenden Compromise was proposed to re-establish the Missouri Compromise line by constitutionally banning slavery in territories to the north of the line while guaranteeing it to the south. American Civil War_sentence_176

The adoption of this compromise likely would have prevented the secession of every Southern state apart from South Carolina, but Lincoln and the Republicans rejected it. American Civil War_sentence_177

It was then proposed to hold a national referendum on the compromise. American Civil War_sentence_178

The Republicans again rejected the idea, although a majority of both Northerners and Southerners would likely have voted in favor of it. American Civil War_sentence_179

A pre-war February Peace Conference of 1861 met in Washington, proposing a solution similar to that of the Crittenden compromise; it was rejected by Congress. American Civil War_sentence_180

The Republicans proposed an alternative compromise to not interfere with slavery where it existed but the South regarded it as insufficient. American Civil War_sentence_181

Nonetheless, the remaining eight slave states rejected pleas to join the Confederacy following a two-to-one no-vote in Virginia's First Secessionist Convention on April 4, 1861. American Civil War_sentence_182

On March 4, 1861, Abraham Lincoln was sworn in as president. American Civil War_sentence_183

In his inaugural address, he argued that the Constitution was a more perfect union than the earlier Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, that it was a binding contract, and called any secession "legally void". American Civil War_sentence_184

He had no intent to invade Southern states, nor did he intend to end slavery where it existed, but said that he would use force to maintain possession of Federal property. American Civil War_sentence_185

The government would make no move to recover post offices, and if resisted, mail delivery would end at state lines. American Civil War_sentence_186

Where popular conditions did not allow peaceful enforcement of Federal law, U.S. marshals and judges would be withdrawn. American Civil War_sentence_187

No mention was made of bullion lost from U.S. mints in Louisiana, Georgia, and North Carolina. American Civil War_sentence_188

He stated that it would be U.S. policy to only collect import duties at its ports; there could be no serious injury to the South to justify the armed revolution during his administration. American Civil War_sentence_189

His speech closed with a plea for restoration of the bonds of union, famously calling on "the mystic chords of memory" binding the two regions. American Civil War_sentence_190

The South sent delegations to Washington and offered to pay for the federal properties and enter into a peace treaty with the United States. American Civil War_sentence_191

Lincoln rejected any negotiations with Confederate agents because he claimed the Confederacy was not a legitimate government, and that making any treaty with it would be tantamount to recognition of it as a sovereign government. American Civil War_sentence_192

Secretary of State William Seward, who at the time saw himself as the real governor or "prime minister" behind the throne of the inexperienced Lincoln, engaged in unauthorized and indirect negotiations that failed. American Civil War_sentence_193

President Lincoln was determined to hold all remaining Union-occupied forts in the Confederacy: Fort Monroe in Virginia, Fort Pickens, Fort Jefferson and Fort Taylor in Florida, and Fort Sumter – located at the cockpit of secession in Charleston, South Carolina. American Civil War_sentence_194

Battle of Fort Sumter American Civil War_section_12

Main article: Battle of Fort Sumter American Civil War_sentence_195

Fort Sumter is located in the middle of the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. American Civil War_sentence_196

Its garrison had recently moved there to avoid incidents with local militias in the streets of the city. American Civil War_sentence_197

Lincoln told its commander, Maj. American Civil War_sentence_198 Anderson to hold on until fired upon. American Civil War_sentence_199

Confederate president Jefferson Davis ordered the surrender of the fort. American Civil War_sentence_200

Anderson gave a conditional reply that the Confederate government rejected, and Davis ordered General P. American Civil War_sentence_201 G. T. Beauregard to attack the fort before a relief expedition could arrive. American Civil War_sentence_202

He bombarded Fort Sumter on April 12–13, forcing its capitulation. American Civil War_sentence_203

The attack on Fort Sumter rallied the North to the defense of American nationalism. American Civil War_sentence_204

Historian Allan Nevins underscored the significance of the event: American Civil War_sentence_205

Union leaders incorrectly assumed that only a minority of Southerners were in favor of secession and that there were large numbers of southern Unionists that could be counted on. American Civil War_sentence_206

Had Northerners realized that most Southerners favored secession, they might have hesitated at attempting the enormous task of conquering a united South. American Civil War_sentence_207

Lincoln called on all the states to send forces to recapture the fort and other federal properties. American Civil War_sentence_208

The scale of the rebellion appeared to be small, so he called for only 75,000 volunteers for 90 days. American Civil War_sentence_209

The governor of Massachusetts had state regiments on trains headed south the next day. American Civil War_sentence_210

In western Missouri, local secessionists seized Liberty Arsenal. American Civil War_sentence_211

On May 3, 1861, Lincoln called for an additional 42,000 volunteers for a period of three years. American Civil War_sentence_212

Four states in the middle and upper South had repeatedly rejected Confederate overtures, but now Virginia, Tennessee, Arkansas, and North Carolina refused to send forces against their neighbors, declared their secession, and joined the Confederacy. American Civil War_sentence_213

To reward Virginia, the Confederate capital was moved to Richmond. American Civil War_sentence_214

Attitude of the border states American Civil War_section_13

Main article: Border states (American Civil War) American Civil War_sentence_215

Maryland, Delaware, Missouri, and Kentucky were slave states that were opposed to both secession and coercing the South. American Civil War_sentence_216

West Virginia then joined them as an additional border state after it separated from Virginia and became a state of the Union in 1863. American Civil War_sentence_217

Maryland's territory surrounded the United States' capital of Washington, D.C., and could cut it off from the North. American Civil War_sentence_218

It had numerous anti-Lincoln officials who tolerated anti-army rioting in Baltimore and the burning of bridges, both aimed at hindering the passage of troops to the South. American Civil War_sentence_219

Maryland's legislature voted overwhelmingly (53–13) to stay in the Union, but also rejected hostilities with its southern neighbors, voting to close Maryland's rail lines to prevent them from being used for war. American Civil War_sentence_220

Lincoln responded by establishing martial law and unilaterally suspending habeas corpus in Maryland, along with sending in militia units from the North. American Civil War_sentence_221

Lincoln rapidly took control of Maryland and the District of Columbia by seizing many prominent figures, including arresting 1/3 of the members of the Maryland General Assembly on the day it reconvened. American Civil War_sentence_222

All were held without trial, ignoring a ruling by the Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court Roger Taney, a Maryland native, that only Congress (and not the president) could suspend habeas corpus (Ex parte Merryman). American Civil War_sentence_223

Federal troops imprisoned a prominent Baltimore newspaper editor, Frank Key Howard, Francis Scott Key's grandson, after he criticized Lincoln in an editorial for ignoring the Supreme Court Chief Justice's ruling. American Civil War_sentence_224

In Missouri, an elected convention on secession voted decisively to remain within the Union. American Civil War_sentence_225

When pro-Confederate Governor Claiborne F. Jackson called out the state militia, it was attacked by federal forces under General Nathaniel Lyon, who chased the governor and the rest of the State Guard to the southwestern corner of the state (see also: Missouri secession). American Civil War_sentence_226

In the resulting vacuum, the convention on secession reconvened and took power as the Unionist provisional government of Missouri. American Civil War_sentence_227

Kentucky did not secede; for a time, it declared itself neutral. American Civil War_sentence_228

When Confederate forces entered the state in September 1861, neutrality ended and the state reaffirmed its Union status while trying to maintain slavery. American Civil War_sentence_229

During a brief invasion by Confederate forces in 1861, Confederate sympathizers organized a secession convention, formed the shadow Confederate Government of Kentucky, inaugurated a governor, and gained recognition from the Confederacy. American Civil War_sentence_230

Its jurisdiction extended only as far as Confederate battle lines in the Commonwealth and went into exile for good after October 1862. American Civil War_sentence_231

After Virginia's secession, a Unionist government in Wheeling asked 48 counties to vote on an ordinance to create a new state on October 24, 1861. American Civil War_sentence_232

A voter turnout of 34 percent approved the statehood bill (96 percent approving). American Civil War_sentence_233

The inclusion of 24 secessionist counties in the state and the ensuing guerrilla war engaged about 40,000 Federal troops for much of the war. American Civil War_sentence_234

Congress admitted West Virginia to the Union on June 20, 1863. American Civil War_sentence_235

West Virginia provided about 20,000–22,000 soldiers to both the Confederacy and the Union. American Civil War_sentence_236

A Unionist secession attempt occurred in East Tennessee, but was suppressed by the Confederacy, which arrested over 3,000 men suspected of being loyal to the Union. American Civil War_sentence_237

They were held without trial. American Civil War_sentence_238

General features of the war American Civil War_section_14

See also: List of American Civil War battles and Military leadership in the American Civil War American Civil War_sentence_239

The Civil War was a contest marked by the ferocity and frequency of battle. American Civil War_sentence_240

Over four years, 237 named battles were fought, as were many more minor actions and skirmishes, which were often characterized by their bitter intensity and high casualties. American Civil War_sentence_241

In his book The American Civil War, John Keegan writes that "The American Civil War was to prove one of the most ferocious wars ever fought". American Civil War_sentence_242

In many cases, without geographic objectives, the only target for each side was the enemy's soldier. American Civil War_sentence_243

Mobilization American Civil War_section_15

See also: Child soldiers in the American Civil War American Civil War_sentence_244

As the first seven states began organizing a Confederacy in Montgomery, the entire U.S. army numbered 16,000. American Civil War_sentence_245

However, Northern governors had begun to mobilize their militias. American Civil War_sentence_246

The Confederate Congress authorized the new nation up to 100,000 troops sent by governors as early as February. American Civil War_sentence_247

By May, Jefferson Davis was pushing for 100,000 men under arms for one year or the duration, and that was answered in kind by the U.S. Congress. American Civil War_sentence_248

In the first year of the war, both sides had far more volunteers than they could effectively train and equip. American Civil War_sentence_249

After the initial enthusiasm faded, reliance on the cohort of young men who came of age every year and wanted to join was not enough. American Civil War_sentence_250

Both sides used a draft law—conscription—as a device to encourage or force volunteering; relatively few were drafted and served. American Civil War_sentence_251

The Confederacy passed a draft law in April 1862 for young men aged 18 to 35; overseers of slaves, government officials, and clergymen were exempt. American Civil War_sentence_252

The U.S. Congress followed in July, authorizing a militia draft within a state when it could not meet its quota with volunteers. American Civil War_sentence_253

European immigrants joined the Union Army in large numbers, including 177,000 born in Germany and 144,000 born in Ireland. American Civil War_sentence_254

When the Emancipation Proclamation went into effect in January 1863, ex-slaves were energetically recruited by the states and used to meet the state quotas. American Civil War_sentence_255

States and local communities offered higher and higher cash bonuses for white volunteers. American Civil War_sentence_256

Congress tightened the law in March 1863. American Civil War_sentence_257

Men selected in the draft could provide substitutes or, until mid-1864, pay commutation money. American Civil War_sentence_258

Many eligibles pooled their money to cover the cost of anyone drafted. American Civil War_sentence_259

Families used the substitute provision to select which man should go into the army and which should stay home. American Civil War_sentence_260

There was much evasion and overt resistance to the draft, especially in Catholic areas. American Civil War_sentence_261

The draft riot in New York City in July 1863 involved Irish immigrants who had been signed up as citizens to swell the vote of the city's Democratic political machine, not realizing it made them liable for the draft. American Civil War_sentence_262

Of the 168,649 men procured for the Union through the draft, 117,986 were substitutes, leaving only 50,663 who had their services conscripted. American Civil War_sentence_263

In both the North and South, the draft laws were highly unpopular. American Civil War_sentence_264

In the North, some 120,000 men evaded conscription, many of them fleeing to Canada, and another 280,000 soldiers deserted during the war. American Civil War_sentence_265

At least 100,000 Southerners deserted, or about 10 percent; Southern desertion was high because, according to one historian writing in 1991, the highly localized Southern identity meant that many Southern men had little investment in the outcome of the war, with individual soldiers caring more about the fate of their local area than any grand ideal. American Civil War_sentence_266

In the North, "bounty jumpers" enlisted to get the generous bonus, deserted, then went back to a second recruiting station under a different name to sign up again for a second bonus; 141 were caught and executed. American Civil War_sentence_267

From a tiny frontier force in 1860, the Union and Confederate armies had grown into the "largest and most efficient armies in the world" within a few years. American Civil War_sentence_268

European observers at the time dismissed them as amateur and unprofessional, but British historian John Keegan concluded that each outmatched the French, Prussian and Russian armies of the time, and but for the Atlantic, would have threatened any of them with defeat. American Civil War_sentence_269

Women American Civil War_section_16

The number of women who served as soldiers during the war is estimated at between 400 and 750, although an accurate count is impossible because the women had to disguise themselves as men. American Civil War_sentence_270

Women also served on the Union hospital ship Red Rover and nursed Union and Confederate troops at field hospitals. American Civil War_sentence_271

Mary Edwards Walker, the only woman to ever receive the Medal of Honor, served in the Union Army and was given the medal for her efforts to treat the wounded during the war. American Civil War_sentence_272

Her name was deleted from the Army Medal of Honor Roll in 1917 (along with over 900 other, male MOH recipients); however, it was restored in 1977. American Civil War_sentence_273

Motivation American Civil War_section_17

Perman and Taylor (2010) write that historians are of two minds on why millions of men seemed so eager to fight, suffer and die over four years: American Civil War_sentence_274

Prisoners American Civil War_section_18

Main article: American Civil War prison camps American Civil War_sentence_275

At the start of the civil war, a system of paroles operated. American Civil War_sentence_276

Captives agreed not to fight until they were officially exchanged. American Civil War_sentence_277

Meanwhile, they were held in camps run by their army. American Civil War_sentence_278

They were paid, but they were not allowed to perform any military duties. American Civil War_sentence_279

The system of exchanges collapsed in 1863 when the Confederacy refused to exchange black prisoners. American Civil War_sentence_280

After that, about 56,000 of the 409,000 POWs died in prisons during the war, accounting for nearly 10 percent of the conflict's fatalities. American Civil War_sentence_281

Naval tactics American Civil War_section_19

The small U.S. American Civil War_sentence_282 Navy of 1861 was rapidly enlarged to 6,000 officers and 45,000 men in 1865, with 671 vessels, having a tonnage of 510,396. American Civil War_sentence_283

Its mission was to blockade Confederate ports, take control of the river system, defend against Confederate raiders on the high seas, and be ready for a possible war with the British Royal Navy. American Civil War_sentence_284

Meanwhile, the main riverine war was fought in the West, where a series of major rivers gave access to the Confederate heartland. American Civil War_sentence_285

The U.S. Navy eventually gained control of the Red, Tennessee, Cumberland, Mississippi, and Ohio rivers. American Civil War_sentence_286

In the East, the Navy supplied and moved army forces about and occasionally shelled Confederate installations. American Civil War_sentence_287

Modern navy evolves American Civil War_section_20

The Civil War occurred during the early stages of the industrial revolution. American Civil War_sentence_288

Many naval innovations emerged during this time, most notably the advent of the ironclad warship. American Civil War_sentence_289

It began when the Confederacy, knowing they had to meet or match the Union's naval superiority, responded to the Union blockade by building or converting more than 130 vessels, including twenty-six ironclads and floating batteries. American Civil War_sentence_290

Only half of these saw active service. American Civil War_sentence_291

Many were equipped with ram bows, creating "ram fever" among Union squadrons wherever they threatened. American Civil War_sentence_292

But in the face of overwhelming Union superiority and the Union's ironclad warships, they were unsuccessful. American Civil War_sentence_293

In addition to ocean-going warships coming up the Mississippi, the Union Navy used timberclads, tinclads, and armored gunboats. American Civil War_sentence_294

Shipyards at Cairo, Illinois, and St. Louis built new boats or modified steamboats for action. American Civil War_sentence_295

The Confederacy experimented with the submarine CSS Hunley, which did not work satisfactorily, and with building an ironclad ship, CSS Virginia, which was based on rebuilding a sunken Union ship, Merrimack. American Civil War_sentence_296

On its first foray on March 8, 1862, Virginia inflicted significant damage to the Union's wooden fleet, but the next day the first Union ironclad, USS Monitor, arrived to challenge it in the Chesapeake Bay. American Civil War_sentence_297

The resulting three hour Battle of Hampton Roads was a draw, but it proved that ironclads were effective warships. American Civil War_sentence_298

Not long after the battle, the Confederacy was forced to scuttle the Virginia to prevent its capture, while the Union built many copies of the Monitor. American Civil War_sentence_299

Lacking the technology and infrastructure to build effective warships, the Confederacy attempted to obtain warships from Great Britain. American Civil War_sentence_300

However, this failed as Great Britain had no interest in selling warships to a nation that was at war with a far stronger enemy, and it meant it could sour relations with the US. American Civil War_sentence_301

Union blockade American Civil War_section_21

Main article: Union blockade American Civil War_sentence_302

By early 1861, General Winfield Scott had devised the Anaconda Plan to win the war with as little bloodshed as possible. American Civil War_sentence_303

Scott argued that a Union blockade of the main ports would weaken the Confederate economy. American Civil War_sentence_304

Lincoln adopted parts of the plan, but he overruled Scott's caution about 90-day volunteers. American Civil War_sentence_305

Public opinion, however, demanded an immediate attack by the army to capture Richmond. American Civil War_sentence_306

In April 1861, Lincoln announced the Union blockade of all Southern ports; commercial ships could not get insurance and regular traffic ended. American Civil War_sentence_307

The South blundered in embargoing cotton exports in 1861 before the blockade was effective; by the time they realized the mistake, it was too late. American Civil War_sentence_308

"King Cotton" was dead, as the South could export less than 10 percent of its cotton. American Civil War_sentence_309

The blockade shut down the ten Confederate seaports with railheads that moved almost all the cotton, especially New Orleans, Mobile, and Charleston. American Civil War_sentence_310

By June 1861, warships were stationed off the principal Southern ports, and a year later nearly 300 ships were in service. American Civil War_sentence_311

Blockade runners American Civil War_section_22

Main article: Blockade runners of the American Civil War American Civil War_sentence_312

British investors built small, fast, steam-driven blockade runners that traded arms and luxuries brought in from Britain through Bermuda, Cuba, and the Bahamas in return for high-priced cotton. American Civil War_sentence_313

Many of the ships were designed for speed and were so small that only a small amount of cotton went out. American Civil War_sentence_314

When the Union Navy seized a blockade runner, the ship and cargo were condemned as a prize of war and sold, with the proceeds given to the Navy sailors; the captured crewmen were mostly British, and they were released. American Civil War_sentence_315

Economic impact American Civil War_section_23

The Southern economy nearly collapsed during the war. American Civil War_sentence_316

There were multiple reasons for this: the severe deterioration of food supplies, especially in cities, the failure of Southern railroads, the loss of control of the main rivers, foraging by Northern armies, and the seizure of animals and crops by Confederate armies. American Civil War_sentence_317

Most historians agree that the blockade was a major factor in ruining the Confederate economy; however, Wise argues that the blockade runners provided just enough of a lifeline to allow Lee to continue fighting for additional months, thanks to fresh supplies of 400,000 rifles, lead, blankets, and boots that the homefront economy could no longer supply. American Civil War_sentence_318

Surdam argues that the blockade was a powerful weapon that eventually ruined the Southern economy, at the cost of few lives in combat. American Civil War_sentence_319

Practically, the entire Confederate cotton crop was useless (although it was sold to Union traders), costing the Confederacy its main source of income. American Civil War_sentence_320

Critical imports were scarce and the coastal trade was largely ended as well. American Civil War_sentence_321

The measure of the blockade's success was not the few ships that slipped through, but the thousands that never tried it. American Civil War_sentence_322

Merchant ships owned in Europe could not get insurance and were too slow to evade the blockade, so they stopped calling at Confederate ports. American Civil War_sentence_323

To fight an offensive war, the Confederacy purchased ships in Britain, converted them to warships, and raided American merchant ships in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. American Civil War_sentence_324

Insurance rates skyrocketed and the American flag virtually disappeared from international waters. American Civil War_sentence_325

However, the same ships were reflagged with European flags and continued unmolested. American Civil War_sentence_326

After the war ended, the U.S. government demanded that Britain compensate them for the damage done by the raiders outfitted in British ports. American Civil War_sentence_327

Britain acquiesced to their demand, paying the U.S. $15 million in 1871. American Civil War_sentence_328

Diplomacy American Civil War_section_24

Main article: Diplomacy of the American Civil War American Civil War_sentence_329

Although the Confederacy hoped that Britain and France would join them against the Union, this was never likely, and so they instead tried to bring Britain and France in as mediators. American Civil War_sentence_330

The Union, under Lincoln and Secretary of State William H. Seward worked to block this, and threatened war if any country officially recognized the existence of the Confederate States of America. American Civil War_sentence_331

In 1861, Southerners voluntarily embargoed cotton shipments, hoping to start an economic depression in Europe that would force Britain to enter the war to get cotton, but this did not work. American Civil War_sentence_332

Worse, Europe developed other cotton suppliers, which they found superior, hindering the South's recovery after the war. American Civil War_sentence_333

Cotton diplomacy proved a failure as Europe had a surplus of cotton, while the 1860–62 crop failures in Europe made the North's grain exports of critical importance. American Civil War_sentence_334

It also helped to turn European opinion further away from the Confederacy. American Civil War_sentence_335

It was said that "King Corn was more powerful than King Cotton", as U.S. grain went from a quarter of the British import trade to almost half. American Civil War_sentence_336

When Britain did face a cotton shortage, it was temporary, being replaced by increased cultivation in Egypt and India. American Civil War_sentence_337

Meanwhile, the war created employment for arms makers, ironworkers, and ships to transport weapons. American Civil War_sentence_338

Lincoln's administration failed to appeal to European public opinion. American Civil War_sentence_339

Diplomats explained that the United States was not committed to the ending of slavery, and instead repeated legalistic arguments about the unconstitutionality of secession. American Civil War_sentence_340

Confederate representatives, on the other hand, were much more successful by ignoring slavery and instead focusing on their struggle for liberty, their commitment to free trade, and the essential role of cotton in the European economy. American Civil War_sentence_341

The European aristocracy was "absolutely gleeful in pronouncing the American debacle as proof that the entire experiment in popular government had failed. American Civil War_sentence_342

European government leaders welcomed the fragmentation of the ascendant American Republic." American Civil War_sentence_343

U.S. minister to Britain Charles Francis Adams proved particularly adept and convinced Britain not to openly challenge the Union blockade. American Civil War_sentence_344

The Confederacy purchased several warships from commercial shipbuilders in Britain (CSS Alabama, CSS Shenandoah, CSS Tennessee, CSS Tallahassee, CSS Florida, and some others). American Civil War_sentence_345

The most famous, the CSS Alabama, did considerable damage and led to serious postwar disputes. American Civil War_sentence_346

However, public opinion against slavery in Britain created a political liability for British politicians, where the anti-slavery movement was powerful. American Civil War_sentence_347

War loomed in late 1861 between the U.S. and Britain over the Trent affair, involving the U.S. Navy's boarding of the British ship Trent and seizure of two Confederate diplomats. American Civil War_sentence_348

However, London and Washington were able to smooth over the problem after Lincoln released the two. American Civil War_sentence_349

In 1862, the British government considered mediating between North and South, though even such an offer would have risked war with the United States. American Civil War_sentence_350

British Prime Minister Lord Palmerston reportedly read Uncle Tom's Cabin three times when deciding on this. American Civil War_sentence_351

The Union victory in the Battle of Antietam caused them to delay this decision. American Civil War_sentence_352

The Emancipation Proclamation over time would reinforce the political liability of supporting the Confederacy. American Civil War_sentence_353

Despite sympathy for the Confederacy, France's seizure of Mexico ultimately deterred them from war with the Union. American Civil War_sentence_354

Confederate offers late in the war to end slavery in return for diplomatic recognition were not seriously considered by London or Paris. American Civil War_sentence_355

After 1863, the Polish revolt against Russia further distracted the European powers, and ensured that they would remain neutral. American Civil War_sentence_356

Eastern theater American Civil War_section_25

Further information: Eastern Theater of the American Civil War American Civil War_sentence_357

The Eastern theater refers to the military operations east of the Appalachian Mountains, including the states of Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, the District of Columbia, and the coastal fortifications and seaports of North Carolina. American Civil War_sentence_358

Background American Civil War_section_26

American Civil War_description_list_0

Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan took command of the Union Army of the Potomac on July 26 (he was briefly general-in-chief of all the Union armies, but was subsequently relieved of that post in favor of Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck), and the war began in earnest in 1862. American Civil War_sentence_359

The 1862 Union strategy called for simultaneous advances along four axes: American Civil War_sentence_360

American Civil War_ordered_list_1

  1. McClellan would lead the main thrust in Virginia towards Richmond.American Civil War_item_1_0
  2. Ohio forces would advance through Kentucky into Tennessee.American Civil War_item_1_1
  3. The Missouri Department would drive south along the Mississippi River.American Civil War_item_1_2
  4. The westernmost attack would originate from Kansas.American Civil War_item_1_3

American Civil War_description_list_2

The primary Confederate force in the Eastern theater was the Army of Northern Virginia. American Civil War_sentence_361

The Army originated as the (Confederate) Army of the Potomac, which was organized on June 20, 1861, from all operational forces in northern Virginia. American Civil War_sentence_362

On July 20 and 21, the Army of the Shenandoah and forces from the District of Harpers Ferry were added. American Civil War_sentence_363

Units from the Army of the Northwest were merged into the Army of the Potomac between March 14 and May 17, 1862. American Civil War_sentence_364

The Army of the Potomac was renamed Army of Northern Virginia on March 14. American Civil War_sentence_365

The Army of the Peninsula was merged into it on April 12, 1862. American Civil War_sentence_366

When Virginia declared its secession in April 1861, Robert E. Lee chose to follow his home state, despite his desire for the country to remain intact and an offer of a senior Union command. American Civil War_sentence_367

Lee's biographer, Douglas S. Freeman, asserts that the army received its final name from Lee when he issued orders assuming command on June 1, 1862. American Civil War_sentence_368

However, Freeman does admit that Lee corresponded with Brigadier General Joseph E. Johnston, his predecessor in army command, before that date and referred to Johnston's command as the Army of Northern Virginia. American Civil War_sentence_369

Part of the confusion results from the fact that Johnston commanded the Department of Northern Virginia (as of October 22, 1861) and the name Army of Northern Virginia can be seen as an informal consequence of its parent department's name. American Civil War_sentence_370

Jefferson Davis and Johnston did not adopt the name, but it is clear that the organization of units as of March 14 was the same organization that Lee received on June 1, and thus it is generally referred to today as the Army of Northern Virginia, even if that is correct only in retrospect. American Civil War_sentence_371

On July 4 at Harper's Ferry, Colonel Thomas J. Jackson assigned Jeb Stuart to command all the cavalry companies of the Army of the Shenandoah. American Civil War_sentence_372

He eventually commanded the Army of Northern Virginia's cavalry. American Civil War_sentence_373

Battles American Civil War_section_27

American Civil War_description_list_3

In one of the first highly visible battles, in July 1861, a march by Union troops under the command of Maj. American Civil War_sentence_374 Gen. Irvin McDowell on the Confederate forces led by Gen. P. American Civil War_sentence_375 G. T. Beauregard near Washington was repulsed at the First Battle of Bull Run (also known as First Manassas). American Civil War_sentence_376

The Union had the upper hand at first, nearly pushing confederate forces holding a defensive position into a rout, but Confederate reinforcements under. American Civil War_sentence_377

Joseph E. Johnston arrived from the Shenandoah Valley by railroad, and the course of the battle quickly changed. American Civil War_sentence_378

A brigade of Virginians under the relatively unknown brigadier general from the Virginia Military Institute, Thomas J. Jackson, stood its ground, which resulted in Jackson receiving his famous nickname, "Stonewall". American Civil War_sentence_379

American Civil War_description_list_4

Upon the strong urging of President Lincoln to begin offensive operations, McClellan attacked Virginia in the spring of 1862 by way of the peninsula between the York River and James River, southeast of Richmond. American Civil War_sentence_380

McClellan's army reached the gates of Richmond in the Peninsula Campaign, American Civil War_sentence_381

Also in the spring of 1862, in the Shenandoah Valley, Stonewall Jackson led his Valley Campaign. American Civil War_sentence_382

Employing audacity and rapid, unpredictable movements on interior lines, Jackson's 17,000 men marched 646 miles (1,040 km) in 48 days and won several minor battles as they successfully engaged three Union armies (52,000 men), including those of Nathaniel P. Banks and John C. Fremont, preventing them from reinforcing the Union offensive against Richmond. American Civil War_sentence_383

The swiftness of Jackson's men earned them the nickname of "foot cavalry". American Civil War_sentence_384

Johnston halted McClellan's advance at the Battle of Seven Pines, but he was wounded in the battle, and Robert E. Lee assumed his position of command. American Civil War_sentence_385

General Lee and top subordinates James Longstreet and Stonewall Jackson defeated McClellan in the Seven Days Battles and forced his retreat. American Civil War_sentence_386

American Civil War_description_list_5

The Northern Virginia Campaign, which included the Second Battle of Bull Run, ended in yet another victory for the South. American Civil War_sentence_387

McClellan resisted General-in-Chief Halleck's orders to send reinforcements to John Pope's Union Army of Virginia, which made it easier for Lee's Confederates to defeat twice the number of combined enemy troops. American Civil War_sentence_388

American Civil War_description_list_6

Emboldened by Second Bull Run, the Confederacy made its first invasion of the North with the Maryland Campaign. American Civil War_sentence_389

General Lee led 45,000 men of the Army of Northern Virginia across the Potomac River into Maryland on September 5. American Civil War_sentence_390

Lincoln then restored Pope's troops to McClellan. American Civil War_sentence_391

McClellan and Lee fought at the Battle of Antietam near Sharpsburg, Maryland, on September 17, 1862, the bloodiest single day in United States military history. American Civil War_sentence_392

Lee's army checked at last, returned to Virginia before McClellan could destroy it. American Civil War_sentence_393

Antietam is considered a Union victory because it halted Lee's invasion of the North and provided an opportunity for Lincoln to announce his Emancipation Proclamation. American Civil War_sentence_394

American Civil War_description_list_7

When the cautious McClellan failed to follow up on Antietam, he was replaced by Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside. American Civil War_sentence_395

Burnside was soon defeated at the Battle of Fredericksburg on December 13, 1862, when more than 12,000 Union soldiers were killed or wounded during repeated futile frontal assaults against Marye's Heights. American Civil War_sentence_396

After the battle, Burnside was replaced by Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker. American Civil War_sentence_397

American Civil War_description_list_8

Hooker, too, proved unable to defeat Lee's army; despite outnumbering the Confederates by more than two to one, his Chancellorsville Campaign proved ineffective and he was humiliated in the Battle of Chancellorsville in May 1863. American Civil War_sentence_398

Chancellorsville is known as Lee's "perfect battle" because his risky decision to divide his army in the presence of a much larger enemy force resulted in a significant Confederate victory. American Civil War_sentence_399

Gen. Stonewall Jackson was shot in the arm by accidental friendly fire during the battle and subsequently died of complications. American Civil War_sentence_400

Lee famously said: "He has lost his left arm, but I have lost my right arm." American Civil War_sentence_401

The fiercest fighting of the battle—and the second bloodiest day of the Civil War—occurred on May 3 as Lee launched multiple attacks against the Union position at Chancellorsville. American Civil War_sentence_402

That same day, John Sedgwick advanced across the Rappahannock River, defeated the small Confederate force at Marye's Heights in the Second Battle of Fredericksburg, and then moved to the west. American Civil War_sentence_403

The Confederates fought a successful delaying action at the Battle of Salem Church. American Civil War_sentence_404

American Civil War_description_list_9

Gen. Hooker was replaced by Maj. Gen. George Meade during Lee's second invasion of the North, in June. American Civil War_sentence_405

Meade defeated Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg (July 1 to 3, 1863). American Civil War_sentence_406

This was the bloodiest battle of the war, and has been called the war's turning point. American Civil War_sentence_407

Pickett's Charge on July 3 is often considered the high-water mark of the Confederacy because it signaled the collapse of serious Confederate threats of victory. American Civil War_sentence_408

Lee's army suffered 28,000 casualties (versus Meade's 23,000). American Civil War_sentence_409

However, Lincoln was angry that Meade failed to intercept Lee's retreat. American Civil War_sentence_410

Western theater American Civil War_section_28

Further information: Western Theater of the American Civil War American Civil War_sentence_411

The Western theater refers to military operations between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River, including the states of Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, North Carolina, Kentucky, South Carolina and Tennessee, as well as parts of Louisiana. American Civil War_sentence_412

Background American Civil War_section_29

American Civil War_description_list_10

The primary Union forces in the Western theater were the Army of the Tennessee and the Army of the Cumberland, named for the two rivers, the Tennessee River and Cumberland River. American Civil War_sentence_413

After Meade's inconclusive fall campaign, Lincoln turned to the Western Theater for new leadership. American Civil War_sentence_414

At the same time, the Confederate stronghold of Vicksburg surrendered, giving the Union control of the Mississippi River, permanently isolating the western Confederacy, and producing the new leader Lincoln needed, Ulysses S. Grant. American Civil War_sentence_415

American Civil War_description_list_11

The primary Confederate force in the Western theater was the Army of Tennessee. American Civil War_sentence_416

The army was formed on November 20, 1862, when General Braxton Bragg renamed the former Army of Mississippi. American Civil War_sentence_417

While the Confederate forces had numerous successes in the Eastern Theater, they were defeated many times in the West. American Civil War_sentence_418

Battles American Civil War_section_30

American Civil War_description_list_12

The Union's key strategist and tactician in the West was Ulysses S. Grant, who won victories at Forts Henry (February 6, 1862) and Donelson (February 11 to 16, 1862), earning him the nickname of "Unconditional Surrender" Grant, by which the Union seized control of the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers. American Civil War_sentence_419

Nathan Bedford Forrest rallied nearly 4,000 Confederate troops and led them to escape across the Cumberland. American Civil War_sentence_420

Nashville and central Tennessee thus fell to the Union, leading to attrition of local food supplies and livestock and a breakdown in social organization. American Civil War_sentence_421

Leonidas Polk's invasion of Columbus ended Kentucky's policy of neutrality and turned it against the Confederacy. American Civil War_sentence_422

Grant used river transport and Andrew Foote's gunboats of the Western Flotilla to threaten the Confederacy's "Gibraltar of the West" at Columbus, Kentucky. American Civil War_sentence_423

Although rebuffed at Belmont, Grant cut off Columbus. American Civil War_sentence_424

The Confederates, lacking their gunboats, were forced to retreat and the Union took control of western Kentucky and opened Tennessee in March 1862. American Civil War_sentence_425

American Civil War_description_list_13

At the Battle of Shiloh (Pittsburg Landing), in Tennessee in April 1862, the Confederates made a surprise attack that pushed Union forces against the river as night fell. American Civil War_sentence_426

Overnight, the Navy landed additional reinforcements, and Grant counter-attacked. American Civil War_sentence_427

Grant and the Union won a decisive victory—the first battle with the high casualty rates that would repeat over and over. American Civil War_sentence_428

The Confederates lost Albert Sidney Johnston, considered their finest general before the emergence of Lee. American Civil War_sentence_429

American Civil War_description_list_14

One of the early Union objectives in the war was the capture of the Mississippi River, to cut the Confederacy in half. American Civil War_sentence_430

The Mississippi River was opened to Union traffic to the southern border of Tennessee with the taking of Island No. American Civil War_sentence_431 10 and New Madrid, Missouri, and then Memphis, Tennessee. American Civil War_sentence_432

In April 1862, the Union Navy captured New Orleans. American Civil War_sentence_433

"The key to the river was New Orleans, the South's largest port [and] greatest industrial center." American Civil War_sentence_434

U.S. American Civil War_sentence_435

Naval forces under Farragut ran past Confederate defenses south of New Orleans. American Civil War_sentence_436

Confederate forces abandoned the city, giving the Union a critical anchor in the deep South. American Civil War_sentence_437

which allowed Union forces to begin moving up the Mississippi. American Civil War_sentence_438

Memphis fell to Union forces on June 6, 1862, and became a key base for further advances south along the Mississippi River. American Civil War_sentence_439

Only the fortress city of Vicksburg, Mississippi, prevented Union control of the entire river. American Civil War_sentence_440

American Civil War_description_list_15

Bragg's second invasion of Kentucky in the Confederate Heartland Offensive included initial successes such as Kirby Smith's triumph at the Battle of Richmond and the capture of the Kentucky capital of Frankfort on September 3, 1862. American Civil War_sentence_441

However, the campaign ended with a meaningless victory over Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell at the Battle of Perryville. American Civil War_sentence_442

Bragg was forced to end his attempt at invading Kentucky and retreat due to lack of logistical support and lack of infantry recruits for the Confederacy in that state. American Civil War_sentence_443

American Civil War_description_list_16

Bragg was narrowly defeated by Maj. Gen. William Rosecrans at the Battle of Stones River in Tennessee, the culmination of the Stones River Campaign. American Civil War_sentence_444

American Civil War_description_list_17

Naval forces assisted Grant in the long, complex Vicksburg Campaign that resulted in the Confederates surrendering at the Battle of Vicksburg in July 1863, which cemented Union control of the Mississippi River and is considered one of the turning points of the war. American Civil War_sentence_445

American Civil War_description_list_18

The one clear Confederate victory in the West was the Battle of Chickamauga. American Civil War_sentence_446

After Rosecrans successful Tullahoma Campaign, Bragg, reinforced by Lt. Gen. James Longstreet's corps (from Lee's army in the east), defeated Rosecrans, despite the heroic defensive stand of Maj. Gen. George Henry Thomas. American Civil War_sentence_447

American Civil War_description_list_19

Rosecrans retreated to Chattanooga, which Bragg then besieged in the Chattanooga Campaign. American Civil War_sentence_448

Grant marched to the relief of Rosecrans and defeated Bragg at the Third Battle of Chattanooga, eventually causing Longstreet to abandon his Knoxville Campaign and driving Confederate forces out of Tennessee and opening a route to Atlanta and the heart of the Confederacy. American Civil War_sentence_449

Trans-Mississippi theater American Civil War_section_31

Further information: Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War American Civil War_sentence_450

Background American Civil War_section_32

The Trans-Mississippi theater refers to military operations west of the Mississippi River, not including the areas bordering the Pacific Ocean. American Civil War_sentence_451

Battles American Civil War_section_33

American Civil War_description_list_20

The first battle of the Trans-Mississippi theater was the Battle of Wilson's Creek. American Civil War_sentence_452

The Confederates were driven from Missouri early in the war as a result of the Battle of Pea Ridge. American Civil War_sentence_453

Extensive guerrilla warfare characterized the trans-Mississippi region, as the Confederacy lacked the troops and the logistics to support regular armies that could challenge Union control. American Civil War_sentence_454

Roving Confederate bands such as Quantrill's Raiders terrorized the countryside, striking both military installations and civilian settlements. American Civil War_sentence_455

The "Sons of Liberty" and "Order of the American Knights" attacked pro-Union people, elected officeholders, and unarmed uniformed soldiers. American Civil War_sentence_456

These partisans could not be entirely driven out of the state of Missouri until an entire regular Union infantry division was engaged. American Civil War_sentence_457

By 1864, these violent activities harmed the nationwide anti-war movement organizing against the re-election of Lincoln. American Civil War_sentence_458

Missouri not only stayed in the Union but Lincoln took 70 percent of the vote for re-election. American Civil War_sentence_459

American Civil War_description_list_21

Numerous small-scale military actions south and west of Missouri sought to control Indian Territory and New Mexico Territory for the Union. American Civil War_sentence_460

The Battle of Glorieta Pass was the decisive battle of the New Mexico Campaign. American Civil War_sentence_461

The Union repulsed Confederate incursions into New Mexico in 1862, and the exiled Arizona government withdrew into Texas. American Civil War_sentence_462

In the Indian Territory, civil war broke out within tribes. American Civil War_sentence_463

About 12,000 Indian warriors fought for the Confederacy and smaller numbers for the Union. American Civil War_sentence_464

The most prominent Cherokee was Brigadier General Stand Watie, the last Confederate general to surrender. American Civil War_sentence_465

American Civil War_description_list_22

After the fall of Vicksburg in July 1863, General Kirby Smith in Texas was informed by Jefferson Davis that he could expect no further help from east of the Mississippi River. American Civil War_sentence_466

Although he lacked resources to beat Union armies, he built up a formidable arsenal at Tyler, along with his own Kirby Smithdom economy, a virtual "independent fiefdom" in Texas, including railroad construction and international smuggling. American Civil War_sentence_467

The Union, in turn, did not directly engage him. American Civil War_sentence_468

Its 1864 Red River Campaign to take Shreveport, Louisiana, was a failure and Texas remained in Confederate hands throughout the war. American Civil War_sentence_469

Lower Seaboard theater American Civil War_section_34

Further information: Lower Seaboard Theater of the American Civil War American Civil War_sentence_470

Background American Civil War_section_35

The Lower Seaboard theater refers to military and naval operations that occurred near the coastal areas of the Southeast (Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas) as well as the southern part of the Mississippi River (Port Hudson and south). American Civil War_sentence_471

Union Naval activities were dictated by the Anaconda Plan. American Civil War_sentence_472

Battles American Civil War_section_36

American Civil War_description_list_23

One of the earliest battles of the war was fought at Port Royal Sound, south of Charleston. American Civil War_sentence_473

Much of the war along the South Carolina coast concentrated on capturing Charleston. American Civil War_sentence_474

In attempting to capture Charleston, the Union military tried two approaches, by land over James or Morris Islands or through the harbor. American Civil War_sentence_475

However, the Confederates were able to drive back each Union attack. American Civil War_sentence_476

One of the most famous of the land attacks was the Second Battle of Fort Wagner, in which the 54th Massachusetts Infantry took part. American Civil War_sentence_477

The Federals suffered a serious defeat in this battle, losing 1,500 men while the Confederates lost only 175. American Civil War_sentence_478

American Civil War_description_list_24

Fort Pulaski on the Georgia coast was an early target for the Union navy. American Civil War_sentence_479

Following the capture of Port Royal, an expedition was organized with engineer troops under the command of Captain Quincy A. Gillmore, forcing a Confederate surrender. American Civil War_sentence_480

The Union army occupied the fort for the rest of the war after repairing. American Civil War_sentence_481

American Civil War_description_list_25

In April 1862, a Union naval task force commanded by Commander David D. Porter attacked Forts Jackson and St. Philip, which guarded the river approach to New Orleans from the south. American Civil War_sentence_482

While part of the fleet bombarded the forts, other vessels forced a break in the obstructions in the river and enabled the rest of the fleet to steam upriver to the city. American Civil War_sentence_483

A Union army force commanded by Major General Benjamin Butler landed near the forts and forced their surrender. American Civil War_sentence_484

Butler's controversial command of New Orleans earned him the nickname "Beast". American Civil War_sentence_485

The following year, the Union Army of the Gulf commanded by Major General Nathaniel P. Banks laid siege to Port Hudson for nearly eight weeks, the longest siege in US military history. American Civil War_sentence_486

The Confederates attempted to defend with the Bayou Teche Campaign, but surrendered after Vicksburg. American Civil War_sentence_487

These two surrenders gave the Union control over the entire Mississippi. American Civil War_sentence_488

American Civil War_description_list_26

Several small skirmishes were fought in Florida, but no major battles. American Civil War_sentence_489

The biggest was the Battle of Olustee in early 1864. American Civil War_sentence_490

Pacific Coast theater American Civil War_section_37

Further information: Pacific Coast Theater of the American Civil War American Civil War_sentence_491

The Pacific Coast theater refers to military operations on the Pacific Ocean and in the states and Territories west of the Continental Divide. American Civil War_sentence_492

Conquest of Virginia American Civil War_section_38

At the beginning of 1864, Lincoln made Grant commander of all Union armies. American Civil War_sentence_493

Grant made his headquarters with the Army of the Potomac and put Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman in command of most of the western armies. American Civil War_sentence_494

Grant understood the concept of total war and believed, along with Lincoln and Sherman, that only the utter defeat of Confederate forces and their economic base would end the war. American Civil War_sentence_495

This was total war not in killing civilians but rather in taking provisions and forage and destroying homes, farms, and railroads, that Grant said "would otherwise have gone to the support of secession and rebellion. American Civil War_sentence_496

This policy I believe exercised a material influence in hastening the end." American Civil War_sentence_497

Grant devised a coordinated strategy that would strike at the entire Confederacy from multiple directions. American Civil War_sentence_498

Generals George Meade and Benjamin Butler were ordered to move against Lee near Richmond, General Franz Sigel (and later Philip Sheridan) were to attack the Shenandoah Valley, General Sherman was to capture Atlanta and march to the sea (the Atlantic Ocean), Generals George Crook and William W. Averell were to operate against railroad supply lines in West Virginia, and Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks was to capture Mobile, Alabama. American Civil War_sentence_499

Grant's Overland Campaign American Civil War_section_39

Grant's army set out on the Overland Campaign intending to draw Lee into a defense of Richmond, where they would attempt to pin down and destroy the Confederate army. American Civil War_sentence_500

The Union army first attempted to maneuver past Lee and fought several battles, notably at the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, and Cold Harbor. American Civil War_sentence_501

These battles resulted in heavy losses on both sides and forced Lee's Confederates to fall back repeatedly. American Civil War_sentence_502

At the Battle of Yellow Tavern, the Confederates lost Jeb Stuart. American Civil War_sentence_503

An attempt to outflank Lee from the south failed under Butler, who was trapped inside the Bermuda Hundred river bend. American Civil War_sentence_504

Each battle resulted in setbacks for the Union that mirrored what they had suffered under prior generals, though unlike those prior generals, Grant fought on rather than retreat. American Civil War_sentence_505

Grant was tenacious and kept pressing Lee's Army of Northern Virginia back to Richmond. American Civil War_sentence_506

While Lee was preparing for an attack on Richmond, Grant unexpectedly turned south to cross the James River and began the protracted Siege of Petersburg, where the two armies engaged in trench warfare for over nine months. American Civil War_sentence_507

Sheridan's Valley Campaign American Civil War_section_40

Grant finally found a commander, General Philip Sheridan, aggressive enough to prevail in the Valley Campaigns of 1864. American Civil War_sentence_508

Sheridan was initially repelled at the Battle of New Market by former U.S. vice president and Confederate Gen. John C. Breckinridge. American Civil War_sentence_509

The Battle of New Market was the Confederacy's last major victory of the war and included a charge by teenage VMI cadets. American Civil War_sentence_510

After redoubling his efforts, Sheridan defeated Maj. Gen. Jubal A. American Civil War_sentence_511 Early in a series of battles, including a final decisive defeat at the Battle of Cedar Creek. American Civil War_sentence_512

Sheridan then proceeded to destroy the agricultural base of the Shenandoah Valley, a strategy similar to the tactics Sherman later employed in Georgia. American Civil War_sentence_513

Sherman's March to the Sea American Civil War_section_41

Meanwhile, Sherman maneuvered from Chattanooga to Atlanta, defeating Confederate Generals Joseph E. Johnston and John Bell Hood along the way. American Civil War_sentence_514

The fall of Atlanta on September 2, 1864, guaranteed the reelection of Lincoln as president. American Civil War_sentence_515

Hood left the Atlanta area to swing around and menace Sherman's supply lines and invade Tennessee in the Franklin–Nashville Campaign. American Civil War_sentence_516

Union Maj. Gen. John Schofield defeated Hood at the Battle of Franklin, and George H. Thomas dealt Hood a massive defeat at the Battle of Nashville, effectively destroying Hood's army. American Civil War_sentence_517

Leaving Atlanta, and his base of supplies, Sherman's army marched with an unknown destination, laying waste to about 20 percent of the farms in Georgia in his "March to the Sea". American Civil War_sentence_518

He reached the Atlantic Ocean at Savannah, Georgia, in December 1864. American Civil War_sentence_519

Sherman's army was followed by thousands of freed slaves; there were no major battles along the March. American Civil War_sentence_520

Sherman turned north through South Carolina and North Carolina to approach the Confederate Virginia lines from the south, increasing the pressure on Lee's army. American Civil War_sentence_521

The Waterloo of the Confederacy American Civil War_section_42

Lee's army, thinned by desertion and casualties, was now much smaller than Grant's. American Civil War_sentence_522

One last Confederate attempt to break the Union hold on Petersburg failed at the decisive Battle of Five Forks (sometimes called "the Waterloo of the Confederacy") on April 1. American Civil War_sentence_523

This meant that the Union now controlled the entire perimeter surrounding Richmond-Petersburg, completely cutting it off from the Confederacy. American Civil War_sentence_524

Realizing that the capital was now lost, Lee decided to evacuate his army. American Civil War_sentence_525

The Confederate capital fell to the Union XXV Corps, composed of black troops. American Civil War_sentence_526

The remaining Confederate units fled west after a defeat at Sayler's Creek. American Civil War_sentence_527

Confederacy surrenders American Civil War_section_43

Main article: Conclusion of the American Civil War American Civil War_sentence_528

Initially, Lee did not intend to surrender but planned to regroup at the village of Appomattox Court House, where supplies were to be waiting and then continue the war. American Civil War_sentence_529

Grant chased Lee and got in front of him so that when Lee's army reached Appomattox Court House, they were surrounded. American Civil War_sentence_530

After an initial battle, Lee decided that the fight was now hopeless, and surrendered his Army of Northern Virginia on April 9, 1865, at the McLean House. American Civil War_sentence_531

In an untraditional gesture and as a sign of Grant's respect and anticipation of peacefully restoring Confederate states to the Union, Lee was permitted to keep his sword and his horse, Traveller. American Civil War_sentence_532

On April 14, 1865, President Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth, a Southern sympathizer. American Civil War_sentence_533

Lincoln died early the next morning. American Civil War_sentence_534

Lincoln's vice president, Andrew Johnson, was unharmed as his would-be assassin, George Atzerodt, lost his nerve, so he was immediately sworn in as president. American Civil War_sentence_535

Meanwhile, Confederate forces across the South surrendered as news of Lee's surrender reached them. American Civil War_sentence_536

On April 26, 1865, the same day Boston Corbett killed Booth at a tobacco barn, General Joseph E. Johnston surrendered nearly 90,000 men of the Army of Tennessee to Major General William Tecumseh Sherman at Bennett Place near present-day Durham, North Carolina. American Civil War_sentence_537

It proved to be the largest surrender of Confederate forces. American Civil War_sentence_538

On May 4, all remaining Confederate forces in Alabama and Mississippi surrendered. American Civil War_sentence_539

President Johnson officially declared an end to the insurrection on May 9, 1865; Confederate president, Jefferson Davis, was captured the following day. American Civil War_sentence_540

On June 2, Kirby Smith officially surrendered his troops in the Trans-Mississippi Department. American Civil War_sentence_541

On June 23, Cherokee leader Stand Watie became the last Confederate general to surrender his forces. American Civil War_sentence_542

Home fronts American Civil War_section_44

Main articles: Union (American Civil War), Confederate states of America, and Economy of the Confederate States of America American Civil War_sentence_543

Union victory and aftermath American Civil War_section_45

Results American Civil War_section_46

The causes of the war, the reasons for its outcome, and even the name of the war itself are subjects of lingering contention today. American Civil War_sentence_544

The North and West grew rich while the once-rich South became poor for a century. American Civil War_sentence_545

The national political power of the slaveowners and rich Southerners ended. American Civil War_sentence_546

Historians are less sure about the results of the postwar Reconstruction, especially regarding the second-class citizenship of the Freedmen and their poverty. American Civil War_sentence_547

Historians have debated whether the Confederacy could have won the war. American Civil War_sentence_548

Most scholars, including James McPherson, argue that Confederate victory was at least possible. American Civil War_sentence_549

McPherson argues that the North's advantage in population and resources made Northern victory likely but not guaranteed. American Civil War_sentence_550

He also argues that if the Confederacy had fought using unconventional tactics, they would have more easily been able to hold out long enough to exhaust the Union. American Civil War_sentence_551

Confederates did not need to invade and hold enemy territory to win but only needed to fight a defensive war to convince the North that the cost of winning was too high. American Civil War_sentence_552

The North needed to conquer and hold vast stretches of enemy territory and defeat Confederate armies to win. American Civil War_sentence_553

Lincoln was not a military dictator and could continue to fight the war only as long as the American public supported a continuation of the war. American Civil War_sentence_554

The Confederacy sought to win independence by out-lasting Lincoln; however, after Atlanta fell and Lincoln defeated McClellan in the election of 1864, all hope for a political victory for the South ended. American Civil War_sentence_555

At that point, Lincoln had secured the support of the Republicans, War Democrats, the border states, emancipated slaves, and the neutrality of Britain and France. American Civil War_sentence_556

By defeating the Democrats and McClellan, he also defeated the Copperheads and their peace platform. American Civil War_sentence_557

American Civil War_table_general_1

Comparison of Union and Confederacy, 1860–1864American Civil War_table_caption_1
American Civil War_header_cell_1_0_0 YearAmerican Civil War_header_cell_1_0_1 UnionAmerican Civil War_header_cell_1_0_2 ConfederacyAmerican Civil War_header_cell_1_0_3
PopulationAmerican Civil War_cell_1_1_0 1860American Civil War_cell_1_1_1 22,100,000 (71%)American Civil War_cell_1_1_2 9,100,000 (29%)American Civil War_cell_1_1_3
1864American Civil War_cell_1_2_0 28,800,000 (90%)American Civil War_cell_1_2_1 3,000,000 (10%)American Civil War_cell_1_2_2
FreeAmerican Civil War_cell_1_3_0 1860American Civil War_cell_1_3_1 21,700,000 (81%)American Civil War_cell_1_3_2 5,600,000 (19%)American Civil War_cell_1_3_3
SlaveAmerican Civil War_cell_1_4_0 1860American Civil War_cell_1_4_1 490,000 (11%)American Civil War_cell_1_4_2 3,550,000 (89%)American Civil War_cell_1_4_3
1864American Civil War_cell_1_5_0 negligibleAmerican Civil War_cell_1_5_1 1,900,000American Civil War_cell_1_5_2
SoldiersAmerican Civil War_cell_1_6_0 1860–64American Civil War_cell_1_6_1 2,100,000 (67%)American Civil War_cell_1_6_2 1,064,000 (33%)American Civil War_cell_1_6_3
Railroad milesAmerican Civil War_cell_1_7_0 1860American Civil War_cell_1_7_1 21,800 (71%)American Civil War_cell_1_7_2 8,800 (29%)American Civil War_cell_1_7_3
1864American Civil War_cell_1_8_0 29,100 (98%)American Civil War_cell_1_8_1 negligibleAmerican Civil War_cell_1_8_2
ManufacturesAmerican Civil War_cell_1_9_0 1860American Civil War_cell_1_9_1 90%American Civil War_cell_1_9_2 10%American Civil War_cell_1_9_3
1864American Civil War_cell_1_10_0 98%American Civil War_cell_1_10_1 2%American Civil War_cell_1_10_2
Arms productionAmerican Civil War_cell_1_11_0 1860American Civil War_cell_1_11_1 97%American Civil War_cell_1_11_2 3%American Civil War_cell_1_11_3
1864American Civil War_cell_1_12_0 98%American Civil War_cell_1_12_1 2%American Civil War_cell_1_12_2
Cotton balesAmerican Civil War_cell_1_13_0 1860American Civil War_cell_1_13_1 negligibleAmerican Civil War_cell_1_13_2 4,500,000American Civil War_cell_1_13_3
1864American Civil War_cell_1_14_0 300,000American Civil War_cell_1_14_1 negligibleAmerican Civil War_cell_1_14_2
ExportsAmerican Civil War_cell_1_15_0 1860American Civil War_cell_1_15_1 30%American Civil War_cell_1_15_2 70%American Civil War_cell_1_15_3
1864American Civil War_cell_1_16_0 98%American Civil War_cell_1_16_1 2%American Civil War_cell_1_16_2

Many scholars argue that the Union held an insurmountable long-term advantage over the Confederacy in industrial strength and population. American Civil War_sentence_558

Confederate actions, they argue, only delayed defeat. American Civil War_sentence_559

Civil War historian Shelby Foote expressed this view succinctly: "I think that the North fought that war with one hand behind its back ... American Civil War_sentence_560

If there had been more Southern victories, and a lot more, the North simply would have brought that other hand out from behind its back. American Civil War_sentence_561

I don't think the South ever had a chance to win that War." American Civil War_sentence_562

A minority view among historians is that the Confederacy lost because, as E. American Civil War_sentence_563 Merton Coulter put it, "people did not will hard enough and long enough to win." American Civil War_sentence_564

According to Charles H. Wilson, in The Collapse of the Confederacy, "internal conflict should figure prominently in any explanation of Confederate defeat." American Civil War_sentence_565

Marxist historian Armstead Robinson agrees, pointing to class conflict in the Confederate army between the slave owners and the larger number of non-owners. American Civil War_sentence_566

He argues that the non-owner soldiers grew embittered about fighting to preserve slavery and fought less enthusiastically. American Civil War_sentence_567

He attributes the major Confederate defeats in 1863 at Vicksburg and Missionary Ridge to this class conflict. American Civil War_sentence_568

However, most historians reject the argument. American Civil War_sentence_569

James M. McPherson, after reading thousands of letters written by Confederate soldiers, found strong patriotism that continued to the end; they truly believed they were fighting for freedom and liberty. American Civil War_sentence_570

Even as the Confederacy was visibly collapsing in 1864–65, he says most Confederate soldiers were fighting hard. American Civil War_sentence_571

Historian Gary Gallagher cites General Sherman who in early 1864 commented, "The devils seem to have a determination that cannot but be admired." American Civil War_sentence_572

Despite their loss of slaves and wealth, with starvation looming, Sherman continued, "yet I see no sign of let-up—some few deserters—plenty tired of war, but the masses determined to fight it out." American Civil War_sentence_573

Also important were Lincoln's eloquence in rationalizing the national purpose and his skill in keeping the border states committed to the Union cause. American Civil War_sentence_574

The Emancipation Proclamation was an effective use of the President's war powers. American Civil War_sentence_575

The Confederate government failed in its attempt to get Europe involved in the war militarily, particularly Britain and France. American Civil War_sentence_576

Southern leaders needed to get European powers to help break up the blockade the Union had created around the Southern ports and cities. American Civil War_sentence_577

Lincoln's naval blockade was 95 percent effective at stopping trade goods; as a result, imports and exports to the South declined significantly. American Civil War_sentence_578

The abundance of European cotton and Britain's hostility to the institution of slavery, along with Lincoln's Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico naval blockades, severely decreased any chance that either Britain or France would enter the war. American Civil War_sentence_579

Historian Don Doyle has argued that the Union victory had a major impact on the course of world history. American Civil War_sentence_580

The Union victory energized popular democratic forces. American Civil War_sentence_581

A Confederate victory, on the other hand, would have meant a new birth of slavery, not freedom. American Civil War_sentence_582

Historian Fergus Bordewich, following Doyle, argues that: American Civil War_sentence_583

Scholars have debated what the effects of the war were on political and economic power in the South. American Civil War_sentence_584

The prevailing view is that the southern planter elite retained its powerful position in the South. American Civil War_sentence_585

However, a 2017 study challenges this, noting that while some Southern elites retained their economic status, the turmoil of the 1860s created greater opportunities for economic mobility in the South than in the North. American Civil War_sentence_586

Costs American Civil War_section_47

The war resulted in at least 1,030,000 casualties (3 percent of the population), including about 620,000 soldier deaths—two-thirds by disease, and 50,000 civilians. American Civil War_sentence_587

Binghamton University historian J. David Hacker believes the number of soldier deaths was approximately 750,000, 20 percent higher than traditionally estimated, and possibly as high as 850,000. American Civil War_sentence_588

The war accounted for more American deaths than in all other U.S. wars combined. American Civil War_sentence_589

Based on 1860 census figures, 8 percent of all white men aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6 percent in the North and 18 percent in the South. American Civil War_sentence_590

About 56,000 soldiers died in prison camps during the War. American Civil War_sentence_591

An estimated 60,000 men lost limbs in the war. American Civil War_sentence_592

Union army dead, amounting to 15 percent of the over two million who served, was broken down as follows: American Civil War_sentence_593

American Civil War_unordered_list_27

  • 110,070 killed in action (67,000) or died of wounds (43,000).American Civil War_item_27_4
  • 199,790 died of disease (75 percent was due to the war, the remainder would have occurred in civilian life anyway)American Civil War_item_27_5
  • 24,866 died in Confederate prison campsAmerican Civil War_item_27_6
  • 9,058 killed by accidents or drowningAmerican Civil War_item_27_7
  • 15,741 other/unknown deathsAmerican Civil War_item_27_8
  • 359,528 total deadAmerican Civil War_item_27_9

In addition there were 4,523 deaths in the Navy (2,112 in battle) and 460 in the Marines (148 in battle). American Civil War_sentence_594

Black troops made up 10 percent of the Union death toll, they amounted to 15 percent of disease deaths but less than 3 percent of those killed in battle. American Civil War_sentence_595

Losses among African Americans were high, in the last year and a half and from all reported casualties, approximately 20 percent of all African Americans enrolled in the military lost their lives during the Civil War. American Civil War_sentence_596

Notably, their mortality rate was significantly higher than white soldiers: American Civil War_sentence_597

Confederate records compiled by historian William F. Fox list 74,524 killed and died of wounds and 59,292 died of disease. American Civil War_sentence_598

Including Confederate estimates of battle losses where no records exist would bring the Confederate death toll to 94,000 killed and died of wounds. American Civil War_sentence_599

Fox complained, however, that records were incomplete, especially during the last year of the war, and that battlefield reports likely under-counted deaths (many men counted as wounded in battlefield reports subsequently died of their wounds). American Civil War_sentence_600

Thomas L. Livermore, using Fox's data, put the number of Confederate non-combat deaths at 166,000, using the official estimate of Union deaths from disease and accidents and a comparison of Union and Confederate enlistment records, for a total of 260,000 deaths. American Civil War_sentence_601

However, this excludes the 30,000 deaths of Confederate troops in prisons, which would raise the minimum number of deaths to 290,000. American Civil War_sentence_602

The United States National Park Service uses the following figures in its official tally of war losses: American Civil War_sentence_603

Union: 853,838 American Civil War_sentence_604

American Civil War_unordered_list_28

  • 110,100 killed in actionAmerican Civil War_item_28_10
  • 224,580 disease deathsAmerican Civil War_item_28_11
  • 275,154 wounded in actionAmerican Civil War_item_28_12
  • 211,411 captured (including 30,192 who died as POWs)American Civil War_item_28_13

Confederate: 914,660 American Civil War_sentence_605

American Civil War_unordered_list_29

  • 94,000 killed in actionAmerican Civil War_item_29_14
  • 164,000 disease deathsAmerican Civil War_item_29_15
  • 194,026 wounded in actionAmerican Civil War_item_29_16
  • 462,634 captured (including 31,000 who died as POWs)American Civil War_item_29_17

While the figures of 360,000 army deaths for the Union and 260,000 for the Confederacy remained commonly cited, they are incomplete. American Civil War_sentence_606

In addition to many Confederate records being missing, partly as a result of Confederate widows not reporting deaths due to being ineligible for benefits, both armies only counted troops who died during their service and not the tens of thousands who died of wounds or diseases after being discharged. American Civil War_sentence_607

This often happened only a few days or weeks later. American Civil War_sentence_608

Francis Amasa Walker, superintendent of the 1870 census, used census and surgeon general data to estimate a minimum of 500,000 Union military deaths and 350,000 Confederate military deaths, for a total death toll of 850,000 soldiers. American Civil War_sentence_609

While Walker's estimates were originally dismissed because of the 1870 census's undercounting, it was later found that the census was only off by 6.5% and that the data Walker used would be roughly accurate. American Civil War_sentence_610

Analyzing the number of dead by using census data to calculate the deviation of the death rate of men of fighting age from the norm suggests that at least 627,000 and at most 888,000, but most likely 761,000 soldiers, died in the war. American Civil War_sentence_611

This would break down to approximately 350,000 Confederate and 411,000 Union military deaths, going by the proportion of Union to Confederate battle losses. American Civil War_sentence_612

Deaths among former slaves has proven much harder to estimate, due to the lack of reliable census data at the time, though they were known to be considerable, as former slaves were set free or escaped in massive numbers in an area where the Union army did not have sufficient shelter, doctors, or food for them. American Civil War_sentence_613

University of Connecticut Professor James Downs states that tens to hundreds of thousands of slaves died during the war from disease, starvation, or exposure and that if these deaths are counted in the war's total, the death toll would exceed 1 million. American Civil War_sentence_614

Losses were far higher than during the recent defeat of Mexico, which saw roughly thirteen thousand American deaths, including fewer than two thousand killed in battle, between 1846 and 1848. American Civil War_sentence_615

One reason for the high number of battle deaths during the war was the continued use of tactics similar to those of the Napoleonic Wars at the turn of the century, such as charging. American Civil War_sentence_616

With the advent of more accurate rifled barrels, Minié balls, and (near the end of the war for the Union army) repeating firearms such as the Spencer Repeating Rifle and the Henry Repeating Rifle, soldiers were mowed down when standing in lines in the open. American Civil War_sentence_617

This led to the adoption of trench warfare, a style of fighting that defined much of World War I. American Civil War_sentence_618

The wealth amassed in slaves and slavery for the Confederacy's 3.5 million blacks effectively ended when Union armies arrived; they were nearly all freed by the Emancipation Proclamation. American Civil War_sentence_619

Slaves in the border states and those located in some former Confederate territory occupied before the Emancipation Proclamation were freed by state action or (on December 6, 1865) by the Thirteenth Amendment. American Civil War_sentence_620

The war destroyed much of the wealth that had existed in the South. American Civil War_sentence_621

All accumulated investment Confederate bonds was forfeit; most banks and railroads were bankrupt. American Civil War_sentence_622

The income per person in the South dropped to less than 40 percent of that of the North, a condition that lasted until well into the 20th century. American Civil War_sentence_623

Southern influence in the U.S. federal government, previously considered, was greatly diminished until the latter half of the 20th century. American Civil War_sentence_624

The full restoration of the Union was the work of a highly contentious postwar era known as Reconstruction. American Civil War_sentence_625

During the Reconstruction era, national unity was slowly restored, the national government expanded its power, and civil and political rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. American Civil War_sentence_626

Emancipation American Civil War_section_48

Slavery as a war issue American Civil War_section_49

Abolishing slavery was not a Union war goal from the outset, but it quickly became one. American Civil War_sentence_627

Lincoln's initial claims were that preserving the Union was the central goal of the war. American Civil War_sentence_628

In contrast, the South saw itself as fighting to preserve slavery. American Civil War_sentence_629

While not all Southerners saw themselves as fighting for slavery, most of the officers and over a third of the rank and file in Lee's army had close family ties to slavery. American Civil War_sentence_630

To Northerners, in contrast, the motivation was primarily to preserve the Union, not to abolish slavery. American Civil War_sentence_631

However, as the war dragged on it became clear that slavery was the central factor of the conflict. American Civil War_sentence_632

Lincoln and his cabinet made ending slavery a war goal, which culminated in the Emancipation Proclamation. American Civil War_sentence_633

Lincoln's decision to issue the Emancipation Proclamation angered both Peace Democrats ("Copperheads") and War Democrats, but energized most Republicans. American Civil War_sentence_634

By warning that free blacks would flood the North, Democrats made gains in the 1862 elections, but they did not gain control of Congress. American Civil War_sentence_635

The Republicans' counterargument that slavery was the mainstay of the enemy steadily gained support, with the Democrats losing decisively in the 1863 elections in the northern state of Ohio when they tried to resurrect anti-black sentiment. American Civil War_sentence_636

Emancipation Proclamation American Civil War_section_50

Main article: Emancipation Proclamation American Civil War_sentence_637

The Emancipation Proclamation enabled African-Americans, both free blacks and escaped slaves, to join the Union Army. American Civil War_sentence_638

About 190,000 volunteered, further enhancing the numerical advantage the Union armies enjoyed over the Confederates, who did not dare emulate the equivalent manpower source for fear of fundamentally undermining the legitimacy of slavery. American Civil War_sentence_639

During the Civil War, sentiment concerning slaves, enslavement and emancipation in the United States was divided. American Civil War_sentence_640

Lincoln's fears of making slavery a war issue were based in a harsh reality: abolition did not enjoy wide support in the west, the territories, and the border states. American Civil War_sentence_641

In 1861, Lincoln worried that premature attempts at emancipation would mean the loss of the border states, and that "to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose the whole game." American Civil War_sentence_642

Copperheads and some War Democrats opposed emancipation, although the latter eventually accepted it as part of total war needed to save the Union. American Civil War_sentence_643

At first, Lincoln reversed attempts at emancipation by Secretary of War Simon Cameron and Generals John C. Frémont (in Missouri) and David Hunter (in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida) to keep the loyalty of the border states and the War Democrats. American Civil War_sentence_644

Lincoln warned the border states that a more radical type of emancipation would happen if his gradual plan based on compensated emancipation and voluntary colonization was rejected. American Civil War_sentence_645

But only the District of Columbia accepted Lincoln's gradual plan, which was enacted by Congress. American Civil War_sentence_646

When Lincoln told his cabinet about his proposed emancipation proclamation, Seward advised Lincoln to wait for a victory before issuing it, as to do otherwise would seem like "our last shriek on the retreat". American Civil War_sentence_647

Lincoln laid the groundwork for public support in an open letter published in abolitionist Horace Greeley's newspaper. American Civil War_sentence_648

In September 1862, the Battle of Antietam provided this opportunity, and the subsequent War Governors' Conference added support for the proclamation. American Civil War_sentence_649

Lincoln issued his preliminary Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, 1862, and his final Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863. American Civil War_sentence_650

In his letter to Albert G. Hodges, Lincoln explained his belief that "If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong ... And yet I have never understood that the Presidency conferred upon me an unrestricted right to act officially upon this judgment and feeling ... American Civil War_sentence_651

I claim not to have controlled events, but confess plainly that events have controlled me." American Civil War_sentence_652

Lincoln's moderate approach succeeded in inducing border states, War Democrats and emancipated slaves to fight for the Union. American Civil War_sentence_653

The Union-controlled border states (Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland, Delaware and West Virginia) and Union-controlled regions around New Orleans, Norfolk and elsewhere, were not covered by the Emancipation Proclamation. American Civil War_sentence_654

All abolished slavery on their own, except Kentucky and Delaware. American Civil War_sentence_655

Still, the proclamation did not enjoy universal support. American Civil War_sentence_656

It caused much unrest in the Western states, where racist sentiments led to great fear of abolition. American Civil War_sentence_657

There was some concern that the proclamation would lead to succession of Western states, and prompted the stationing of Union troops in Illinois in case of rebellion. American Civil War_sentence_658

Since the Emancipation Proclamation was based on the President's war powers, it only included territory held by Confederates at the time. American Civil War_sentence_659

However, the Proclamation became a symbol of the Union's growing commitment to add emancipation to the Union's definition of liberty. American Civil War_sentence_660

The Emancipation Proclamation greatly reduced the Confederacy's hope of getting aid from Britain or France. American Civil War_sentence_661

By late 1864, Lincoln was playing a leading role in getting Congress to vote for the Thirteenth Amendment, which made emancipation universal and permanent. American Civil War_sentence_662

Texas v. White American Civil War_section_51

In Texas v. White, 74 U.S. American Civil War_sentence_663

(1869) the United States Supreme Court ruled that Texas had remained a state ever since it first joined the Union, despite claims that it joined the Confederate States; the court further held that the Constitution did not permit states to unilaterally secede from the United States, and that the ordinances of secession, and all the acts of the legislatures within seceding states intended to give effect to such ordinances, were "absolutely null", under the constitution. American Civil War_sentence_664

Reconstruction American Civil War_section_52

Main article: Reconstruction era American Civil War_sentence_665

The war had utterly devastated the South, and posed serious questions of how the South would be re-integrated to the Union. American Civil War_sentence_666

Reconstruction began during the war, with the Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863, and it continued until 1877. American Civil War_sentence_667

It comprised multiple complex methods to resolve the outstanding issues of the war's aftermath, the most important of which were the three "Reconstruction Amendments" to the Constitution: the 13th outlawing slavery (1865), the 14th guaranteeing citizenship to slaves (1868) and the 15th ensuring voting rights to slaves (1870). American Civil War_sentence_668

From the Union perspective, the goals of Reconstruction were to consolidate the Union victory on the battlefield by reuniting the Union; to guarantee a "republican form of government" for the ex-Confederate states; and to permanently end slavery—and prevent semi-slavery status. American Civil War_sentence_669

President Johnson took a lenient approach and saw the achievement of the main war goals as realized in 1865, when each ex-rebel state repudiated secession and ratified the Thirteenth Amendment. American Civil War_sentence_670

Radical Republicans demanded proof that Confederate nationalism was dead and that the slaves were truly free. American Civil War_sentence_671

They came to the fore after the 1866 elections and undid much of Johnson's work. American Civil War_sentence_672

In 1872 the "Liberal Republicans" argued that the war goals had been achieved and that Reconstruction should end. American Civil War_sentence_673

They ran a presidential ticket in 1872 but were decisively defeated. American Civil War_sentence_674

In 1874, Democrats, primarily Southern, took control of Congress and opposed any more reconstruction. American Civil War_sentence_675

The Compromise of 1877 closed with a national consensus that the Civil War had finally ended. American Civil War_sentence_676

With the withdrawal of federal troops, however, whites retook control of every Southern legislature; the Jim Crow period of disenfranchisement and legal segregation was ushered in. American Civil War_sentence_677

The Civil War would have a huge impact on American politics in the years to come. American Civil War_sentence_678

Many veterans on the both sides were subsequently elected to political office, including five U. S. Presidents: General Ulysses Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James Garfield, Benjamin Harrison, and William McKinley. American Civil War_sentence_679

Memory and historiography American Civil War_section_53

The Civil War is one of the central events in American collective memory. American Civil War_sentence_680

There are innumerable statues, commemorations, books and archival collections. American Civil War_sentence_681

The memory includes the home front, military affairs, the treatment of soldiers, both living and dead, in the war's aftermath, depictions of the war in literature and art, evaluations of heroes and villains, and considerations of the moral and political lessons of the war. American Civil War_sentence_682

The last theme includes moral evaluations of racism and slavery, heroism in combat and heroism behind the lines, and the issues of democracy and minority rights, as well as the notion of an "Empire of Liberty" influencing the world. American Civil War_sentence_683

Professional historians have paid much more attention to the causes of the war, than to the war itself. American Civil War_sentence_684

Military history has largely developed outside academia, leading to a proliferation of studies by non-scholars who nevertheless are familiar with the primary sources and pay close attention to battles and campaigns, and who write for the general public, rather than the scholarly community. American Civil War_sentence_685

Bruce Catton and Shelby Foote are among the best-known writers. American Civil War_sentence_686

Practically every major figure in the war, both North and South, has had a serious biographical study. American Civil War_sentence_687

Lost Cause American Civil War_section_54

Main article: Lost Cause of the Confederacy American Civil War_sentence_688

Memory of the war in the white South crystallized in the myth of the "Lost Cause": that the Confederate cause was a just and heroic one. American Civil War_sentence_689

The myth shaped regional identity and race relations for generations. American Civil War_sentence_690

Alan T. Nolan notes that the Lost Cause was expressly "a rationalization, a cover-up to vindicate the name and fame" of those in rebellion. American Civil War_sentence_691

Some claims revolve around the insignificance of slavery; some appeals highlight cultural differences between North and South; the military conflict by Confederate actors is idealized; in any case, secession was said to be lawful. American Civil War_sentence_692

Nolan argues that the adoption of the Lost Cause perspective facilitated the reunification of the North and the South while excusing the "virulent racism" of the 19th century, sacrificing black American progress to white man's reunification. American Civil War_sentence_693

He also deems the Lost Cause "a caricature of the truth. American Civil War_sentence_694

This caricature wholly misrepresents and distorts the facts of the matter" in every instance. American Civil War_sentence_695

The Lost Cause myth was formalized by Charles A. American Civil War_sentence_696 Beard and Mary R. Beard, whose The Rise of American Civilization (1927) spawned "Beardian historiography". American Civil War_sentence_697

The Beards downplayed slavery, abolitionism, and issues of morality. American Civil War_sentence_698

Though this interpretation was abandoned by the Beards in the 1940s, and by historians generally by the 1950s, Beardian themes still echo among Lost Cause writers. American Civil War_sentence_699

Battlefield preservation American Civil War_section_55

The first efforts at Civil War battlefield preservation and memorialization came during the war itself with the establishment of National Cemeteries at Gettysburg, Mill Springs and Chattanooga. American Civil War_sentence_700

Soldiers began erecting markers on battlefields beginning with the First Battle of Bull Run in July 1861, but the oldest surviving monument is the Hazen Brigade Monument near Murfreesboro, Tennessee, built in the summer of 1863 by soldiers in Union Col. William B. Hazen's brigade to mark the spot where they buried their dead following the Battle of Stones River. American Civil War_sentence_701

In the 1890s, the United States government established five Civil War battlefield parks under the jurisdiction of the War Department, beginning with the creation of the Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park in Tennessee and the Antietam National Battlefield in Maryland in 1890. American Civil War_sentence_702

The Shiloh National Military Park was established in 1894, followed by the Gettysburg National Military Park in 1895 and Vicksburg National Military Park in 1899. American Civil War_sentence_703

In 1933, these five parks and other national monuments were transferred to the jurisdiction of the National Park Service. American Civil War_sentence_704

The modern Civil War battlefield preservation movement began in 1987 with the founding of the Association for the Preservation of Civil War Sites (APCWS), a grassroots organization created by Civil War historians and others to preserve battlefield land by acquiring it. American Civil War_sentence_705

In 1991, the original Civil War Trust was created in the mold of the Statue of Liberty/Ellis Island Foundation, but failed to attract corporate donors and soon helped manage the disbursement of U.S. Mint Civil War commemorative coin revenues designated for battlefield preservation. American Civil War_sentence_706

Although the two non-profit organizations joined forces on several battlefield acquisitions, ongoing conflicts prompted the boards of both organizations to facilitate a merger, which happened in 1999 with the creation of the Civil War Preservation Trust. American Civil War_sentence_707

In 2011, the organization was renamed, again becoming the Civil War Trust. American Civil War_sentence_708

After expanding its mission in 2014 to include battlefields of the Revolutionary War and War of 1812, the non-profit became the American Battlefield Trust in May 2018, operating with two divisions, the Civil War Trust and the Revolutionary War Trust. American Civil War_sentence_709

From 1987 through May 2018, the Trust and its predecessor organizations, along with their partners, preserved 49,893 acres of battlefield land through acquisition of property or conservation easements at more than 130 battlefields in 24 states. American Civil War_sentence_710

The five major Civil War battlefield parks operated by the National Park Service (Gettysburg, Antietam, Shiloh, Chickamauga/Chattanooga and Vicksburg) had a combined 3.1 million visitors in 2018, down 70% from 10.2 million in 1970. American Civil War_sentence_711

Attendance at Gettysburg in 2018 was 950,000, a decline of 86% since 1970. American Civil War_sentence_712

Civil War commemoration American Civil War_section_56

Main article: Commemoration of the American Civil War American Civil War_sentence_713

See also: Commemoration of the American Civil War on postage stamps American Civil War_sentence_714

The American Civil War has been commemorated in many capacities ranging from the reenactment of battles to statues and memorial halls erected, to films being produced, to stamps and coins with Civil War themes being issued, all of which helped to shape public memory. American Civil War_sentence_715

This varied advent occurred in greater proportions on the 100th and 150th anniversary. American Civil War_sentence_716

Hollywood's take on the war has been especially influential in shaping public memory, as seen in such film classics as Birth of a Nation (1915), Gone with the Wind (1939), and more recently Lincoln (2012). American Civil War_sentence_717

Ken Burns's PBS television series The Civil War (1990) is especially well remembered, though criticized for its historiography. American Civil War_sentence_718

Technological significance American Civil War_section_57

Numerous technological innovations during the Civil War had a great impact on 19th-century science. American Civil War_sentence_719

The Civil War was one of the earliest examples of an "industrial war", in which technological might is used to achieve military supremacy in a war. American Civil War_sentence_720

New inventions, such as the train and telegraph, delivered soldiers, supplies and messages at a time when horses were considered to be the fastest way to travel. American Civil War_sentence_721

It was also in this war when countries first used aerial warfare, in the form of reconnaissance balloons, to a significant effect. American Civil War_sentence_722

It saw the first action involving steam-powered ironclad warships in naval warfare history. American Civil War_sentence_723

Repeating firearms such as the Henry rifle, Spencer rifle, Colt revolving rifle, Triplett & Scott carbine and others, first appeared during the Civil War; they were a revolutionary invention that would soon replace muzzle-loading and single-shot firearms in warfare. American Civil War_sentence_724

The war was also the first appearances of rapid-firing weapons and machine guns such as the Agar gun and the Gatling gun. American Civil War_sentence_725

In works of culture and art American Civil War_section_58

The Civil War is one of the most studied events in American history, and the collection of cultural works around it is enormous. American Civil War_sentence_726

This section gives an abbreviated overview of the most notable works. American Civil War_sentence_727

Literature American Civil War_section_59

American Civil War_unordered_list_30

Film American Civil War_section_60

Music American Civil War_section_61

See also: Music of the American Civil War American Civil War_sentence_728

American Civil War_unordered_list_31

Video games American Civil War_section_62

See also American Civil War_section_63

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American Civil War.