American Museum of Natural History

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This article is about the museum in New York City. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_0

For the museum in Washington, D.C., see National Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_1

American Museum of Natural History_table_infobox_0

American Museum of Natural HistoryAmerican Museum of Natural History_table_caption_0
EstablishedAmerican Museum of Natural History_header_cell_0_0_0 April 6, 1869; 151 years ago (1869-04-06)American Museum of Natural History_cell_0_0_1
LocationAmerican Museum of Natural History_header_cell_0_1_0 200 Central Park West, New York, NY 10024

United StatesAmerican Museum of Natural History_cell_0_1_1

TypeAmerican Museum of Natural History_header_cell_0_2_0 Natural historyAmerican Museum of Natural History_cell_0_2_1
VisitorsAmerican Museum of Natural History_header_cell_0_3_0 5 million (2018)American Museum of Natural History_cell_0_3_1
PresidentAmerican Museum of Natural History_header_cell_0_4_0 Ellen V. FutterAmerican Museum of Natural History_cell_0_4_1
Public transit accessAmerican Museum of Natural History_header_cell_0_5_0 New York City Bus:

M7, M10, M11, M79 New York City Subway: B_(New_York_City_Subway_service)C_(New_York_City_Subway_service) trains at 81st Street–Museum of Natural History 1_(New_York_City_Subway_service) train at 79th StreetAmerican Museum of Natural History_cell_0_5_1

WebsiteAmerican Museum of Natural History_header_cell_0_6_0 American Museum of Natural History_cell_0_6_1
BuiltAmerican Museum of Natural History_header_cell_0_7_0 1874; 146 years ago (1874)American Museum of Natural History_cell_0_7_1
NRHP reference No.American Museum of Natural History_header_cell_0_8_0 American Museum of Natural History_cell_0_8_1
Significant datesAmerican Museum of Natural History_header_cell_0_9_0
Added to NRHPAmerican Museum of Natural History_header_cell_0_10_0 June 24, 1976American Museum of Natural History_cell_0_10_1
Designated NYCLAmerican Museum of Natural History_header_cell_0_11_0 August 24, 1967American Museum of Natural History_cell_0_11_1

The American Museum of Natural History (abbreviated as AMNH), on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, New York City, is one of the largest natural history museums in the world. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_2

In Theodore Roosevelt Park, across the street from Central Park, the museum complex comprises 26 interconnected buildings housing 45 permanent exhibition halls, in addition to a planetarium and a library. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_3

The museum collections contain over 34 million specimens of plants, animals, fossils, minerals, rocks, meteorites, human remains, and human cultural artifacts as well as specialized collections for frozen tissue and genomic and astrophysical data, of which only a small fraction can be displayed at any given time, and occupies more than 2 million square feet (190,000 m). American Museum of Natural History_sentence_4

The museum has a full-time scientific staff of 225, sponsors over 120 special field expeditions each year, and averages about five million visits annually. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_5

The one mission statement of the American Museum of Natural History is: "To discover, interpret, and disseminate—through scientific research and education—knowledge about human cultures, the natural world, and the universe." American Museum of Natural History_sentence_6

History American Museum of Natural History_section_0

See also: List of castles in the United States American Museum of Natural History_sentence_7

Founding American Museum of Natural History_section_1

Before construction of the present complex, the museum was housed in the Arsenal building in Central Park. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_8

Theodore Roosevelt, Sr., the father of Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th U.S. president, was one of the founders along with John David Wolfe, William T. Blodgett, Robert L. Stuart, Andrew H. Green, Robert Colgate, Morris K. Jesup, Benjamin H. Field, D. Jackson Steward, Richard M. Blatchford, J. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_9 P. Morgan, Adrian Iselin, Moses H. Grinnell, Benjamin B. Sherman, A. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_10 G. Phelps Dodge, William A. Haines, Charles A. Dana, Joseph H. Choate, Henry G. Stebbins, Henry Parish, and Howard Potter. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_11

The founding of the museum realized the dream of naturalist Dr. Albert S. Bickmore. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_12

Bickmore, a one-time student of zoologist Louis Agassiz, lobbied tirelessly for years for the establishment of a natural history museum in New York. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_13

His proposal, backed by his powerful sponsors, won the support of the Governor of New York, John Thompson Hoffman, who signed a bill officially creating the American Museum of Natural History on April 6, 1869. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_14

Construction American Museum of Natural History_section_2

In 1874, the cornerstone was laid for the museum's first building, which is now hidden from view by the many buildings in the complex that today occupy most of Manhattan Square. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_15

The original Victorian Gothic building, which was opened in 1877, was designed by Calvert Vaux and J. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_16 Wrey Mould, both already closely identified with the architecture of Central Park. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_17

Expansion American Museum of Natural History_section_3

The original building was soon eclipsed by the south range of the museum, designed by J. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_18 Cleaveland Cady, an exercise in rusticated brownstone neo-Romanesque, influenced by H. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_19 H. Richardson. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_20

It extends 700 feet (210 m) along West 77th Street, with corner towers 150 feet (46 m) tall. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_21

Its pink brownstone and granite, similar to that found at Grindstone Island in the St. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_22 Lawrence River, came from quarries at Picton Island, New York. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_23

The entrance on Central Park West, the New York State Memorial to Theodore Roosevelt, completed by John Russell Pope in 1936, is an overscaled Beaux-Arts monument. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_24

It leads to a vast Roman basilica, where visitors are greeted with a cast of a skeleton of a rearing Barosaurus defending her young from an Allosaurus. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_25

The museum is also accessible through its 77th Street foyer, renamed the "Grand Gallery" and featuring a fully suspended Haida canoe. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_26

The hall leads into the oldest extant exhibit in the museum, the hall of Northwest Coast Indians. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_27

Later additions, restorations, and renovations American Museum of Natural History_section_4

Since 1930, little has been added to the exterior of the original building. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_28

The architect Kevin Roche and his firm Roche-Dinkeloo have been responsible for the master planning of the museum since the 1990s. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_29

Various renovations to both the interior and exterior have been carried out. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_30

Renovations to the Dinosaur Hall were undertaken starting in 1991, and the museum also restored the mural in Roosevelt Memorial Hall in 2010. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_31

In 1992 the Roche-Dinkeloo firm designed the eight-story AMNH Library. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_32

However, the entirety of the master plan was ultimately not fully realized, and by 2015, the museum consisted of 25 separate buildings that were poorly connected. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_33

The museum's south façade, spanning 77th Street from Central Park West to Columbus Avenue was cleaned, repaired and re-emerged in 2009. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_34

Steven Reichl, a spokesman for the museum, said that work would include restoring 650 black-cherry window frames and stone repairs. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_35

The museum's consultant on the latest renovation is Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc., an architectural and engineering firm with headquarters in Northbrook, Illinois. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_36

In 2014, the museum published plans for a $325 million, 195,000-square-foot (18,100 m) annex, the Richard Gilder Center for Science, Education, and Innovation, on the Columbus Avenue side. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_37

Designed by Studio Gang, Higgins Quasebarth & Partners and landscape architects Reed Hilderbrand, the new building's pink Milford granite facade will have a textural, curvilinear design inspired by natural topographical elements showcased in the museum, including "geological strata, glacier-gouged caves, curving canyons, and blocks of glacial ice," as a striking contrast to the museum's predominance of High Victorian Gothic, Richardson Romanesque and Beaux Arts architectural styles. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_38

The interior itself would contain a new entrance from Columbus Avenue north of 79th Street; a multiple-story storage structure containing specimens and objects; rooms to display these objects; an insect hall; an "interpretive" "wayfinding wall", and a theater. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_39

This expansion was originally supposed to be south of the existing museum, occupying parts of Theodore Roosevelt Park. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_40

The expansion was relocated to the west side of the existing museum, and its footprint was reduced in size, due to opposition to construction in the park. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_41

The annex would instead replace three existing buildings along Columbus Avenue's east side, with more than 30 connections to the existing museum, and it would be six stories high, the same height as the existing buildings. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_42

The plans for the expansion were scrutinized by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_43

On October 11, 2016, the Landmarks Preservation Commission unanimously approved the expansion. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_44

Construction of the Gilder Center, which was expected to break ground the next year following design development and Environmental Impact Statement stages, would entail demolition of three museum buildings built between 1874 and 1935. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_45

The museum formally filed plans to construct the expansion in August 2017, but due to community opposition, construction did not start until June 2019. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_46

The project is expected to be complete by 2022. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_47

Presidents American Museum of Natural History_section_5

The museum's first two presidents were John David Wolfe (1870–1872) and Robert L. Stuart (1872–1881), both among the museum's founders. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_48

The museum was not put on a sound footing until the appointment of the third president, Morris K. Jesup (also one of the original founders), in 1881. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_49

Jesup was president for over 25 years, overseeing its expansion and much of its golden age of exploration and collection. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_50

The fourth president, Henry Fairfield Osborn, was appointed in 1906 on the death of Jesup. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_51

Osborn consolidated the museum's expansion, developing it into one of the world's foremost natural history museums. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_52

F. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_53 Trubee Davison was president from 1933 to 1951, with A. Perry Osborn as Acting President from 1941 to 1946. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_54

Alexander M. White was president from 1951 to 1968. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_55

Gardner D. Stout was president from 1968 to 1975. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_56

Robert Guestier Goelet from 1975 to 1988. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_57

George D. Langdon, Jr. from 1988 to 1993. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_58

Ellen V. Futter has been president of the museum since 1993. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_59

Associated names American Museum of Natural History_section_6

Famous names associated with the museum include the paleontologist and geologist Henry Fairfield Osborn; the dinosaur-hunter of the Gobi Desert, Roy Chapman Andrews (one of the inspirations for Indiana Jones); photographer Yvette Borup Andrews; George Gaylord Simpson; biologist Ernst Mayr; pioneer cultural anthropologists Franz Boas and Margaret Mead; explorer and geographer Alexander H. Rice, Jr.; and ornithologist Robert Cushman Murphy. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_60

J. P. Morgan was also among the famous benefactors of the museum. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_61

Mammal halls American Museum of Natural History_section_7

Old World mammals American Museum of Natural History_section_8

Akeley Hall of African Mammals American Museum of Natural History_section_9

Named after taxidermist Carl Akeley, the Akeley Hall of African Mammals is a two-story hall directly behind the Theodore Roosevelt rotunda. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_62

Its 28 dioramas depict in meticulous detail the great range of ecosystems found in Africa and the mammals endemic to them. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_63

The centerpiece of the hall is a pack of eight African elephants in a characteristic 'alarmed' formation. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_64

Though the mammals are typically the main feature in the dioramas, birds and flora of the regions are occasionally featured as well. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_65

In the 80 years since Akeley Hall’s creation, many of the species within have become endangered, some critically, and the locations deforested. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_66

Despite this, none of the species are yet extinct, in part thanks to the work of Carl Akeley himself (see Virunga National Park). American Museum of Natural History_sentence_67

The hall connects to the Hall of African Peoples. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_68

History American Museum of Natural History_section_10

The Hall of African Mammals was first proposed to the museum by Carl Akeley around 1909. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_69

His original concept contained forty dioramas which would present the rapidly vanishing landscapes and animals of Africa. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_70

The intent was that a visitor of the hall, “may have the illusion, at worst, of passing a series of pictures of primeval Africa, and at best, may think for a moment that he has stepped 5,000 miles (8,000 km) across the sea into Africa itself.” Akeley’s proposal was a hit with both the board of trustees and then museum president, Henry Fairfield Osborne. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_71

To fund its creation, Daniel Pomeroy, a trustee of the museum and partner at J.P. Morgan, offered interested investors the opportunity to accompany the museum’s expeditions in Africa in exchange for funding. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_72

Akeley began collecting specimens for the hall as early as 1909, famously encountering Theodore Roosevelt in the midst of the Smithsonian-Roosevelt African expedition (two of the elephants featured in the museum’s center piece were donated by Roosevelt, a cow, shot by Roosevelt himself, and a calf, shot by his son Kermit). American Museum of Natural History_sentence_73

On these early expeditions, Akeley would be accompanied by his former apprentice in taxidermy, James L. Clark, and artist, William R. Leigh. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_74

When Akeley returned to Africa to collect gorillas for the hall’s first diorama, Clark remained behind and began scouring the country for artists to create the backgrounds. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_75

The eventual appearance of the first habitat groups would have a huge impact on the museum. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_76

Akeley and Clark’s skillful taxidermy paired with the backgrounds painted under Leigh’s direction created an illusion of life in these animals that made the museum’s other exhibits seem dull in comparison (the museum’s original style of exhibition can still be seen in the small area devoted to birds and animals of New York). American Museum of Natural History_sentence_77

Plans for other diorama halls quickly emerged and by 1929 Birds of the World, the Hall of North American Mammals, the Vernay Hall of Southeast Asian Mammals, and the Hall of Oceanic Life were all in stages of planning or construction. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_78

After Akeley’s unexpected death during the Eastman-Pommeroy expedition in 1926, responsibility of the hall’s completion fell to James L. Clark. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_79

Despite being hampered by the onset of the Great Depression in 1929, Clark’s passion for Africa and his dedication to his former mentor kept the project alive. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_80

In 1933, Clark would hire architectural artist James Perry Wilson to assist Leigh in the painting of backgrounds. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_81

More technically minded than Leigh, Wilson would make many improvements on Leigh’s techniques, including a range of methods to minimize the distortion caused by the dioramas’ curved walls. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_82

In 1936, William Durant Campbell, a wealthy board member with a desire to see Africa, offered to fund several dioramas if allowed to obtain the specimens himself. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_83

Clark agreed to this arrangement and shortly after Campbell left to collect the okapi and black rhinoceros specimens accompanied by artist Robert Kane. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_84

Campbell would be involved, in one capacity or another, with several other subsequent expeditions. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_85

Despite setbacks including malaria, flooding, foreign government interference, and even a boat sinking, these expeditions would succeed in acquiring some of Akeley Hall’s most impressive specimens. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_86

Back in the museum, Kane would join Leigh and Wilson, along with a handful of other artists in completing the hall’s remaining dioramas. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_87

Though construction of the hall was completed in 1936, the dioramas would gradually open between the mid-1920s and early 1940s. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_88

Hall of Asian Mammals American Museum of Natural History_section_11

The Hall of Asian Mammals, sometimes referred to as the Vernay-Faunthorpe Hall of Asian Mammals, is a one-story hall directly to the left of the Theodore Roosevelt Rotunda. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_89

It contains 8 complete dioramas, 4 partial dioramas, and 6 habitat groups of mammals and locations from India, Nepal, Burma, and Malaysia. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_90

The hall opened in 1930 and, similar to Akeley Hall, is centered around 2 Asian elephants. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_91

At one point, a giant panda and Siberian tiger were also part of the Hall's collection, originally intended to be part of an adjoining Hall of North Asian Mammals (planned in the current location of Stout Hall of Asian Peoples). American Museum of Natural History_sentence_92

These specimens can currently be seen in the Hall of Biodiversity. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_93

History American Museum of Natural History_section_12

Specimens for the Hall of Asian Mammals were collected over six expeditions led by Arthur S. Vernay and Col. John Faunthorpe (as noted by stylized plaques at both entrances). American Museum of Natural History_sentence_94

The expeditions were funded entirely by Vernay, a wealthy, British-born, New York antiques dealer. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_95

He characterized the expense as a British tribute to American involvement in World War I. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_96

The first Vernay-Faunthorpe expedition took place in 1922. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_97

At the time, many of the animals Vernay was seeking, such as the Sumatran rhinoceros and Asiatic lion, were already rare and facing the possibility of extinction. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_98

To acquire these specimens, Vernay would have to make many appeals to regional authorities in order to obtain hunting permits. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_99

The relations he would forge during this time would assist later museum related expeditions headed by Vernay in gaining access to areas previously restricted to foreign visitors. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_100

Artist Clarence C. Rosenkranz accompanied the Vernay-Faunthorpe expeditions as field artist and would later paint the majority of the diorama backgrounds in the hall. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_101

These expeditions were also well documented in both photo and video, with enough footage of the first expedition to create a feature-length film, Hunting Tigers in India (1929). American Museum of Natural History_sentence_102

New World mammals American Museum of Natural History_section_13

Bernard Family Hall of North American Mammals American Museum of Natural History_section_14

The Bernard Family Hall of North American Mammals features 43 dioramas of various mammals of the American continent, north of tropical Mexico. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_103

Each diorama places focus on a particular species, ranging from the largest megafauna to the smaller rodents and carnivorans. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_104

Notable dioramas include the Alaskan brown bears looking at a salmon after they scared off an otter, a pair of wolves, a pair of Sonoran jaguars, and dueling bull Alaska moose. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_105

History American Museum of Natural History_section_15

The Hall of North American Mammals opened in 1942 with only ten dioramas, including those of the larger North American mammals. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_106

In 1948, the wolf diorama was installed, but further progress on the hall was halted as World War II broke out. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_107

After the war the hall ceased completion in 1954. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_108

Since that time, the hall had remained much the same and the majority of the mounts were weathering and bleaching. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_109

A massive restoration project began in late 2011 due to a large donation from Jill and Lewis Bernard. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_110

Taxidermists were brought in to clean the mounts and skins and artists restored the diorama backdrops. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_111

In October 2012 the hall was reopened as the Bernard Hall of North American Mammals and included scientifically-updated signage for each diorama. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_112

Hall of Small Mammals American Museum of Natural History_section_16

The Hall of Small Mammals is an offshoot of the Bernard Family Hall of North American Mammals. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_113

There are several small dioramas featuring small mammals found throughout North America, including collared peccaries, Abert's squirrel, and a wolverine. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_114

Birds, reptiles, and amphibian halls American Museum of Natural History_section_17

Sanford Hall of North American Birds American Museum of Natural History_section_18

The Sanford Hall of North American birds is a one-story hall on the third floor of the museum, above the Hall of African Peoples and between the Hall of Primates and Akeley Hall’s second level. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_115

Its 25 dioramas depict birds from across North America in their native habitats. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_116

Opening in 1909, the dioramas in Sanford Hall were the first to be exhibited in the museum and are, at present, the oldest still on display. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_117

At the far end of the hall are two large murals by ornithologist and artist, Louis Agassiz Fuertes. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_118

In addition to the species listed below, the hall also has display cases devoted to large collections of warblers, owls, and raptors. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_119

History American Museum of Natural History_section_19

Conceived by museum ornithologist Frank Chapman, construction began on dioramas for the Hall of North American Birds as early as 1902. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_120

The Hall is named for Chapman's friend and amateur ornithologist Leonard C. Sanford, who partially funded the hall and also donated the entirety of his own bird specimen collection to the museum. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_121

Although Chapman was not the first to create museum dioramas, he was responsible for many of the innovations that would separate and eventually define the dioramas in the American Museum. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_122

Whereas other dioramas of the time period typically featured generic scenery, Chapman was the first to bring artists into the field with him in the hopes of capturing a specific location at a specific time. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_123

In contrast to the dramatic scenes later created by Carl Akeley for the African Hall, Chapman wanted his dioramas to evoke a scientific realism, ultimately serving as a historical record of habitats and species facing a high probability of extinction. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_124

At the time of Sanford Hall's construction, plume-hunting for the millinery trade had brought many coastal bird species to the brink of extinction, most notably the great egret. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_125

Frank Chapman was a key figure in the conservation movement that emerged during this time. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_126

His dioramas were created with the intention of furthering this conservationist cause, giving museum visitors a brief glimpse at the dwindling bird species being lost in the name of fashion. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_127

Thanks in part to Chapman's efforts, both inside and outside of the museum, conservation of these bird species would be very successful, establishing refuges, such as Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge, and eventually leading to the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_128

Hall of Birds of the World American Museum of Natural History_section_20

The global diversity of bird species is exhibited in this hall. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_129

12 dioramas showcase various ecosystems around the world and provide a sample of the varieties of birds that live there. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_130

Example dioramas include South Georgia featuring king penguins and skuas, the East African plains featuring secretarybirds and bustards, and the Australian outback featuring honeyeaters, cockatoos, and kookaburras. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_131

Whitney Memorial Hall of Oceanic Birds American Museum of Natural History_section_21

This particular hall has undergone a complicated history over the years since its founding in 1953. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_132

Frank Chapman and Leonard C. Sanford, originally museum volunteers, had gone forward with creation of a hall to feature birds of the Pacific islands. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_133

In the years up to its founding, the museum had engaged in various expeditions to Fiji, New Zealand, and the Marianas (among other locations) to collect birds for the exhibit. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_134

The hall was designed as a completely immersive collection of dioramas, including a circular display featuring birds-of-paradise. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_135

In 1998, The Butterfly Conservatory was installed inside the hall originally as a temporary exhibit, but as the popular demand of the exhibit increased, the Hall of Oceanic Birds has more or less remained closed by the museum. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_136

Hall of Reptiles and Amphibians American Museum of Natural History_section_22

The Hall of Reptiles and Amphibians serves as an introduction to herpetology, with many exhibits detailing reptile evolution, anatomy, diversity, reproduction, and behavior. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_137

Notable exhibits include a Komodo dragon group, an American alligator, Lonesome George, the last Pinta Island tortoise, and poison dart frogs. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_138

In 1926, W. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_139 Douglas Burden, F.J. Defosse, and Emmett Reid Dunn collected specimens of the Komodo Dragon for the museum. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_140

Burden's chapter "The Komodo Dragon", in Look to the Wilderness, describes the expedition, the habitat, and the behavior of the dragon. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_141

Biodiversity and environmental halls American Museum of Natural History_section_23

Hall of North American Forests American Museum of Natural History_section_24

The Hall of North American Forests is a one-story hall on the museum’s ground floor in between the Theodore Roosevelt Memorial Hall and the Warburg Hall of New York State Environments. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_142

It contains ten dioramas depicting a range of forest types from across North America as well as several displays on forest conservation and tree health. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_143

Constructed under the guidance of noted botanist Henry K. Svenson (who also oversaw Warburg Hall’s creation) and opened in 1959, each diorama specifically lists both the location and exact time of year depicted. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_144

Trees and plants featured in the dioramas are constructed of a combination of art supplies and actual bark and other specimens collected in the field. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_145

The entrance to the hall features a cross section from a 1,400-year-old sequoia taken from the King's River grove on the west flank of the Sierra Mountains in 1891. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_146

Warburg Hall of New York State Environments American Museum of Natural History_section_25

Warburg Hall of New York State Environments is a one-story hall on the museum’s ground floor in between the Hall of North American Forests and the Grand Hall. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_147

Based on the town of Pine Plains and near-by Stissing Mountain in Dutchess County, the hall gives a multi-faceted presentation of the eco-systems typical of New York. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_148

Aspects covered include soil types, seasonal changes, and the impact of both humans and nonhuman animals on the environment. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_149

It is named for the German-American philanthropist, Felix M. Warburg. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_150

Originally known as the "Hall of Man and Nature", Warburg Hall opened in 1951. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_151

It has changed little since and is now frequently regarded for its retro-modern styling. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_152

The hall shares many of the exhibit types featured throughout the museum as well as one display type, unique to Warburg, which features a recessed miniature diorama behind a foreground of species and specimens from the environment depicted. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_153

Milstein Hall of Ocean Life American Museum of Natural History_section_26

The Milstein Hall of Ocean Life focuses on marine biology, botany and marine conservation. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_154

The hall is most famous for its 94-foot (29 m)-long blue whale model, suspended from the ceiling behind its dorsal fin. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_155

The upper level of the hall exhibits the vast array of ecosystems present in the ocean. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_156

Dioramas compare and contrast the life in these different settings including polar seas, kelp forests, mangroves, coral reefs and the bathypelagic. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_157

It attempts to show how vast and varied the oceans are while encouraging common themes throughout. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_158

The lower, and arguably more famous, half of the hall consists of several large dioramas of larger marine organisms. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_159

It is on this level that the famous "Squid and the Whale" diorama sits, depicting a hypothetical fight between the two creatures. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_160

Other notable exhibits in this hall include the Andros Coral Reef Diorama, which is the only two-level diorama in the Western Hemisphere. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_161

One of the most famous icons of the museum is a life-sized fiberglass model of a 94-foot (29 m) long Atlantic blue whale. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_162

The whale was redesigned dramatically in the 2003 renovation: its flukes and fins were readjusted, a navel was added, and it was repainted from a dull gray to various rich shades of blue. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_163

Upper dioramas are smaller versions of the ecosystems when the bottom versions are much bigger and more life like. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_164

History American Museum of Natural History_section_27

In 1910, museum president Henry F. Osborn proposed the construction of a large building in the museum's southeast courtyard to house a new Hall of Ocean Life in which "models and skeletons of whales" would be exhibited. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_165

This proposal to build in the courtyard marked a major reappraisal of the museum's original architectural plan. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_166

Calvert Vaux had designed the museum complex to include four open courtyards in order to maximize the amount of natural light entering the surrounding buildings. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_167

In 1969, a renovation gave the hall a more explicit focus on oceanic megafauna in order to paint the ocean as a grandiose and exciting place. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_168

The key component of the renovation became the addition of a lifelike blue whale model to replace a popular steel and papier-mâché whale model that had hung in the Biology of Mammals hall. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_169

Richard Van Gelder oversaw the creation of the hall in its current incarnation. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_170

The hall was renovated once again in 2003, this time with environmentalism and conservation being the main focal points. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_171

Paul Milstein was a real estate developer, business leader and philanthropist and Irma Milstein is a long-time Board member of the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_172

The 2003 renovation included refurbishment of the famous blue whale, suspended high above the 19,000 square foot (1,750 m) exhibit floor, and updating of the 1930s and 1960s dioramas. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_173

New displays were linked to schools via technology. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_174

Human origins and cultural halls American Museum of Natural History_section_28

Cultural halls American Museum of Natural History_section_29

Stout Hall of Asian Peoples American Museum of Natural History_section_30

The Stout Hall of Asian Peoples is a one-story hall on the museum’s second floor in between the Hall of Asian Mammals and Birds of the World. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_175

It is named for Gardner D. Stout, a former president of the museum, and was primarily organized by Dr. Walter A. Fairservis, a longtime museum archaeologist. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_176

Opened in 1980, Stout Hall is the museum’s largest anthropological hall and contains artifacts acquired by the museum between 1869 and the mid-1970s. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_177

Many famous expeditions sponsored by the museum are associated with the artifacts in the hall, including the Roy Chapman Andrews expeditions in Central Asia and the Vernay-Hopwood Chindwin expedition. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_178

Stout Hall has two sections: Ancient Eurasia, a small section devoted to the evolution of human civilization in Eurasia, and Traditional Asia, a much larger section containing cultural artifacts from across the Asian continent. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_179

The latter section is organized to geographically correspond with two major trade routes of the Silk Road. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_180

Like many of the museum’s exhibition halls, the artifacts in Stout Hall are presented in a variety of ways including exhibits, miniature dioramas, and five full-scale dioramas. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_181

Notable exhibits in the Ancient Eurasian section include reproductions from the archaeological sites of Teshik-Tash and Çatalhöyük, as well as a full size replica of a Hammurabi Stele. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_182

The Traditional Asia section contains areas devoted to major Asian countries, such as Japan, China, Tibet, and India, while also including a vast array of smaller Asian tribes including the Ainu, Semai, and Yakut. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_183

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Hall of African Peoples American Museum of Natural History_section_31

The Hall of African Peoples is behind Akeley Hall of African Mammals and underneath Sanford Hall of North American Birds. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_184

It is organized by the four major ecosystems found in Africa: River Valley, Grasslands, Forest-Woodland, and Desert. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_185

Each section presents artifacts and exhibits of the peoples native to the ecosystems throughout Africa. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_186

The hall contains three dioramas and notable exhibits include a large collection of spiritual costumes on display in the Forest-Woodland section. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_187

Uniting the sections of the hall is a multi-faceted comparison of African societies based on hunting and gathering, cultivation, and animal domestication. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_188

Each type of society is presented in a historical, political, spiritual, and ecological context. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_189

A small section of African diaspora spread by the slave trade is also included. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_190

Below is a brief list of some of the tribes and civilizations featured: American Museum of Natural History_sentence_191

River Valley: Ancient Egyptians, Nubians, Kuba, Lozi American Museum of Natural History_sentence_192

Grasslands: Pokot, Shilluk, Barawa American Museum of Natural History_sentence_193

Forest-Woodland: Yoruba, Kofyar, Mbuti American Museum of Natural History_sentence_194

Desert: Ait Atta, Tuareg American Museum of Natural History_sentence_195

Hall of Mexico and Central America American Museum of Natural History_section_32

The Hall of Mexico and Central America is a one-story hall on the museum’s second floor behind Birds of the World and before the Hall of South American Peoples. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_196

It presents archaeological artifacts from a broad range of pre-Columbian civilizations that once existed across Middle America, including the Maya, Olmec, Zapotec, and Aztec. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_197

Because most of these civilizations did not leave behind recorded writing or have any contact with Western civilization, the overarching aim of the hall is to piece together what it is possible to know about them from the artifacts alone. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_198

The museum has displayed pre-Columbian artifacts since its opening, only a short time after the discovery of the civilizations by archaeologists, with its first hall dedicated to the subject opening in 1899. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_199

As the museum’s collection grew, the hall underwent major renovations in 1944 and again in 1970 when it re-opened in its current form. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_200

Notable artifacts on display include the Kunz Axe and a full-scale replica of Tomb 104 from the Monte Albán archaeological site, originally displayed at the 1939 World’s Fair. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_201

Margaret Mead Hall of Pacific Peoples American Museum of Natural History_section_33

History American Museum of Natural History_section_34

The hall opened in 1971, named the Hall of Pacific Peoples, and reopened as the Margaret Mead Hall of Pacific Peoples in 1984. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_202

Indians halls American Museum of Natural History_section_35

Hall of Northwest Coast Indians American Museum of Natural History_section_36

The Hall of Northwest Coast Indians is a one-story hall on the museum's ground floor behind the Grand Gallery and in between Warburg and Spitzer Halls. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_203

Opened in 1900 under the name "Jesup North Pacific Hall", it is currently the oldest exhibition hall in the museum, though it has undergone many renovations in its history. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_204

The hall contains artifacts and exhibits of the tribes of the North Pacific Coast cultural region (Southern Alaska, Northern Washington, and a portion of British Columbia). American Museum of Natural History_sentence_205

Featured prominently in the hall are four "House Posts" from the Kwakwaka'wakw nation and murals by William S. Taylor depicting native life. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_206

History American Museum of Natural History_section_37

Artifacts in the hall originated from three main sources. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_207

The earliest of these was a gift of Haida artifacts (including the now famous Haida canoe of the Grand Gallery) collected by John Wesley Powell and donated by Herbert Bishop in 1882. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_208

This was followed by the museum’s purchase of two collections of Tlingit artifacts collected by Lt. George T. Emmons in 1888 and 1894. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_209

The remainder of the hall’s artifacts were collected during the famed Jesup North Pacific Expedition between 1897 and 1902. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_210

Led by influential anthropologist Franz Boas and financed by museum president Morris Ketchum Jesup, the expedition was the first for the museum’s Division of Anthropology and is now considered the, “foremost expedition in American anthropology”. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_211

Many famous ethnologists took part, including George Hunt, who secured the Kwakwaka’wakw House Posts that currently stand in the hall. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_212

At the time of its opening, the Hall of Northwest Coast Indians was one of four halls dedicated to the native peoples of United States and Canada. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_213

It was originally organized in two sections, the first being a general area pertaining to all peoples of the region and the second a specialized area divided by tribe. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_214

This was a point of contention for Boas who wanted all artifacts in the hall to be associated with the proper tribe (much like it is currently organized), eventually leading to the dissolution of Boas’ relationship with the museum. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_215

Other tribes featured in the hall include: Coastal Salish, Nuu-chah-nulth (listed as Nootka), Tsimshian, and Nuxalk (listed as Bella Coola) American Museum of Natural History_sentence_216

Hall of Plains Indians American Museum of Natural History_section_38

The primary focus of this hall is the North American Great Plains peoples as they were at the middle of the 19th Century, including depictions of Blackfeet (see also: Blackfoot Confederacy), Hidatsa, and Dakota cultures. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_217

Of particular interest is a Folsom point discovered in 1926 New Mexico, providing valuable evidence of early American colonization of the Americas. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_218

Hall of Eastern Woodlands Indians American Museum of Natural History_section_39

This hall details the lives and technology of traditional Native American peoples in the woodland environments of eastern North America. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_219

Particular cultures exhibited include Cree, Mohegan, Ojibwe, and Iroquois. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_220

Human origins halls American Museum of Natural History_section_40

Bernard and Anne Spitzer Hall of Human Origins American Museum of Natural History_section_41

Main article: Anne and Bernard Spitzer Hall of Human Origins American Museum of Natural History_sentence_221

The Bernard and Anne Spitzer Hall of Human Origins, formerly The Hall of Human Biology and Evolution, opened on February 10, 2007. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_222

Originally known under the name "Hall of the Age of Man", at the time of its original opening in 1921 it was the only major exhibition in the United States to present an in-depth investigation of human evolution. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_223

The displays traced the story of Homo sapiens, illuminated the path of human evolution and examined the origins of human creativity. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_224

Many of the celebrated displays from the original hall can still be viewed in the present expanded format. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_225

These include life-size dioramas of our human predecessors Australopithecus afarensis, Homo ergaster, Neanderthal, and Cro-Magnon, showing each species demonstrating the behaviors and capabilities that scientists believe they were capable of. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_226

Also displayed are full-sized casts of important fossils, including the 3.2-million-year-old Lucy skeleton and the 1.7-million-year-old Turkana Boy, and Homo erectus specimens including a cast of Peking Man. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_227

The hall also features replicas of ice age art found in the Dordogne region of southwestern France. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_228

The limestone carvings of horses were made nearly 26,000 years ago and are considered to represent some of the earliest artistic expression of humans. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_229

Earth and planetary science halls American Museum of Natural History_section_42

Arthur Ross Hall of Meteorites American Museum of Natural History_section_43

The Arthur Ross Hall of Meteorites contains some of the finest specimens in the world including Ahnighito, a section of the 200-ton Cape York meteorite which was first made known to non-Inuit cultures on their investigation of Meteorite Island, Greenland. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_230

Its great weight, 34 tons, makes it the largest displayed in the Northern Hemisphere. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_231

It has support by columns that extend through the floor and into the bedrock below the museum. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_232

The hall also contains extra-solar nanodiamonds (diamonds with dimensions on the nanometer level) more than 5 billion years old. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_233

These were extracted from a meteorite sample through chemical means, and they are so small that a quadrillion of these fit into a volume smaller than a cubic centimeter. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_234

Harry Frank Guggenheim Hall of Gems and Minerals American Museum of Natural History_section_44

Main article: Harry Frank Guggenheim Hall of Gems and Minerals American Museum of Natural History_sentence_235

The Harry Frank Guggenheim Hall of Minerals houses hundreds of unusual geological specimens. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_236

It adjoins the Morgan Memorial Hall of Gems showcasing many rare, and valuable gemstones. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_237

The exhibit was designed by the architectural firm of Wm. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_238

F. Pedersen and Assoc. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_239

with Fred Bookhardt in charge. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_240

Vincent Manson was the curator of the Mineralogy Department. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_241

The exhibit took six years to design and build, 1970–1976. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_242

The New York Times architectural critic, Paul Goldberger, said, "It is one of the finest museum installations that New York City or any city has seen in many years". American Museum of Natural History_sentence_243

On display are many renowned samples that are chosen from among the museum's more than 100,000 pieces. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_244

Included among these are the Patricia Emerald, a 632 carat (126 g), 12 sided stone. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_245

It was discovered during the 1920s in a mine high in the Colombian Andes and was named for the mine-owner's daughter. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_246

The Patricia is one of the few large gem-quality emeralds that remains uncut. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_247

Also on display is the 563 carat (113 g) Star of India, the largest, and most famous, star sapphire in the world. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_248

It was discovered over 300 years ago in Sri Lanka, most likely in the sands of ancient river beds from where star sapphires continue to be found today. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_249

It was donated to the museum by the financier J.P. Morgan. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_250

The thin, radiant, six pointed star, or asterism, is created by incoming light that reflects from needle-like crystals of the mineral rutile which are found within the sapphire. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_251

The Star of India is polished into the shape of a cabochon, or dome, to enhance the star's beauty. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_252

Among other notable specimens on display are a 596-pound (270 kg) topaz, a 4.5 ton specimen of blue azurite/malachite ore that was found in the Copper Queen Mine in Bisbee, Arizona at the start of the 20th century; and a rare, 100 carat (20 g) orange-colored padparadschan sapphire from Sri Lanka, considered "the mother of all pads." American Museum of Natural History_sentence_253

The collection also includes the Midnight Star, a 116.75-carat deep purplish-red star ruby, which was from Sri Lanka and was also donated by J.P. Morgan to the AMNH, like the Star of India. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_254

It was also donated to AMNH the same year the Star of India was donated to the AMNH, 1901. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_255

On October 29, 1964, the Star of India, along with the Midnight Star, the DeLong Star Ruby, and the Eagle Diamond were all stolen from the museum. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_256

The burglars, Jack Roland "Murph The Surf" Murphy, and his two accomplices, Allen Dale Kuhn and Roger Frederick Clark, gained entrance by climbing through a bathroom window they had unlocked hours before the museum was closed. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_257

The Midnight Star and the DeLong Star Ruby were later recovered in Miami. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_258

A few weeks later, also in Miami, the Star of India was recovered from a locker in a bus station, but the Eagle Diamond was never found; it may have been recut or lost. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_259

Murphy, Kuhn, and Clark were all caught later on and were all sentenced to three years in jail, and they all were granted parole. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_260

American Museum of Natural History_unordered_list_1

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David S. and Ruth L. Gottesman Hall of Planet Earth American Museum of Natural History_section_45

The David S. and Ruth L. Gottesman Hall of Planet Earth is a permanent hall devoted to the history of Earth, from accretion to the origin of life and contemporary human impacts on the planet. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_261

Several sections also discuss the studies of Earth systems, including geology, glaciology, atmospheric sciences, and volcanology. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_262

The exhibit is famous for its large, touchable rock specimens. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_263

The hall features striking samples of banded iron and deformed conglomerate rocks, as well as granites, sandstones, lavas, and three black smokers. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_264

The north section of the hall, which deals primarily with plate tectonics, is arranged to mimic the Earth's structure, with the core and mantle at the center and crustal features on the perimeter. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_265

Fossil halls American Museum of Natural History_section_46

Rose Center for Earth and Space American Museum of Natural History_section_47

Main article: Rose Center for Earth and Space American Museum of Natural History_sentence_266

The Hayden Planetarium, connected to the museum, is now part of the Rose Center for Earth and Space, housed in a glass cube containing the spherical Space Theater, designed by James Stewart Polshek. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_267

The Heilbrun Cosmic Pathway is one of the most popular exhibits in the Rose Center, which opened February 19, 2000. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_268

The original Hayden Planetarium was founded in 1933 with a donation by philanthropist Charles Hayden. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_269

Opened in 1935, it was demolished and replaced in 2000 by the $210 million Frederick Phineas and Sandra Priest Rose Center for Earth and Space. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_270

Designed by James Stewart Polshek, the new building consists of a six-story high glass cube enclosing an 87-foot (27 m) illuminated sphere that appears to float—although it is actually supported by truss work. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_271

James Polshek has referred to his work as a "cosmic cathedral". American Museum of Natural History_sentence_272

The Rose Center and its adjacent plaza, both on the north facade of the museum, are regarded as some of Manhattan's most outstanding recent architectural additions. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_273

The facility encloses 333,500 square feet (30,980 m) of research, education, and exhibition space as well as the Hayden planetarium. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_274

Also in the facility is the Department of Astrophysics, the newest academic research department in the museum. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_275

Neil DeGrasse Tyson is the director of the Hayden Planetarium. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_276

Further, Polshek designed the 1,800-square-foot (170 m) Weston Pavilion, a 43-foot (13 m) high transparent structure of "water white" glass along the museum's west facade. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_277

This structure, a small companion piece to the Rose Center, offers a new entry way to the museum as well as opening further exhibition space for astronomically related objects. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_278

The planetarium's former magazine, The Sky, merged with "The Telescope", to become the astronomy magazine Sky & Telescope. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_279

Tom Hanks provided the voice-over for the first planetarium show during the opening of the new Rose Center for Earth & Space in the Hayden Planetarium in 2000. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_280

Since then such celebrities as Whoopi Goldberg, Robert Redford, Harrison Ford and Maya Angelou have been featured. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_281

Exhibitions Lab American Museum of Natural History_section_48

Main article: AMNH Exhibitions Lab American Museum of Natural History_sentence_282

Founded in 1869, the AMNH Exhibitions Lab has since produced thousands of installations. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_283

The department is notable for its integration of new scientific research into immersive art and multimedia presentations. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_284

In addition to the famous dioramas at its home museum and the Rose Center for Earth and Space, the lab has also produced international exhibitions and software such as the Digital Universe Atlas. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_285

The exhibitions team currently consists of over sixty artists, writers, preparators, designers and programmers. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_286

The department is responsible for the creation of two to three exhibits per year. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_287

These extensive shows typically travel nationally to sister natural history museums. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_288

They have produced, among others, the first exhibits to discuss Darwinian evolution, human-induced climate change and the mesozoic mass extinction via asteroid. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_289

Research Library American Museum of Natural History_section_49

The Research Library is open to staff and public visitors, and is on the fourth floor of the museum. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_290

The Library collects materials covering such subjects as mammalogy, earth and planetary science, astronomy and astrophysics, anthropology, entomology, herpetology, ichthyology, paleontology, ethology, ornithology, mineralogy, invertebrates, systematics, ecology, oceanography, conchology, exploration and travel, history of science, museology, bibliography, genomics, and peripheral biological sciences. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_291

The collection is rich in retrospective materials — some going back to the 15th century — that are difficult to find elsewhere. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_292

History American Museum of Natural History_section_50

In its early years, the Library expanded its collection mostly through such gifts as the John C. Jay conchological library, the Carson Brevoort library on fishes and general zoology, the ornithological library of Daniel Giraud Elliot, the Harry Edwards entomological library, the Hugh Jewett collection of voyages and travel and the Jules Marcou geology collection. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_293

In 1903 the American Ethnological Society deposited its library in the museum and in 1905 the New York Academy of Sciences followed suit by transferring its collection of 10,000 volumes. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_294

Today, the Library's collections contain over 550,000 volumes of monographs, serials, pamphlets, reprints, microforms, and original illustrations, as well as film, photographic, archives and manuscripts, fine art, memorabilia and rare book collections. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_295

The new Library was designed by the firm Roche-Dinkeloo in 1992. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_296

The space is 55,000 sq ft (5,100 m) and includes five different 'conservation zones', ranging from the 50-person reading room and public offices, to temperature and humidity controlled rooms. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_297

Special collections American Museum of Natural History_section_51

American Museum of Natural History_unordered_list_2

  • Institutional Archives, Manuscripts, and Personal Papers: Includes archival documents, field notebooks, clippings and other documents relating to the museum, its scientists and staff, scientific expeditions and research, museum exhibitions, education, and general administration.American Museum of Natural History_item_2_8
  • Art and Memorabilia Collection.American Museum of Natural History_item_2_9
  • Moving Image Collection.American Museum of Natural History_item_2_10
  • Vertical Files: Relating to exhibitions, expeditions, and museum operations.American Museum of Natural History_item_2_11

Activities offered American Museum of Natural History_section_52

Research activities American Museum of Natural History_section_53

The museum has a scientific staff of more than 225, and sponsors over 120 special field expeditions each year. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_298

Many of the fossils on display represent unique and historic pieces that were collected during the museum's golden era of worldwide expeditions (1880s–1930s). American Museum of Natural History_sentence_299

Examples of some of these expeditions, financed in whole or part by the AMNH are: Jesup North Pacific Expedition, the Whitney South Seas Expedition, the Roosevelt–Rondon Scientific Expedition, the Crocker Land Expedition, and the expeditions to Madagascar and New Guinea by Richard Archbold. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_300

On a smaller scale, expeditions continue into the present. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_301

The museum also publishes several peer-reviewed journals, including the Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_302

In 1976, animal rights activist Henry Spira led a campaign against vivisection on cats that the American Museum of Natural History had been conducting for 20 years, intended to research the impact of certain types of mutilation on the sex lives of cats. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_303

The museum halted the research in 1977. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_304

Educational outreach American Museum of Natural History_section_54

AMNH's education programs include outreach to schools in New York City by the Moveable Museum. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_305

Additionally, the Museum itself offers a wide variety of educational programs, camps, and classes for students from pre-K to post-graduate levels. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_306

Notably, the Museum sponsors the Lang Science Program, a comprehensive 5th-12th grade research and science education program, and the Science Research Mentorship Program (SRMP), among the most prestigious paid internships in NYC, in which pairs of students conduct a full year of intensive original research with an AMNH scientist. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_307

Richard Gilder Graduate School American Museum of Natural History_section_55

The AMNH offers a Master of Arts in Science Teaching and a PhD in Comparative Biology. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_308

On October 23, 2006, the museum launched the Richard Gilder Graduate School, which offers a PhD in Comparative Biology, becoming the first American museum in the United States to award doctoral degrees in its own name. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_309

Accredited in 2009, in 2011 the graduate school had 11 students enrolled, who work closely with curators and they have access to the collections. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_310

The first seven graduates to complete the program were awarded their degrees on September 30, 2013. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_311

The dean of the graduate school is AMNH paleontologist John J. Flynn, and the namesake and major benefactor is Richard Gilder. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_312

Southwestern Research Station American Museum of Natural History_section_56

The AMNH operates a biological field station in Portal, Arizona, among the Chiricahua Mountains. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_313

The Southwestern Research Station was established in 1955, purchased with a grant from philanthropist David Rockefeller, and with entomologist Mont Cazier as its first director. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_314

The station, in a "biodiversity hotspot," is used by researchers and students, and offers occasional seminars to the public. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_315

Surroundings American Museum of Natural History_section_57

The museum is at 79th Street and Central Park West, accessible via the B and ​C trains of the New York City Subway. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_316

There is a low-level floor direct access into the museum via the 81st Street–Museum of Natural History subway station on the IND Eighth Avenue Line at the south end of the upper platform (where uptown trains arrive). American Museum of Natural History_sentence_317

On a pedestal outside the museum's Columbus Avenue entrance is a stainless steel time capsule, which was created after a design competition that was won by Santiago Calatrava. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_318

The capsule was sealed at the beginning of 2000, to mark the beginning of the 3rd millennium. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_319

It takes the form of a folded saddle-shaped volume, symmetrical on multiple axes, that explores formal properties of folded spherical frames. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_320

Calatrava described it as "a flower". American Museum of Natural History_sentence_321

The plan is that the capsule will be opened in the year 3000. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_322

The museum is in a 17-acre (69,000 m) city park known as Theodore Roosevelt Park that extends from Central Park West to Columbus Avenue, and from West 77th to 81st Streets and that contains park benches, gardens and lawns, and also a dog run. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_323

The Equestrian Statue of Theodore Roosevelt is outside the museum facing Central Park West and is subject to removal due to the subordinate depiction of African American and Native American figures behind Roosevelt. American Museum of Natural History_sentence_324

In popular culture American Museum of Natural History_section_58

Literature American Museum of Natural History_section_59

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Film American Museum of Natural History_section_60

American Museum of Natural History_unordered_list_4

  • A large portion of the 2017 film Wonderstruck takes place in the museum, showing the museum in 1927 as well as 1977.American Museum of Natural History_item_4_22
  • The museum in the film Night at the Museum (2006) is based on a 1993 book that was set at the AMNH (The Night at the Museum). The interior scenes were shot at a sound stage in Vancouver, British Columbia, but exterior shots of the museum's façade were done at the actual AMNH. AMNH officials have credited the movie with increasing the number of visitors during the holiday season in 2006 by almost 20 percent. According to museum president Ellen Futter, there were 50,000 more visits over the previous year during the 2006 holiday season. Its sequels, Night at the Museum: Battle of the Smithsonian (2009) and Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb (2014), were also partially set in this museum.American Museum of Natural History_item_4_23
  • The exterior of AMNH was used in a benefit party scene in the 2006 film The Devil Wears Prada.American Museum of Natural History_item_4_24
  • The 2005 movie The Squid and the Whale takes its name from the diorama of the giant squid and the sperm whale in the museum's Hall of Ocean Life. The diorama is shown in the film's final scene.American Museum of Natural History_item_4_25
  • The AMNH is featured in the 1998 film An American Tail: The Treasure of Manhattan Island. Fievel Mousekewitz and Tony Toponi go to the AMNH to meet Dr. Dithering to decipher a treasure map they have found in an abandoned subway.American Museum of Natural History_item_4_26
  • An ending for the 1993 film We're Back! A Dinosaur's Story shows all four dinosaurs finally reaching the AMNH.American Museum of Natural History_item_4_27
  • Late in the 1984 film Splash Tom Hanks's character is ejected from a laboratory whose entrance is clearly under the stairs that lead the public to the lower floor of the AMNH's Hall of Ocean Life.American Museum of Natural History_item_4_28
  • Scenes from the horror film Exorcist II: The Heretic (1977) and the biographic film Malcolm X (1992) were filmed in the Akeley Hall of African Mammals.American Museum of Natural History_item_4_29
  • In the 1955 Czechoslovak film, Journey to the Beginning of Time, (Czech: Cesta do pravěku, literally "Journey into prehistory") the four boys end their journey on a bench inside the AMNH's 77th St. entrance, beneath the exhibit of the long-boat, in which they'd had their adventure. While the story could be dismissed as a dream, one boy's journal has somehow suffered all the wear-&-tear of their journey through prehistoric eras. A dubbed and partly re-filmed US version of the film was released in 1966 under the title 'Journey to the Beginning of Time'.American Museum of Natural History_item_4_30
  • An early scene of Howard Hawke's 1938 film Bringing Up Baby is set in the museum.American Museum of Natural History_item_4_31
  • The 1914 popular silent cartoon Gertie the Dinosaur was set in the Museum.American Museum of Natural History_item_4_32

Television American Museum of Natural History_section_61

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  • In 2009, the museum hosted the live finale of the second season of The Celebrity Apprentice.American Museum of Natural History_item_5_33
  • In early seasons of Friends, Ross Geller works at the museum.American Museum of Natural History_item_5_34
  • The museum is featured in the How I Met Your Mother episode Natural History, although it is renamed the Natural History Museum.American Museum of Natural History_item_5_35
  • An episode of Mad About You, titled "Natural History", is set in the museum.American Museum of Natural History_item_5_36
  • In a second-season episode of The Spectacular Spider-Man titled "Destructive Testing", Spider-Man fights Kraven the Hunter in the museum.American Museum of Natural History_item_5_37
  • In many episodes of the Time Warp Trio on Discovery Kids, Joe, Sam, and Fred are in the museum; in one episode they see it 90 years into the future.American Museum of Natural History_item_5_38
  • In the episode Top Chef: All-Stars, "Night at the Museum", both the Quickfire Challenge and Elimination Challenge required the chef contestants to cook at the American Museum of Natural History.American Museum of Natural History_item_5_39
  • The museum has made many appearances in The Penguins of Madagascar.American Museum of Natural History_item_5_40

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Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Museum of Natural History.