American Psychological Association

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Not to be confused with the American Psychiatric Association or the American Philosophical Association. American Psychological Association_sentence_0

American Psychological Association_table_infobox_0

American Psychological AssociationAmerican Psychological Association_table_caption_0
FormationAmerican Psychological Association_header_cell_0_0_0 July 1892; 128 years ago (1892-07)American Psychological Association_cell_0_0_1
HeadquartersAmerican Psychological Association_header_cell_0_1_0 750 First Street, NE

Washington, D.C., U.S.American Psychological Association_cell_0_1_1

CoordinatesAmerican Psychological Association_header_cell_0_2_0 American Psychological Association_cell_0_2_1
MembershipAmerican Psychological Association_header_cell_0_3_0 Over 121,000American Psychological Association_cell_0_3_1
PresidentAmerican Psychological Association_header_cell_0_4_0 Sandra L. ShullmanAmerican Psychological Association_cell_0_4_1
CEOAmerican Psychological Association_header_cell_0_5_0 Arthur C. Evans, Jr.American Psychological Association_cell_0_5_1
WebsiteAmerican Psychological Association_header_cell_0_6_0 American Psychological Association_cell_0_6_1

The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States, with over 121,000 members, including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students. American Psychological Association_sentence_1

It has 54 divisions—interest groups for different subspecialties of psychology or topical areas. American Psychological Association_sentence_2

The APA has an annual budget of around $115m. American Psychological Association_sentence_3

Profile American Psychological Association_section_0

The APA has task forces that issue policy statements on various matters of social importance, including abortion, human rights, the welfare of detainees, human trafficking, the rights of the mentally ill, IQ testing, sexual orientation change efforts, and gender equality. American Psychological Association_sentence_4

Governance American Psychological Association_section_1

APA is a corporation chartered in the District of Columbia. American Psychological Association_sentence_5

APA's bylaws describe structural components that serve as a system of checks and balances to ensure democratic process. American Psychological Association_sentence_6

The organizational entities include: American Psychological Association_sentence_7

American Psychological Association_unordered_list_0

  • APA President. The APA's president is elected by the membership. The president chairs the Council of Representatives and the Board of Directors. During his or her term of office, the president performs such duties as are prescribed in the bylaws.American Psychological Association_item_0_0
  • Board of Directors. The board is composed of six members-at-large, the president-elect, president, past-president, treasurer, recording secretary, CEO, and the chair of the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS). The Board oversees the association's administrative affairs and presents an annual budget for council approval.American Psychological Association_item_0_1
  • APA Council of Representatives. The council has sole authority to set policy and make decisions regarding APA's roughly $60 million annual income. It is composed of elected members from state/provincial/territorial psychological associations, APA divisions and the APA Board of Directors.American Psychological Association_item_0_2
  • APA Committee Structure: Boards and Committees. Members of boards and committees conduct much of APA's work on a volunteer basis. They carry out a wide variety of tasks suggested by their names. Some have responsibility for monitoring major programs, such as the directorates, the journals and international affairs.American Psychological Association_item_0_3

Good Governance Project American Psychological Association_section_2

The Good Governance Project (GGP) was initiated in January 2011 as part of the strategic plan to "[assure] APA's governance practices, processes and structures are optimized and aligned with what is needed to thrive in a rapidly changing and increasingly complex environment." American Psychological Association_sentence_8

The charge included soliciting feedback and input stakeholders, learning about governance best practices, recommending whether change was required, recommending needed changes based on data, and creating implementation plans. American Psychological Association_sentence_9

The June 2013 GGP update on the recommended changes can be found in the document "Good Governance Project Recommended Changes to Maximize Organizational Effectiveness of APA Governance". American Psychological Association_sentence_10

The suggested changes would change APA from a membership-based, representational structure to a corporate structure. American Psychological Association_sentence_11

These motions were discussed and voted upon by Council on July 31, 2013 and August 2, 2013. American Psychological Association_sentence_12

Organizational structure American Psychological Association_section_3

APA comprises an executive office, a publishing operation, offices that address administrative, business, information technology, and operational needs, and five substantive directorates: American Psychological Association_sentence_13

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  • the Education Directorate accredits doctoral psychology programs and addresses issues related to psychology education in secondary through graduate education;American Psychological Association_item_1_4
  • the Practice Directorate engages on behalf of practicing psychologists and health care consumers;American Psychological Association_item_1_5
  • the Public Interest Directorate advances psychology as a means of addressing the fundamental problems of human welfare and promoting the equitable and just treatment of all segments of society;American Psychological Association_item_1_6
  • the Public and Member Communications Directorate is responsible for APA's outreach to its members and affiliates and to the general public;American Psychological Association_item_1_7
  • the Science Directorate provides support and voice for psychological scientists.American Psychological Association_item_1_8

Membership and title of "psychologist" American Psychological Association_section_4

Main article: Psychologist § United States and Canada American Psychological Association_sentence_14

APA policy on the use of the title psychologist is contained in the Model Act for State Licensure of Psychologists: psychologists have earned a doctoral degree in psychology and may not use the title "psychologist" and/or deliver psychological services to the public, unless the psychologist is licensed or specifically exempted from licensure under the law. American Psychological Association_sentence_15

State licensing laws specify state specific requirements for the education and training of psychologists leading to licensure. American Psychological Association_sentence_16

Psychologists who are exempted from licensure could include researchers, educators, or general applied psychologists who provide services outside the health and mental health field. American Psychological Association_sentence_17

Full membership with the APA in United States and Canada requires doctoral training whereas associate membership requires at least two years of postgraduate studies in psychology or approved related discipline. American Psychological Association_sentence_18

The minimal requirement of a doctoral dissertation related to psychology for full membership can be waived in certain circumstances where there is evidence that significant contribution or performance in the field of psychology has been made. American Psychological Association_sentence_19

Affiliate organizations American Psychological Association_section_5

American Psychological Association Services, Inc. (APASI) was formed in 2018 and is a 501(c)(6) entity, which engages in advocacy on behalf of psychologists from all areas of psychology. American Psychological Association_sentence_20

Awards American Psychological Association_section_6

Each year, the APA recognizes top psychologists with the "Distinguished Contributions" Awards; these awards are the highest honors given by the APA. American Psychological Association_sentence_21

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Publications American Psychological Association_section_7

Main category: American Psychological Association publications American Psychological Association_sentence_22

The American Psychologist is the Association's official journal. American Psychological Association_sentence_23

APA also publishes over 70 other journals encompassing most specialty areas in the field; APA's Educational Publishing Foundation is an imprint for publishing on behalf of other organizations. American Psychological Association_sentence_24

Its journals include: American Psychological Association_sentence_25

American Psychological Association_unordered_list_3

The APA has published hundreds of books. American Psychological Association_sentence_26

Among these books are: the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (and a concise version titled Concise Rules of APA Style), which is the official guide to APA style; the APA Dictionary of Psychology; an eight-volume Encyclopedia of Psychology; and many scholarly books on specific subjects such as Varieties of Anomalous Experience. American Psychological Association_sentence_27

The APA has also published children's books under the Magination Press imprint, software for data analysis, videos demonstrating therapeutic techniques, reports, and brochures. American Psychological Association_sentence_28

The Psychologically Healthy Workplace program American Psychological Association_section_8

The Psychologically Healthy Workplace Program (PHWP) is a collaborative effort between the American Psychological Association and the APA Practice Organization designed to help employers optimize employee well-being and organizational performance. American Psychological Association_sentence_29

The PHWP includes APA's Psychologically Healthy Workplace Awards, a variety of APA Practice Organization resources, including PHWP Web content, e-newsletter, podcast and blog, and support of local programs currently implemented by 52 state, provincial and territorial psychological associations as a mechanism for driving grassroots change in local business communities. American Psychological Association_sentence_30

The awards are designed to recognize organizations for their efforts to foster employee health and well-being while enhancing organizational performance. American Psychological Association_sentence_31

The award program highlights a variety of workplaces, large and small, profit and non-profit, in diverse geographical settings. American Psychological Association_sentence_32

Applicants are evaluated on their efforts in the following five areas: employee involvement, work-life balance, employee growth and development, health and safety, and employee recognition. American Psychological Association_sentence_33

Awards are given at the local and national level. American Psychological Association_sentence_34

APA style American Psychological Association_section_9

Main article: APA style American Psychological Association_sentence_35

American Psychological Association (APA) style is a set of rules developed to assist reading comprehension in the social and behavioral sciences. American Psychological Association_sentence_36

Used to ensure clarity of communication, the layout is designed to "move the idea forward with a minimum of distraction and a maximum of precision." American Psychological Association_sentence_37

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association contains the rules for every aspect of writing, especially in the social sciences from determining authorship to constructing a table to avoiding plagiarism and constructing accurate reference citations. American Psychological Association_sentence_38

"The General Format of APA is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. American Psychological Association_sentence_39

General guidelines for a paper in APA style includes: typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5" x 11") with 1" margins on all sides. American Psychological Association_sentence_40

The font should be clear and highly readable. American Psychological Association_sentence_41

APA recommends using 12 pt. American Psychological Association_sentence_42

Times New Roman font." American Psychological Association_sentence_43

The seventh edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association was published in October 2019. American Psychological Association_sentence_44

Databases American Psychological Association_section_10

APA maintains a number of databases, including PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, PsycBOOKS, PsycEXTRA, PsycCRITIQUES, PsycTESTS, and PsycTHERAPY. American Psychological Association_sentence_45

APA also operates a comprehensive search platform, PsycNET, covering multiple databases. American Psychological Association_sentence_46

PsycINFO is a bibliographic database that contains citations and summaries dating from the 19th century, including journal articles, book chapters, books, technical reports, and dissertations within the field of psychology. American Psychological Association_sentence_47

As of January 2010, PsycINFO has collected information from 2,457 journals. American Psychological Association_sentence_48

History American Psychological Association_section_11

Founding American Psychological Association_section_12

The APA was founded in July 1892 at Clark University by a small group of around 30 men; by 1916 there were over 300 members. American Psychological Association_sentence_49

The first president was G. American Psychological Association_sentence_50 Stanley Hall. American Psychological Association_sentence_51

During World War II, the APA merged with other psychological organizations, resulting in a new divisional structure. American Psychological Association_sentence_52

Nineteen divisions were approved in 1944; the divisions with the most members were the clinical and personnel (now counseling) divisions. American Psychological Association_sentence_53

From 1960 to 2007, the number of divisions expanded to 54. American Psychological Association_sentence_54

Today the APA is affiliated with 60 state, territorial, and Canadian provincial associations. American Psychological Association_sentence_55

Dominance of clinical psychology American Psychological Association_section_13

Due to the dominance of clinical psychology in APA, several research-focused groups have broken away from the organization. American Psychological Association_sentence_56

These include the Psychonomic Society in 1959 (with a primarily cognitive orientation), and the Association for Psychological Science (which changed its name from the American Psychological Society in early 2006) in 1988 (with a broad focus on the science and research of psychology). American Psychological Association_sentence_57

Theodore H. Blau was the first clinician in independent practice to be elected president of the American Psychological Association in 1977. American Psychological Association_sentence_58

Presidents American Psychological Association_section_14

Divisions American Psychological Association_section_15

The APA has 56 numbered divisions, 54 of which are currently active: American Psychological Association_sentence_59

Positions on homosexuality American Psychological Association_section_16

Cause of homosexuality American Psychological Association_section_17

Further information: Biology and sexual orientation, Environment and sexual orientation, and Homosexuality and psychology American Psychological Association_sentence_60

The APA states the following: American Psychological Association_sentence_61

Conversion therapy American Psychological Association_section_18

Further information: Conversion therapy American Psychological Association_sentence_62

In 1975, APA issued a supporting statement that homosexuality is not a mental disorder. American Psychological Association_sentence_63

There is a concern in the mental health community that the advancement of conversion therapy itself causes social harm by disseminating inaccurate views about sexual orientation and the ability of homosexual and bisexual people to lead happy, healthy lives. American Psychological Association_sentence_64

Most mainstream health organizations are critical of conversion therapy, and no mainstream medical organization endorses conversion therapy. American Psychological Association_sentence_65

The APA adopted a resolution in August 2009 stating that mental health professionals should avoid telling clients that they can change their sexual orientation through therapy or other treatments. American Psychological Association_sentence_66

The approval, by APA's governing Council of Representatives, came at APA's annual convention, during which a task force presented a report that in part examined the efficacy of so-called "reparative therapy", or sexual orientation change efforts. American Psychological Association_sentence_67

The "Resolution on Appropriate Affirmative Responses to Sexual Orientation Distress and Change Efforts" also advises that parents, guardians, young people, and their families avoid sexual orientation treatments that portray homosexuality as a mental illness or developmental disorder and instead seek psychotherapy, social support, and educational services "that provide accurate information on sexual orientation and sexuality, increase family and school support, and reduce rejection of sexual minority youth." American Psychological Association_sentence_68

Same-sex marriage American Psychological Association_section_19

Further information: Same-sex marriage American Psychological Association_sentence_69

The APA adopted a resolution stating that it is unfair and discriminatory to deny same-sex couples legal access to civil marriage and to all its attendant rights, benefits, and privileges. American Psychological Association_sentence_70

It also filed an amicus brief in the federal court case in which Judge Vaughn Walker struck down California's constitutional ban on same-sex marriage. American Psychological Association_sentence_71

The APA later praised the decision and denied the existence of any "scientific justification" for a ban on same-sex marriage. American Psychological Association_sentence_72

In August 2011, the APA clarified their support of same-sex marriage in light of continued research suggesting that the same community benefits accepted as result of heterosexual marriage apply to same-sex couples as well. American Psychological Association_sentence_73

Dr. Clinton Anderson, associate executive director of the APA and director of the Office on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Concerns, said that, prior to this research, "We knew that marriage benefits heterosexual people in very significant ways, but we didn't know if that would be true for same-sex couples". American Psychological Association_sentence_74

Anderson also put forward the APA's view that merely allowing same-sex civil unions is an inadequate option: "Anything other than marriage is, in essence, a stigmatization of same-sex couples. American Psychological Association_sentence_75

Stigma does have negative impacts on people." American Psychological Association_sentence_76

APA internship crisis for graduate students American Psychological Association_section_20

The APA is the main accrediting body for U.S. clinical and counseling psychology doctoral training programs and internship sites. American Psychological Association_sentence_77

APA-accredited Clinical Psychology PhD and PsyD programs typically require students to complete a one-year clinical internship in order to graduate (or a two-year part-time internship). American Psychological Association_sentence_78

However, there is currently an "internship crisis" as defined by the American Psychological Association, in that approximately 25% of clinical psychology doctoral students do not match for internship each year. American Psychological Association_sentence_79

This crisis has led many students (approximately 1,000 each year) to re-apply for internship, thus delaying graduation, or to complete an unaccredited internship, and often has many emotional and financial consequences. American Psychological Association_sentence_80

Students who do not complete an APA accredited internships in the U.S. are barred from certain employment settings, including VA Hospitals, the military, and cannot get licensed in some states, such as Utah and Mississippi. American Psychological Association_sentence_81

Additionally, some post-doctoral fellowships and other employment settings require or prefer an APA Accredited internship. American Psychological Association_sentence_82

The APA has been criticized for not addressing this crisis adequately and many psychologists and graduate students have petitioned for the APA to take action by regulating graduate training programs. American Psychological Association_sentence_83

Warfare and the use of torture American Psychological Association_section_21

A year after the establishment of the Human Resources Research Organization by the U.S. military in 1951, the CIA began funding numerous psychologists (and other scientists) in the development of psychological warfare methods under the supervision of APA treasurer Meredith Crawford. American Psychological Association_sentence_84

Donald O. Hebb, the APA president in 1960 who was awarded the APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award in 1961, defended the torture of research subjects, arguing that what was being studied was other nations' methods of brainwashing. American Psychological Association_sentence_85

Former APA president Martin Seligman spoke upon the invitation of the CIA on his animal experimentation where he shocked a dog unpredictably and repeatedly into total, helpless passivity. American Psychological Association_sentence_86

Former APA president Ronald F. Levant, upon visiting Guantanamo Bay, affirmed that psychologists were present during the torture of prisoners, arguing that their presence was to "add value and safeguards" to interrogations. American Psychological Association_sentence_87

Former APA president Gerald Koocher argued, referring to allegations of continuing systemic abuse by psychologists, that such allegations were originating from "opportunistic commentators masquerading as scholars". American Psychological Association_sentence_88

When it emerged that psychologists, as part of the Behavioral Science Consultation Team, were advising interrogators in Guantánamo and other U.S. facilities on improving the effectiveness of the "enhanced interrogation techniques", the APA called on the U.S. government to prohibit the use of unethical interrogation techniques and labeled specific techniques as torture. American Psychological Association_sentence_89

Critics pointed out that the APA declined to advise its members not to participate in such interrogations. American Psychological Association_sentence_90

In September 2008, the APA's members passed a resolution stating that psychologists may not work in settings where "persons are held outside, or in violation of, either International Law (e.g., the UN Convention Against Torture and the Geneva Conventions) or the U.S. Constitution (where appropriate), unless they are working directly for the persons being detained or for an independent third party working to protect human rights." American Psychological Association_sentence_91

The resolution became official APA policy in February 2009. American Psychological Association_sentence_92

However, the APA has refused to sanction those members known to have participated in and, in some cases, designed abusive interrogation techniques used in Guantanamo Bay, Iraq, and Afghanistan interrogation centers. American Psychological Association_sentence_93

The APA directive was in contrast to the American Psychiatric Association ban in May 2006 of all direct participation in interrogations by psychiatrists, and the American Medical Association ban in June 2006 of the direct participation in interrogations by physicians. American Psychological Association_sentence_94

An independent panel of medical, military, ethics, education, public health, and legal professionals issued a comprehensive report in November 2013 that "charged that U.S. military and intelligence agencies directed doctors and psychologists working in U.S. military detention centers to violate standard ethical principles and medical standards to avoid infliction of harm". American Psychological Association_sentence_95

One group of psychologists in particular, the Coalition for an Ethical Psychology, has been very harsh in its criticism of the APA stance on its refusal to categorically prohibit members from participating in any phase of military interrogations. American Psychological Association_sentence_96

They recently stated their continuing disagreement with APA leadership in an open letter posted on their website on October 31, 2012, in which they reiterated their condemnation of torture and enhanced interrogation techniques, and called for the APA to require its members to refuse participation in military conducted interrogations of any kind. American Psychological Association_sentence_97

Amending the Ethics Code American Psychological Association_section_22

In February 2010, the APA's Council of Representatives voted to amend the association's Ethics Code to make clear that its standards can never be interpreted to justify or defend violating human rights. American Psychological Association_sentence_98

Following are the two relevant ethical standards from the Ethics Code, with the newly adopted language shown in bold: American Psychological Association_sentence_99

In its 2013 "Policy Related to Psychologists' Work in National Security Settings and Reaffirmation of the APA Position Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment the APA condemns the use of any of the following practices by military interrogators trying to elicit anti-terrorism information from detainees, on the ground that "there are no exceptional circumstances whatsoever, whether induced by a state of war or threat of war, internal political instability or any other public emergency, that may be invoked as a justification." American Psychological Association_sentence_100

Hoffman report American Psychological Association_section_23

In November 2014, the APA ordered an independent review into whether it cooperated with the government's use of torture of prisoners during the George W. Bush administration, naming Chicago attorney David H. Hoffman to conduct the review. American Psychological Association_sentence_101

On July 2, 2015, a 542-page report was issued to the special committee of the board of directors of the APA relating to ethics guidelines, national security interrogations, and torture. American Psychological Association_sentence_102

The report concluded that the APA secretly collaborated with the Bush administration to bolster a legal and ethical justification for the torture of prisoners. American Psychological Association_sentence_103

Furthermore, the report stated that the association's ethics director Stephen Behnke and others had "colluded with important Department of Defense officials to have the APA issue loose, high-level ethical guidelines that did not constrain" the interrogation of terrorism suspects at Guantanamo Bay. American Psychological Association_sentence_104

The association's "principal motive in doing so was to align APA and curry favor with DOD." American Psychological Association_sentence_105

An APA official said that ethics director Stephen Behnke had been "removed from his position as a result of the report" and indicated that other firings or sanctions might follow. American Psychological Association_sentence_106

On July 14, 2015, the APA announced the retirement of its CEO, Norman B. Anderson, effective the end of 2015, and of Deputy Chief Executive Officer Michael Honaker, effective August 15, 2015, and the resignation of Rhea K. Farberman, APA's executive director for public and member communication. American Psychological Association_sentence_107

Anderson had been CEO since 2003. American Psychological Association_sentence_108

Ban on involvement American Psychological Association_section_24

For at least a decade, dissident psychologists within and outside the APA, including the group WithholdAPAdues, had protested the involvement of psychologists "in interrogations at CIA black sites and Guantánamo". American Psychological Association_sentence_109

Prior to the release of the Hoffman report, which undermined the APA's repeated denials and showed that some APA leaders were complicit in torture, the dissidents were ignored or ridiculed. American Psychological Association_sentence_110

On August 7, 2015, just weeks following the release of the Hoffman report, the APA council of representatives met at the association's 123rd annual convention in Toronto, Ontario. American Psychological Association_sentence_111

At that meeting, the APA council passed Resolution 23B, which implemented the 2008 membership vote to remove psychologists from settings that operate outside international law, and banning the participation of psychologists in unlawful interrogations. American Psychological Association_sentence_112

With 156 votes in favor and only one vote against, the resolution passed with the near unanimous approval of council members. American Psychological Association_sentence_113

The adoption of Resolution 23B aligned the APA's policy with that of the American Psychiatric Association and that of the American Medical Association by prohibiting psychologists from participating in interrogations deemed illegal by the Geneva Conventions and the United Nations Convention against Torture. American Psychological Association_sentence_114

The ban will not "prohibit psychologists from working with the police or prisons in criminal law enforcement interrogations". American Psychological Association_sentence_115

Class action lawsuit by members claiming deceptive dues assessments American Psychological Association_section_25

In 2013 a class action lawsuit was brought against APA on behalf of approximately 60,000 of its 122,000 members who were licensed clinicians. American Psychological Association_sentence_116

Those members paid an additional $140 practice assessment fee as part of their membership dues every year beginning in 2001 to fund the lobbying arm of APA, the APA Practice Organization (APAPO). American Psychological Association_sentence_117

The lawsuit accused APA of using deceptive means by representing that the assessment was mandatory for APA membership even though payment of the assessment was only required for membership in the APAPO. American Psychological Association_sentence_118

In 2015 APA settled the case by establishing a $9.02 million settlement fund to be used to pay claims made by members of APA who paid the practice assessment, as well as attorneys' fees and certain other costs. American Psychological Association_sentence_119

APA agreed to change its policies to make clear that the APAPO membership dues are not required for membership in APA. American Psychological Association_sentence_120

See also American Psychological Association_section_26

American Psychological Association_unordered_list_4


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American Psychological Association.