Indigenous peoples of the Americas

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"Indian nation" redirects here. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_0

For the South Asian country, see India. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_1

For the peoples of India, see Indian people. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_2

Indigenous peoples of the Americas_table_infobox_0

Indigenous peoples of the AmericasIndigenous peoples of the Americas_table_caption_0
Total populationIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_0_0
Regions with significant populationsIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_1_0
MexicoIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_2_0 25.7 millionIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_2_1
PeruIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_3_0 13 millionIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_3_1
GuatemalaIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_4_0 7.8 millionIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_4_1
BoliviaIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_5_0 6 millionIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_5_1
United StatesIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_6_0 5.2 millionIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_6_1
EcuadorIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_7_0 4.5 millionIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_7_1
CanadaIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_8_0 2.13 millionIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_8_1
ChileIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_9_0 2.1 millionIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_9_1
ColombiaIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_10_0 1.9 millionIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_10_1
ArgentinaIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_11_0 1.2 millionIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_11_1
BrazilIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_12_0 997,000Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_12_1
VenezuelaIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_13_0 524,000Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_13_1
HondurasIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_14_0 520,000Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_14_1
PanamaIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_15_0 460,000Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_15_1
NicaraguaIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_16_0 444,000Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_16_1
UruguayIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_17_0 160,000Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_17_1
Costa RicaIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_18_0 118,000Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_18_1
ParaguayIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_19_0 116,000Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_19_1
El SalvadorIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_20_0 70,000Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_20_1
GuyanaIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_21_0 80,000Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_21_1
GreenlandIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_22_0 51,000Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_22_1
BelizeIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_23_0 40,000 (Maya)Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_23_1
SurinameIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_24_0 20,300Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_24_1
France (French Guiana)Indigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_25_0 19,000Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_25_1
CubaIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_26_0 4,000Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_26_1
DominicaIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_27_0 2,000Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_27_1
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_28_0 2,000Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_28_1
Trinidad and TobagoIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_29_0 1,500Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_0_29_1
LanguagesIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_30_0
ReligionIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_31_0
Related ethnic groupsIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_0_32_0

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of North, Central and South America and their descendants. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_3

Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_4

The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_5

Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_6

In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, city-states, chiefdoms, states, kingdoms and empires. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_7

Some had varying degrees of knowledge of engineering, architecture, mathematics, astronomy, writing, physics, medicine, planting and irrigation, geology, mining, sculpture and goldsmithing. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_8

Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Bolivia, Canada, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru and the United States. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_9

At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_10

Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_11

Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_12

Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_13

Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_14

Terminology Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_0

Application of the term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for India, thought that he had arrived in the East Indies. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_15

Eventually, those islands came to be known as the "West Indies," a name still used. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_16

This led to the blanket term "Indies" and "Indians" (Spanish: indios; Portuguese: índios; French: indiens; Dutch: indianen) for the indigenous inhabitants, which implied some kind of racial or cultural unity among the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_17

This unifying concept, codified in law, religion and politics, was not originally accepted by the myriad groups of indigenous peoples themselves, but has since been embraced or tolerated by many over the last two centuries. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_18

Even though the term "Indian" generally does not include the culturally and linguistically distinct indigenous peoples of the Arctic regions of the Americas—such as the Aleuts, Inuit or Yupik peoples, who entered the continent as a second, more recent wave of migration several thousand years before and have much more recent genetic and cultural commonalities with the aboriginal peoples of the Asiatic Arctic Russian Far East—these groups are nonetheless considered "indigenous peoples of the Americas." Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_19

The term Amerindian (a blend of "American and Indian") and its cognates find preferred use in scientific contexts and in Quebec, the Guianas, and the English-speaking Caribbean. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_20

In Canada, indigenous peoples are commonly known as Indigenous Canadians—and sometimes Aboriginal Canadians, though the term has fallen out of favour in recent times—which includes not only First Nations and Arctic Inuit, but also the minority population of Métis people, a First Nations-European mixed race who identify culturally and ethnically with indigenous peoplehood. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_21

The Métis people of Canada can be contrasted, for instance, to the American Indian-European mixed race mestizos (or caboclos in Brazil) of Hispanic America who, with their larger population (in most Latin-American countries constituting either outright majorities, pluralities, or at the least large minorities), identify largely as a new ethnic group distinct from both Europeans and Indigenous Americans, but still considering themselves a subset of the European-derived Hispanic or Brazilian peoplehood in culture and ethnicity (cf. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_22

ladinos). Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_23

Among Spanish-speaking countries, indígenas or pueblos indígenas ('indigenous peoples') is a common term, though nativos or pueblos nativos ('native peoples') may also be heard; moreover, aborigen ('aborigine') is used in Argentina and pueblos originarios ('original peoples') is common in Chile. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_24

In Brazil, indígenas or povos indígenas ('indigenous peoples') are common of formal-sounding designations, while índio ('Indian') is still the more often-heard term (the noun for the South-Asian nationality being indiano). Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_25

Aborígene and nativo is rarely used in Brazil in Amerindian-specific contexts (e.g. aborígene is usually understood as the ethnonym for Indigenous Australians). Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_26

The Spanish and Portuguese equivalents to Indian, nevertheless, could be used to mean any hunter-gatherer or full-blooded Indigenous person, particularly to continents other than Europe or Africa—for example, indios filipinos. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_27

Indigenous peoples of the United States are commonly known as Native Americans or American Indians, as well as Alaska Natives. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_28

Native American name controversy Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_1

Main article: Native American name controversy Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_29

The Native American name controversy relates to the dispute over acceptable ways to refer to the indigenous peoples of the Americas and to broad subsets thereof, such as those living in a specific country or sharing certain cultural attributes. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_30

Early settlers often adopted terms that some tribes used for each other, not realizing these were derogatory terms used by enemies. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_31

When discussing broader subsets of peoples, naming may be based on shared language, region, or historical relationship. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_32

Many English exonyms have been used to refer to the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_33

Some of these names were based on foreign-language terms used by earlier explorers and colonists, while others resulted from the colonists' attempts to translate or transliterate endonyms from the native languages. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_34

Other terms arose during periods of conflict between the colonizers and indigenous peoples. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_35

Since the late 20th century, indigenous peoples in the Americas have been more vocal about how they want to be addressed, pushing to suppress use of terms widely considered to be obsolete, inaccurate, or racist. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_36

During the latter half of the 20th century and the rise of the Indian rights movement, the United States government responded by proposing the use of the term "Native American," to recognize the primacy of indigenous peoples' tenure in the nation. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_37

As may be expected among people of different cultures, not all Native Americans/American Indians agree on its use. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_38

No single group naming convention has been accepted by all indigenous peoples. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_39

Most prefer to be addressed as people of their tribe or nations when not speaking about Native Americans/American Indians as a whole. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_40

History Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_2

Migration into the continents Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_3

Further information on theories of the migrations of the Paleo-Indians: settlement of the Americas Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_41

The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the exact dates and routes traveled, are the subject of ongoing research and discussion. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_42

According to archaeological and genetic evidence, North and South America were the last continents in the world to gain human habitation. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_43

During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the land bridge of Beringia that joined Siberia to northwest North America (Alaska). Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_44

Alaska was a glacial refugium because it had low snowfall, allowing a small population to exist. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_45

The Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska (East Beringia) for thousands of years. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_46

Indigenous genetic studies suggest that the first inhabitants of the Americas share a single ancestral population, one that developed in isolation, conjectured to be Beringia. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_47

The isolation of these peoples in Beringia might have lasted 10–20,000 years. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_48

Around 16,500 years ago, the glaciers began melting, allowing people to move south and east into Canada and beyond. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_49

These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct Pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran Ice Sheets. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_50

Another route proposed involves migration – either on foot or using primitive boats – along the Pacific Northwest coast to the south, including as far as South America. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_51

Archeological evidence of the latter would have been covered by the sea level rise of more than 120 meters since the last ice age. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_52

The time range of 40,000–16,500 years ago is debatable and probably will remain so for years to come. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_53

The few agreements achieved to date include: Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_54

Indigenous peoples of the Americas_unordered_list_0

  • origin from South Siberia (DNA studies reported in 2012 indicate the area of Altai Republic, with a separation of populations 20,000-25,000 years ago)Indigenous peoples of the Americas_item_0_0
  • widespread habitation of the Americas during the end of the last glacial period, or more specifically what is known as the Late Glacial Maximum, around 16,000–13,000 years before present.Indigenous peoples of the Americas_item_0_1

Stone tools, particularly projectile points and scrapers, are the primary evidence of the earliest human activity in the Americas. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_55

Archaeologists and anthropologists have studied differences among these crafted lithic flaked tools to classify cultural periods. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_56

The Clovis culture, the earliest definitively-dated Paleo-Indians in the Americas, appears around 11,500 RCBP (radiocarbon years Before Present), equivalent to 13,500 to 13,000 calendar years ago. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_57

In 2014, the autosomal DNA was sequenced of a 12,500+-year-old infant from Montana, whose remains were found in close association with several Clovis artifacts. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_58

These are the Anzick-1 remains from the Anzick Clovis burial in Montana. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_59

The data indicated that the individual was closely related to present North American Native American populations. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_60

But, the DNA was ancestral to present-day South American and Central American Native American populations. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_61

The implication is that there was an early divergence between North American indigenous peoples and those of Central and South America. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_62

Ruled out were hypotheses which posit that invasions subsequent to the Clovis culture overwhelmed or assimilated previous migrants into the Americas. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_63

After study, the remains were returned to Montana for burial by Native Americans. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_64

Similarly, the skeleton of a teenage girl (named 'Naia' after a water nymph from Greek mythology) was found in 2007 in the underwater caves called sistema Sac Actun in Mexico's eastern Yucatán Peninsula. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_65

DNA was extracted and dated. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_66

The skeleton was found to be 13,000 years old, and it is considered the oldest genetically intact human skeleton ever found in the Americas. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_67

The DNA indicates she was from a lineage derived from East Asian origins and also represented in the DNA of the modern native population. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_68

The remains of two infants found at the Upward Sun River site have been dated to 11,500 years ago. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_69

They show that all Native Americans descended from a single founding population that initially split from East Asians around 36,000 years ago. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_70

They also show that the basal northern and southern Native American branches, to which all other indigenous Americans belong, diverged around 16,000 years ago. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_71

At least two morphologically different Paleo-Indian populations were coexisting in different geographical areas of Mexico 10,000 years ago. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_72

Pre-Columbian era Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_4

Main articles: Pre-Columbian era and Archaeology of the Americas Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_73

The Pre-Columbian era refers to all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European and African influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original arrival in the Upper Paleolithic to European colonization during the early modern period. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_74

While technically referring to the era before Christopher Columbus' voyages of 1492 to 1504, in practice the term usually includes the history of American indigenous cultures until Europeans either conquered or significantly influenced them. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_75

"Pre-Columbian" is used especially often in the context of discussing the pre-contact Mesoamerican indigenous societies: Olmec; Toltec; Teotihuacano' Zapotec; Mixtec; Aztec and Maya civilizations; and the complex cultures of the Andes: Inca Empire, Moche culture, Muisca Confederation, and Cañari. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_76

The Norte Chico civilization (in present-day Peru) is one of the defining six original civilizations of the world, arising independently around the same time as that of Egypt. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_77

Many later pre-Columbian civilizations achieved great complexity, with hallmarks that included permanent or urban settlements, agriculture, engineering, astronomy, trade, civic and monumental architecture, and complex societal hierarchies. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_78

Some of these civilizations had long faded by the time of the first significant European and African arrivals (ca. late 15th–early 16th centuries), and are known only through oral history and through archaeological investigations. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_79

Others were contemporary with the contact and colonization period, and were documented in historical accounts of the time. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_80

A few, such as the Mayan, Olmec, Mixtec, Aztec and Nahua peoples, had their own written languages and records. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_81

However, the European colonists of the time worked to eliminate non-Christian beliefs, and burned many pre-Columbian written records. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_82

Only a few documents remained hidden and survived, leaving contemporary historians with glimpses of ancient culture and knowledge. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_83

According to both Indigenous American and European accounts and documents, American civilizations before and at the time of European encounter had achieved great complexity and many accomplishments. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_84

For instance, the Aztecs built one of the largest cities in the world, Tenochtitlan (the historical site of what would become Mexico City), with an estimated population of 200,000 for the city proper and a population of close to five million for the extended empire. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_85

By comparison, the largest European cities in the 16th century were Constantinople and Paris with 300,000 and 200,000 inhabitants respectively. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_86

The population in London, Madrid and Rome hardly exceeded 50,000 people. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_87

In 1523, right around the time of the Spanish conquest, the entire population in the country of England was just under three million people. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_88

This fact speaks to the level of sophistication, agriculture, governmental procedure and rule of law that existed in Tenochtitlan, needed to govern over such a large citizenry. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_89

American civilizations also displayed impressive accomplishments in astronomy and mathematics, including the most accurate calendar in the world. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_90

The domestication of maize or corn required thousands of years of selective breeding, and continued cultivation of multiple varieties was done with planning and selection, generally by women. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_91

Inuit, Yupik, Aleut, and American Indian creation myths tell of a variety of origins of their respective peoples. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_92

Some were "always there" or were created by gods or animals, some migrated from a specified compass point, and others came from "across the ocean". Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_93

European colonization Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_5

Main article: European colonization of the Americas Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_94

See also: Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, Columbian Exchange, and Society of the Spanish-Americans in the Spanish Colonial Americas Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_95

The European colonization of the Americas fundamentally changed the lives and cultures of the resident Indigenous peoples. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_96

Although the exact pre-colonization population-count of the Americas is unknown, scholars estimate that Indigenous populations diminished by between 80% and 90% within the first centuries of European colonization. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_97

The majority of these losses are attributed to the introduction of Afro-Eurasian diseases into the Americas. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_98

Epidemics ravaged the Americas with diseases such as smallpox, measles, and cholera, which the early colonists brought from Europe. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_99

The spread of infectious diseases was slow initially, as most Europeans were not actively or visibly infected, due to inherited immunity from generations of exposure to these diseases in Europe. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_100

This changed when the Europeans began the human trafficking of massive numbers of enslaved Western and Central African people to the Americas. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_101

Like the Native Americans, these African people, newly exposed to European diseases, lacked any inherited resistances to the diseases of Europe. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_102

In 1520 an African who had been infected with smallpox had arrived in Yucatán. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_103

By 1558, the disease had spread throughout South America and had arrived at the Plata basin. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_104

Colonist violence towards Indigenous peoples accelerated the loss of lives. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_105

European colonists perpetrated massacres on the indigenous peoples and enslaved them. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_106

According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census (1894), the North American Indian Wars of the 19th century cost the lives of about 19,000 Europeans and 30,000 Native Americans. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_107

The first indigenous group encountered by Columbus, the 250,000 Taínos of Hispaniola, represented the dominant culture in the Greater Antilles and the Bahamas. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_108

Within thirty years about 70% of the Taínos had died. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_109

They had no immunity to European diseases, so outbreaks of measles and smallpox ravaged their population. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_110

One such outbreak occurred in a camp of enslaved Africans, where smallpox spread to the nearby Taíno population and reduced their numbers by 50%. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_111

Increasing punishment of the Taínos for revolting against forced labor, despite measures put in place by the encomienda, which included religious education and protection from warring tribes, eventually led to the last great Taíno rebellion (1511–1529). Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_112

Following years of mistreatment, the Taínos began to adopt suicidal behaviors, with women aborting or killing their infants and men jumping from cliffs or ingesting untreated cassava, a violent poison. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_113

Eventually, a Taíno Cacique named Enriquillo managed to hold out in the Baoruco Mountain Range for thirteen years, causing serious damage to the Spanish, Carib-held plantations and their Indian auxiliaries. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_114

Hearing of the seriousness of the revolt, Emperor Charles V (also King of Spain) sent captain Francisco Barrionuevo to negotiate a peace treaty with the ever-increasing number of rebels. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_115

Two months later, after consultation with the Audencia of Santo Domingo, Enriquillo was offered any part of the island to live in peace. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_116

The Laws of Burgos, 1512–1513, were the first codified set of laws governing the behavior of Spanish settlers in America, particularly with regard to native Indians. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_117

The laws forbade the maltreatment of natives and endorsed their conversion to Catholicism. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_118

The Spanish crown found it difficult to enforce these laws in distant colonies. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_119

Epidemic disease was the overwhelming cause of the population decline of the American natives. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_120

After initial contact with Europeans and Africans, Old World diseases caused the deaths of 90 to 95% of the native population of the New World in the following 150 years. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_121

Smallpox killed from one third to half of the native population of Hispaniola in 1518. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_122

By killing the Incan ruler Huayna Capac, smallpox caused the Inca Civil War of 1529–1532. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_123

Smallpox was only the first epidemic. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_124

Typhus (probably) in 1546, influenza and smallpox together in 1558, smallpox again in 1589, diphtheria in 1614, measles in 1618—all ravaged the remains of Inca culture. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_125

Smallpox killed millions of native inhabitants of Mexico. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_126

Unintentionally introduced at Veracruz with the arrival of Pánfilo de Narváez on 23 April 1520, smallpox ravaged Mexico in the 1520s, possibly killing over 150,000 in Tenochtitlán (the heartland of the Aztec Empire) alone, and aiding in the victory of Hernán Cortés over the Aztec Empire at Tenochtitlan (present-day Mexico City) in 1521. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_127

There are many factors as to why Native Americans suffered such immense losses from Afro-Eurasian diseases. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_128

Many European diseases, like cow pox, are acquired from domesticated animals that are not indigenous to the Americas. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_129

European populations had adapted to these diseases, and built up resistance, over many generations. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_130

Many of the European diseases that were brought over to the Americas were diseases, like yellow fever, that were relatively manageable if infected as a child, but were deadly if infected as an adult. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_131

Children could often survive the disease, resulting in immunity to the disease for the rest of their lives. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_132

But contact with adult populations without this childhood or inherited immunity would result in these diseases proving fatal. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_133

Colonization of the Caribbean led to the destruction of the Arawaks of the Lesser Antilles. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_134

Their culture was destroyed by 1650. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_135

Only 500 had survived by the year 1550, though the bloodlines continued through to the modern populace. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_136

In Amazonia, indigenous societies weathered, and continue to suffer, centuries of colonization and genocide. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_137

Contact with European diseases such as smallpox and measles killed between 50 and 67 per cent of the aboriginal population of North America in the first hundred years after the arrival of Europeans. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_138

Some 90 per cent of the native population near Massachusetts Bay Colony died of smallpox in an epidemic in 1617–1619. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_139

In 1633, in Fort Orange (New Netherland), the Native Americans there were exposed to smallpox because of contact with Europeans. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_140

As it had done elsewhere, the virus wiped out entire population-groups of Native Americans. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_141

It reached Lake Ontario in 1636, and the lands of the Iroquois by 1679. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_142

During the 1770s smallpox killed at least 30% of the West Coast Native Americans. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_143

The 1775–82 North American smallpox epidemic and the 1837 Great Plains smallpox epidemic brought devastation and drastic population depletion among the Plains Indians. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_144

In 1832 the federal government of the United States established a smallpox vaccination program for Native Americans (The Indian Vaccination Act of 1832). Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_145

The indigenous peoples in Brazil declined from a pre-Columbian high of an estimated three million to some 300,000 in 1997. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_146

The Spanish Empire and other Europeans re-introduced horses to the Americas. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_147

Some of these animals escaped and began to breed and increase their numbers in the wild. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_148

The re-introduction of the horse, extinct in the Americas for over 7500 years, had a profound impact on Native American culture in the Great Plains of North America and in Patagonia in South America. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_149

By domesticating horses, some tribes had great success: horses enabled them to expand their territories, exchange more goods with neighboring tribes, and more easily capture game, especially bison. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_150

Indigenous historical trauma (IHT) Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_6

See also: Historical trauma Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_151

Indigenous historical trauma (IHT) is the trauma that can accumulate across generations that develops as a result of the historical ramifications of colonization and is linked to mental and physical health hardships and population decline. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_152

IHT affects many different people in a multitude of ways because the indigenous community and their history is diverse. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_153

Many studies (e.g., Whitbeck et al., 2014; Brockie, 2012; Anastasio et al., 2016; Clark & Winterowd, 2012; Tucker et al., 2016) have evaluated the impact of IHT on health outcomes of indigenous communities from the United States and Canada. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_154

IHT is a difficult term to standardize and measure because of the vast and variable diversity of indigenous people and their communities. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_155

Therefore, it is an arduous task to assign an operational definition and systematically collect data when studying IHT. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_156

Many of the studies that incorporate IHT measure it in different ways, making it hard to compile data and review it holistically. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_157

This is an important point that provides context for the following studies that attempt to understand the relationship between IHT and potential adverse health impacts. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_158

Some of the methodologies to measure IHT include a “Historical Losses Scale" (HLS), "Historical Losses Associated Symptoms Scale" (HLASS), and residential school ancestry studies. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_159

HLS uses a survey format that includes “12 kinds of historical losses,” such as loss of language and loss of land and asks participants how often they think about those losses. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_160

The HLASS includes 12 emotional reactions and asks participants how they feel when they think about these losses. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_161

Lastly, the residential school ancestry studies ask respondents if their parents, grandparents, great-grandparents or “elders from their community” went to a residential school to understand if family or community history in residential schools are associated with negative health outcomes. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_162

In a comprehensive review of the research literature, Joseph Gone and colleagues compiled and compared outcomes for studies using these IHT measures relative to health outcomes of indigenous peoples. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_163

The study defined negative health outcomes to include such concepts as anxiety, suicidal ideation, suicidal attempts, polysubstance abuse, PTSD, depression, binge-eating, anger, and sexual abuse. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_164

The connection between IHT and health conditions is complicated because of the difficult nature of measuring IHT, the unknown directionality of IHT and health outcomes, and because the term indigenous people used in the various samples comprises a huge population of individuals with drastically different experiences and histories. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_165

That being said, some studies such as Bombay, Matheson, and Anisman (2014), Elias et al. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_166

(2012), and Pearce et al. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_167

(2008) found that indigenous respondents with a connection to residential schools have more negative health outcomes (i.e., suicide ideation, suicide attempts, and depression) than those who did not have a connection to residential schools. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_168

Additionally, indigenous respondents with higher HLS and HLASS scores had one or more negative health outcomes. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_169

While there many studies that found an association between IHT and adverse health outcomes, scholars continue to suggest that it remains difficult to understand the impact of IHT. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_170

IHT needs to be systematically measured. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_171

Indigenous people also need to be understood in separated categories based on similar experiences, location, and background as opposed to being categorized as one monolithic group. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_172

Agriculture Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_7

See also: Agriculture in Mesoamerica, Incan agriculture, and Eastern Agricultural Complex Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_173

Plants Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_8

In the course of thousands of years, American indigenous peoples domesticated, bred and cultivated a large array of plant species. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_174

These species now constitute between 50% and 60% of all crops in cultivation worldwide. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_175

In certain cases, the indigenous peoples developed entirely new species and strains through artificial selection, as with the domestication and breeding of maize from wild teosinte grasses in the valleys of southern Mexico. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_176

Numerous such agricultural products retain their native names in the English and Spanish lexicons. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_177

The South American highlands became a center of early agriculture. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_178

Genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species suggests that the potato has a single origin in the area of southern Peru, from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_179

Over 99% of all modern cultivated potatoes worldwide are descendants of a subspecies indigenous to south-central Chile, Solanum tuberosum ssp. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_180

tuberosum, where it was cultivated as long as 10,000 years ago. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_181

According to Linda Newson, "It is clear that in pre-Columbian times some groups struggled to survive and often suffered food shortages and famines, while others enjoyed a varied and substantial diet." Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_182

Persistent drought around AD 850 coincided with the collapse of Classic Maya civilization, and the famine of One Rabbit (AD 1454) was a major catastrophe in Mexico. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_183

Natives of North America began practicing farming approximately 4,000 years ago, late in the Archaic period of North American cultures. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_184

Technology had advanced to the point where pottery had started to become common and the small-scale felling of trees had become feasible. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_185

Concurrently, the Archaic Indians began using fire in a controlled manner. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_186

They carried out intentional burning of vegetation to mimic the effects of natural fires that tended to clear forest understories. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_187

It made travel easier and facilitated the growth of herbs and berry-producing plants, which were important both for food and for medicines. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_188

In the Mississippi River valley, Europeans noted that Native Americans managed groves of nut- and fruit-trees not far from villages and towns and their gardens and agricultural fields. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_189

They would have used prescribed burning further away, in forest and prairie areas. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_190

Many crops first domesticated by indigenous Americans are now produced and used globally, most notably maize (or "corn") arguably the most important crop in the world. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_191

Other significant crops include cassava; chia; squash (pumpkins, zucchini, marrow, acorn squash, butternut squash); the pinto bean, Phaseolus beans including most common beans, tepary beans and lima beans; tomatoes; potatoes; avocados; peanuts; cocoa beans (used to make chocolate); vanilla; strawberries; pineapples; peppers (species and varieties of Capsicum, including bell peppers, jalapeños, paprika and chili peppers); sunflower seeds; rubber; brazilwood; chicle; tobacco; coca; manioc, blueberries, cranberries, and some species of cotton. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_192

Studies of contemporary indigenous environmental management—including of agro-forestry practices among Itza Maya in Guatemala and of hunting and fishing among the Menominee of Wisconsin—suggest that longstanding "sacred values" may represent a summary of sustainable millennial traditions. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_193

Animals Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_9

Indigenous Americans also domesticated some animals, such as llamas, alpacas, and guinea-pigs. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_194

Culture Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_10

Further information: Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas and Mythologies of the indigenous peoples of North America Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_195

Cultural practices in the Americas seem to have been shared mostly within geographical zones where distinct ethnic groups adopting shared cultural traits, similar technologies, and social organizations. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_196

An example of such a cultural area is Mesoamerica, where millennia of coexistence and shared development among the peoples of the region produced a fairly homogeneous culture with complex agricultural and social patterns. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_197

Another well-known example is the North American plains where until the 19th century several peoples shared the traits of nomadic hunter-gatherers based primarily on buffalo hunting. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_198

Languages Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_11

Main article: Indigenous languages of the Americas Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_199

The languages of the North American Indians have been classified into 56 groups or stock tongues, in which the spoken languages of the tribes may be said to centre. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_200

In connection with speech, reference may be made to gesture language which was highly developed in parts of this area. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_201

Of equal interest is the picture writing especially well developed among the Chippewas and Delawares. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_202

Writing systems Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_12

See also: Canadian Aboriginal syllabics, Cherokee syllabary, and Quipu Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_203

The development of writing is counted among the many achievements and innovations of pre-Columbian American cultures. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_204

Independent from the development of writing in other areas of the world, the Mesoamerican region produced several indigenous writing systems beginning in the 1st millennium BCE. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_205

What may be the earliest-known example in the Americas of an extensive text thought to be writing is by the Cascajal Block. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_206

The Olmec hieroglyphs tablet has been indirectly dated from ceramic shards found in the same context to approximately 900 BCE, around the time that Olmec occupation of San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán began to wane. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_207

The Maya writing system was a combination of phonetic syllabic symbols and logograms—that is, it was a logosyllabic writing system. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_208

It is the only pre-Columbian writing system known to represent completely the spoken language of its community. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_209

In total, the script has more than one thousand different glyphs, although a few are variations of the same sign or meaning, and many appear only rarely or are confined to particular localities. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_210

At any one time, no more than about five hundred glyphs were in use, some two hundred of which (including variations) had a phonetic or syllabic interpretation. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_211

The Zapotec writing system is one of the earliest writing systems in the Americas. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_212

The oldest example of the Zapotec script is a monument discovered in San José Mogote, dating from around from 600 BCE. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_213

Zapotec writing was logographic and presumably syllabic. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_214

The remains of the Zapotec writing system are present in the monumental architecture. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_215

There are only a few extant inscriptions, making study of this writing system difficult. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_216

Aztec codices (singular codex) are books written by pre-Columbian and colonial-era Aztecs. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_217

These codices provide some of the best primary sources for Aztec culture. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_218

The pre-Columbian codices differ from European codices in that they are largely pictorial; they were not meant to symbolize spoken or written narratives. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_219

The colonial era codices contain not only Aztec pictograms, but also Classical Nahuatl (in the Latin alphabet), Spanish, and occasionally Latin. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_220

Spanish mendicants in the sixteenth century taught indigenous scribes in their communities to write their languages in Latin letters, and there are a large number of local-level documents in Nahuatl, Zapotec, Mixtec, and Yucatec Maya from the colonial era, many of which were part of lawsuits and other legal matters. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_221

Although Spaniards initially taught indigenous scribes alphabetic writing, the tradition became self-perpetuating at the local level. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_222

The Spanish crown gathered such documentation, and contemporary Spanish translations were made for legal cases. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_223

Scholars have translated and analyzed these documents in what is called the New Philology to write histories of indigenous peoples from indigenous viewpoints. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_224

The Wiigwaasabak, birch bark scrolls on which the Ojibwa (Anishinaabe) people wrote complex geometrical patterns and shapes, can also be considered a form of writing, as can Mi'kmaq hieroglyphics. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_225

Aboriginal syllabic writing, or simply syllabics, is a family of abugidas used to write some Aboriginal Canadian languages of the Algonquian, Inuit, and Athabaskan language families. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_226

Music and art Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_13

Main articles: Visual arts by indigenous peoples of the Americas and Native American music Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_227

Native American music can vary between cultures, however there are significant commonalities. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_228

Traditional music often centers around drumming and singing. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_229

Rattles, clapper sticks, and rasps are also popular percussive instruments, both historically and in contemporary cultures. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_230

Flutes are made of rivercane, cedar, and other woods. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_231

The Apache have a type of fiddle, and fiddles are also found among a number of First Nations and Métis cultures. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_232

The music of the indigenous peoples of Central Mexico and Central America, like that of the North American cultures, tend to be spiritual ceremonies. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_233

It traditionally includes a large variety of percussion and wind instruments such as drums, flutes, sea shells (used as trumpets) and "rain" tubes. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_234

No remnants of pre-Columbian stringed instruments were found until archaeologists discovered a jar in Guatemala, attributed to the Maya of the Late Classic Era (600–900 CE); this jar was decorated with imagery depicting a stringed musical instrument which has since been reproduced. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_235

This instrument is one of the very few stringed instruments known in the Americas prior to the introduction of European musical instruments; when played, it produces a sound that mimics a jaguar's growl. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_236

Visual arts by indigenous peoples of the Americas comprise a major category in the world art collection. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_237

Contributions include pottery, paintings, jewellery, weavings, sculptures, basketry, , and beadwork. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_238

Because too many artists were posing as Native Americans and Alaska Natives in order to profit from the cachet of Indigenous art in the United States, the U.S. passed the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990, requiring artists to prove that they are enrolled in a state or federally recognized tribe. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_239

To support the ongoing practice of American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian arts and cultures in the United States, the Ford Foundation, arts advocates and American Indian tribes created an endowment seed fund and established a national Native Arts and Cultures Foundation in 2007. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_240

Demography Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_14

Further information: Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_241

The following table provides estimates for each country in the Americas of the populations of indigenous people and those with partial indigenous ancestry, each expressed as a percentage of the overall population. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_242

The total percentage obtained by adding both of these categories is also given. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_243

Note: these categories are inconsistently defined and measured differently from country to country. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_244

Some figures are based on the results of population-wide genetic surveys while others are based on self-identification or observational estimation. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_245

Indigenous peoples of the Americas_table_general_1

Indigenous populations of the Americas as estimated percentage of total country's populationIndigenous peoples of the Americas_table_caption_1
CountryIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_1_0_0 IndigenousIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_1_0_1 Ref.Indigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_1_0_2 Part indigenousIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_1_0_3 Ref.Indigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_1_0_4 Combined totalIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_1_0_5 Ref.Indigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_1_0_6
North AmericaIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_1_1_0
GreenlandIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_2_0 89%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_2_1 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_2_2 %Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_2_3 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_2_4 89%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_2_5 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_2_6
CanadaIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_3_0 1.8%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_3_1 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_3_2 3.6%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_3_3 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_3_4 5.4%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_3_5 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_3_6
MexicoIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_4_0 28%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_4_1 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_4_2 62%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_4_3 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_4_4 90%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_4_5 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_4_6
Dominican RepublicIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_5_0 %Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_5_1 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_5_2 %Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_5_3 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_5_4 %Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_5_5 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_5_6
GrenadaIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_6_0 ~0.4%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_6_1 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_6_2 ~0%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_6_3 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_6_4 ~0.4%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_6_5 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_6_6
HaitiIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_7_0 ~0%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_7_1 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_7_2 ~0%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_7_3 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_7_4 ~0%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_7_5 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_7_6
JamaicaIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_8_0 %Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_8_1 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_8_2 %Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_8_3 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_8_4 %Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_8_5 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_8_6
Puerto RicoIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_9_0 0.4%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_9_1 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_9_2 84%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_9_3 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_9_4 84.4%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_9_5 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_9_6
Saint Kitts and NevisIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_10_0 %Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_10_1 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_10_2 %Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_10_3 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_10_4 %Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_10_5 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_10_6
Saint LuciaIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_11_0 %Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_11_1 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_11_2 %Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_11_3 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_11_4 %Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_11_5 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_11_6
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_12_0 2%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_12_1 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_12_2 %Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_12_3 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_12_4 %Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_12_5 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_12_6
Trinidad and TobagoIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_13_0 0.8%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_13_1 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_13_2 88%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_13_3 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_13_4 88.8%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_13_5 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_1_13_6

Indigenous peoples of the Americas_table_general_2

CountryIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_2_0_0 IndigenousIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_2_0_1 Ref.Indigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_2_0_2 Part indigenousIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_2_0_3 Ref.Indigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_2_0_4 Combined totalIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_2_0_5 Ref.Indigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_2_0_6
South AmericaIndigenous peoples of the Americas_header_cell_2_1_0
ArgentinaIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_2_0 2.38%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_2_1 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_2_2 27%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_2_3 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_2_4 27.38%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_2_5 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_2_6
BoliviaIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_3_0 20%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_3_1 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_3_2 68%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_3_3 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_3_4 88%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_3_5 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_3_6
BrazilIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_4_0 0.4%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_4_1 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_4_2 23%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_4_3 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_4_4 23.4%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_4_5 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_4_6
ChileIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_5_0 4.6%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_5_1 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_5_2 %Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_5_3 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_5_4 %Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_5_5 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_5_6
ColombiaIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_6_0 4.4%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_6_1 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_6_2 49%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_6_3 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_6_4 53.4%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_6_5 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_6_6
EcuadorIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_7_0 25%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_7_1 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_7_2 65%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_7_3 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_7_4 90%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_7_5 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_7_6
French GuianaIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_8_0 %Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_8_1 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_8_2 %Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_8_3 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_8_4 %Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_8_5 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_8_6
GuyanaIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_9_0 10.5%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_9_1 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_9_2 %Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_9_3 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_9_4 %Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_9_5 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_9_6
ParaguayIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_10_0 1.7%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_10_1 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_10_2 95%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_10_3 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_10_4 96.7%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_10_5 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_10_6
PeruIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_11_0 25.8%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_11_1 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_11_2 60.2%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_11_3 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_11_4 86%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_11_5 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_11_6
SurinameIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_12_0 2%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_12_1 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_12_2 %Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_12_3 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_12_4 %Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_12_5 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_12_6
UruguayIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_13_0 0%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_13_1 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_13_2 2.4%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_13_3 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_13_4 2.4%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_13_5 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_13_6
VenezuelaIndigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_14_0 2.7%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_14_1 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_14_2 51.6%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_14_3 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_14_4 54.3%Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_14_5 Indigenous peoples of the Americas_cell_2_14_6

History and status by continent and country Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_15

North America Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_16

Canada Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_17

Main article: Indigenous peoples in Canada Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_246

Indigenous peoples in Canada comprise the First Nations, Inuit and Métis; the descriptors "Indian" and "Eskimo" are falling into disuse. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_247

In Canada, it is quite frowned upon to use the name "Indian" in casual conversation. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_248

"Eskimo" is considered derogatory in many other places because it was given by non-Inuit people and was said to mean "eater of raw meat." Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_249

Hundreds of Indigenous nations evolved trade, spiritual and social hierarchies. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_250

The Métis ethnicity developed a culture from the mid-17th century after generations of First Nations and native Inuit married European settlers. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_251

They were small farmers, hunters and trappers, and usually Catholic and French-speaking. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_252

The Inuit had more limited interaction with European settlers during that early period. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_253

Various laws, treaties, and legislation have been enacted between European-Canadians and First Nations across Canada. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_254

Aboriginal Right to Self-Government provides the opportunity for First Nations to manage their own historical, cultural, political, health care and economic control within their communities. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_255

Although not without conflict, European/Canadian early interactions in the east with First Nations and Inuit populations were relatively peaceful compared to the later experience of native peoples in the United States. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_256

Combined with a late economic development in many regions, this relatively peaceful history resulted in Indigenous peoples having a fairly strong influence on the early national culture, while preserving their own identity. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_257

From the late 18th century, European Canadians worked to force Indigenous people to assimilate into the mainstream European-influenced culture, which they referred to as Canadian culture. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_258

The government attempted violent forced integration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_259

Notable examples here include residential schools. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_260

National Aboriginal Day recognises the cultures and contributions of Indigenous peoples of Canada. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_261

There are currently over 600 recognized First Nations governments or bands encompassing 1,172,790 people spread across Canada, with distinctive Indigenous cultures, languages, art, and music. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_262

Greenland, Kingdom of Denmark Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_18

Main article: Greenlandic Inuit Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_263

The Greenlandic Inuit (Kalaallisut: kalaallit, Tunumiisut: tunumiit, Inuktun: inughuit) are the indigenous and most populous ethnic group in Greenland. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_264

This means that Denmark has one officially recognized Indigenous group. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_265

the Inuit - the Greenlandic Inuit of Greenland and the Greenlandic people in Denmark (Inuit residing in Denmark). Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_266

Approximately 89 percent of Greenland's population of 57,695 is Greenlandic Inuit, or 51,349 people as of 2012. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_267

Ethnographically, they consist of three major groups: Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_268

Indigenous peoples of the Americas_unordered_list_1

  • the Kalaallit of west Greenland, who speak KalaallisutIndigenous peoples of the Americas_item_1_2
  • the Tunumiit of Tunu (east Greenland), who speak Tunumiit oraasiat ("East Greenlandic")Indigenous peoples of the Americas_item_1_3
  • the Inughuit of north Greenland, who speak Inuktun ("Polar Inuit")Indigenous peoples of the Americas_item_1_4

Mexico Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_19

Main article: Indigenous peoples of Mexico Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_269

The territory of modern-day Mexico was home to numerous indigenous civilizations prior to the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores: The Olmecs, who flourished from between 1200 BCE to about 400 BCE in the coastal regions of the Gulf of Mexico; the Zapotecs and the Mixtecs, who held sway in the mountains of Oaxaca and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec; the Maya in the Yucatán (and into neighbouring areas of contemporary Central America); the Purépecha in present-day Michoacán and surrounding areas, and the Aztecs/Mexica, who, from their central capital at Tenochtitlan, dominated much of the centre and south of the country (and the non-Aztec inhabitants of those areas) when Hernán Cortés first landed at Veracruz. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_270

In contrast to what was the general rule in the rest of North America, the history of the colony of New Spain was one of racial intermingling (mestizaje). Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_271

Mestizos, which in Mexico designate people who do not identify culturally with any indigenous grouping, quickly came to account for a majority of the colony's population; but 6% of the Mexican population identify as speakers of one of the indigenous languages. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_272

The CDI identifies 62 indigenous groups in Mexico, each with a unique language. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_273

In the states of Chiapas and Oaxaca and in the interior of the Yucatán Peninsula the majority of the population is indigenous. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_274

Large indigenous minorities, including Aztecs or Nahua, Purépechas, Mazahua, Otomi, and Mixtecs are also present in the central regions of Mexico. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_275

In Northern Mexico indigenous people are a small minority. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_276

The General Law of Linguistic Rights of the Indigenous Peoples grants all indigenous languages spoken in Mexico, regardless of the number of speakers, the same validity as Spanish in all territories in which they are spoken, and indigenous peoples are entitled to request some public services and documents in their native languages. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_277

Along with Spanish, the law has granted them—more than 60 languages—the status of "national languages". Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_278

The law includes all indigenous languages of the Americas regardless of origin; that is, it includes the indigenous languages of ethnic groups non-native to the territory. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_279

The National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples recognizes the language of the Kickapoo, who immigrated from the United States, and recognizes the languages of the Guatemalan indigenous refugees. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_280

The Mexican government has promoted and established bilingual primary and secondary education in some indigenous rural communities. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_281

Nonetheless, of the indigenous peoples in Mexico, only about 67% of them (or 5.4% of the country's population) speak an indigenous language and about a sixth do not speak Spanish (1.2% of the country's population). Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_282

The indigenous peoples in Mexico have the right of free determination under the second article of the constitution. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_283

According to this article the indigenous peoples are granted: Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_284

Indigenous peoples of the Americas_unordered_list_2

  • the right to decide the internal forms of social, economic, political and cultural organization;Indigenous peoples of the Americas_item_2_5
  • the right to apply their own normative systems of regulation as long as human rights and gender equality are respected;Indigenous peoples of the Americas_item_2_6
  • the right to preserve and enrich their languages and cultures;Indigenous peoples of the Americas_item_2_7
  • the right to elect representatives before the municipal council in which their territories are located;Indigenous peoples of the Americas_item_2_8

amongst other rights. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_285

United States Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_20

Main articles: Native Americans in the United States and Alaska Natives Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_286

Indigenous peoples in what is now the contiguous United States, including their descendants, were commonly called "American Indians", or simply "Indians" domestically. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_287

Since the late 20th century, when some insisted on using "Native American", as their preferred term, the United States Census Bureau and other parts of government have also adopted it. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_288

In Alaska, indigenous peoples belong to 11 cultures with 11 languages. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_289

These include the St. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_290 Lawrence Island Yupik, Iñupiat, Athabaskan, Yup'ik, Cup'ik, Unangax, Alutiiq, Eyak, Haida, Tsimshian, and Tlingit, and are collectively called Alaska Natives. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_291

They include Native American peoples as well as Inuit, who are distinct but occupy areas of the region. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_292

The United States has authority with Indigenous Polynesian peoples, which include Hawaiians, Marshallese, Samoan, Tahitian, and Tongan; politically they are classified as Pacific Islands American. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_293

They are geographically, genetically, and culturally distinct from indigenous peoples of the mainland continents of the Americas. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_294

Native Americans in the United States make up 0.97% to 2% of the population. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_295

In the 2010 census, 2.9 million people identified as Native American, Native Hawaiian, and Alaska Native alone. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_296

A total of 5.2 million people identified as Native Americans, either alone or in combination with one or more ethnicity or other races. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_297

Tribes have established their own criteria for membership, which are often based on blood quantum, lineal descent, or residency. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_298

A minority of Native Americans live in land units called Indian reservations. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_299

Some California and Southwestern tribes, such as the Kumeyaay, Cocopa, Pascua Yaqui, Tohono O'odham and Apache, span both sides of the US–Mexican border. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_300

By treaty, Haudenosaunee people have the legal right to freely cross the US–Canada border. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_301

Athabascan, Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian, Iñupiat, Blackfeet, Nakota, Cree, Anishinaabe, Huron, Lenape, Mi'kmaq, Penobscot, and Haudenosaunee, among others, live in both Canada and the United States. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_302

The international border cut through their common cultural territory. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_303

Central America Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_21

Belize Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_22

Mestizos (mixed European-Indigenous) number about 34% of the population; unmixed Maya make up another 10.6% (Ketchi, Mopan, and Yucatec). Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_304

The Garifuna, who came to Belize in the 19th century from Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, have mixed African, Carib and Arawak ancestry and make up another 6% of the population. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_305

Costa Rica Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_23

Main article: Indigenous peoples of Costa Rica Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_306

There are over 114,000 inhabitants of Native American origins, representing 2.4% of the population. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_307

Most of them live in secluded reservations, distributed among eight ethnic groups: Quitirrisí (In the Central Valley), Matambú or Chorotega (Guanacaste), Maleku (Northern Alajuela), Bribri (Southern Atlantic), Cabécar (Cordillera de Talamanca), Boruca (Southern Costa Rica) and Ngäbe (Southern Costa Rica long the Panamá border). Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_308

These native groups are characterized for their work in wood, like masks, drums and other artistic figures, as well as fabrics made of cotton. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_309

Their subsistence is based on agriculture, having corn, beans and plantains as the main crops. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_310

El Salvador Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_24

Main articles: Demographics of El Salvador and 1932 Salvadoran peasant massacre Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_311

Much of El Salvador was home to the Pipil, the Lenca, Xinca, and Kakawira. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_312

The Pipil lived in western El Salvador, spoke Nawat, and had many settlements there, most noticeably Cuzcatlan. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_313

The Pipil had no precious mineral resources, but they did have rich and fertile land that was good for farming. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_314

The Spaniards were disappointed not to find gold or jewels in El Salvador as they had in other lands like Guatemala or Mexico, but upon learning of the fertile land in El Salvador, they attempted to conquer it. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_315

Noted Meso-American indigenous warriors to rise militarily against the Spanish included Princes Atonal and Atlacatl of the Pipil people in central El Salvador and Princess Antu Silan Ulap of the Lenca people in eastern El Salvador, who saw the Spanish not as gods but as barbaric invaders. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_316

After fierce battles, the Pipil successfully fought off the Spanish army led by Pedro de Alvarado along with their Mexican Indian allies (the Tlaxcalas), sending them back to Guatemala. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_317

After many other attacks with an army reinforced with Guatemalan Indian allies, the Spanish were able to conquer Cuzcatlan. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_318

After further attacks, the Spanish also conquered the Lenca people. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_319

Eventually, the Spaniards intermarried with Pipil and Lenca women, resulting in the Mestizo population which would become the majority of the Salvadoran people. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_320

Today many Pipil and other indigenous populations live in the many small towns of El Salvador like Izalco, Panchimalco, Sacacoyo, and Nahuizalco. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_321

Guatemala Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_25

Main article: Demographics of Guatemala Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_322

Guatemala has one of the largest Indigenous populations in Central America, with approximately 41% of the population considering themselves Indigenous. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_323

The Indigenous demographic portion of Guatemala's population consists of majority Mayan groups and one Non-Mayan group. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_324

The Mayan portion, is distribuied into 23 groups namely K’iche 11.3%, Kaqchikel 8.6%, Mam 6.5%, Q’eqchi' 5.6% and Other 9.5%. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_325

The Non-Mayan group consists of the Xinca who are another set of Indigenous people making up 0.5% of the population. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_326

Another sources indicate that between 50-60% of the population could be Indigenous, because part of Mestizo population is predominantly Amerindian. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_327

The Mayan tribes cover a vast geographic area throughout Central America and expanding beyond Guatemala into other countries. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_328

One could find vast groups of Mayan people in Boca Costa, in the Southern portions of Guatemala, as well as the Western Highlands living together in close communities. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_329

Within these communities and outside of them, around 23 Indigenous languages or Amerindian Languages are spoken as a first language. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_330

Of these 23 languages, they only received official recognition by the Government in 2003 under the Law of National Languages. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_331

The Law on National Languages recognizes 23 Indigenous languages including Xinca, enforcing that public and government institutions not only translate but also provide services in said languages. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_332

It would provide services in Cakchiquel, Garifuna, Kekchi, Mam, Quiche and Xinca. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_333

The Law of National Languages has been an effort to grant and protect Indigenous people rights not afforded to them previously. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_334

Along with the Law of National Languages passed in 2003, in 1996 the Guatemalan Constitutional Court had ratified the ILO Convention 169 on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_335

The ILO Convention 169 on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples, is also known as Convention 169 . Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_336

Which is the only International Law regarding Indigenous peoples that Independent countries can adopt. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_337

The convention, establishes that governments like Guatemala's must consult with indigenous groups prior to any projects occurring on tribal lands. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_338

Honduras Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_26

About five percent of the population are of full-blooded indigenous descent, but as much as 80 percent of Hondurans are mestizo or part-indigenous with European admixture, and about ten percent are of indigenous or African descent. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_339

The largest concentrations of indigenous communities in Honduras are in the westernmost areas facing Guatemala and along the coast of the Caribbean Sea, as well as on the border with Nicaragua. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_340

The majority of indigenous people are Lencas, Miskitos to the east, Mayans, Pech, Sumos, and Tolupan. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_341

Nicaragua Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_27

About 5% of the Nicaraguan population are indigenous. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_342

The largest indigenous group in Nicaragua is the Miskito people. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_343

Their territory extended from Cape Camarón, Honduras, to Rio Grande, Nicaragua along the Mosquito Coast. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_344

There is a native Miskito language, but large numbers speak Miskito Coast Creole, Spanish, Rama and other languages. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_345

Their use of Creole English came about through frequent contact with the British, who colonized the area. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_346

Many Miskitos are Christians. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_347

Traditional Miskito society was highly structured, politically and otherwise. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_348

It had a king, but he did not have total power. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_349

Instead, the power was split between himself, a Miskito Governor, a Miskito General, and by the 1750s, a Miskito Admiral. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_350

Historical information on Miskito kings is often obscured by the fact that many of the kings were semi-mythical. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_351

Another major indigenous culture in eastern Nicaragua are the Mayangna (or Sumu) people, counting some 10,000 people. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_352

A smaller indigenous culture in southeastern Nicaragua are the Rama. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_353

Other indigenous groups in Nicaragua are located in the central, northern, and Pacific areas and they are self-identified as follows: Chorotega, Cacaopera (or Matagalpa), Xiu-Subtiaba, and Nahua. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_354

South America Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_28

Main article: Indigenous peoples of South America Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_355

Argentina Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_29

See also: Demographics of Argentina, Indigenous peoples in Argentina, and List of indigenous languages in Argentina Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_356

In 2005, Argentina's indigenous population (known as pueblos originarios) numbered about 600,329 (1.6% of total population); this figure includes 457,363 people who self-identified as belonging to an indigenous ethnic group and 142,966 who identified themselves as first-generation descendants of an indigenous people. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_357

The ten most populous indigenous peoples are the Mapuche (113,680 people), the Kolla (70,505), the Toba (69,452), the Guaraní (68,454), the Wichi (40,036), the DiaguitaCalchaquí (31,753), the Mocoví (15,837), the Huarpe (14,633), the Comechingón (10,863) and the Tehuelche (10,590). Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_358

Minor but important peoples are the Quechua (6,739), the Charrúa (4,511), the Pilagá (4,465), the Chané (4,376), and the Chorote (2,613). Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_359

The Selknam (Ona) people are now virtually extinct in its pure form. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_360

The languages of the Diaguita, Tehuelche, and Selknam nations have become extinct or virtually extinct: the Cacán language (spoken by Diaguitas) in the 18th century and the Selknam language in the 20th century; one Tehuelche language (Southern Tehuelche) is still spoken by a handful of elderly people. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_361

Bolivia Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_30

Main articles: Demographics of Bolivia and Indigenous peoples in Bolivia Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_362

In Bolivia, the 2001 census reported that 62% of residents over the age of 15 identify as belonging to an indigenous people. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_363

Some 3.7% report growing up with an indigenous mother tongue but do not identify as indigenous. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_364

When both of these categories are totaled, and children under 15, some 66.4% of Bolivia's population was recorded as indigenous in the 2001 Census. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_365

The largest indigenous ethnic groups are: Quechua, about 2.5 million people; Aymara, 2.0 million; Chiquitano, 181,000; Guaraní, 126,000; and Mojeño, 69,000. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_366

Some 124,000 belong to smaller indigenous groups. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_367

The Constitution of Bolivia, enacted in 2009, recognizes 36 cultures, each with its own language, as part of a pluri-national state. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_368

Some groups, including CONAMAQ (the National Council of Ayllus and Markas of Qullasuyu), draw ethnic boundaries within the Quechua- and Aymara-speaking population, resulting in a total of 50 indigenous peoples native to Bolivia. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_369

Large numbers of Bolivian highland peasants retained indigenous language, culture, customs, and communal organization throughout the Spanish conquest and the post-independence period. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_370

They mobilized to resist various attempts at the dissolution of communal landholdings and used legal recognition of "empowered caciques" to further communal organization. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_371

Indigenous revolts took place frequently until 1953. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_372

While the National Revolutionary Movement government begun in 1952 discouraged people identifying as indigenous (reclassifying rural people as campesinos, or peasants), renewed ethnic and class militancy re-emerged in the Katarista movement beginning in the 1970s. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_373

Many lowland indigenous peoples, mostly in the east, entered national politics through the 1990 March for Territory and Dignity organized by the CIDOB confederation. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_374

That march successfully pressured the national government to sign the ILO Convention 169 and to begin the still-ongoing process of recognizing and giving official title to indigenous territories. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_375

The 1994 Law of Popular Participation granted "grassroots territorial organizations;" these are recognized by the state and have certain rights to govern local areas. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_376

Some radio and television programs are produced in the Quechua and Aymara languages. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_377

The constitutional reform in 1997 recognized Bolivia as a multi-lingual, pluri-ethnic society and introduced education reform. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_378

In 2005, for the first time in the country's history, an indigenous Aymara, Evo Morales, was elected as president. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_379

Morales began work on his "indigenous autonomy" policy, which he launched in the eastern lowlands department on 3 August 2009. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_380

Bolivia was the first nation in the history of South America to affirm the right of indigenous people to self-government. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_381

Speaking in Santa Cruz Department, the President called it "a historic day for the peasant and indigenous movement", saying that, though he might make errors, he would "never betray the fight started by our ancestors and the fight of the Bolivian people." Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_382

A vote on further autonomy for jurisdictions took place in December 2009, at the same time as general elections to office. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_383

The issue divided the country. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_384

At that time, indigenous peoples voted overwhelmingly for more autonomy: five departments that had not already done so voted for it; as did Gran Chaco Province in Taríja, for regional autonomy; and 11 of 12 municipalities that had referendums on this issue. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_385

Brazil Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_31

See also: Indigenous peoples in Brazil and List of indigenous peoples in Brazil Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_386

Indigenous peoples of Brazil make up 0.4% of Brazil's population, or about 817,000 people, but millions of Brazilians are mestizo or have some indigenous ancestry. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_387

Indigenous peoples are found in the entire territory of Brazil, although in the 21st century, the majority of them live in indigenous territories in the North and Center-Western part of the country. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_388

On 18 January 2007, Fundação Nacional do Índio (FUNAI) reported that it had confirmed the presence of 67 different uncontacted tribes in Brazil, up from 40 in 2005. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_389

Brazil is now the nation that has the largest number of uncontacted tribes, and the island of New Guinea is second. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_390

The Washington Post reported in 2007, "As has been proved in the past when uncontacted tribes are introduced to other populations and the microbes they carry, maladies as simple as the common cold can be deadly. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_391

In the 1970s, 185 members of the Panara tribe died within two years of discovery after contracting such diseases as flu and chickenpox, leaving only 69 survivors." Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_392

Chile Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_32

Main article: Indigenous peoples in Chile Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_393

According to the 2012 Census, 10% of the Chilean population, including the Rapa Nui (a Polynesian people) of Easter Island, was indigenous, although most show varying degrees of mixed heritage. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_394

Many are descendants of the Mapuche, and live in Santiago, Araucanía and Los Lagos Region. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_395

The Mapuche successfully fought off defeat in the first 300–350 years of Spanish rule during the Arauco War. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_396

Relations with the new Chilean Republic were good until the Chilean state decided to occupy their lands. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_397

During the Occupation of Araucanía the Mapuche surrendered to the country's army in the 1880s. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_398

Their land was opened to settlement by Chileans and Europeans. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_399

Conflict over Mapuche land rights continues to the present. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_400

Other groups include the Aymara, the majority of whom live in Bolivia and Peru, with smaller numbers in the Arica-Parinacota and Tarapacá regions, and the Atacama people (Atacameños), who reside mainly in El Loa. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_401

Colombia Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_33

Main article: Indigenous peoples in Colombia Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_402

A minority today within Colombia's overwhelmingly Mestizo and White Colombian population, Colombia's indigenous peoples consist of around 85 distinct cultures and more than 1,378,884 people. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_403

A variety of collective rights for indigenous peoples are recognized in the 1991 Constitution. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_404

One of the influences is the Muisca culture, a subset of the larger Chibcha ethnic group, famous for their use of gold, which led to the legend of El Dorado. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_405

At the time of the Spanish conquest, the Muisca were the largest native civilization geographically between the Incas and the Aztecs empires. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_406

Ecuador Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_34

Main article: Indigenous peoples in Ecuador Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_407

Ecuador was the site of many indigenous cultures, and civilizations of different proportions. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_408

An early sedentary culture, known as the Valdivia culture, developed in the coastal region, while the Caras and the Quitus unified to form an elaborate civilization that ended at the birth of the Capital Quito. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_409

The Cañaris near Cuenca were the most advanced, and most feared by the Inca, due to their fierce resistance to the Incan expansion. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_410

Their architecture remains were later destroyed by Spaniards and the Incas. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_411

Approximately 96.4% of Ecuador's Indigenous population are Highland Quichuas living in the valleys of the Sierra region. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_412

Primarily consisting of the descendants of peoples conquered by the Incas, they are Kichwa speakers and include the Caranqui, the Otavalos, the Cayambe, the Quitu-Caras, the Panzaleo, the Chimbuelo, the Salasacan, the Tugua, the Puruhá, the Cañari, and the Saraguro. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_413

Linguistic evidence suggests that the Salascan and the Saraguro may have been the descendants of Bolivian ethnic groups transplanted to Ecuador as mitimaes. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_414

Coastal groups, including the Awá, Chachi, and the Tsáchila, make up 0.24% percent of the indigenous population, while the remaining 3.35 percent live in the Oriente and consist of the Oriente Kichwa (the Canelo and the Quijos), the Shuar, the Huaorani, the Siona-Secoya, the Cofán, and the Achuar. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_415

In 1986, indigenous people formed the first "truly" national political organization. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_416

The Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador (CONAIE) has been the primary political institution of the Indigenous since then and is now the second largest political party in the nation. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_417

It has been influential in national politics, contributing to the ouster of presidents Abdalá Bucaram in 1997 and Jamil Mahuad in 2000. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_418

Peru Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_35

Main article: Indigenous peoples in Peru Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_419

According to the Census, Indigenous population in Peru make up around 26% approximately. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_420

Native Peruvian traditions and customs have shaped the way Peruvians live and see themselves today. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_421

Cultural citizenship—or what Renato Rosaldo has called, "the right to be different and to belong, in a democratic, participatory sense" (1996:243)—is not yet very well developed in Peru. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_422

This is perhaps no more apparent than in the country's Amazonian regions where indigenous societies continue to struggle against state-sponsored economic abuses, cultural discrimination, and pervasive violence. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_423

Suriname Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_36

Main article: Indigenous peoples in Suriname Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_424

Venezuela Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_37

Main article: Indigenous peoples in Venezuela Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_425

Most Venezuelans have some indigenous heritage and are pardo, even if they identify as white. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_426

But those who identify as indigenous, from being raised in those cultures, make up only around 2% of the total population. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_427

The indigenous peoples speak around 29 different languages and many more dialects. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_428

As some of the ethnic groups are very small, their native languages are in danger of becoming extinct in the next decades. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_429

The most important indigenous groups are the Ye'kuana, the Wayuu, the Pemon and the Warao. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_430

The most advanced native people to have lived within the boundaries of present-day Venezuela is thought to have been the Timoto-cuicas, who lived mainly in the Venezuelan Andes. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_431

Historians estimate that there were between 350 thousand and 500 thousand indigenous inhabitants at the time of Spanish colonization. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_432

The most densely populated area was the Andean region (Timoto-cuicas), thanks to their advanced agricultural techniques and ability to produce a surplus of food. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_433

The 1999 constitution of Venezuela gives the indigenous special rights, although the vast majority of them still live in very critical conditions of poverty. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_434

The government provides primary education in their languages in public schools to some of the largest groups, in efforts to continue the languages. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_435

Other parts of the Americas Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_38

Indigenous peoples make up the majority of the population in Bolivia and Peru, and are a significant element in most other former Spanish colonies. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_436

Exceptions to this include Uruguay (Native Charrúa). Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_437

According to the 2011 Census, 2.4% of Uruguayans reported having indigenous ancestry. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_438

Some governments recognize some of the major Native American languages as official languages: Quechua in Peru and Bolivia; Aymara also in Peru and Bolivia, Guarani in Paraguay, and Greenlandic in Greenland. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_439

Rise of indigenous movements Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_39

Since the late 20th century, indigenous peoples in the Americas have become more politically active in asserting their treaty rights and expanding their influence. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_440

Some have organized in order to achieve some sort of self-determination and preservation of their cultures. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_441

Organizations such as the Coordinator of Indigenous Organizations of the Amazon River Basin and the Indian Council of South America are examples of movements that are overcoming national borders to reunite indigenous populations, for instance those across the Amazon Basin. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_442

Similar movements for indigenous rights can also be seen in Canada and the United States, with movements like the International Indian Treaty Council and the accession of native Indian groups into the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_443

There has been a recognition of indigenous movements on an international scale. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_444

The membership of the United Nations voted to adopt the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, despite dissent from some of the stronger countries of the Americas. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_445

In Colombia, various indigenous groups have protested the denial of their rights. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_446

People organized a march in Cali in October 2008 to demand the government live up to promises to protect indigenous lands, defend the indigenous against violence, and reconsider the free trade pact with the United States. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_447

Legal prerogative Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_40

The first indigenous candidate to be democratically elected as head of a country in Latin America was Benito Juárez, a Zapotec Mexican; he was elected President of Mexico in 1858. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_448

Evo Morales (Aymara people) was the first indigenous candidate elected as president of Bolivia and the first in South America. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_449

He won in 2005, 2009, 2014, and 2019 until eventually being forced out of office and into exile just weeks after his 2019 victory. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_450

His election encouraged the indigenous movement across Latin America. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_451

Representatives from indigenous and rural organizations from major South American countries, including Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, Chile and Brazil, started a forum in support of Morales' legal process of change. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_452

The meeting condemned plans by the European "foreign power elite" to destabilize the country. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_453

The forum also expressed solidarity with Morales and his economic and social changes in the interest of historically marginalized majorities. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_454

It questioned US interference through diplomats and NGOs. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_455

The forum was suspicious of plots against Bolivia and other countries that elected leftist leaders, including Cuba, Venezuela, Ecuador, Paraguay and Nicaragua. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_456

The forum rejected the supposed violent method used by regional civic leaders from the called "Crescent departments" in Bolivia to impose autonomous statutes, applauded the decision to expel the US ambassador to Bolivia, and reaffirmed the sovereignty and independence of the presidency. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_457

Amongst others, representatives of CONAIE, the National Indigenous Organization of Colombia, the Chilean Council of All Lands, and the Brazilian Landless Movement participated in the forum. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_458

Genetics Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_41

Main article: Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_459

See also: Y-DNA haplogroups in Indigenous peoples of the Americas Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_460

Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas primarily focuses on Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups and Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_461

"Y-DNA" is passed solely along the patrilineal line, from father to son, while "mtDNA" is passed down the matrilineal line, from mother to offspring of both sexes. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_462

Neither recombines, and thus Y-DNA and mtDNA change only by chance mutation at each generation with no intermixture between parents' genetic material. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_463

Autosomal "atDNA" markers are also used, but differ from mtDNA or Y-DNA in that they overlap significantly. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_464

AtDNA is generally used to measure the average continent-of-ancestry genetic admixture in the entire human genome and related isolated populations. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_465

Scientific evidence links indigenous Americans to Asian peoples, specifically Siberian populations, such as the Ket, Selkup, Chukchi and Koryak peoples. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_466

Indigenous peoples of the Americas have been linked to North Asian populations by the distribution of blood types, and in genetic composition as reflected by molecular data, such as DNA. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_467

There is general agreement among anthropologists that the source populations for the migration into the Americas originated from an area somewhere east of the Yenisei River. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_468

The common occurrence of the mtDNA Haplogroups A, B, C, and D among eastern Asian and Native American populations has long been recognized. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_469

As a whole, the greatest frequency of the four Native American associated haplogroups occurs in the AltaiBaikal region of southern Siberia. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_470

Some subclades of C and D closer to the Native American subclades occur among Mongolian, Amur, Japanese, Korean, and Ainu populations. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_471

Genetic studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Amerindians and some Siberian and Central Asian peoples also revealed that the gene pool of the Turkic-speaking peoples of Siberia such as Altaians, Khakas, Shors and Soyots, living between the Altai and Lake Baikal along the Sayan mountains, are genetically close to Amerindians. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_472

This view is shared by other researchers who argue that "the ancestors of the American Indians were the first to separate from the great Asian population in the Middle Paleolithic." Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_473

The genetic pattern indicates indigenous peoples of the Americas experienced two very distinctive genetic episodes; first with the initial peopling of the Americas, and secondly with European colonization of the Americas. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_474

The former is the determinant factor for the number of gene lineages, zygosity mutations, and founding haplotypes present in today's indigenous peoples of the Americas populations. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_475

Human settlement of the New World occurred in stages from the Bering sea coast line, with a possible initial layover of 10,000 to 20,000 years in Beringia for the small founding population. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_476

The micro-satellite diversity and distributions of the Y lineage specific to South America indicates that certain indigenous peoples of the Americas populations have been isolated since the initial colonization of the region. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_477

The Na-Dené, Inuit and Indigenous Alaskan populations exhibit haplogroup Q (Y-DNA) mutations, however are distinct from other indigenous peoples of the Americas with various mtDNA and atDNA mutations. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_478

This suggests that the earliest migrants into the northern extremes of North America and Greenland derived from later migrant populations. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_479

A 2013 study in Nature reported that DNA found in the 24,000-year-old remains of a young boy from the archaeological Mal'ta-Buret' culture suggest that up to one-third of the ancestry of indigenous Americans may be traced back to western Eurasians, who may have "had a more north-easterly distribution 24,000 years ago than commonly thought" (with the rest tracing back to early East Asian peoples). Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_480

"We estimate that 14 to 38 percent of Native American ancestry may originate through gene flow from this ancient population", the authors wrote. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_481

Professor Kelly Graf said, Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_482

A route through Beringia is seen as more likely than the Solutrean hypothesis. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_483

Kashani et al. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_484

2012 state that "The similarities in ages and geographical distributions for C4c and the previously analyzed X2a lineage provide support to the scenario of a dual origin for Paleo-Indians. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_485

Taking into account that C4c is deeply rooted in the Asian portion of the mtDNA phylogeny and is indubitably of Asian origin, the finding that C4c and X2a are characterized by parallel genetic histories definitively dismisses the controversial hypothesis of an Atlantic glacial entry route into North America." Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_486

Genetic analyses of HLA I and HLA II genes as well as HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 gene frequencies links the Ainu people in northern Japan and southeastern Russia to some Indigenous peoples of the Americas, especially to populations on the Pacific Northwest Coast such as Tlingit. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_487

The scientists suggest that the main ancestor of the Ainu and of some Native American groups can be traced back to Paleolithic groups in Southern Siberia. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_488

A 2016 study found that indigenous Americans and Polynesians most likely came into contact around 1200. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_489

Notable people Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_42

For a more comprehensive list, see List of indigenous people of the Americas. Indigenous peoples of the Americas_sentence_490

See also Indigenous peoples of the Americas_section_43

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigenous peoples of the Americas.