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This article is about the Old Order Amish, and only marginally other Amish groups. Amish_sentence_0

For other uses, see Amish (disambiguation). Amish_sentence_1

Not to be confused with Amis people. Amish_sentence_2


Total populationAmish_header_cell_0_0_0
Regions with significant populationsAmish_header_cell_0_2_0

The Amish (/ˈɑːmɪʃ/; Pennsylvania German: Amisch; German: Amische) are a group of traditionalist Christian church fellowships with Swiss German and Alsatian Anabaptist origins. Amish_sentence_3

They are closely related to, but a distinct branch off from, Mennonite churches. Amish_sentence_4

The Amish are known for simple living, plain dress, Christian pacifism, and are slower to adopt many conveniences of modern technology, with a view to not interrupt family time, nor replacing face-to-face conversations whenever possible. Amish_sentence_5

The history of the Amish church began with a schism in Switzerland within a group of Swiss and Alsatian Mennonite Anabaptists in 1693 led by Jakob Ammann. Amish_sentence_6

Those who followed Ammann became known as Amish. Amish_sentence_7

In the second half of the 19th century, the Amish divided into Old Order Amish and Amish Mennonites. Amish_sentence_8

The latter do not eschew motor cars, whereas the Old Order Amish retained much of their traditional culture. Amish_sentence_9

When people refer to the Amish today, they normally refer to the Old Order Amish. Amish_sentence_10

In the early 18th century, many Amish and Mennonites immigrated to Pennsylvania for a variety of reasons. Amish_sentence_11

Today, the Old Order Amish, the New Order Amish, and the Old Beachy Amish as well as Old Order Mennonites continue to speak Pennsylvania German, also known as "Pennsylvania Dutch", although two different Alemannic dialects are used by Old Order Amish in Adams and Allen counties in Indiana. Amish_sentence_12

As of 2000, over 165,000 Old Order Amish lived in the United States and about 1,500 lived in Canada. Amish_sentence_13

A 2008 study suggested their numbers had increased to 227,000, and in 2010, a study suggested their population had grown by 10 percent in the past two years to 249,000, with increasing movement to the West. Amish_sentence_14

Most of the Amish continue to have six or seven children, while benefiting from the major decrease in infant and maternal mortality in the 20th century. Amish_sentence_15

Between 1992 and 2017, the Amish population increased by 149 percent, while the U.S. population increased by 23 percent. Amish_sentence_16

Amish church membership begins with baptism, usually between the ages of 16 and 23. Amish_sentence_17

It is a requirement for marriage within the Amish church. Amish_sentence_18

Once a person is baptized within the church, he or she may marry only within the faith. Amish_sentence_19

Church districts have between 20 and 40 families and worship services are held every other Sunday in a member's home. Amish_sentence_20

The district is led by a bishop and several ministers and deacons. Amish_sentence_21

The rules of the church, the Ordnung, must be observed by every member and cover many aspects of day-to-day living, including prohibitions or limitations on the use of power-line electricity, telephones, and automobiles, as well as regulations on clothing. Amish_sentence_22

Most Amish do not buy commercial insurance or participate in Social Security. Amish_sentence_23

As present-day Anabaptists, Amish church members practice nonresistance and will not perform any type of military service. Amish_sentence_24

The Amish value rural life, manual labor, and humility, all under the auspices of living what they interpret to be God's word. Amish_sentence_25

Members who do not conform to these community expectations and who cannot be convinced to repent are excommunicated. Amish_sentence_26

In addition to excommunication, members may be shunned, a practice that limits social contacts to shame the wayward member into returning to the church. Amish_sentence_27

Almost 90 percent of Amish teenagers choose to be baptized and join the church. Amish_sentence_28

During an adolescent period of rumspringa (dialectal [Pennsylvania] German for "jumping around", "hopping around") in some communities, nonconforming behavior that would result in the shunning of an adult who had made the permanent commitment of baptism, may be met with a degree of forbearance. Amish_sentence_29

Amish church groups seek to maintain a degree of separation from the non-Amish world. Amish_sentence_30

Non-Amish people are generally referred to as "English". Amish_sentence_31

Generally, a heavy emphasis is placed on church and family relationships. Amish_sentence_32

The Amish typically operate their own one-room schools and discontinue formal education after grade eight, at age 13 or 14. Amish_sentence_33

Until the children turn 16, they have vocational training under the tutelage of their parents, community, and the school teacher. Amish_sentence_34

Higher education is generally discouraged, as it can lead to social segregation and the unraveling of the community. Amish_sentence_35

However, some Amish women have used higher education to obtain a nursing certificate so that they may provide midwifery services to the community. Amish_sentence_36

History Amish_section_0

Anabaptist beginnings Amish_section_1

Main article: Anabaptism Amish_sentence_37

The Anabaptist movement, from which the Amish later emerged, started in circles around Huldrych Zwingli (1484–1531) who led the early Reformation in Switzerland. Amish_sentence_38

In Zürich on January 21, 1525, Conrad Grebel and George Blaurock practiced adult baptism to each other and then to others. Amish_sentence_39

This Swiss movement, part of the Radical Reformation, later became known as Swiss Brethren. Amish_sentence_40

Emergence of the Amish Amish_section_2

The term Amish was first used as a Schandename (a term of disgrace) in 1710 by opponents of Jakob Amman. Amish_sentence_41

The first informal division between Swiss Brethren was recorded in the 17th century between Oberländers (those living in the hills) and Emmentaler (those living in the Emmental valley). Amish_sentence_42

The Oberländers were a more extreme congregation; their zeal pushed them into more remote areas and their solitude made them more zealous. Amish_sentence_43

Swiss Anabaptism developed, from this point, in two parallel streams, most clearly marked by disagreement over the preferred treatment of "fallen" believers. Amish_sentence_44

The Emmentalers (sometimes referred to as Reistians, after bishop Hans Reist, a leader among the Emmentalers) argued that fallen believers should only be withheld from communion, and not regular meals. Amish_sentence_45

The Amish argued that those who had been banned should be avoided even in common meals. Amish_sentence_46

The Reistian side eventually formed the basis of the Swiss Mennonite Conference. Amish_sentence_47

Because of this common heritage, Amish and Mennonites from southern Germany and Switzerland retain many similarities. Amish_sentence_48

Those who leave the Amish fold tend to join various congregations of Conservative Mennonites. Amish_sentence_49

Migration to North America Amish_section_3

Amish began migrating to Pennsylvania, then regarded favorably due to the lack of religious persecution and attractive land offers, in the early 18th Century as part of a larger migration from the Palatinate and neighboring areas. Amish_sentence_50

Between 1717 and 1750 approximately 500 Amish migrated to North America, mainly to the region that became Berks County, Pennsylvania, but later moved, motivated by land issues and by security concerns tied to the French and Indian War. Amish_sentence_51

Many eventually settled in Lancaster County. Amish_sentence_52

A second wave of around 1,500 arrived in the mid 19th Century and settled in Ohio, Illinois, Iowa and southern Ontario. Amish_sentence_53

1850–1878 Division into Old Orders and Amish Mennonites Amish_section_4

Main article: Old Order Movement Amish_sentence_54

Most Amish communities that were established in North America did not ultimately retain their Amish identity. Amish_sentence_55

The major division that resulted in the loss of identity of many Amish congregations occurred in the third quarter of the 19th century. Amish_sentence_56

The forming of factions worked its way out at different times at different places. Amish_sentence_57

The process was rather a "sorting out" than a split. Amish_sentence_58

Amish people are free to join another Amish congregation at another place that fits them best. Amish_sentence_59

In the years after 1850, tensions rose within individual Amish congregations and between different Amish congregations. Amish_sentence_60

Between 1862 and 1878, yearly Dienerversammlungen (ministerial conferences) were held at different places, concerning how the Amish should deal with the tensions caused by the pressures of modern society. Amish_sentence_61

The meetings themselves were a progressive idea; for bishops to assemble to discuss uniformity was an unprecedented notion in the Amish church. Amish_sentence_62

By the first several meetings, the more traditionally minded bishops agreed to boycott the conferences. Amish_sentence_63

The more progressive members, comprising roughly two-thirds of the group, became known by the name Amish Mennonite, and eventually united with the Mennonite Church, and other Mennonite denominations, mostly in the early 20th century. Amish_sentence_64

The more traditionally minded groups became known as the Old Order Amish. Amish_sentence_65

The Egli Amish had already started to withdraw from the Amish church in 1858. Amish_sentence_66

They soon drifted away from the old ways and changed their name to "Defenseless Mennonite" in 1908. Amish_sentence_67

Congregations who took no side in the division after 1862 formed the Conservative Amish Mennonite Conference in 1910, but dropped the word "Amish" from their name in 1957. Amish_sentence_68

Because no division occurred in Europe, the Amish congregations remaining there took the same way as the change-minded Amish Mennonites in North America and slowly merged with the Mennonites. Amish_sentence_69

The last Amish congregation in Germany to merge was the Ixheim Amish congregation, which merged with the neighboring Mennonite Church in 1937. Amish_sentence_70

Some Mennonite congregations, including most in Alsace, are descended directly from former Amish congregations. Amish_sentence_71

20th century Amish_section_5

Though splits happened among the Old Order in the 19th century in Mifflin County, Pennsylvania, a major split among the Old Orders took until World War I. Amish_sentence_72

At that time, two very conservative affiliations emerged – the Swartzentruber Amish in Holmes County, Ohio, and the Buchanan Amish in Iowa. Amish_sentence_73

The Buchanan Amish soon were joined by like-minded congregations all over the country. Amish_sentence_74

With World War I came the massive suppression of the German language in the US that eventually led to language shift of most Pennsylvania German speakers, leaving the Amish and other Old Orders as almost the only speakers by the end of the 20th century. Amish_sentence_75

This created a language barrier around the Amish that did not exist before in that form. Amish_sentence_76

In the late 1920s, the more change minded faction of the Old Order Amish, that wanted to adopt the car, broke away from the mainstream and organized under the name Beachy Amish. Amish_sentence_77

During the Second World War, the old question of military service for the Amish came up again. Amish_sentence_78

Because Amish young men in general refused military service, they ended up in the Civilian Public Service (CPS), where they worked mainly in forestry and hospitals. Amish_sentence_79

The fact that many young men worked in hospitals, where they had a lot of contact with more progressive Mennonites and the outside world, had the result that many of these men never joined the Amish church. Amish_sentence_80

In the 1950s, the Beachy Amish transformed into an evangelical church. Amish_sentence_81

The ones who wanted to preserve the old way of the Beachy became the Old Beachy Amish. Amish_sentence_82

Until about 1950, almost all Amish children attended small, local, non-Amish schools, but then school consolidation and mandatory schooling beyond eighth grade caused Amish opposition. Amish_sentence_83

Amish communities opened their own Amish schools. Amish_sentence_84

In 1972, the United States Supreme Court exempted Amish pupils from compulsory education past eighth grade. Amish_sentence_85

By the end of the 20th century, almost all Amish children attended Amish schools. Amish_sentence_86

In the last quarter of the 20th century, a growing number of Amish men left farm work and started small businesses because of increasing pressure on small-scale farming. Amish_sentence_87

Though a wide variety of small businesses exists among the Amish, construction work and woodworking are quite widespread. Amish_sentence_88

In many Amish settlements, especially the larger ones, farmers are now a minority. Amish_sentence_89

Approximately 12,000 of the 40,000 dairy farms in the United States are Amish-owned as of 2018. Amish_sentence_90

Until the early 20th century, Old Order Amish identity was not linked to the use of technologies, as the Old Order Amish and their rural neighbors used the same farm and household technologies. Amish_sentence_91

Questions about the use of technologies also did not play a role in the Old Order division of the second half of the 19th century. Amish_sentence_92

Telephones were the first important technology that was rejected, soon followed by the rejection of cars, tractors, radios, and many other technological inventions of the 20th century. Amish_sentence_93

Old Order Mennonites and Amish sects are often grouped together in North America's popular press. Amish_sentence_94

This is incorrect, according to a 2017 report by Canadian Mennonite magazine: Amish_sentence_95

Religious practices Amish_section_6

Main article: Amish religious practices Amish_sentence_96

Two key concepts for understanding Amish practices are their rejection of Hochmut (pride, arrogance, haughtiness) and the high value they place on Demut (humility) and Gelassenheit (calmness, composure, placidity), often translated as "submission" or "letting-be". Amish_sentence_97

Gelassenheit is perhaps better understood as a reluctance to be forward, to be self-promoting, or to assert oneself. Amish_sentence_98

The Amish's willingness to submit to the "Will of Jesus", expressed through group norms, is at odds with the individualism so central to the wider American culture. Amish_sentence_99

The Amish anti-individualist orientation is the motive for rejecting labor-saving technologies that might make one less dependent on the community. Amish_sentence_100

Modern innovations such as electricity might spark a competition for status goods, or photographs might cultivate personal vanity. Amish_sentence_101

Electric power lines would be going against the Bible, which says that you shall not be "conformed to the world" (). Amish_sentence_102

Way of life Amish_section_7

Main article: Amish way of life Amish_sentence_103

Amish lifestyle is regulated by the Ordnung ("order"), which differs slightly from community to community and from district to district within a community. Amish_sentence_104

What is acceptable in one community may not be acceptable in another. Amish_sentence_105

The Ordnung is agreed upon – or changed – within the whole community of baptized members prior to Communion which takes place two times a year. Amish_sentence_106

The meeting where the Ordnung is discussed is called Ordnungsgemeine in Standard German and Ordningsgmee in Pennsylvania Dutch. Amish_sentence_107

The Ordnung include matters such as dress, permissible uses of technology, religious duties, and rules regarding interaction with outsiders. Amish_sentence_108

In these meetings, women also vote in questions concerning the Ordnung. Amish_sentence_109

Bearing children, raising them, and socializing with neighbors and relatives are the greatest functions of the Amish family. Amish_sentence_110

Amish typically believe that large families are a blessing from God. Amish_sentence_111

Farm families tend to have larger families, because sons are needed to perform farm labor. Amish_sentence_112

Community is central to the Amish way of life. Amish_sentence_113

Working hard is considered godly, and some technological advancements have been considered undesirable because they reduce the need for hard work. Amish_sentence_114

Machines such as automatic floor cleaners in barns have historically been rejected as this provides young farmhands with too much free time. Amish_sentence_115

Clothing Amish_section_8

The Amish are known for their plain attire. Amish_sentence_116

Men wear solid colored shirts, broad-brimmed hats, and suits that signify similarity amongst one another. Amish_sentence_117

Amish men grow beards to symbolize manhood and marital status, as well as to promote humility. Amish_sentence_118

They are forbidden to grow mustaches because mustaches are seen by the Amish as being affiliated with the military, which they are strongly opposed to, due to their pacifist beliefs. Amish_sentence_119

Women have similar guidelines on how to dress, which are also expressed in the Ordnung, the Amish version of legislation. Amish_sentence_120

They are to wear calf-length dresses, muted colors along with bonnets and aprons. Amish_sentence_121

Prayer caps or bonnets are worn by the women because they are a visual representation of their religious beliefs and promote unity through the tradition of every woman wearing one. Amish_sentence_122

The color of the bonnet signifies whether a woman is single or married. Amish_sentence_123

Single women wear black bonnets and married women wear white. Amish_sentence_124

The color coding of bonnets is important because women are not allowed to wear jewelry, such as wedding rings, as it is seen as drawing attention to the body which can induce pride in the individual. Amish_sentence_125

All clothing is sewn by hand, but the way to fasten the garment widely depends on whether the Amish person is a part of the New Order or Old Order Amish. Amish_sentence_126

The Old Order Amish seldom, if ever, use buttons because they are seen as too flashy; instead, they use the hook and eye approach to fashion clothing or metal snaps. Amish_sentence_127

The New Order Amish are slightly more progressive and allow the usage of buttons to help attire clothing. Amish_sentence_128

Cuisine Amish_section_9

See also: Cuisine of the Pennsylvania Dutch Amish_sentence_129

Amish cuisine is noted for its simplicity and traditional qualities. Amish_sentence_130

Food plays an important part in Amish social life and is served at potlucks, weddings, fundraisers, farewells, and other events. Amish_sentence_131

Many Amish foods are sold at markets including pies, preserves, bread mixes, pickled produce, desserts, and canned goods. Amish_sentence_132

Many Amish communities have also established restaurants for visitors. Amish_sentence_133

Amish meat consumption is similar to the American average though they tend to eat more preserved meat. Amish_sentence_134

Subgroups Amish_section_10

Main article: Subgroups of Amish Amish_sentence_135

Over the years, the Amish churches have divided many times mostly over questions concerning the Ordnung, but also over doctrinal disputes, mainly about shunning. Amish_sentence_136

The largest group, the "Old Order" Amish, a conservative faction that separated from other Amish in the 1860s, are those who have most emphasized traditional practices and beliefs. Amish_sentence_137

The New Order Amish are a group of Amish whom some scholars see best described as a subgroup of Old Order Amish, despite the name. Amish_sentence_138

Affiliations Amish_section_11

About 40 different Old Order Amish affiliations are known; the eight major affiliations are below, with Lancaster as the largest one in number of districts and population: Amish_sentence_139


AffiliationAmish_header_cell_1_0_0 Date establishedAmish_header_cell_1_0_1 OriginAmish_header_cell_1_0_2 StatesAmish_header_cell_1_0_3 SettlementsAmish_header_cell_1_0_4 Church districtsAmish_header_cell_1_0_5
LancasterAmish_cell_1_1_0 1760Amish_cell_1_1_1 PennsylvaniaAmish_cell_1_1_2 8Amish_cell_1_1_3 37Amish_cell_1_1_4 291Amish_cell_1_1_5
Elkhart-LaGrangeAmish_cell_1_2_0 1841Amish_cell_1_2_1 IndianaAmish_cell_1_2_2 3Amish_cell_1_2_3 9Amish_cell_1_2_4 176Amish_cell_1_2_5
Holmes Old OrderAmish_cell_1_3_0 1808Amish_cell_1_3_1 OhioAmish_cell_1_3_2 1Amish_cell_1_3_3 2Amish_cell_1_3_4 147Amish_cell_1_3_5
Buchanan/MedfordAmish_cell_1_4_0 1914Amish_cell_1_4_1 IndianaAmish_cell_1_4_2 19Amish_cell_1_4_3 67Amish_cell_1_4_4 140Amish_cell_1_4_5
Geauga IAmish_cell_1_5_0 1886Amish_cell_1_5_1 OhioAmish_cell_1_5_2 6Amish_cell_1_5_3 11Amish_cell_1_5_4 113Amish_cell_1_5_5
SwartzentruberAmish_cell_1_6_0 1913Amish_cell_1_6_1 OhioAmish_cell_1_6_2 15Amish_cell_1_6_3 43Amish_cell_1_6_4 119Amish_cell_1_6_5
Geauga IIAmish_cell_1_7_0 1962Amish_cell_1_7_1 OhioAmish_cell_1_7_2 4Amish_cell_1_7_3 27Amish_cell_1_7_4 99Amish_cell_1_7_5
Swiss (Adams)Amish_cell_1_8_0 1850Amish_cell_1_8_1 IndianaAmish_cell_1_8_2 5Amish_cell_1_8_3 15Amish_cell_1_8_4 86Amish_cell_1_8_5

Use of technology by different affiliations Amish_section_12

The table below indicates the use of certain technologies by different Amish affiliations. Amish_sentence_140

The use of cars is not allowed by any Old and New Order Amish, nor are radio, television, or in most cases the use of the Internet. Amish_sentence_141

The three affiliations: "Lancaster", "Holmes Old Order", and "Elkhart-LaGrange" are not only the three largest affiliations, but they also represent the mainstream among the Old Order Amish. Amish_sentence_142

The most conservative affiliations are above, the most modern ones below. Amish_sentence_143

Technologies used by very few are on the left; the ones used by most are on the right. Amish_sentence_144

The percentage of all Amish who use a technology is also indicated approximately. Amish_sentence_145

The Old Order Amish culture involves lower greenhouse gas emissions in all sectors and activities with the exception of diet, and their per-person emissions has been estimated to be less than one quarter that of the wider society. Amish_sentence_146


AffiliationAmish_header_cell_2_0_0 Tractor for fieldworkAmish_header_cell_2_0_1 Roto- tillerAmish_header_cell_2_0_2 Power lawn mowerAmish_header_cell_2_0_3 Propane gasAmish_header_cell_2_0_4 Bulk milk tankAmish_header_cell_2_0_5 Mechanical milkerAmish_header_cell_2_0_6 Mechanical refrigeratorAmish_header_cell_2_0_7 Pickup balersAmish_header_cell_2_0_8 Inside flush toiletAmish_header_cell_2_0_9 Running water bath tubAmish_header_cell_2_0_10 Tractor for belt powerAmish_header_cell_2_0_11 Pneumatic toolsAmish_header_cell_2_0_12 Chain sawAmish_header_cell_2_0_13 Pressurized lampsAmish_header_cell_2_0_14 Motorized washing machinesAmish_header_cell_2_0_15
Percentage of use
by all AmishAmish_cell_2_1_0
6Amish_cell_2_1_1 20Amish_cell_2_1_2 25Amish_cell_2_1_3 30Amish_cell_2_1_4 35Amish_cell_2_1_5 35Amish_cell_2_1_6 40Amish_cell_2_1_7 50Amish_cell_2_1_8 70Amish_cell_2_1_9 70Amish_cell_2_1_10 70Amish_cell_2_1_11 70Amish_cell_2_1_12 75Amish_cell_2_1_13 90Amish_cell_2_1_14 97Amish_cell_2_1_15
SwartzentruberAmish_cell_2_2_0 NoAmish_cell_2_2_1 NoAmish_cell_2_2_2 NoAmish_cell_2_2_3 NoAmish_cell_2_2_4 NoAmish_cell_2_2_5 NoAmish_cell_2_2_6 NoAmish_cell_2_2_7 NoAmish_cell_2_2_8 NoAmish_cell_2_2_9 NoAmish_cell_2_2_10 NoAmish_cell_2_2_11 SomeAmish_cell_2_2_12 NoAmish_cell_2_2_13 NoAmish_cell_2_2_14 YesAmish_cell_2_2_15
NebraskaAmish_cell_2_3_0 NoAmish_cell_2_3_1 NoAmish_cell_2_3_2 NoAmish_cell_2_3_3 NoAmish_cell_2_3_4 NoAmish_cell_2_3_5 NoAmish_cell_2_3_6 NoAmish_cell_2_3_7 SomeAmish_cell_2_3_8 NoAmish_cell_2_3_9 NoAmish_cell_2_3_10 NoAmish_cell_2_3_11 NoAmish_cell_2_3_12 SomeAmish_cell_2_3_13 NoAmish_cell_2_3_14 YesAmish_cell_2_3_15
Swiss (Adams)Amish_cell_2_4_0 NoAmish_cell_2_4_1 NoAmish_cell_2_4_2 SomeAmish_cell_2_4_3 NoAmish_cell_2_4_4 NoAmish_cell_2_4_5 NoAmish_cell_2_4_6 NoAmish_cell_2_4_7 NoAmish_cell_2_4_8 SomeAmish_cell_2_4_9 NoAmish_cell_2_4_10 NoAmish_cell_2_4_11 SomeAmish_cell_2_4_12 SomeAmish_cell_2_4_13 SomeAmish_cell_2_4_14 SomeAmish_cell_2_4_15
Buchanan/MedfordAmish_cell_2_5_0 NoAmish_cell_2_5_1 NoAmish_cell_2_5_2 NoAmish_cell_2_5_3 NoAmish_cell_2_5_4 NoAmish_cell_2_5_5 NoAmish_cell_2_5_6 NoAmish_cell_2_5_7 NoAmish_cell_2_5_8 NoAmish_cell_2_5_9 NoAmish_cell_2_5_10 NoAmish_cell_2_5_11 SomeAmish_cell_2_5_12 NoAmish_cell_2_5_13 YesAmish_cell_2_5_14 YesAmish_cell_2_5_15
DannerAmish_cell_2_6_0 NoAmish_cell_2_6_1 NoAmish_cell_2_6_2 NoAmish_cell_2_6_3 SomeAmish_cell_2_6_4 NoAmish_cell_2_6_5 NoAmish_cell_2_6_6 SomeAmish_cell_2_6_7 NoAmish_cell_2_6_8 NoAmish_cell_2_6_9 NoAmish_cell_2_6_10 YesAmish_cell_2_6_11 NoAmish_cell_2_6_12 NoAmish_cell_2_6_13 YesAmish_cell_2_6_14 NoAmish_cell_2_6_15
Geauga IAmish_cell_2_7_0 NoAmish_cell_2_7_1 NoAmish_cell_2_7_2 NoAmish_cell_2_7_3 NoAmish_cell_2_7_4 NoAmish_cell_2_7_5 NoAmish_cell_2_7_6 NoAmish_cell_2_7_7 SomeAmish_cell_2_7_8 YesAmish_cell_2_7_9 YesAmish_cell_2_7_10 YesAmish_cell_2_7_11 YesAmish_cell_2_7_12 YesAmish_cell_2_7_13 YesAmish_cell_2_7_14 YesAmish_cell_2_7_15
Holmes Old OrderAmish_cell_2_8_0 NoAmish_cell_2_8_1 SomeAmish_cell_2_8_2 SomeAmish_cell_2_8_3 No*Amish_cell_2_8_4 NoAmish_cell_2_8_5 NoAmish_cell_2_8_6 SomeAmish_cell_2_8_7 YesAmish_cell_2_8_8 YesAmish_cell_2_8_9 YesAmish_cell_2_8_10 YesAmish_cell_2_8_11 YesAmish_cell_2_8_12 YesAmish_cell_2_8_13 YesAmish_cell_2_8_14 YesAmish_cell_2_8_15
Elkhart-LaGrangeAmish_cell_2_9_0 NoAmish_cell_2_9_1 SomeAmish_cell_2_9_2 SomeAmish_cell_2_9_3 SomeAmish_cell_2_9_4 SomeAmish_cell_2_9_5 SomeAmish_cell_2_9_6 SomeAmish_cell_2_9_7 SomeAmish_cell_2_9_8 YesAmish_cell_2_9_9 YesAmish_cell_2_9_10 YesAmish_cell_2_9_11 YesAmish_cell_2_9_12 YesAmish_cell_2_9_13 YesAmish_cell_2_9_14 YesAmish_cell_2_9_15
LancasterAmish_cell_2_10_0 NoAmish_cell_2_10_1 NoAmish_cell_2_10_2 SomeAmish_cell_2_10_3 YesAmish_cell_2_10_4 NoAmish_cell_2_10_5 YesAmish_cell_2_10_6 YesAmish_cell_2_10_7 YesAmish_cell_2_10_8 YesAmish_cell_2_10_9 YesAmish_cell_2_10_10 YesAmish_cell_2_10_11 YesAmish_cell_2_10_12 YesAmish_cell_2_10_13 YesAmish_cell_2_10_14 YesAmish_cell_2_10_15
Nappanee, IndianaAmish_cell_2_11_0 NoAmish_cell_2_11_1 YesAmish_cell_2_11_2 YesAmish_cell_2_11_3 YesAmish_cell_2_11_4 YesAmish_cell_2_11_5 YesAmish_cell_2_11_6 YesAmish_cell_2_11_7 YesAmish_cell_2_11_8 YesAmish_cell_2_11_9 YesAmish_cell_2_11_10 YesAmish_cell_2_11_11 YesAmish_cell_2_11_12 YesAmish_cell_2_11_13 YesAmish_cell_2_11_14 YesAmish_cell_2_11_15
KalonaAmish_cell_2_12_0 YesAmish_cell_2_12_1 YesAmish_cell_2_12_2 YesAmish_cell_2_12_3 YesAmish_cell_2_12_4 YesAmish_cell_2_12_5 YesAmish_cell_2_12_6 YesAmish_cell_2_12_7 YesAmish_cell_2_12_8 YesAmish_cell_2_12_9 YesAmish_cell_2_12_10 YesAmish_cell_2_12_11 YesAmish_cell_2_12_12 YesAmish_cell_2_12_13 YesAmish_cell_2_12_14 YesAmish_cell_2_12_15
  • Natural gas allowed Amish_sentence_147

Language Amish_section_13

Main article: Pennsylvania German language Amish_sentence_148

Most Old Order Amish speak Pennsylvania Dutch, and refer to non-Amish people as "English", regardless of ethnicity. Amish_sentence_149

Some Amish who migrated to the United States in the 1850s speak a form of Bernese German or a Low Alemannic Alsatian dialect. Amish_sentence_150

Contrary to popular belief, the word "Dutch" in "Pennsylvania Dutch" is not a mistranslation, but rather a corruption of the Pennsylvania German endonym Deitsch, which means "Pennsylvania Dutch / German" or "German". Amish_sentence_151

Ultimately, the terms Deitsch, Dutch, Diets and Deutsch are all cognates of the Proto-Germanic word meaning "popular" or "of the people". Amish_sentence_152

The continued use of "Pennsylvania Dutch" was strengthened by the Pennsylvania Dutch in the 19th century as a way of distinguishing themselves from later (post 1830) waves of German immigrants to the United States, with the Pennsylvania Dutch referring to themselves as Deitsche and to Germans as Deitschlenner (literally "Germany-ers", compare Deutschland-er) whom they saw as a related but distinct group. Amish_sentence_153

According to one scholar, "today, almost all Amish are functionally bilingual in Pennsylvania Dutch and English; however, domains of usage are sharply separated. Amish_sentence_154

Pennsylvania Dutch dominates in most in-group settings, such as the dinner table and preaching in church services. Amish_sentence_155

In contrast, English is used for most reading and writing. Amish_sentence_156

English is also the medium of instruction in schools and is used in business transactions and often, out of politeness, in situations involving interactions with non-Amish. Amish_sentence_157

Finally, the Amish read prayers and sing in Standard German (which, in Pennsylvania Dutch, is called Hochdeitsch) at church services. Amish_sentence_158

The distinctive use of three different languages serves as a powerful conveyor of Amish identity. Amish_sentence_159

"Although 'the English language is being used in more and more situations,' Pennsylvania Dutch is 'one of a handful of minority languages in the United States that is neither endangered nor supported by continual arrivals of immigrants.'" Amish_sentence_160

Ethnicity Amish_section_14

The Amish largely share a German or Swiss-German ancestry. Amish_sentence_161

They generally use the term "Amish" only for members of their faith community and not as an ethnic designation. Amish_sentence_162

However some Amish descendants recognize their cultural background knowing that their genetic and cultural traits are uniquely different from other ethnicities. Amish_sentence_163

Those who choose to affiliate with the church, or young children raised in Amish homes, but too young to yet be church members, are considered to be Amish. Amish_sentence_164

Certain Mennonite churches have a high number of people who were formerly from Amish congregations. Amish_sentence_165

Although more Amish immigrated to North America in the 19th century than during the 18th century, most of today's Amish descend from 18th-century immigrants. Amish_sentence_166

The latter tended to emphasize tradition to a greater extent, and were perhaps more likely to maintain a separate Amish identity. Amish_sentence_167

There are a number of Amish Mennonite church groups that had never in their history been associated with the Old Order Amish because they split from the Amish mainstream in the time when the Old Orders formed in the 1860s and 1870s. Amish_sentence_168

The former Western Ontario Mennonite Conference (WOMC) was made up almost entirely of former Amish Mennonites who reunited with the Mennonite Church in Canada. Amish_sentence_169

Orland Gingerich's book The Amish of Canada devotes the vast majority of its pages not to the Beachy or Old Order Amish, but to congregations in the former WOMC. Amish_sentence_170

Para-Amish groups Amish_section_15

Several other groups, called "para-Amish" by G. Amish_sentence_171 C. Waldrep and others, share many characteristics with the Amish, such as horse and buggy transportation, plain dress, and the preservation of the German language. Amish_sentence_172

The members of these groups are largely of Amish origin, but they are not in fellowship with other Amish groups because they adhere to theological doctrines (e.g., assurance of salvation) or practices (community of goods) that are normally not accepted among mainstream Amish. Amish_sentence_173

The Bergholz Community is a different case, it is not seen as Amish anymore because the community has shifted away from many core Amish principles. Amish_sentence_174

Population and distribution Amish_section_16

Because the Amish are usually baptized no earlier than 18 and children are not counted in local congregation numbers, estimating their numbers is difficult. Amish_sentence_175

Rough estimates from various studies placed their numbers at 125,000 in 1992, 166,000 in 2000, and 221,000 in 2008. Amish_sentence_176

Thus, from 1992 to 2008, population growth among the Amish in North America was 84 percent (3.6 percent per year). Amish_sentence_177

During that time, they established 184 new settlements and moved into six new states. Amish_sentence_178

In 2000, about 165,620 Old Order Amish resided in the United States, of whom 73,609 were church members. Amish_sentence_179

The Amish are among the fastest-growing populations in the world, with an average of seven children per family in the 1970s and a total fertility rate of 5.3 in the 2010s. Amish_sentence_180

In 2010, a few religious bodies, including the Amish, changed the way their adherents were reported to better match the standards of the Association of Statisticians of American Religious Bodies. Amish_sentence_181

When looking at all Amish adherents and not solely Old Order Amish, about 241,000 Amish adherents were in 28 U.S. states in 2010. Amish_sentence_182

Distribution by country Amish_section_17

United States Amish_section_18

See also: List of U.S. states by Amish population Amish_sentence_183


Amish population by U.S. state and yearAmish_table_caption_3
StateAmish_header_cell_3_0_0 1992Amish_header_cell_3_0_1 2000Amish_header_cell_3_0_2 2010Amish_header_cell_3_0_3 2020Amish_header_cell_3_0_4
PennsylvaniaAmish_cell_3_1_0 32,710Amish_cell_3_1_1 40,100Amish_cell_3_1_2 59,350Amish_cell_3_1_3 81,500Amish_cell_3_1_4
OhioAmish_cell_3_2_0 34,830Amish_cell_3_2_1 49,750Amish_cell_3_2_2 58,590Amish_cell_3_2_3 78,280Amish_cell_3_2_4
IndianaAmish_cell_3_3_0 23,400Amish_cell_3_3_1 32,650Amish_cell_3_3_2 43,710Amish_cell_3_3_3 59,305Amish_cell_3_3_4
WisconsinAmish_cell_3_4_0 6,785Amish_cell_3_4_1 10,250Amish_cell_3_4_2 15,360Amish_cell_3_4_3 22,235Amish_cell_3_4_4
New YorkAmish_cell_3_5_0 4,050Amish_cell_3_5_1 5,000Amish_cell_3_5_2 12,015Amish_cell_3_5_3 21,230Amish_cell_3_5_4
MichiganAmish_cell_3_6_0 5,150Amish_cell_3_6_1 9,300Amish_cell_3_6_2 11,350Amish_cell_3_6_3 16,525Amish_cell_3_6_4
MissouriAmish_cell_3_7_0 3,745Amish_cell_3_7_1 6,100Amish_cell_3_7_2 9,475Amish_cell_3_7_3 14,520Amish_cell_3_7_4
KentuckyAmish_cell_3_8_0 2,625Amish_cell_3_8_1 5,150Amish_cell_3_8_2 7,750Amish_cell_3_8_3 13,595Amish_cell_3_8_4

United States is the home to the overwhelming majority (98.29%) of the Amish people. Amish_sentence_184

In 2020, Old Order communities were present in 31 U.S. states. Amish_sentence_185

The total Amish population in United States as of June 2020 has stood at 344,670 up 8,435 or 2.5%, compared to the previous year. Amish_sentence_186

Pennsylvania has the largest population (81.5 thousand), followed by Ohio (78.3 thousand) and Indiana (59.3 thousand), as of June 2020. Amish_sentence_187

The largest Amish settlements are in Lancaster County in southeastern Pennsylvania (40,525), Holmes County and adjacent counties in northeastern Ohio (36,955), and Elkhart and LaGrange counties in northeastern Indiana (26,380), as of June 2020. Amish_sentence_188

Nearly 50% of the population in Holmes County is Amish. Amish_sentence_189

The largest concentration of Amish west of the Mississippi River is in Missouri, with other settlements in eastern Iowa and southeast Minnesota. Amish_sentence_190

The largest Amish settlements in Iowa are located near Kalona and Bloomfield. Amish_sentence_191

The largest settlement in Wisconsin is near Cashton with 13 congregations, i.e. about 2,000 people in 2009. Amish_sentence_192

Because of the rapid population growth of the Amish communities, new settlements in the United States are being established each year, thus: 17 new settlementes were established in 2016, 20 in 2017, 18 in 2018, 26 in 2019 and 10 by mid-2020. Amish_sentence_193

The main reason for the continuous expansion is to obtain enough affordable farmland, other reasons for new settlements include locating in isolated areas that support their lifestyle, moving to areas with cultures conducive to their way of life, maintaining proximity to family or other Amish groups, and sometimes to resolve church or leadership conflicts. Amish_sentence_194

The adjacent table shows the eight states with the largest Amish population in the years 1992, 2000, 2010, and 2020. Amish_sentence_195

Canada Amish_section_19


Amish population by Canadian province and yearAmish_table_caption_4
CanadaAmish_header_cell_4_0_0 1992Amish_header_cell_4_0_1 2010Amish_header_cell_4_0_2 2020Amish_header_cell_4_0_3
All of CanadaAmish_cell_4_1_0 2,295Amish_cell_4_1_1 4,725Amish_cell_4_1_2 5,995Amish_cell_4_1_3
OntarioAmish_cell_4_2_0 2,295Amish_cell_4_2_1 4,725Amish_cell_4_2_2 5,605Amish_cell_4_2_3
Prince Edward IslandAmish_cell_4_3_0 0Amish_cell_4_3_1 0Amish_cell_4_3_2 250Amish_cell_4_3_3
ManitobaAmish_cell_4_4_0 0Amish_cell_4_4_1 0Amish_cell_4_4_2 70Amish_cell_4_4_3
New BrunswickAmish_cell_4_5_0 0Amish_cell_4_5_1 0Amish_cell_4_5_2 70Amish_cell_4_5_3

Amish settlements are in four Canadian provinces: Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Manitoba, and New Brunswick. Amish_sentence_196

The majority of Old Order settlements is located in the province of Ontario, namely Oxford (Norwich Township) and Norfolk Counties. Amish_sentence_197

A small community is also established in Bruce County (Huron-Kinloss Township) near Lucknow. Amish_sentence_198

In 2016, several dozen Old Order Amish families founded two new settlements in Kings County in the province of Prince Edward Island. Amish_sentence_199

Increasing land prices in Ontario had reportedly limited the ability of members in those communities to purchase new farms. Amish_sentence_200

At about the same time a new settlement was founded near Perth-Andover in New Brunswick, only about 12 km from Amish settlements in Maine. Amish_sentence_201

In 2017, an Amish settlement was founded in Manitoba near Stuartburn. Amish_sentence_202

Latin America Amish_section_20


Amish population by South American country and yearAmish_table_caption_5
CountryAmish_header_cell_5_0_0 2010Amish_header_cell_5_0_1 2019Amish_header_cell_5_0_2 2020Amish_header_cell_5_0_3
BoliviaAmish_cell_5_1_0 0Amish_cell_5_1_1 150Amish_cell_5_1_2 160Amish_cell_5_1_3
ArgentinaAmish_cell_5_2_0 0Amish_cell_5_2_1 50Amish_cell_5_2_2 50Amish_cell_5_2_3

There are currently two Amish settlements in South American nations: Argentina and Bolivia. Amish_sentence_203

The majority of Old Order settlements are located in Bolivia. Amish_sentence_204

The first attempt by Old Order Amish to settle in Latin America was in Paradise Valley, near Galeana, Nuevo León, Mexico, but the settlement only lasted from 1923 to 1929. Amish_sentence_205

An Amish settlement was tried in Honduras from about 1968 to 1978, but this settlement failed too. Amish_sentence_206

In 2015, new settlements of New Order Amish were founded east of Catamarca, Argentina, and Colonia Naranjita, Bolivia, about 75 miles (121 km) southwest of Santa Cruz. Amish_sentence_207

Most of the members of these new communities come from Old Colony Mennonite background and have been living in the area for several decades. Amish_sentence_208

Europe Amish_section_21

In Europe, no split occurred between Old Order Amish and Amish Mennonites; like the Amish Mennonites in North America, the European Amish assimilated into the Mennonite mainstream during the second half of the 19th century through the first decades of the 20th century. Amish_sentence_209

Eventually, they dropped the word "Amish" from the names of their congregations and lost their Amish identity and culture. Amish_sentence_210

The last European Amish congregation joined the Mennonites in 1937 in Ixheim, today part of Zweibrücken in the Palatinate region. Amish_sentence_211

Seekers and joiners Amish_section_22

Main article: Seeker (Anabaptism) Amish_sentence_212

Only a few hundred outsiders, so-called seekers, have ever joined the Amish. Amish_sentence_213

Since 1950, only some 75 non-Anabaptist people have joined and remained lifelong members of the Amish. Amish_sentence_214

Since 1990, some twenty people of Russian Mennonite background have joined the Amish in Aylmer, Ontario. Amish_sentence_215

Two whole Christian communities have joined the Amish: The church at Smyrna, Maine, one of the five Christian Communities of Elmo Stoll after Stoll's death and the church at Manton, Michigan, which belonged to a community that was founded by Harry Wanner (1935–2012), a minister of Stauffer Old Order Mennonite background. Amish_sentence_216

The "Michigan Churches", with which Smyrna and Manton affiliated, are said to be more open to seekers and converts than other Amish churches. Amish_sentence_217

Most of the members of these two para-Amish communities originally came from Plain churches, i.e. Old Order Amish, Old Order Mennonite, or Old German Baptist Brethren. Amish_sentence_218

More people have tested Amish life for weeks, months, or even years, but in the end decided not to join. Amish_sentence_219

Others remain close to the Amish, but never think of joining. Amish_sentence_220

Stephen Scott, himself a convert to the Old Order River Brethren, distinguishes four types of seekers: Amish_sentence_221


  • Checklist seekers are looking for a few certain specifications.Amish_item_0_0
  • Cultural seekers are more enchanted with the lifestyle of the Amish than with their religion.Amish_item_0_1
  • Spiritual utopian seekers are looking for true New Testament Christianity.Amish_item_0_2
  • Stability seekers come with emotional issues, often from dysfunctional families.Amish_item_0_3

Health Amish_section_23

Main article: Health among the Amish Amish_sentence_222

Amish populations have higher incidences of particular conditions, including dwarfism, Angelman syndrome, and various metabolic disorders, as well as an unusual distribution of blood types. Amish_sentence_223

The Amish represent a collection of different demes or genetically closed communities. Amish_sentence_224

Although the Amish do not have higher incidence of genetic disorders than the general population, since almost all Amish descend from a few hundred 18th-century founders, some recessive conditions are more prevalent (an example of the founder effect). Amish_sentence_225

Some of these disorders are rare or unique, and are serious enough to increase the mortality rate among Amish children. Amish_sentence_226

The Amish are aware of the advantages of exogamy, but for religious reasons, marry only within their communities. Amish_sentence_227

The majority of Amish accepts these as Gottes Wille (God's will); they reject the use of preventive genetic tests prior to marriage and genetic testing of unborn children to discover genetic disorders. Amish_sentence_228

When a child is born with a disorder, it is accepted into the community and tasked with chores within their ability. Amish_sentence_229

However, Amish are willing to participate in studies of genetic diseases. Amish_sentence_230

Their extensive family histories are useful to researchers investigating diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and macular degeneration. Amish_sentence_231

While the Amish are at an increased risk for some genetic disorders, researchers have found their tendency for clean living can lead to better health. Amish_sentence_232

Overall cancer rates in the Amish are reduced and tobacco-related cancers in Amish adults are 37% and non-tobacco-related cancers are 72% of the rate for Ohio adults. Amish_sentence_233

Even skin cancer rates are lower for Amish, even though many Amish make their living working outdoors where they are exposed to sunlight. Amish_sentence_234

They are typically covered and dressed by wearing wide-brimmed hats and long sleeves which protect their skin. Amish_sentence_235

Treating genetic problems is the mission of Clinic for Special Children in Strasburg, Pennsylvania, which has developed effective treatments for such problems as maple syrup urine disease, a previously fatal disease. Amish_sentence_236

The clinic is embraced by most Amish, ending the need for parents to leave the community to receive proper care for their children, an action that might result in shunning. Amish_sentence_237

Another clinic is DDC Clinic for Special Needs Children, located in Middlefield, Ohio, for special-needs children with inherited or metabolic disorders. Amish_sentence_238

The DDC Clinic provides treatment, research, and educational services to Amish and non-Amish children and their families. Amish_sentence_239

People's Helpers is an Amish-organized network of mental health caregivers who help families dealing with mental illness and recommend professional counselors. Amish_sentence_240

Suicide rates for the Amish are about half that of the general population. Amish_sentence_241

The Old Order Amish do not typically carry private commercial health insurance. Amish_sentence_242

A handful of American hospitals, starting in the mid-1990s, created special outreach programs to assist the Amish. Amish_sentence_243

In some Amish communities, the church will collect money from its members to help pay for medical bills of other members. Amish_sentence_244

Although not forbidden, most Amish do not practice any form of birth control. Amish_sentence_245

They are against abortion and also find "artificial insemination, genetics, eugenics, and stem cell research" to be "inconsistent with Amish values and beliefs". Amish_sentence_246

However, some communities allow access to birth control to women whose health would be compromised by childbirth. Amish_sentence_247

Life in the modern world Amish_section_24

Main article: Amish life in the modern world Amish_sentence_248

As time has passed, the Amish have felt pressures from the modern world. Amish_sentence_249

Issues such as taxation, education, law and its enforcement, and occasional discrimination and hostility are areas of difficulty. Amish_sentence_250

The modern way of life in general has increasingly diverged from that of Amish society. Amish_sentence_251

On occasion, this has resulted in sporadic discrimination and hostility from their neighbors, such as throwing of stones or other objects at Amish horse-drawn carriages on the roads. Amish_sentence_252

The Amish do not usually educate their children past the eighth grade, believing that the basic knowledge offered up to that point is sufficient to prepare one for the Amish lifestyle. Amish_sentence_253

Almost no Amish go to high school and college. Amish_sentence_254

In many communities, the Amish operate their own schools, which are typically one-room schoolhouses with teachers (usually young, unmarried women) from the Amish community. Amish_sentence_255

On May 19, 1972, Jonas Yoder and Wallace Miller of the Old Order Amish, and Adin Yutzy of the Conservative Amish Mennonite Church were each fined $5 for refusing to send their children, aged 14 and 15, to high school. Amish_sentence_256

In Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972), the Wisconsin Supreme Court overturned the conviction, and the U.S. Amish_sentence_257 Supreme Court affirmed this, finding the benefits of universal education were not sufficient justification to overcome scrutiny under the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment. Amish_sentence_258

The Amish are subject to sales and property taxes. Amish_sentence_259

As they seldom own motor vehicles, they rarely have occasion to pay motor vehicle registration fees or spend money in the purchase of fuel for vehicles. Amish_sentence_260

Under their beliefs and traditions, generally the Amish do not agree with the idea of Social Security benefits and have a religious objection to insurance. Amish_sentence_261

On this basis, the United States Internal Revenue Service agreed in 1961 that they did not need to pay Social Security-related taxes. Amish_sentence_262

In 1965, this policy was codified into law. Amish_sentence_263

Self-employed individuals in certain sects do not pay into or receive benefits from the United States Social Security system. Amish_sentence_264

This exemption applies to a religious group that is conscientiously opposed to accepting benefits of any private or public insurance, provides a reasonable level of living for its dependent members, and has existed continuously since December 31, 1950. Amish_sentence_265

The U.S. Supreme Court clarified in 1982 that Amish employers are not exempt, but only those Amish individuals who are self-employed. Amish_sentence_266

Publishing Amish_section_25

In 1964, Pathway Publishers was founded by two Amish farmers to print more material about the Amish and Anabaptists in general. Amish_sentence_267

It is located in Lagrange, Indiana, and Aylmer, Ontario. Amish_sentence_268

Pathway has become the major publisher of Amish school textbooks, general-reading books, and periodicals. Amish_sentence_269

Also, a number of private enterprises publish everything from general reading to reprints of older literature that has been considered of great value to Amish families. Amish_sentence_270

Some Amish read the Pennsylvania German newspaper Hiwwe wie Driwwe, and some of them even contribute dialect texts. Amish_sentence_271

Similar groups Amish_section_26

Groups that sprang from the same late 19th century Old Order Movement as the Amish share their Pennsylvania German heritage and often still retain similar features in dress. Amish_sentence_272

These Old Order groups include different subgroups of Old Order Mennonites, traditional Schwarzenau Brethren and Old Order River Brethren. Amish_sentence_273

The Noah Hoover Old Order Mennonites are so similar in outward aspects to the Old Order Amish (dress, beards, horse and buggy, extreme restrictions on modern technology, Pennsylvania German language), that they are often perceived as Amish and even called Amish. Amish_sentence_274

Conservative "Russian" Mennonites and Hutterites who also dress plain and speak German dialects emigrated from other European regions at a different time with different German dialects, separate cultures, and related but different religious traditions. Amish_sentence_275

Particularly, the Hutterites live communally and are generally accepting of modern technology. Amish_sentence_276

The few remaining Plain Quakers are similar in manner and lifestyle, including their attitudes toward war, but are unrelated to the Amish. Amish_sentence_277

Early Quakers were influenced, to some degree, by the Anabaptists, and in turn influenced the Amish in colonial Pennsylvania. Amish_sentence_278

Almost all modern Quakers have since abandoned their traditional dress. Amish_sentence_279

Relations with Native Americans Amish_section_27

The Northkill Amish Settlement, established in 1740 in Berks County, Pennsylvania, was the first identifiable Amish community in the new world. Amish_sentence_280

During the French and Indian War, the so-called Hochstetler Massacre occurred: Local tribes attacked the Jacob Hochstetler homestead in the Northkill settlement on September 19, 1757. Amish_sentence_281

The sons of the family took their weapons but father Jacob did not allow them to shoot. Amish_sentence_282

Jacob Sr.'s wife, Anna (Lorentz) Hochstetler, a daughter (name unknown) and Jacob Jr. were killed by the Native Americans. Amish_sentence_283

Jacob Sr. and sons Joseph and Christian were taken captive. Amish_sentence_284

Jacob escaped after about eight months, but the boys were held for several years. Amish_sentence_285

As early as 1809 Amish were farming side by side with Native American farmers in Pennsylvania. Amish_sentence_286

According to Cones Kupwah Snowflower, a Shawnee genealogist, the Amish and Quakers were known to incorporate Native Americans into their families to protect them from ill-treatment, especially after the Removal Act of 1832. Amish_sentence_287

The Amish, as pacifists, did not engage in warfare with Native Americans, nor displace them directly, but were among the European immigrants whose arrival resulted in their displacement. Amish_sentence_288

In 2012, the Lancaster Mennonite Historical Society collaborated with the Native American community to construct a replica Iroquois Longhouse. Amish_sentence_289

In popular culture Amish_section_28

Main article: Amish in popular culture Amish_sentence_290

See also Amish_section_29


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: