Amtrak

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For other uses, see Amtrak (disambiguation). Amtrak_sentence_0

Amtrak_table_infobox_0

National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak)Amtrak_table_caption_0
OverviewAmtrak_header_cell_0_0_0
HeadquartersAmtrak_header_cell_0_1_0 1 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C.Amtrak_cell_0_1_1
Reporting markAmtrak_header_cell_0_2_0 AMTK and AMTZ (IATA code: 2V)

(CDTX for the state-funded Amtrak services in California)Amtrak_cell_0_2_1

LocaleAmtrak_header_cell_0_3_0 Amtrak_cell_0_3_1
Dates of operationAmtrak_header_cell_0_4_0 May 1, 1971–present (49 years ago)Amtrak_cell_0_4_1
PredecessorAmtrak_header_cell_0_5_0 20 privately operated intercity passenger rail systemsAmtrak_cell_0_5_1
TechnicalAmtrak_header_cell_0_6_0
Track gaugeAmtrak_header_cell_0_7_0 4 ft 8 ⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gaugeAmtrak_cell_0_7_1
ElectrificationAmtrak_header_cell_0_8_0 Amtrak_cell_0_8_1
LengthAmtrak_header_cell_0_9_0 Amtrak_cell_0_9_1
OtherAmtrak_header_cell_0_10_0
WebsiteAmtrak_header_cell_0_11_0 Amtrak_cell_0_11_1

The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak (reporting marks AMTK, AMTZ), is a passenger railroad service that provides medium and long-distance intercity service in the contiguous United States and to nine Canadian cities. Amtrak_sentence_1

Founded in 1971 as a quasi-public corporation to operate many U.S. passenger rail routes, Amtrak receives a combination of state and federal subsidies but is managed as a for-profit organization. Amtrak_sentence_2

The United States federal government through the Secretary of Transportation owns all the company's issued and outstanding preferred stock. Amtrak_sentence_3

Amtrak's headquarters is located one block west of Union Station in Washington, D.C. Amtrak_sentence_4

Amtrak serves more than 500 destinations in 46 states and three Canadian provinces, operating more than 300 trains daily over 21,400 miles (34,000 km) of track. Amtrak_sentence_5

Amtrak owns approximately 623 miles of this track and operates an additional 132 miles of track. Amtrak_sentence_6

Some track sections allow trains to run as fast as 150 mph (240 km/h). Amtrak_sentence_7

In fiscal year 2018, Amtrak served 31.7 million passengers and had $3.4 billion in revenue, while employing more than 20,000 people. Amtrak_sentence_8

Nearly 87,000 passengers ride more than 300 Amtrak trains on a daily basis. Amtrak_sentence_9

Nearly two-thirds of passengers come from the 10 largest metropolitan areas; 83% of passengers travel on routes shorter than 400 miles (645 km). Amtrak_sentence_10

The name Amtrak is a portmanteau of the words America and trak, the latter itself a sensational spelling of track. Amtrak_sentence_11

History Amtrak_section_0

Private passenger service Amtrak_section_1

In 1916, 98% of all commercial intercity travelers in the United States moved by rail, and the remaining 2% moved by inland waterways. Amtrak_sentence_12

Nearly 42 million passengers used railways as primary transportation. Amtrak_sentence_13

Passenger trains were owned and operated by the same privately owned companies that operated freight trains. Amtrak_sentence_14

As the 20th century progressed, patronage declined in the face of competition from buses, air travel, and the car. Amtrak_sentence_15

New streamlined diesel-powered trains such as the Pioneer Zephyr were popular with the traveling public but could not reverse the trend. Amtrak_sentence_16

By 1940, railroads held 67 percent of commercial passenger-miles in the United States. Amtrak_sentence_17

In real terms, passenger-miles had fallen by 40% since 1916, from 42 billion to 25 billion. Amtrak_sentence_18

Traffic surged during World War II, which was aided by troop movement and gasoline rationing. Amtrak_sentence_19

The railroad's market share surged to 74% in 1945, with a massive 94 billion passenger-miles. Amtrak_sentence_20

After the war, railroads rejuvenated their overworked and neglected passenger fleets with fast and luxurious streamliners. Amtrak_sentence_21

These new trains brought only temporary relief to the overall decline. Amtrak_sentence_22

Even as postwar travel exploded, passenger travel percentages of the overall market share fell to 46% by 1950, and then 32% by 1957. Amtrak_sentence_23

The railroads had lost money on passenger service since the Great Depression, but deficits reached $723 million in 1957. Amtrak_sentence_24

For many railroads, these losses threatened financial viability. Amtrak_sentence_25

The causes of this decline were heavily debated. Amtrak_sentence_26

The National Highway System and airports, both funded by the government, competed directly with the railroads, which paid for their own infrastructure. Amtrak_sentence_27

American car culture was also on the rise in the post-World War II years. Amtrak_sentence_28

Progressive Era rate regulation limited the railroad's ability to turn a profit. Amtrak_sentence_29

Railroads also faced antiquated work rules and inflexible relationships with trade unions. Amtrak_sentence_30

To take one example, workers continued to receive a day's pay for 100-to-150-mile (160 to 240 km) workdays. Amtrak_sentence_31

Streamliners covered that in two hours. Amtrak_sentence_32

Matters approached a crisis in the 1960s. Amtrak_sentence_33

Passenger service route-miles fell from 107,000 miles (172,000 km) in 1958 to 49,000 miles (79,000 km) in 1970, the last full year of private operation. Amtrak_sentence_34

The diversion of most U.S. Amtrak_sentence_35 Postal Service mail from passenger trains to trucks, airplanes, and freight trains in late 1967 deprived those trains of badly needed revenue. Amtrak_sentence_36

In direct response, the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway filed to discontinue 33 of its remaining 39 trains, ending almost all passenger service on one of the largest railroads in the country. Amtrak_sentence_37

The equipment the railroads had ordered after World War II was now 20 years old, worn out, and in need of replacement. Amtrak_sentence_38

Formation Amtrak_section_2

Main article: List of railroads eligible to participate in the formation of Amtrak Amtrak_sentence_39

As passenger service declined, various proposals were brought forward to rescue it. Amtrak_sentence_40

The 1961 Doyle Report proposed that the private railroads pool their services into a single body. Amtrak_sentence_41

Similar proposals were made in 1965 and 1968 but failed to attract support. Amtrak_sentence_42

The federal government passed the High Speed Ground Transportation Act of 1965 to fund pilot programs in the Northeast Corridor, but this did nothing to address passenger deficits. Amtrak_sentence_43

In late 1969, multiple proposals emerged in the United States Congress, including equipment subsidies, route subsidies, and, lastly, a "quasi-public corporation" to take over the operation of intercity passenger trains. Amtrak_sentence_44

Matters were brought to a head-on June 21, 1970, when the Penn Central, the largest railroad in the Northeast United States and teetering on bankruptcy, filed to discontinue 34 of its passenger trains. Amtrak_sentence_45

In October 1970, Congress passed, and President Richard Nixon signed into law, the Rail Passenger Service Act. Amtrak_sentence_46

Proponents of the bill, led by the National Association of Railroad Passengers (NARP), sought government funding to ensure the continuation of passenger trains. Amtrak_sentence_47

They conceived the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (NRPC), a private entity that would receive taxpayer funding and assume operation of intercity passenger trains. Amtrak_sentence_48

The original working brand name for NRPC was Railpax, but less than two weeks before operations began, the official marketing name was changed to Amtrak. Amtrak_sentence_49

There were several key provisions: Amtrak_sentence_50

Amtrak_unordered_list_0

  • Any railroad operating intercity passenger service could contract with the NRPC, thereby joining the national system.Amtrak_item_0_0
  • Participating railroads bought into the NRPC using a formula based on their recent intercity passenger losses. The purchase price could be satisfied either by cash or rolling stock; in exchange, the railroads received NRPC common stock.Amtrak_item_0_1
  • Any participating railroad was freed of the obligation to operate intercity passenger service after May 1, 1971, except for those services chosen by the Department of Transportation (DOT) as part of a "basic system" of service and paid for by NRPC using its federal funds.Amtrak_item_0_2
  • Railroads that chose not to join the NRPC system were required to continue operating their existing passenger service until 1975 and thenceforth had to pursue the customary ICC approval process for any discontinuance or alteration to the service.Amtrak_item_0_3

Of the 26 railroads still offering intercity passenger service in 1970, only six declined to join Amtrak. Amtrak_sentence_51

Nearly everyone involved expected the experiment to be short-lived. Amtrak_sentence_52

The Nixon administration and many Washington insiders viewed the NRPC as a politically expedient way for the President and Congress to give passenger trains a "last hurrah" as demanded by the public. Amtrak_sentence_53

They expected Amtrak to quietly disappear as public interest waned. Amtrak_sentence_54

After Fortune magazine exposed the manufactured mismanagement in 1974, Louis W. Menk, chairman of the Burlington Northern Railroad, remarked that the story was undermining the scheme to dismantle Amtrak. Amtrak_sentence_55

Proponents also hoped that government intervention would be brief and that Amtrak would soon be able to support itself. Amtrak_sentence_56

Neither view had proved to be correct; for popular support allowed Amtrak to continue in operation longer than critics imagined, while financial results made passenger train service returning to private railroad operations infeasible. Amtrak_sentence_57

1970s: The Rainbow Era Amtrak_section_3

Amtrak began operations on May 1, 1971. Amtrak_sentence_58

Amtrak received no rail tracks or rights-of-way at its inception. Amtrak_sentence_59

All Amtrak's routes were continuations of prior service, although Amtrak pruned about half the passenger rail network. Amtrak_sentence_60

Of the 366 train routes that operated previously, Amtrak only continued 184. Amtrak_sentence_61

On the routes that were continued (to the extent possible), schedules were retained with only minor changes from the Official Guide of the Railways and under the same names. Amtrak_sentence_62

Several major corridors became freight-only, including the ex-New York Central Railroad's Water Level Route from New York to Ohio and Grand Trunk Western Railroad's Chicago to Detroit route. Amtrak_sentence_63

Reduced passenger train schedules created headaches. Amtrak_sentence_64

A 19-hour layover became necessary for eastbound travel on the James Whitcomb Riley between Chicago and Newport News. Amtrak_sentence_65

Amtrak inherited problems with train stations (most notably deferred maintenance) and redundant facilities that competed with companies serving the same areas. Amtrak_sentence_66

On the day it started, Amtrak was given the responsibility of rerouting passenger trains from the seven train terminals in Chicago (LaSalle, Dearborn, Grand Central, Randolph, Chicago Northwestern Terminal, Central, and Union) into just one, Union Station. Amtrak_sentence_67

In New York City, Amtrak had to pay and maintain both the Penn Station and the Grand Central Terminal due to the lack of track connections to bring trains from upstate New York into Penn Station; a problem that was rectified once the Empire Connection was built in 1991. Amtrak_sentence_68

Amtrak had to abandon numerous large stations whose upkeep could no longer be justified. Amtrak_sentence_69

On the other hand, the creation of the Los Angeles–Seattle Coast Starlight from three formerly separate train routes was an immediate success, resulting in an increase to daily service by 1973. Amtrak_sentence_70

Needing to operate only half the train routes that were owned by the private railroads, Amtrak originally picked around 1,200 of the best passenger cars to lease from the 3,000 that the private railroads had owned. Amtrak_sentence_71

All were air-conditioned, and 90% were easy-to-maintain stainless steel. Amtrak_sentence_72

When Amtrak took over, passenger cars and locomotives initially retained the paint schemes and logos of their former owners which resulted in Amtrak running trains with mismatched colors – the "Rainbow Era". Amtrak_sentence_73

In mid-1971, Amtrak began purchasing some of the equipment it had leased, including 286 EMD E and F unit diesel locomotives, 30 GG1 electric locomotives and 1,290 passenger cars. Amtrak_sentence_74

By 1975, the official Amtrak color scheme was painted on most Amtrak equipment and newly purchased locomotives and the rolling stock began appearing. Amtrak_sentence_75

Amtrak soon had the opportunity to acquire rights-of-way. Amtrak_sentence_76

Following the bankruptcy of several northeastern railroads in the early 1970s, including Penn Central, which owned and operated the Northeast Corridor (NEC), Congress passed the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976. Amtrak_sentence_77

A large part of the legislation was directed to the creation of Conrail, but the law also enabled the transfer of the portions of the NEC not already owned by state authorities to Amtrak. Amtrak_sentence_78

Amtrak acquired the majority of the NEC on April 1, 1976. Amtrak_sentence_79

(The portion in Massachusetts is owned by the Commonwealth and managed by Amtrak. Amtrak_sentence_80

The route from New Haven to New Rochelle is owned by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority and the Connecticut Department of Transportation as the New Haven Line.) Amtrak_sentence_81

This mainline became Amtrak's "jewel" asset, and helped the railroad generate revenue. Amtrak_sentence_82

While the NEC ridership and revenues were higher than any other segment of the system, the cost of operating and maintaining the corridor proved to be overwhelming. Amtrak_sentence_83

As a result, Amtrak's federal subsidy was increased dramatically. Amtrak_sentence_84

In subsequent years, other short route segments not needed for freight operations were transferred to Amtrak. Amtrak_sentence_85

In its first decade, Amtrak fell far short of financial independence, which continues today, but it did find modest success rebuilding trade. Amtrak_sentence_86

Outside factors discouraged competing transport, such as fuel shortages which increased costs of automobile and airline travel, and strikes which disrupted airline operations. Amtrak_sentence_87

Investments in Amtrak's track, equipment and information also made Amtrak more relevant to America's transportation needs. Amtrak_sentence_88

Amtrak's ridership increased from 16.6 million in 1972 to 21 million in 1981. Amtrak_sentence_89

The 1980s and 1990s Amtrak_section_4

In 1982, former Secretary of the Navy and retired Southern Railway head William Graham Claytor Jr. came out of retirement to lead Amtrak. Amtrak_sentence_90

Despite frequent clashes with the Reagan administration over funding, Claytor enjoyed a good relationship with John H. Riley, the head of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), and with members of Congress. Amtrak_sentence_91

Limited funding led Claytor to use short-term debt to fund operations. Amtrak_sentence_92

Building on mechanical developments in the 1970s, high-speed Washington–New York Metroliner Service was improved with new equipment and faster schedules. Amtrak_sentence_93

Travel time between New York and Washington D.C was reduced to under 3 hours. Amtrak_sentence_94

According to the 1980 Amtrak Annual Report, a converted 12-car set saved the company approximately $250,000 a year in fuel, maintenance and yard support costs. Amtrak_sentence_95

Amtrak completed the head-end power conversion program in 1982. Amtrak_sentence_96

Demand for passenger rail service resulted in the creation of five new state-supported routes in California, Illinois, Missouri, Oregon and Pennsylvania, for a total of 15 state-supported routes across the nation. Amtrak_sentence_97

Ridership stagnated at roughly 20 million passengers per year amid uncertain government aid from 1981 to about 2000. Amtrak_sentence_98

Thomas Downs succeeded Claytor in 1993. Amtrak_sentence_99

Amtrak's stated goal remained "operational self-sufficiency". Amtrak_sentence_100

By this time, however, Amtrak had a large overhang of debt from years of underfunding, and in the mid-1990s, Amtrak suffered through a serious cash crunch. Amtrak_sentence_101

Under Downs, Congress included a provision in the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 that resulted in Amtrak receiving a $2.3 billion tax refund that resolved their cash crisis. Amtrak_sentence_102

However, Congress also instituted a "glide-path" to financial self-sufficiency, excluding railroad retirement tax act payments. Amtrak_sentence_103

George Warrington became president in 1998 with a mandate to make Amtrak financially self-sufficient. Amtrak_sentence_104

Passengers became "guests" and there were expansions into express freight work, but the financial plans failed. Amtrak_sentence_105

Amtrak's inroads in express freight delivery created additional friction with competing freight operators, including the trucking industry. Amtrak_sentence_106

Delivery was delayed of much anticipated high-speed trainsets for the improved Acela Express service, which promised to be a strong source of income and favorable publicity along the Northeast Corridor between Boston and Washington, D.C. Amtrak_sentence_107

Growth in the 21st century Amtrak_section_5

Ridership increased during the first decade of the 21st century after the implementation of capital improvements in the NEC and rises in automobile fuel costs. Amtrak_sentence_108

The inauguration of the high-speed Acela Express in late 2000 generated considerable publicity and led to major ridership gains. Amtrak_sentence_109

However, through the late 1990s and very early 21st century, Amtrak could not add sufficient express freight revenue or cut sufficient other expenditures to break even. Amtrak_sentence_110

By 2002, it was clear that Amtrak could not achieve self-sufficiency, but Congress continued to authorize funding and released Amtrak from the requirement. Amtrak_sentence_111

In early 2002, David L. Gunn replaced Warrington as president. Amtrak_sentence_112

In a departure from his predecessors' promises to make Amtrak self-sufficient in the short term, Gunn argued that no form of passenger transportation in the United States is self-sufficient as the economy is currently structured. Amtrak_sentence_113

Highways, airports, and air traffic control all require large government expenditures to build and operate, coming from the Highway Trust Fund and Aviation Trust Fund paid for by user fees, highway fuel and road taxes, and, in the case of the General Fund, from general taxation. Amtrak_sentence_114

Gunn dropped most freight express business and worked to eliminate deferred maintenance. Amtrak_sentence_115

A plan by the Bush administration "to privatize parts of the national passenger rail system and spin off other parts to partial state ownership" provoked disagreement within Amtrak's board of directors. Amtrak_sentence_116

Late in 2005, Gunn was fired. Amtrak_sentence_117

Gunn's replacement, Alexander Kummant (2006–08), was committed to operating a national rail network, and, like Gunn, opposed the notion of putting the Northeast Corridor under separate ownership. Amtrak_sentence_118

He said that shedding the system's long-distance routes would amount to selling national assets that are on par with national parks, and that Amtrak's abandonment of these routes would be irreversible. Amtrak_sentence_119

In late 2006, Amtrak unsuccessfully sought annual congressional funding of $1 billion for ten years. Amtrak_sentence_120

In early 2007, Amtrak employed 20,000 people in 46 states and served 25 million passengers a year, its highest amount since its founding in 1970. Amtrak_sentence_121

Politico noted a key problem: "the rail system chronically operates in the red. Amtrak_sentence_122

A pattern has emerged: Congress overrides cutbacks demanded by the White House and appropriates enough funds to keep Amtrak from plunging into insolvency. Amtrak_sentence_123

But, Amtrak advocates say, that is not enough to fix the system's woes." Amtrak_sentence_124

Joseph H. Boardman replaced Kummant as president and CEO in late 2008. Amtrak_sentence_125

In 2011, Amtrak announced its intention to improve and expand the high-speed rail corridor from Penn Station in NYC, under the Hudson River in new tunnels, and double-tracking the line to Newark, NJ called the Gateway Program, initially estimated to cost $13.5 billion. Amtrak_sentence_126

From May 2011 to May 2012, Amtrak celebrated its 40th anniversary with festivities across the country that started on National Train Day (May 7, 2011). Amtrak_sentence_127

A commemorative book entitled Amtrak: An American Story was published, and a documentary was created. Amtrak_sentence_128

Six commemorative Heritage units and a 40th Anniversary Exhibit Train toured the country. Amtrak_sentence_129

The Exhibit Train visited 45 communities and welcomed more than 85,000 visitors. Amtrak_sentence_130

It was an entirely rebuilt train powered by GE Genesis locomotives and included three refurbished ex-Santa Fe baggage cars and a food service car. Amtrak_sentence_131

Four Genesis locomotives were painted into retired Amtrak paint schemes: No. Amtrak_sentence_132

156 was in Phase 1 colors, No. Amtrak_sentence_133

66 was in Phase 2 colors, No. Amtrak_sentence_134

145 and No. Amtrak_sentence_135

822 were in Phase 3 colors (822 pulled the Exhibit train), and No. Amtrak_sentence_136

184 was in Phase 4 colors. Amtrak_sentence_137

After years of almost revolving-door CEOs at Amtrak, in December 2013, Boardman was named "Railroader of the Year" by Railway Age magazine, which noted that with over five years in the job, he is the second-longest serving head of Amtrak since it was formed more than 40 years ago. Amtrak_sentence_138

In 2014 Amtrak began offering a "residency" program for writers. Amtrak_sentence_139

On December 9, 2015, Boardman announced in a letter to employees that he would be leaving Amtrak in September 2016. Amtrak_sentence_140

He had advised the Amtrak Board of Directors of his decision the previous week. Amtrak_sentence_141

On August 19, 2016, the Amtrak Board of Directors named former Norfolk Southern Railway President & CEO Charles "Wick" Moorman as Boardman's successor with an effective date of September 1, 2016. Amtrak_sentence_142

During his term, Moorman took no salary and said that he saw his role as one of a "transitional CEO" who would reorganize Amtrak before turning it over to new leadership. Amtrak_sentence_143

On November 17, 2016, the Gateway Program Development Corporation (GDC) was formed for the purpose of overseeing and effectuating the rail infrastructure improvements known as the Gateway Program. Amtrak_sentence_144

(citation below) GDC is a partnership of the States of New York and New Jersey and Amtrak. Amtrak_sentence_145

The Gateway Program includes the Hudson Tunnel Project, to build a new tunnel under the Hudson River and rehabilitate the existing century-old tunnel, and the Portal North Bridge, to replace a century-old moveable bridge with a modern structure that is less prone to failure. Amtrak_sentence_146

Later projects of the Gateway Program, including the expansion of track and platforms at Penn Station New York, construction of the Bergen Loop and other improvements will roughly double capacity for Amtrak and NJ Transit trains in the busiest, most complex section of the Northeast Corridor. Amtrak_sentence_147

In June 2017, it was announced that former Delta and Northwest Airlines CEO Richard Anderson would become Amtrak's next President & CEO. Amtrak_sentence_148

Anderson began the job on July 12, assuming the title of President immediately and serving alongside Moorman as "co-CEOs" until the end of the year. Amtrak_sentence_149

On April 15, 2020, Atlas Air Chairman, President and CEO William Flynn was named Amtrak President and CEO. Amtrak_sentence_150

In addition to Atlas Air, Flynn has held senior roles at CSX Transportation, SeaLand Services and GeoLogistics Corp. Anderson will remain with Amtrak as a senior advisor until December 2020. Amtrak_sentence_151

During the COVID-19 pandemic, Amtrak continued operating as an essential service. Amtrak_sentence_152

It started requiring face coverings the week of May 17, and limited sales to 50% of capacity. Amtrak_sentence_153

Most long-distance routes were reduced to three weekly round trips in October 2020. Amtrak_sentence_154

Operations Amtrak_section_6

Routes Amtrak_section_7

Main articles: List of Amtrak routes, List of busiest Amtrak stations, and List of major cities in U.S. lacking Amtrak service Amtrak_sentence_155

Amtrak is required by law to operate a national route system. Amtrak_sentence_156

Amtrak has presence in 46 of the 48 contiguous states (lacking South Dakota and Wyoming). Amtrak_sentence_157

Amtrak services fall into three groups: short-haul service on the Northeast Corridor, state-supported short haul service outside the Northeast Corridor, and medium- and long-haul service known within Amtrak as the National Network. Amtrak_sentence_158

Amtrak receives federal funding for the vast majority of its operations including the central spine of the Northeast Corridor as well as for its National Network routes. Amtrak_sentence_159

In addition to the federally funded routes, Amtrak partners with transportation agencies in 18 states to operate other short and medium haul routes outside of the Northeast Corridor, some of which connect to it or are extensions from it. Amtrak_sentence_160

In addition to its inter-city services, Amtrak also operates commuter services for three state agencies including MARC in Maryland, Shore Line East in Connecticut, and Metrolink in California. Amtrak_sentence_161

Service on the Northeast Corridor, between Boston, and Washington, D.C., as well as between Philadelphia and Harrisburg, is powered by overhead electric wires; for the rest of the system, diesel locomotives are used. Amtrak_sentence_162

Routes vary widely in frequency of service, from three-days-a-week trains on the Sunset Limited to weekday service several times per hour on the Northeast Corridor (NEC). Amtrak_sentence_163

Amtrak also operates a captive bus service, Thruway Motorcoach, which provides connections to train routes. Amtrak_sentence_164

The most popular and heavily used services are those running on the NEC, including the Acela Express and Northeast Regional. Amtrak_sentence_165

The NEC runs from Boston to Washington, D.C., via New York City and Philadelphia. Amtrak_sentence_166

Some services continue into Virginia. Amtrak_sentence_167

The NEC services accounted for 12.1 million of Amtrak's 31.7 million passengers in fiscal year 2018. Amtrak_sentence_168

Outside the NEC the most popular services are the short-haul corridors in California. Amtrak_sentence_169

These include the Pacific Surfliner, Capitol Corridor, and San Joaquin, supplemented by an extensive network of connecting buses. Amtrak_sentence_170

Together the California corridor trains accounted for a combined 5,731,795 passengers in fiscal year 2018. Amtrak_sentence_171

Other popular corridors include the Empire Corridor, which consists of trackage between New York City and Niagara Falls, New York, via Albany and Buffalo, New York, and carried 1,517,194 passengers in fiscal year 2018, and the Keystone Service from New York City to Harrisburg via Philadelphia that carried 1,519,936 passengers that same year. Amtrak_sentence_172

Four of the six busiest stations by boardings are on the NEC: New York (Penn Station) (first), Washington (Union Station) (second), Philadelphia (30th Street Station) (third), and Boston (South Station) (fifth). Amtrak_sentence_173

The other two are Chicago (Union Station) (fourth) and Los Angeles (Union Station) (sixth). Amtrak_sentence_174

Efficiency Amtrak_section_8

Per passenger mile, Amtrak is 30–40 percent more energy-efficient than commercial airlines and automobiles overall, though the exact figures for particular routes depend on load factor along with other variables. Amtrak_sentence_175

The electrified trains in the NEC are considerably more efficient than Amtrak's diesels and can feed energy captured from regenerative braking back to the electrical grid. Amtrak_sentence_176

Passenger rail is also very competitive with other modes in terms of safety per mile. Amtrak_sentence_177

Amtrak_table_general_1

ModeAmtrak_header_cell_1_0_0 Revenue per

passenger mileAmtrak_header_cell_1_0_1

Energy consumption

per passenger mileAmtrak_header_cell_1_0_2

Deaths per 100

million passenger milesAmtrak_header_cell_1_0_3

ReliabilityAmtrak_header_cell_1_0_4
Domestic airlinesAmtrak_cell_1_1_0 13.0¢Amtrak_cell_1_1_1 2,931 BTU/mi (1,922 kJ/km)Amtrak_cell_1_1_2 < 0.01Amtrak_cell_1_1_3 81.9%Amtrak_cell_1_1_4
Transit busesAmtrak_cell_1_2_0 12.9¢Amtrak_cell_1_2_1 2,656 BTU/mi (1,741 kJ/km)Amtrak_cell_1_2_2 0.06Amtrak_cell_1_2_3 N/AAmtrak_cell_1_2_4
AmtrakAmtrak_cell_1_3_0 30.7¢Amtrak_cell_1_3_1 1,745 BTU/mi (1,144 kJ/km)Amtrak_cell_1_3_2 0.03Amtrak_cell_1_3_3 83%Amtrak_cell_1_3_4
AutomobilesAmtrak_cell_1_4_0 N/AAmtrak_cell_1_4_1 3,501 BTU/mi (2,295 kJ/km)Amtrak_cell_1_4_2 0.48Amtrak_cell_1_4_3 N/AAmtrak_cell_1_4_4

On-time performance is calculated differently for airlines than for Amtrak. Amtrak_sentence_178

A plane is considered on-time if it arrives within 15 minutes of the schedule. Amtrak_sentence_179

Amtrak uses a sliding scale, with trips under 250 miles (400 km) considered late if they are more than 10 minutes behind schedule, up to 30 minutes for trips over 551 miles (887 km) in length. Amtrak_sentence_180

In 2005, Amtrak's carbon dioxide equivalent emissions were 0.411 lbs/mi (0.116 kg per km). Amtrak_sentence_181

For comparison, this is similar to a car with two people, about twice as high as the UK rail average (where more of the system is electrified), about four times the average US motorcoach, and about eight times a Finnish electric intercity train or fully loaded fifty-seat coach. Amtrak_sentence_182

It is, however, about two thirds of the raw CO2-equivalent emissions of a long-distance domestic flight. Amtrak_sentence_183

Intermodal connections Amtrak_section_9

Intermodal connections between Amtrak trains and other transportation are available at many stations. Amtrak_sentence_184

Most Amtrak rail stations in downtown areas have connections to local public transport. Amtrak_sentence_185

Amtrak also code shares with United Airlines, providing service between Newark Liberty International Airport (via its Amtrak station and AirTrain Newark) and Philadelphia 30th St, Wilmington, Stamford, and New Haven. Amtrak_sentence_186

Special codes are used to designate these intermodal routes, such as "ZVE" to designate the combination of New Haven's Union Station and Newark International Airport and the Amtrak connection between them. Amtrak_sentence_187

Amtrak also serves airport stations at Milwaukee, Oakland, Burbank, and Baltimore. Amtrak_sentence_188

Amtrak coordinates Thruway Motorcoach service to extend many of its routes, especially in California. Amtrak_sentence_189

On-time performance Amtrak_section_10

Outside the Northeast Corridor and stretches of track in Southern California and Michigan, most Amtrak trains run on tracks owned and operated by privately owned freight railroads. Amtrak_sentence_190

Freight rail operators are required under federal law to give dispatching preference to Amtrak trains. Amtrak_sentence_191

Some freight railroads have been accused of violating or skirting these regulations, allegedly resulting in passenger trains waiting in sidings for an hour or longer while waiting for freight traffic to clear the track. Amtrak_sentence_192

The railroads' dispatching practices were investigated in 2008, resulting in stricter laws about train priority. Amtrak_sentence_193

Subsequently, Amtrak's overall on-time performance went up from 74.7% in fiscal 2008 to 84.7% in 2009, with long-distance trains and others outside the NEC seeing the greatest benefit. Amtrak_sentence_194

The Missouri River Runner jumped from 11% to 95%, becoming one of Amtrak's best performers. Amtrak_sentence_195

The Texas Eagle went from 22.4% to 96.7%, and the California Zephyr, with a 5% on-time record in 2008, went up to 78.3%. Amtrak_sentence_196

This improved performance coincided with a general economic downturn, resulting in the lowest freight-rail traffic volumes since at least 1988, meaning less freight traffic to impede passenger traffic. Amtrak_sentence_197

In 2018, Amtrak began issuing report cards, grading each host railroad based on the railroad's impact on on-time performance. Amtrak_sentence_198

The first report card, issued in March 2018, includes one A (given to Canadian Pacific) and two Fs (given to CN and Norfolk Southern). Amtrak_sentence_199

Ridership Amtrak_section_11

Amtrak carried 15,848,327 passengers in 1972, its first full year of operation. Amtrak_sentence_200

Ridership has increased steadily ever since, carrying a record 32.5 million passengers in fiscal year 2019, more than double the total in 1972. Amtrak_sentence_201

Guest Rewards Amtrak_section_12

Amtrak's loyalty program, Guest Rewards, is similar to the frequent-flyer programs of many airlines. Amtrak_sentence_202

Guest Rewards members accumulate points by riding Amtrak and through other activities, and can redeem these points for free or discounted Amtrak tickets and other rewards. Amtrak_sentence_203

Commuter services Amtrak_section_13

Through various commuter services, Amtrak serves an additional 61.1 million passengers per year in conjunction with state and regional authorities in California (through Amtrak California and Metrolink), Connecticut (through Shore Line East), and Maryland (through MARC), . Amtrak_sentence_204

Sometimes, Amtrak will share trackage rights with independent commuter services. Amtrak_sentence_205

Examples include California (through Caltrain), and Illinois (through Metra). Amtrak_sentence_206

Lines Amtrak_section_14

Along the NEC and in several other areas, Amtrak owns 730 miles (1,170 km) including 17 tunnels consisting of 29.7 miles (47.8 km) of track, and 1,186 bridges (including the famous Hell Gate Bridge) consisting of 42.5 miles (68.4 km) of track. Amtrak_sentence_207

In several places, primarily in New England, Amtrak leases tracks, providing track maintenance and controlling train movements. Amtrak_sentence_208

Most often, these tracks are leased from state, regional, or local governments. Amtrak_sentence_209

Amtrak owns and operates the following lines: Amtrak_sentence_210

Amtrak_unordered_list_1

In addition to these lines, Amtrak owns station and yard tracks in Chicago, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York City, Oakland (Kirkham Street Yard), Orlando, Portland, Oregon, Saint Paul, Seattle, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. Amtrak leases station and yard tracks in Hialeah, near Miami, Florida, from the State of Florida. Amtrak_sentence_211

Amtrak owns New York Penn Station, Philadelphia 30th Street Station, Baltimore Penn Station and Providence Station. Amtrak_sentence_212

It also owns Chicago Union Station through a wholly owned subsidiary, the Chicago Union Station Company. Amtrak_sentence_213

It has a 99.7% interest in the Washington Terminal Company (rail infrastructure around Washington Union Station) and a 99% interest in 30th Street Limited, a partnership responsible for redeveloping the area in and around 30th Street Station. Amtrak_sentence_214

Amtrak also owns Passenger Railroad Insurance. Amtrak_sentence_215

Rolling stock Amtrak_section_15

Main article: List of Amtrak rolling stock Amtrak_sentence_216

Amtrak owns 2,142 railway cars and 425 locomotives for revenue runs and service. Amtrak_sentence_217

Examples include the GE P42DC diesel locomotive, the Siemens ACS-64 electric locomotive, the Amfleet car, and the Superliner car. Amtrak_sentence_218

Occasionally private cars or loaned locomotives from other railroads can be found on Amtrak trains. Amtrak_sentence_219

On-board services Amtrak_section_16

Classes of service Amtrak_section_17

As of 2015 Amtrak offers four classes of service: First Class, Sleeper Service, Business Class, and Coach Class: Amtrak_sentence_220

Amtrak_unordered_list_2

  • First Class: First Class service is currently offered only on the Acela Express. Seats are larger than those of Business Class and come in a variety of seating styles (single, facing singles with table, double, facing doubles with table and wheelchair accessible). First Class is located in a separate car from business class and is located at the end of the train (to reduce the number of passengers walking in the aisles). A car attendant provides passengers with hot towel service, a complimentary meal and alcoholic beverages. First Class passengers have access to ClubAcela lounges located at select stations.Amtrak_item_2_10
  • Sleeper Service: Sleeper Service comprises private room accommodations on long-distance trains. Rooms are classified into roomettes, bedrooms, accessible bedrooms, and family bedrooms (on some trains). Included in the price of a room are attendant service and on most routes, full hot meals. At night, attendants convert rooms into sleeping areas with fold-down beds and fresh linens. Shower facilities with towels and bar soap are available. Complimentary juice, coffee and bottled water are included as well. Sleeper car passengers have access to all passenger facilities aboard the train. Sleeper passengers have access to ClubAcela lounges, Metropolitan Lounges, and unattended First Class Lounges located at select stations.Amtrak_item_2_11
  • Business Class: Business Class seating is offered on the Acela Express, Northeast Regional, many short-haul corridor trains and some long-distance trains. It is the standard class of service on the Acela Express. On all other trains where it is offered, Business Class is located in a dedicated car or section of the train. While the specific features vary by route, many include extra legroom and complimentary non-alcoholic drinks. Seats in business class recline, are typically appointed in leather and feature a fold-down tray table, foot rest, individual reading light, and power outlet. Business Class passengers have access to Metropolitan Lounges located at select stations and may purchase a daily access pass to select ClubAcela locations.Amtrak_item_2_12
  • Coach Class: Coach Class is the standard class of service on all Amtrak trains except the Acela Express. Seats in coach recline and feature a fold-down tray table, foot rest, individual reading light, and power outlet. Coach cars on long-distance trains are configured with fewer seats per car so that passengers have additional legroom and seats which are equipped with leg rests.Amtrak_item_2_13

Wi-Fi and electronic services Amtrak_section_18

Amtrak launched an e-ticketing system on the Downeaster in November 2011 and rolled it out nationwide on July 30, 2012. Amtrak_sentence_221

Amtrak officials said the system gives "more accurate knowledge in realtime of who is on the train which greatly improves the safety and security of passengers; en route reporting of onboard equipment problems to mechanical crews which may result in faster resolution of the issue; and more efficient financial reporting". Amtrak_sentence_222

Amtrak first offered free Wi-Fi service to passengers aboard the Downeaster in 2008, the Acela Express and the Northeast Regional trains on the NEC in 2010, and the Amtrak Cascades in 2011. Amtrak_sentence_223

In February 2014, Amtrak rolled out Wi-Fi on corridor trains out of Chicago. Amtrak_sentence_224

When all the Midwest cars offer the AmtrakConnect service, about 85% of all Amtrak passengers nationwide will have Wi-Fi access. Amtrak_sentence_225

As of 2014, most Amtrak passengers have access to free Wi-Fi. Amtrak_sentence_226

The service has developed a reputation for being unreliable and slow due to its cellular network connection; on some routes it is usually unusable, either freezing on the login page or, if it manages to log in, failing to provide any internet bandwidth. Amtrak_sentence_227

Baggage Amtrak_section_19

Amtrak allows carry-on baggage on all routes; services with baggage cars allow checked baggage at selected stations. Amtrak_sentence_228

With the passage of the Wicker Amendment in 2010 passengers are allowed to put lawfully owned, unloaded firearms in checked Amtrak baggage, reversing a decade-long ban on such carriage. Amtrak_sentence_229

Amtrak Express (reporting marks AMTK, AMTZ) provides small-package and less-than-truckload shipping among more than 100 cities. Amtrak_sentence_230

Amtrak Express also offers station-to-station shipment of human remains to many express cities. Amtrak_sentence_231

At smaller stations, funeral directors must load and unload the shipment onto and off the train. Amtrak_sentence_232

Amtrak hauled mail for the United States Postal Service and time-sensitive freight but canceled these services in October 2004 due to minuscule profits. Amtrak_sentence_233

On most parts of the few lines that Amtrak owns, trackage rights agreements allow freight railroads to use its trackage. Amtrak_sentence_234

Company officers Amtrak_section_20

Presidents Amtrak_section_21

Amtrak_table_general_2

NameAmtrak_header_cell_2_0_0 TenureAmtrak_header_cell_2_0_1
Roger LewisAmtrak_cell_2_1_0 1971–1974Amtrak_cell_2_1_1
Paul ReistrupAmtrak_cell_2_2_0 1974–1978Amtrak_cell_2_2_1
Alan Stephenson BoydAmtrak_cell_2_3_0 1978–1982Amtrak_cell_2_3_1
W. Graham Claytor, Jr.Amtrak_cell_2_4_0 1982–1993Amtrak_cell_2_4_1
Thomas DownsAmtrak_cell_2_5_0 1993–1998Amtrak_cell_2_5_1
George WarringtonAmtrak_cell_2_6_0 1998–2002Amtrak_cell_2_6_1
David L. GunnAmtrak_cell_2_7_0 2002–2005Amtrak_cell_2_7_1
David Hughes (interim)Amtrak_cell_2_8_0 2005–2006Amtrak_cell_2_8_1
Alexander KummantAmtrak_cell_2_9_0 2006–2008Amtrak_cell_2_9_1
William Crosbie (interim)Amtrak_cell_2_10_0 2008Amtrak_cell_2_10_1
Joseph H. BoardmanAmtrak_cell_2_11_0 2008–2016Amtrak_cell_2_11_1
Charles W. "Wick" Moorman IVAmtrak_cell_2_12_0 2016–2017Amtrak_cell_2_12_1
Richard AndersonAmtrak_cell_2_13_0 2017–2020Amtrak_cell_2_13_1
William J. FlynnAmtrak_cell_2_14_0 2020Amtrak_cell_2_14_1
Stephen GardnerAmtrak_cell_2_15_0 2020–presentAmtrak_cell_2_15_1

Board of Directors Amtrak_section_22

Amtrak_unordered_list_3

  • William J. Flynn, CEOAmtrak_item_3_14
  • Anthony Coscia, Chairman, Chairman of Audit & Finance CommitteeAmtrak_item_3_15
  • Jeffrey Moreland, Vice Chairman, Chair of Government Affairs and Legal & Corporate Affairs CommitteeAmtrak_item_3_16
  • Thomas C. CarperAmtrak_item_3_17
  • Albert DiClemente, Chairman of the Security, Safety & Environmental Affairs CommitteeAmtrak_item_3_18
  • Elaine Chao, United States Secretary of TransportationAmtrak_item_3_19
  • Yvonne Brathwaite BurkeAmtrak_item_3_20
  • Christopher R. BeallAmtrak_item_3_21

Labor issues Amtrak_section_23

In the modern era, Amtrak faces a number of important labor issues. Amtrak_sentence_235

In the area of pension funding, because of limitations originally imposed by Congress, most Amtrak workers were traditionally classified as "railroad employees" and contributions to the Railroad Retirement system have been made for those employees. Amtrak_sentence_236

However, because the size of the contributions is determined on an industry-wide basis rather than with reference to the employer for whom the employees work, some critics, such as the National Association of Railroad Passengers, maintain that Amtrak is subsidizing freight railroad pensions by as much as US$150 million/year. Amtrak_sentence_237

In recent times, efforts at reforming passenger rail have addressed labor issues. Amtrak_sentence_238

In 1997 Congress released Amtrak from a prohibition on contracting for labor outside the corporation (and outside its unions), opening the door to privatization. Amtrak_sentence_239

Since that time, many of Amtrak's employees have been working without a contract. Amtrak_sentence_240

The most recent contract, signed in 1999, was mainly retroactive. Amtrak_sentence_241

Because of the fragmentation of railroad unions by job, as of 2009 Amtrak has 14 separate unions to negotiate with. Amtrak_sentence_242

Plus, it has 24 separate contracts with those unions. Amtrak_sentence_243

This makes it difficult to make substantial changes, in contrast to a situation where one union negotiates with one employer. Amtrak_sentence_244

Former Amtrak president Kummant followed a cooperative posture with Amtrak's trade unions, ruling out plans to privatize large parts of Amtrak's unionized workforce. Amtrak_sentence_245

Public funding Amtrak_section_24

Amtrak receives annual appropriations from federal and state governments to supplement operating and capital programs. Amtrak_sentence_246

Amtrak_table_general_3

Total federal grant appropriations per year (billions)Amtrak_table_caption_3
FY 2009Amtrak_header_cell_3_0_0 FY 2010Amtrak_header_cell_3_0_1 FY 2011Amtrak_header_cell_3_0_2 FY 2012Amtrak_header_cell_3_0_3 FY 2013Amtrak_header_cell_3_0_4 FY 2014Amtrak_header_cell_3_0_5 FY 2015Amtrak_header_cell_3_0_6
$1.488Amtrak_cell_3_1_0 $1.565Amtrak_cell_3_1_1 $1.484Amtrak_cell_3_1_2 $1.418Amtrak_cell_3_1_3 $1.374Amtrak_cell_3_1_4 $1.37Amtrak_cell_3_1_5 $1.375Amtrak_cell_3_1_6

Funding history Amtrak_section_25

1970s to 1990s Amtrak_section_26

Amtrak commenced operations in 1971 with $40 million in direct federal aid, $100 million in federally insured loans, and a somewhat larger private contribution. Amtrak_sentence_247

Officials expected that Amtrak would break even by 1974, but those expectations proved unrealistic and annual direct federal aid reached a 17-year high in 1981 of $1.25 billion. Amtrak_sentence_248

During the Reagan administration, appropriations were halved and by 1986, federal support fell to a decade low of $601 million, almost none of which were capital appropriations. Amtrak_sentence_249

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Congress continued the reductionist trend even while Amtrak expenses held steady or rose. Amtrak_sentence_250

Amtrak was forced to borrow to meet short-term operating needs, and by 1995 Amtrak was on the brink of a cash crisis and was unable to continue to service its debts. Amtrak_sentence_251

In response, in 1997 Congress authorized $5.2 billion for Amtrak over the next five years – largely to complete the Acela capital project – on the condition that Amtrak submit to the ultimatum of self-sufficiency by 2003 or liquidation. Amtrak_sentence_252

While Amtrak made financial improvements during this period, it did not achieve self-sufficiency. Amtrak_sentence_253

2000s Amtrak_section_27

In 2004, a stalemate in federal support of Amtrak forced cutbacks in services and routes as well as resumption of deferred maintenance. Amtrak_sentence_254

In fiscal 2004 and 2005, Congress appropriated about $1.2 billion for Amtrak, $300 million more than President George W. Bush had requested. Amtrak_sentence_255

However, the company's board requested $1.8 billion through fiscal 2006, the majority of which (about $1.3 billion) would be used to bring infrastructure, rolling stock, and motive power back to a state of good repair. Amtrak_sentence_256

In Congressional testimony, the DOT Inspector General confirmed that Amtrak would need at least $1.4 billion to $1.5 billion in fiscal 2006 and $2 billion in fiscal 2007 just to maintain the status quo. Amtrak_sentence_257

In 2006, Amtrak received just under $1.4 billion, with the condition that Amtrak would reduce (but not eliminate) food and sleeper service losses. Amtrak_sentence_258

Thus, dining service was simplified and now requires two fewer on-board service workers. Amtrak_sentence_259

Only Auto Train and Empire Builder services continue regular made-on-board meal service. Amtrak_sentence_260

In 2010 the Senate approved a bill to provide $1.96 billion to Amtrak, but cut the approval for high-speed rail to a $1 billion appropriation. Amtrak_sentence_261

State governments have partially filled the breach left by reductions in federal aid. Amtrak_sentence_262

Several states have entered into operating partnerships with Amtrak, notably California, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Michigan, Oregon, Missouri, Washington, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Texas, Wisconsin, Vermont, Maine, and New York, as well as the Canadian province of British Columbia, which provides some of the resources for the operation of the Cascades route. Amtrak_sentence_263

With the dramatic rise in gasoline prices during 2007–08, Amtrak saw record ridership. Amtrak_sentence_264

Capping a steady five-year increase in ridership overall, regional lines saw 12% year-over-year growth in May 2008. Amtrak_sentence_265

In October 2007, the Senate passed S-294, Passenger Rail Improvement and Investment Act of 2007 (70–22) sponsored by Senators Frank Lautenberg and Trent Lott. Amtrak_sentence_266

Despite a veto threat by President Bush, a similar bill passed the House on June 11, 2008, with a veto-proof margin (311–104). Amtrak_sentence_267

The final bill, spurred on by the September 12 Metrolink collision in California and retitled Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008, was signed into law by President Bush on October 16, 2008. Amtrak_sentence_268

The bill appropriates $2.6 billion a year in Amtrak funding through 2013. Amtrak_sentence_269

2010s Amtrak_section_28

Amtrak points out that in 2010, its farebox recovery (percentage of operating costs covered by revenues generated by passenger fares) was 79%, the highest reported for any U.S. passenger railroad. Amtrak_sentence_270

This increased to 94.9% in 2018. Amtrak_sentence_271

Amtrak has argued that it needs to increase capital program costs in 2013 in order to replace old train equipment because the multi-year maintenance costs for those trains exceeds what it would cost to simply buy new equipment that would not need to be repaired for several years. Amtrak_sentence_272

However, despite an initial request for more than $2.1 billion in funding for the year, the company had to deal with a year-over-year cut in 2013 federal appropriations, dropping to under $1.4 billion for the first time in several years. Amtrak_sentence_273

Amtrak stated in 2010 that the backlog of needed repairs of the track it owns on the Northeast Corridor included over 200 bridges, most dating to the 19th century, tunnels under Baltimore dating to the American Civil War era and functionally obsolete track switches which would cost $5.2 billion to repair (more than triple Amtrak's total annual budget). Amtrak_sentence_274

Amtrak's budget is only allocated on a yearly basis, and it has been argued by Joseph Vranich that this makes multi-year development programs and long-term fiscal planning difficult if not impossible. Amtrak_sentence_275

In Fiscal Year 2011, the U.S. Congress granted Amtrak $563 million for operating and $922 million for capital programs. Amtrak_sentence_276

Controversy Amtrak_section_29

Government aid to Amtrak was controversial from the beginning. Amtrak_sentence_277

The formation of Amtrak in 1971 was criticized as a bailout serving corporate rail interests and union railroaders, not the traveling public. Amtrak_sentence_278

Critics have asserted that Amtrak has proven incapable of operating as a business and that it does not provide valuable transportation services meriting public support, a "mobile money-burning machine". Amtrak_sentence_279

Many fiscal conservatives have argued that subsidies should be ended, national rail service terminated, and the NEC turned over to private interests. Amtrak_sentence_280

"To fund a Nostalgia Limited is not in the public interest." Amtrak_sentence_281

Critics also question Amtrak's energy efficiency, though the U.S. Amtrak_sentence_282 Department of Energy considers Amtrak among the most energy-efficient forms of transportation. Amtrak_sentence_283

The Rail Passenger Service Act of 1970, which established Amtrak, specifically states that, "The Corporation will not be an agency or establishment of the United States Government". Amtrak_sentence_284

Then common stock was issued in 1971 to railroads that contributed capital and equipment; these shares convey almost no benefits, but their holders declined a 2002 buy-out offer by Amtrak. Amtrak_sentence_285

There are currently 109,396,994 shares of preferred stock, at a par value of $100 per share, all held by the US government. Amtrak_sentence_286

There are 9,385,694 shares of common stock, with a par value of $10 per share, held by four other railroad companies: APU (formerly Penn Central) 53%, BNSF (35%), Canadian Pacific (7%), and Canadian National (5%). Amtrak_sentence_287

Incidents Amtrak_section_30

Main article: List of accidents on Amtrak Amtrak_sentence_288

The following are major accidents and incidents that involved Amtrak trains: Amtrak_sentence_289

Amtrak_table_general_4

EventAmtrak_header_cell_4_0_0 TrainAmtrak_header_cell_4_0_1 DateAmtrak_header_cell_4_0_2 LocationAmtrak_header_cell_4_0_3 DescriptionAmtrak_header_cell_4_0_4 DeathsAmtrak_header_cell_4_0_5 InjuriesAmtrak_header_cell_4_0_6
1971 Salem, Illinois, derailmentAmtrak_cell_4_1_0 City of New OrleansAmtrak_cell_4_1_1 June 10, 1971Amtrak_cell_4_1_2 Salem, IllinoisAmtrak_cell_4_1_3 The City of New Orleans derailed due to a broken locomotive axle.Amtrak_cell_4_1_4 11Amtrak_cell_4_1_5 163Amtrak_cell_4_1_6
1979 Harvey train crashAmtrak_cell_4_2_0 ShawneeAmtrak_cell_4_2_1 October 12, 1979Amtrak_cell_4_2_2 Harvey, IllinoisAmtrak_cell_4_2_3 The Shawnee collided with a stationary Illinois Central Gulf freight train due to misaligned switches changed by a switchman shortly before the train passed them.Amtrak_cell_4_2_4 2Amtrak_cell_4_2_5 38Amtrak_cell_4_2_6
1987 Maryland train collisionAmtrak_cell_4_3_0 ColonialAmtrak_cell_4_3_1 January 4, 1987Amtrak_cell_4_3_2 Chase, MarylandAmtrak_cell_4_3_3 The Colonial collided with three Conrail locomotives which had overrun signals.Amtrak_cell_4_3_4 16Amtrak_cell_4_3_5 164Amtrak_cell_4_3_6
1990 Back Bay, Massachusetts train collisionAmtrak_cell_4_4_0 Night OwlAmtrak_cell_4_4_1 December 12, 1990Amtrak_cell_4_4_2 Back Bay, Boston, MassachusettsAmtrak_cell_4_4_3 The Night Owl derailed due to excessive speed on a curve and collided with a Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority commuter train on an adjacent track.Amtrak_cell_4_4_4 0Amtrak_cell_4_4_5 453Amtrak_cell_4_4_6
1993 Big Bayou Canot rail accidentAmtrak_cell_4_5_0 Sunset LimitedAmtrak_cell_4_5_1 September 22, 1993Amtrak_cell_4_5_2 Mobile, AlabamaAmtrak_cell_4_5_3 The Sunset Limited derailed on a bridge which had been damaged by a barge.Amtrak_cell_4_5_4 47Amtrak_cell_4_5_5 103Amtrak_cell_4_5_6
1995 Palo Verde, Arizona derailmentAmtrak_cell_4_6_0 Sunset LimitedAmtrak_cell_4_6_1 October 9, 1995Amtrak_cell_4_6_2 Palo Verde, ArizonaAmtrak_cell_4_6_3 The Sunset Limited derailed because of track sabotage.Amtrak_cell_4_6_4 1Amtrak_cell_4_6_5 78Amtrak_cell_4_6_6
1996 Maryland train collisionAmtrak_cell_4_7_0 Capitol LimitedAmtrak_cell_4_7_1 February 16, 1996Amtrak_cell_4_7_2 Silver Spring, MarylandAmtrak_cell_4_7_3 The Capitol Limited collided with a Maryland Area Regional Commuter train which had overrun signals.Amtrak_cell_4_7_4 11Amtrak_cell_4_7_5 26Amtrak_cell_4_7_6
1999 Bourbonnais, Illinois, train crashAmtrak_cell_4_8_0 City of New OrleansAmtrak_cell_4_8_1 March 15, 1999Amtrak_cell_4_8_2 Bourbonnais, IllinoisAmtrak_cell_4_8_3 The City of New Orleans collided with a semi-truck hauling steel that was trying to beat the train across a grade crossing. Eleven of the train's fourteen passenger cars derailed, hitting freight cars on an adjacent track.Amtrak_cell_4_8_4 13Amtrak_cell_4_8_5 122Amtrak_cell_4_8_6
2015 Philadelphia train derailmentAmtrak_cell_4_9_0 Northeast RegionalAmtrak_cell_4_9_1 May 12, 2015Amtrak_cell_4_9_2 Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaAmtrak_cell_4_9_3 A Northeast Regional derailed due to excessive speed on a curve.Amtrak_cell_4_9_4 8Amtrak_cell_4_9_5 200+Amtrak_cell_4_9_6
2017 Washington train derailmentAmtrak_cell_4_10_0 CascadesAmtrak_cell_4_10_1 December 18, 2017Amtrak_cell_4_10_2 DuPont, WashingtonAmtrak_cell_4_10_3 A Cascades train derailed due to excessive speed on a curve.Amtrak_cell_4_10_4 3Amtrak_cell_4_10_5 62Amtrak_cell_4_10_6
2018 Cayce, South Carolina train collisionAmtrak_cell_4_11_0 Silver StarAmtrak_cell_4_11_1 February 4, 2018Amtrak_cell_4_11_2 Cayce, South CarolinaAmtrak_cell_4_11_3 The Silver Star collided head-on into a parked CSX freight train, due to a track switch being improperly set by the conductor of the CSX train.Amtrak_cell_4_11_4 2Amtrak_cell_4_11_5 116Amtrak_cell_4_11_6

After settling for $17 million in the 2017 Washington state train crash, to prevent further lawsuits, the board adopted a new policy requiring arbitration. Amtrak_sentence_290

See also Amtrak_section_31

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amtrak.