From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

"Anarchist" and "Anarchists" redirect here. Anarchism_sentence_0

For other uses, see Anarchists (disambiguation). Anarchism_sentence_1

Anarchism is a political philosophy and movement that is sceptical of authority and rejects all involuntary, coercive forms of hierarchy. Anarchism_sentence_2

Anarchism calls for the abolition of the state which it holds to be undesirable, unnecessary and harmful. Anarchism_sentence_3

It is usually described alongside libertarian Marxism as the libertarian wing (libertarian socialism) of the socialist movement and as having a historical association with anti-capitalism and socialism. Anarchism_sentence_4

The history of anarchism goes back to prehistory, when humans arguably lived in anarchistic societies long before the establishment of formal states, realms or empires. Anarchism_sentence_5

With the rise of organised hierarchical bodies, scepticism toward authority also rose, but it was not until the 19th century that a self-conscious political movement emerged. Anarchism_sentence_6

During the latter half of the 19th and the first decades of the 20th century, the anarchist movement flourished in most parts of the world and had a significant role in workers' struggles for emancipation. Anarchism_sentence_7

Various anarchist schools of thought formed during this period. Anarchism_sentence_8

Anarchists have taken part in several revolutions, most notably in the Spanish Civil War, whose end marked the end of the classical era of anarchism. Anarchism_sentence_9

In the last decades of the 20th century and into the 21st century, the anarchist movement has been resurgent once more. Anarchism_sentence_10

Anarchism employs a diversity of tactics in order to meet its ideal ends which can be broadly separated into revolutionary and evolutionary tactics. Anarchism_sentence_11

There is significant overlap between the two which are merely descriptive. Anarchism_sentence_12

Revolutionary tactics aim to bring down authority and state, having taken a violent turn in the past. Anarchism_sentence_13

Evolutionary tactics aim to prefigure what an anarchist society would be like. Anarchism_sentence_14

Anarchist thought, criticism and praxis have played a part in diverse areas of human society. Anarchism_sentence_15

Criticism of anarchism mainly focuses on claims of it being internally inconsistent, violent and utopian. Anarchism_sentence_16

Etymology, terminology and definition Anarchism_section_0

Main article: Definition of anarchism and libertarianism Anarchism_sentence_17

See also: Glossary of anarchism Anarchism_sentence_18

The etymological origin of anarchism is from the Ancient Greek anarkhia, meaning "without a ruler", composed of the prefix an- (i.e. "without") and the word arkhos (i.e. "leader" or "ruler"). Anarchism_sentence_19

The suffix -ism denotes the ideological current that favours anarchy. Anarchism_sentence_20

Anarchism appears in English from 1642 as anarchisme and anarchy from 1539; early English usages empahised a sense of disorder. Anarchism_sentence_21

Various factions within the French Revolution labelled their opponents as anarchists, although few such accused shared many views with later anarchists. Anarchism_sentence_22

Many revolutionaries of the 19th century such as William Godwin (1756–1836) and Wilhelm Weitling (1808–1871) would contribute to the anarchist doctrines of the next generation, but they did not use anarchist or anarchism in describing themselves or their beliefs. Anarchism_sentence_23

The first political philosopher to call himself an anarchist (French: anarchiste) was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809–1865), marking the formal birth of anarchism in the mid-19th century. Anarchism_sentence_24

Since the 1890s and beginning in France, libertarianism has often been used as a synonym for anarchism and its use as a synonym is still common outside the United States. Anarchism_sentence_25

On the other hand, some use libertarianism to refer to individualistic free-market philosophy only, referring to free-market anarchism as libertarian anarchism. Anarchism_sentence_26

While the term libertarian has been largely synonymous with anarchism, its meaning has more recently diluted with wider adoption from ideologically disparate groups, including both the New Left and libertarian Marxists (who do not associate themselves with authoritarian socialists or a vanguard party) as well as extreme liberals (primarily concerned with civil liberties). Anarchism_sentence_27

Additionally, some anarchists use libertarian socialist to avoid anarchism's negative connotations and emphasise its connections with socialism. Anarchism_sentence_28

Matthew S. Adams and Carl Levy write that anarchism is used to "describe the anti-authoritarian wing of the socialist movement". Anarchism_sentence_29

Noam Chomsky describes anarchism, alongside libertarian Marxism, as "the libertarian wing of socialism". Anarchism_sentence_30

Daniel Guérin wrote: Anarchism_sentence_31

While opposition to the state is central to anarchist thought, defining anarchism is not an easy task as there is a lot of discussion among scholars and anarchists on the matter and various currents perceive anarchism slightly differently. Anarchism_sentence_32

Hence, it might be true to say that anarchism is a cluster of political philosophies opposing authority and hierarchical organisation (including capitalism, nationalism, the state and all associated institutions) in the conduct of all human relations in favour of a society based on decentralisation, freedom and voluntary association. Anarchism_sentence_33

However, this definition has the same shortcomings as the definition based on anti-authoritarianism (which is an a posteriori conclusion), anti-statism (anarchism is much more than that) and etymology (which is simply a negation of a ruler). Anarchism_sentence_34

Nonetheless, major elements of the definition of anarchism include the will for a non-coercive society, the rejection of the state apparatus, the belief that human nature allows humans to exist in or progress toward such a non-coercive society and a suggestion on how to act to pursue the ideal of anarchy. Anarchism_sentence_35

Herbert L. Osgood claimed that anarchism is "the extreme antithesis" of authoritarian communism and state socialism. Anarchism_sentence_36

Peter Marshall states that "[i]n general anarchism is closer to socialism than liberalism. Anarchism_sentence_37

[...] Anarchism finds itself largely in the socialist camp, but it also has outriders in liberalism. Anarchism_sentence_38

It cannot be reduced to socialism, and is best seen as a separate and distinctive doctrine". Anarchism_sentence_39

According to Jeremy Jennings, "[i]t is hard not to conclude that these ideas", referring to anarcho-capitalism, "are described as anarchist only on the basis of a misunderstanding of what anarchism is". Anarchism_sentence_40

Jennings adds that "anarchism does not stand for the untrammelled freedom of the individual (as the 'anarcho-capitalists' appear to believe) but, as we have already seen, for the extension of individuality and community". Anarchism_sentence_41

Nicolas Walter wrote that "anarchism does derive from liberalism and socialism both historically and ideologically. Anarchism_sentence_42

[...] In a sense, anarchists always remain liberals and socialists, and whenever they reject what is good in either they betray anarchism itself. Anarchism_sentence_43

[...] We are liberals but more so, and socialists but more so". Anarchism_sentence_44

Michael Newman includes anarchism as one of many socialist traditions, especially the more socialist-aligned tradition following Proudhon and Mikhail Bakunin. Anarchism_sentence_45

Brian Morriss argues that it is "conceptually and historically misleading" to "create a dichotomy between socialism and anarchism". Anarchism_sentence_46

History Anarchism_section_1

Main article: History of anarchism Anarchism_sentence_47

Pre-modern era Anarchism_section_2

During the prehistoric era of mankind, an established authority did not exist. Anarchism_sentence_48

It was after the creation of towns and cities that institutions of authority were established and anarchistic ideas espoused as a reaction. Anarchism_sentence_49

Most notable precursors to anarchism in the ancient world were in China and Greece. Anarchism_sentence_50

In China, philosophical anarchism (i.e. the discussion on the legitimacy of the state) was delineated by Taoist philosophers Zhuang Zhou and Laozi. Anarchism_sentence_51

Alongside Stoicism, Taoism has been said to have had "significant anticipations" of anarchism. Anarchism_sentence_52

Anarchic attitudes were also articulated by tragedians and philosophers in Greece. Anarchism_sentence_53

Aeschylus and Sophocles used the myth of Antigone to illustrate the conflict between rules set by the state and personal autonomy. Anarchism_sentence_54

Socrates questioned Athenian authorities constantly and insisted on the right of individual freedom of conscience. Anarchism_sentence_55

Cynics dismissed human law (nomos) and associated authorities while trying to live according to nature (physis). Anarchism_sentence_56

Stoics were supportive of a society based on unofficial and friendly relations among its citizens without the presence of a state. Anarchism_sentence_57

During the Middle Ages, there was no anarchistic activity except some ascetic religious movements in the Muslim world or in Christian Europe. Anarchism_sentence_58

This kind of tradition later gave birth to religious anarchism. Anarchism_sentence_59

In the Sasanian Empire, Mazdak called for an egalitarian society and the abolition of monarchy, only to be soon executed by Emperor Kavad I. Anarchism_sentence_60

In Basra, religious sects preached against the state. Anarchism_sentence_61

In Europe, various sects developed anti-state and libertarian tendencies. Anarchism_sentence_62

Libertarian ideas further emerged during the Renaissance with the spread of humanism, rationalism and reasoning through Europe. Anarchism_sentence_63

Novelists fictionalised ideal societies that were based on voluntarism rather than coercion. Anarchism_sentence_64

The Age of Enlightenment further pushed towards anarchism with the optimism for social progress. Anarchism_sentence_65

Modern era Anarchism_section_3

During the French Revolution, partisan groups such as the Enragés and the sans-culottes saw a turning point in the fermentation of anti-state and federalist sentiments. Anarchism_sentence_66

The first anarchist currents developed throughout the 18th century as William Godwin espoused philosophical anarchism in England, morally delegitimising the state, Max Stirner's thinking paved the way to individualism and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's theory of mutualism found fertile soil in France. Anarchism_sentence_67

By the late 1870s, various anarchist schools of thought had become well-defined and a wave of then unprecedented globalization occurred from 1880 to 1914. Anarchism_sentence_68

This era of classical anarchism lasted until the end of the Spanish Civil War and is considered the golden age of anarchism. Anarchism_sentence_69

Drawing from mutualism, Mikhail Bakunin founded collectivist anarchism and entered the International Workingmen's Association, a class worker union later known as the First International that formed in 1864 to unite diverse revolutionary currents. Anarchism_sentence_70

The International became a significant political force, with Karl Marx being a leading figure and a member of its General Council. Anarchism_sentence_71

Bakunin's faction (the Jura Federation) and Proudhon's followers (the mutualists) opposed state socialism, advocating political abstentionism and small property holdings. Anarchism_sentence_72

After bitter disputes, the Bakuninists were expelled from the International by the Marxists at the 1872 Hague Congress. Anarchism_sentence_73

Anarchists were treated similarly in the Second International, being ultimately expelled in 1896. Anarchism_sentence_74

Bakunin famously predicted that if revolutionaries gained power by Marx's terms, they would end up the new tyrants of workers. Anarchism_sentence_75

In response to their expulsion from the First International, anarchists formed the St. Anarchism_sentence_76 Imier International. Anarchism_sentence_77

Under the influence of Peter Kropotkin, a Russian philosopher and scientist, anarcho-communism overlapped with collectivism. Anarchism_sentence_78

Anarcho-communists, who drew inspiration from the 1871 Paris Commune, advocated for free federation and for the distribution of goods according to one's needs. Anarchism_sentence_79

At the turn of the century, anarchism had spread all over the world. Anarchism_sentence_80

It was a notable feature of the international syndicalism movement. Anarchism_sentence_81

In China, small groups of students imported the humanistic pro-science version of anarcho-communism. Anarchism_sentence_82

Tokyo was a hotspot for rebellious youth from countries of the far east, travelling to the Japanese capital to study. Anarchism_sentence_83

In Latin America, Argentina was a stronghold for anarcho-syndicalism, where it became the most prominent left-wing ideology. Anarchism_sentence_84

During this time, a minority of anarchists adopted tactics of revolutionary political violence. Anarchism_sentence_85

This strategy became known as propaganda of the deed. Anarchism_sentence_86

The dismemberment of the French socialist movement into many groups and the execution and exile of many Communards to penal colonies following the suppression of the Paris Commune favoured individualist political expression and acts. Anarchism_sentence_87

Even though many anarchists distanced themselves from these terrorist acts, infamy came upon the movement and attempts were made to exclude them from American immigration, including the Immigration Act of 1903, also called the Anarchist Exclusion Act. Anarchism_sentence_88

Illegalism was another strategy which some anarchists adopted during this period. Anarchism_sentence_89

Despite concerns, anarchists enthusiastically participated in the Russian Revolution in opposition to the White movement. Anarchism_sentence_90

However, they met harsh suppression after the Bolshevik government was stabilized. Anarchism_sentence_91

Several anarchists from Petrograd and Moscow fled to Ukraine, notably leading to the Kronstadt rebellion and Nestor Makhno's struggle in the Free Territory. Anarchism_sentence_92

With the anarchists being crushed in Russia, two new antithetical currents emerged, namely platformism and synthesis anarchism. Anarchism_sentence_93

The former sought to create a coherent group that would push for revolution while the latter were against anything that would resemble a political party. Anarchism_sentence_94

Seeing the victories of the Bolsheviks in the October Revolution and the resulting Russian Civil War, many workers and activists turned to communist parties which grew at the expense of anarchism and other socialist movements. Anarchism_sentence_95

In France and the United States, members of major syndicalist movements such as the General Confederation of Labour and the Industrial Workers of the World left their organisations and joined the Communist International. Anarchism_sentence_96

In the Spanish Civil War of 1936, anarchists and syndicalists (CNT and FAI) once again allied themselves with various currents of leftists. Anarchism_sentence_97

A long tradition of Spanish anarchism led to anarchists playing a pivotal role in the war. Anarchism_sentence_98

In response to the army rebellion, an anarchist-inspired movement of peasants and workers, supported by armed militias, took control of Barcelona and of large areas of rural Spain, where they collectivised the land. Anarchism_sentence_99

The Soviet Union provided some limited assistance at the beginning of the war, but the result was a bitter fight among communists and anarchists at a series of events named May Days as Joseph Stalin tried to seize control of the Republicans. Anarchism_sentence_100

Post-war era Anarchism_section_4

At the end of World War II, the anarchist movement was severely weakened. Anarchism_sentence_101

However, the 1960s witnessed a revival of anarchism, likely caused by a perceived failure of Marxism–Leninism and tensions built by the Cold War. Anarchism_sentence_102

During this time, anarchism found a presence in other movements critical towards both capitalism and the state such as the anti-nuclear, environmental and peace movements, the counterculture of the 1960s and the New Left. Anarchism_sentence_103

It also saw a transition from its previous revolutionary nature to provocative anti-capitalist reformism. Anarchism_sentence_104

Anarchism became associated with punk subculture as exemplified by bands such as Crass and the Sex Pistols. Anarchism_sentence_105

The established feminist tendencies of anarcha-feminism returned with vigour during the second wave of feminism. Anarchism_sentence_106

Black anarchism began to take form at this time and influenced anarchism's move from a Eurocentric demographic. Anarchism_sentence_107

This coincided with its failure to gain traction in Northern Europe and its unprecedented height in Latin America. Anarchism_sentence_108

Around the turn of the 21st century, anarchism grew in popularity and influence within anti-capitalist, anti-war and anti-globalisation movements. Anarchism_sentence_109

Anarchists became known for their involvement in protests against the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Group of Eight and the World Economic Forum. Anarchism_sentence_110

During the protests, ad hoc leaderless anonymous cadres known as black blocs engaged in rioting, property destruction and violent confrontations with the police. Anarchism_sentence_111

Other organisational tactics pioneered in this time include affinity groups, security culture and the use of decentralised technologies such as the Internet. Anarchism_sentence_112

A significant event of this period was the confrontations at the 1999 Seattle WTO conference. Anarchism_sentence_113

Anarchist ideas have been influential in the development of the Zapatistas in Mexico and the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria, more commonly known as Rojava, a de facto autonomous region in northern Syria. Anarchism_sentence_114

Thought Anarchism_section_5

Main article: Anarchist schools of thought Anarchism_sentence_115

Anarchist schools of thought have been generally grouped into two main historical traditions, social anarchism and individualist anarchism, owing to their different origins, values and evolution. Anarchism_sentence_116

The individualist current emphasises negative liberty in opposing restraints upon the free individual while the social current emphasises positive liberty in aiming to achieve the free potential of society through equality and social ownership. Anarchism_sentence_117

In a chronological sense, anarchism can be segmented by the classical currents of the late 19th century and the post-classical currents (anarcha-feminism, green anarchism and post-anarchism) developed thereafter. Anarchism_sentence_118

Beyond the specific factions of anarchist movements which constitute political anarchism lies philosophical anarchism which holds that the state lacks moral legitimacy, without necessarily accepting the imperative of revolution to eliminate it. Anarchism_sentence_119

A component especially of individualist anarchism, philosophical anarchism may tolerate the existence of a minimal state, but it argues that citizens have no moral obligation to obey government when it conflicts with individual autonomy. Anarchism_sentence_120

Anarchism pays significant attention to moral arguments since ethics have a central role in anarchist philosophy. Anarchism_sentence_121

Anarchism's emphasis on anti-capitalism, egalitarianism and for the extension of community and individuality sets it apart from anarcho-capitalism and other types of economic libertarianism. Anarchism_sentence_122

Anarchism is usually placed on the far-left of the political spectrum. Anarchism_sentence_123

Much of its economics and legal philosophy reflect anti-authoritarian, anti-statist, libertarian and radical interpretations of left-wing and socialist politics such as collectivism, communism, individualism, mutualism and syndicalism, among other libertarian socialist economic theories. Anarchism_sentence_124

As anarchism does not offer a fixed body of doctrine from a single particular worldview, many anarchist types and traditions exist and varieties of anarchy diverge widely. Anarchism_sentence_125

One reaction against sectarianism within the anarchist milieu was anarchism without adjectives, a call for toleration and unity among anarchists first adopted by Fernando Tarrida del Mármol in 1889 in response to the bitter debates of anarchist theory at the time. Anarchism_sentence_126

Belief in political nihilism has been espoused by anarchists. Anarchism_sentence_127

Despite separation, the various anarchist schools of thought are not seen as distinct entities, but rather as tendencies that intermingle and are connected through a set of uniform principles such as individual and local autonomy, mutual aid, network organisation, communal democracy, justified authoritiy and decentralisation. Anarchism_sentence_128

Classical Anarchism_section_6

Inceptive currents among classical anarchist currents were mutualism and individualism. Anarchism_sentence_129

They were followed by the major currents of social anarchism (collectivist, communist and syndicalist). Anarchism_sentence_130

They differ on organisational and economic aspects of their ideal society. Anarchism_sentence_131

Mutualism is an 18th-century economic theory that was developed into anarchist theory by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon. Anarchism_sentence_132

Its aims include reciprocity, free association, voluntary contract, federation and monetary reform of both credit and currency that would be regulated by a bank of the people. Anarchism_sentence_133

Mutualism has been retrospectively characterised as ideologically situated between individualist and collectivist forms of anarchism. Anarchism_sentence_134

In What Is Property? Anarchism_sentence_135

(1840), Proudhon first characterised his goal as a "third form of society, the synthesis of communism and property". Anarchism_sentence_136

Collectivist anarchism is a revolutionary socialist form of anarchism commonly associated with Mikhail Bakunin. Anarchism_sentence_137

Collectivist anarchists advocate collective ownership of the means of production which is theorised to be achieved through violent revolution and that workers be paid according to time worked, rather than goods being distributed according to need as in communism. Anarchism_sentence_138

Collectivist anarchism arose alongside Marxism, but it rejected the dictatorship of the proletariat despite the stated Marxist goal of a collectivist stateless society. Anarchism_sentence_139

Anarcho-communism is a theory of anarchism that advocates a communist society with common ownership of the means of production, direct democracy and a horizontal network of voluntary associations, workers' councils and worker cooperatives, with production and consumption based on the guiding principle "From each according to his ability, to each according to his need". Anarchism_sentence_140

Anarcho-communism developed from radical socialist currents after the French Revolution, but it was first formulated as such in the Italian section of the First International. Anarchism_sentence_141

It was later expanded upon in the theoretical work of Peter Kropotkin, whose specific style would go onto become the dominating view of anarchists by the late 19th century. Anarchism_sentence_142

Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of anarchism that views labour syndicates as a potential force for revolutionary social change, replacing capitalism and the state with a new society democratically self-managed by workers. Anarchism_sentence_143

The basic principles of anarcho-syndicalism are direct action, workers' solidarity and workers' self-management. Anarchism_sentence_144

Individualist anarchism is a set of several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasise the individual and their will over any kinds of external determinants. Anarchism_sentence_145

Early influences on individualist forms of anarchism include William Godwin, Max Stirner and Henry David Thoreau. Anarchism_sentence_146

Through many countries, individualist anarchism attracted a small yet diverse following of Bohemian artists and intellectuals as well as young anarchist outlaws in what became known as illegalism and individual reclamation. Anarchism_sentence_147

Post-classical and contemporary Anarchism_section_7

Main article: Contemporary anarchism Anarchism_sentence_148

Anarchist principles undergird contemporary radical social movements of the left. Anarchism_sentence_149

Interest in the anarchist movement developed alongside momentum in the anti-globalisation movement, whose leading activist networks were anarchist in orientation. Anarchism_sentence_150

As the movement shaped 21st century radicalism, wider embrace of anarchist principles signaled a revival of interest. Anarchism_sentence_151

Anarchism has continued to generate many philosophies and movements, at times eclectic, drawing upon various sources and syncretic, combining disparate concepts to create new philosophical approaches. Anarchism_sentence_152

The anti-capitalist tradition of classical anarchism has remained prominent within contemporary currents. Anarchism_sentence_153

Contemporary news coverage which emphasizes black bloc demonstrations has reinforced anarchism's historical association with chaos and violence. Anarchism_sentence_154

However, its publicity has also led more scholars in fields such as anthropology and history to engage with the anarchist movement, although contemporary anarchism favours actions over academic theory. Anarchism_sentence_155

Various anarchist groups, tendencies and schools of thought exist today, making it difficult to describe the contemporary anarchist movement. Anarchism_sentence_156

While theorists and activists have established "relatively stable constellations of anarchist principles", there is no consensus on which principles are core and commentators describe multiple "anarchisms" (rather than a singular "anarchism") in which common principles are shared between schools of anarchism while each group prioritizes those principles differently. Anarchism_sentence_157

Gender equality can be a common principle, although it ranks as a higher priority to anarcha-feminists than anarcho-communists. Anarchism_sentence_158

Anarchists are generally committed against coercive authority in all forms, namely "all centralized and hierarchical forms of government (e.g., monarchy, representative democracy, state socialism, etc.), economic class systems (e.g., capitalism, Bolshevism, feudalism, slavery, etc.), autocratic religions (e.g., fundamentalist Islam, Roman Catholicism, etc.), patriarchy, heterosexism, white supremacy, and imperialism". Anarchism_sentence_159

However, anarchist schools disagree on the methods by which these forms should be opposed. Anarchism_sentence_160

The principle of equal liberty is closer to anarchist political ethics in that it transcends both the liberal and socialist traditions. Anarchism_sentence_161

This entails that liberty and equality cannot be implemented within the state, resulting in the questioning of all forms of domination and hierarchy. Anarchism_sentence_162

Tactics Anarchism_section_8

Anarchists' tactics take various forms, but in general, they serve two major goals, namely to first oppose the Establishment and secondly to promote anarchist ethics and reflect an anarchist vision of society, illustrating the unity of means and ends. Anarchism_sentence_163

A broad categorisation can be made between aims to destroy oppressive states and institutions by revolutionary means on one hand and aims to change society through evolutionary means on the other. Anarchism_sentence_164

Evolutionary tactics embrace nonviolence, reject violence and take a gradual approach to anarchist aims, although there is significant overlap between the two. Anarchism_sentence_165

Anarchist tactics have shifted during the course of the last century. Anarchism_sentence_166

Anarchists during the early 20th century focused more on strikes and militancy while contemporary anarchists use a broader array of approaches. Anarchism_sentence_167

Classical era tactics Anarchism_section_9

During the classical era, anarchists had a militant tendency. Anarchism_sentence_168

Not only did they confront state armed forces, as in Spain and Ukraine, but some of them also employed terrorism as propaganda of the deed. Anarchism_sentence_169

Assassination attempts were carried out against heads of state, some of which were successful. Anarchism_sentence_170

Anarchists also took part in revolutions. Anarchism_sentence_171

Many anarchists, especially the Galleanists, believed that these attempts would be the impetus for a revolution against capitalism and the state. Anarchism_sentence_172

Many of these attacks were done by individual assailants and the majority took place in the late 1870s, the early 1880s and the 1890s, with some still occurring in the early 1900s. Anarchism_sentence_173

Their decrease in prevalence was the result of further judicial power and targeting and cataloging by state institutions. Anarchism_sentence_174

Anarchist perspectives towards violence have always been perplexing and controversial. Anarchism_sentence_175

On one hand, anarcho-pacifists point out the unity of means and ends. Anarchism_sentence_176

On the other hand, other anarchist groups advocate direct action, a tactic which can include acts of sabotage or even acts of terrorism. Anarchism_sentence_177

This attitude was quite prominent a century ago when seeing the state as a tyrant and some anarchists believing that they had every right to oppose its oppression by any means possible. Anarchism_sentence_178

Emma Goldman and Errico Malatesta, who were proponents of limited use of violence, argued that violence is merely a reaction to state violence as a necessary evil. Anarchism_sentence_179

Anarchists took an active role in strike actions, although they tended to be antipathetic to formal syndicalism, seeing it as reformist. Anarchism_sentence_180

They saw it as a part of the movement which sought to overthrow the state and capitalism. Anarchism_sentence_181

Anarchists also reinforced their propaganda within the arts, some of whom practiced naturism and nudism. Anarchism_sentence_182

Those anarchists also built communities which were based on friendship and were involved in the news media. Anarchism_sentence_183

Revolutionary tactics Anarchism_section_10

In the current era, Italian anarchist Alfredo Bonanno, a proponent of insurrectionary anarchism, has reinstated the debate on violence by rejecting the nonviolence tactic adopted since the late 19th century by Kropotkin and other prominent anarchists afterwards. Anarchism_sentence_184

Both Bonanno and the French group The Invisible Committee advocate for small, informal affiliation groups, where each member is responsible for their own actions but works together to bring down oppression utilizing sabotage and other violent means against state, capitalism and other enemies. Anarchism_sentence_185

Members of The Invisible Committee were arrested in 2008 on various charges, terrorism included. Anarchism_sentence_186

Overall, contemporary anarchists are much less violent and militant than their ideological ancestors. Anarchism_sentence_187

They mostly engage in confronting the police during demonstrations and riots, especially in countries such as Canada, Greece and Mexico. Anarchism_sentence_188

Militant black bloc protest groups are known for clashing with the police. Anarchism_sentence_189

However, anarchists not only clash with state operators; they also engage in the struggle against fascists and racists, taking anti-fascist action and mobilizing to prevent hate rallies from happening. Anarchism_sentence_190

Evolutionary tactics Anarchism_section_11

Anarchists commonly employ direct action. Anarchism_sentence_191

This can take the form of disrupting and protesting against unjust hierarchy, or the form of self-managing their lives through the creation of counter-institutions such as communes and non-hierarchical collectives. Anarchism_sentence_192

Decision-making is often handled in an anti-authoritarian way, with everyone having equal say in each decision, an approach known as horizontalism. Anarchism_sentence_193

Contemporary-era anarchists have been engaging with various grassroots movements that are more or less based on horizontalism, although not explicitly anarchist, respecting personal autonomy and participating in mass activism such as strikes and demonstrations. Anarchism_sentence_194

In contrast with the big-A anarchism of the classical era, the newly coined term small-a anarchism signals their tendency not to base their thoughts and actions on classical-era anarchism or to refer to classical anarchists such as Peter Kropotkin and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon to justify their opinions. Anarchism_sentence_195

Those anarchists would rather base their thought and praxis on their own experience which they will later theorize. Anarchism_sentence_196

The decision-making process of small anarchist affinity groups plays a significant tactical role. Anarchism_sentence_197

Anarchists have employed various methods in order to build a rough consensus among members of their group without the need of a leader or a leading group. Anarchism_sentence_198

One way is for an individual from the group to play the role of facilitator to help achieve a consensus without taking part in the discussion themselves or promoting a specific point. Anarchism_sentence_199

Minorities usually accept rough consensus, except when they feel the proposal contradicts anarchist ethics, goals and values. Anarchism_sentence_200

Anarchists usually form small groups (5–20 individuals) to enhance autonomy and friendships among their members. Anarchism_sentence_201

These kinds of groups more often than not interconnect with each other, forming larger networks. Anarchism_sentence_202

Anarchists still support and participate in strikes, especially wildcat strikes as these are leaderless strikes not organised centrally by a syndicate. Anarchism_sentence_203

As in the past, newspapers and journals are used, but anarchists have gone online in the World Wide Web to spread their message. Anarchism_sentence_204

However, anarchists have found it easier to create websites because of distributional and other difficulties, hosting electronic libraries and other portals. Anarchism_sentence_205

Anarchists were also involved in developing various software that are available for free. Anarchism_sentence_206

The way these hacktivists work to develop and distribute resembles the anarchist ideals, especially when it comes to preserving users' privacy from state surveillance. Anarchism_sentence_207

Anarchists organize themselves to squat and reclaim public spaces. Anarchism_sentence_208

During important events such as protests and when spaces are being occupied, they are often called Temporary Autonomous Zones (TAZ), spaces where art, poetry and surrealism are blended to display the anarchist ideal. Anarchism_sentence_209

As seen by anarchists, squatting is a way to regain urban space from the capitalist market, serving pragmatical needs and also being an exemplary direct action. Anarchism_sentence_210

Acquiring space enables anarchists to experiment with their ideas and build social bonds. Anarchism_sentence_211

Adding up these tactics while having in mind that not all anarchists share the same attitudes towards them, along with various forms of protesting at highly symbolic events, make up a carnivalesque atmosphere that is part of contemporary anarchist vividity. Anarchism_sentence_212

Key issues Anarchism_section_12

Main article: Issues in anarchism Anarchism_sentence_213

As anarchism is a philosophy that embodies many diverse attitudes, tendencies, schools of thought, disagreement over questions of values, ideology and tactics is common. Anarchism_sentence_214

Its diversity has led to widely different uses of identical terms among different anarchist traditions which has created a number of definitional concerns in anarchist theory. Anarchism_sentence_215

The compatibility of capitalism, nationalism and religion with anarchism is widely disputed. Anarchism_sentence_216

Similarly, anarchism enjoys complex relationships with ideologies such as communism, collectivism, Marxism and trade unionism. Anarchism_sentence_217

Anarchists may be motivated by humanism, divine authority, enlightened self-interest, veganism, or any number of alternative ethical doctrines. Anarchism_sentence_218

Phenomena such as civilisation, technology (e.g. within anarcho-primitivism) and the democratic process may be sharply criticised within some anarchist tendencies and simultaneously lauded in others. Anarchism_sentence_219

Gender, sexuality and free love Anarchism_section_13

See also: Anarchism and issues related to love and sex Anarchism_sentence_220

As gender and sexuality carry along them dynamics of hierarchy, anarchism is obliged to address, analyse and oppose the suppression of one's autonomy because of the dynamics that gender roles traditionally impose. Anarchism_sentence_221

Sexuality was not often discussed by classical anarchists, but the few that did felt that an anarchist society would lead to sexuality naturally developing. Anarchism_sentence_222

However, sexual violence was a concern for anarchists such as Benjamin Tucker, who opposed age of consent laws, believing they would benefit predatory men. Anarchism_sentence_223

A historical current that arose and flourished during 1890 and 1920 within anarchism was free love. Anarchism_sentence_224

In contemporary anarchism, this current survives as a tendency to support polyamory and queer anarchism. Anarchism_sentence_225

Free love advocates were against marriage, which they saw as a way of men imposing authority over women, largely because marriage law greatly favoured the power of men. Anarchism_sentence_226

The notion of free love was much broader and included a critique of the established order that limited women's sexual freedom and pleasure. Anarchism_sentence_227

Those free love movements contributed to the establishment of communal houses, where large groups of travelers, anarchists and other activists slept in beds together. Anarchism_sentence_228

Free love had roots both in Europe and the United States. Anarchism_sentence_229

However, some anarchists struggled with the jealousy that arose from free love. Anarchism_sentence_230

Anarchist feminists were advocates of free love, against marriage, pro-choice (utilising a contemporary term) and had a similar agenda. Anarchism_sentence_231

Anarchist and non-anarchist feminists differed on suffrage, but they were nonetheless supportive of one another. Anarchism_sentence_232

During the second half of the 20th century, anarchism intermingled with the second wave of feminism, radicalising some currents of the feminist movement and being influenced as well. Anarchism_sentence_233

By the latest decades of the 20th century, anarchists and feminists were advocating for the rights and autonomy of women, gays, queers and other marginalised groups, with some feminist thinkers suggesting a fusion of the two currents. Anarchism_sentence_234

With the third wave of feminism, sexual identity and compulsory heterosexuality became a subject of study for anarchists, yielding a post-structuralist critique of sexual normality. Anarchism_sentence_235

However, some anarchists distanced themselves from this line of thinking, suggesting that it leaned towards an individualism that was dropping the cause of social liberation. Anarchism_sentence_236

Anarchism and education Anarchism_section_14

Main article: Anarchism and education Anarchism_sentence_237


Anarchist vs. statist perspectives on education Ruth Kinna (2019)Anarchism_table_caption_0
Anarchism_header_cell_0_0_0 Anarchist educationAnarchism_header_cell_0_0_1 State educationAnarchism_header_cell_0_0_2
ConceptAnarchism_cell_0_1_0 Education as self-masteryAnarchism_cell_0_1_1 Education as serviceAnarchism_cell_0_1_2
ManagementAnarchism_cell_0_2_0 Community basedAnarchism_cell_0_2_1 State runAnarchism_cell_0_2_2
MethodsAnarchism_cell_0_3_0 Practice-based learningAnarchism_cell_0_3_1 Vocational trainingAnarchism_cell_0_3_2
AimsAnarchism_cell_0_4_0 Being a critical member of societyAnarchism_cell_0_4_1 Being a productive member of societyAnarchism_cell_0_4_2

The interest of anarchists in education stretches back to the first emergence of classical anarchism. Anarchism_sentence_238

Anarchists consider proper education, one which sets the foundations of the future autonomy of the individual and the society, to be an act of mutual aid. Anarchism_sentence_239

Anarchist writers such as William Godwin (Political Justice) and Max Stirner ("The False Principle of Our Education") attacked both state education and private education as another means by which the ruling class replicate their privileges. Anarchism_sentence_240

In 1901, Catalan anarchist and free thinker Francisco Ferrer established the Escuela Moderna in Barcelona as an opposition to the established education system which was dictated largely by the Catholic Church. Anarchism_sentence_241

Ferrer's approach was secular, rejecting both state and church involvement in the educational process whilst giving pupils large amounts of autonomy in planning their work and attendance. Anarchism_sentence_242

Ferrer aimed to educate the working class and explicitly sought to foster class consciousness among students. Anarchism_sentence_243

The school closed after constant harassment by the state and Ferrer was later arrested. Anarchism_sentence_244

Nonetheless, his ideas formed the inspiration for a series of modern schools around the world. Anarchism_sentence_245

Christian anarchist Leo Tolstoy, who published the essay Education and Culture, also established a similar school with its founding principle being that "for education to be effective it had to be free". Anarchism_sentence_246

In a similar token, A. S. Neill founded what became the Summerhill School in 1921, also declaring being free from coercion. Anarchism_sentence_247

Anarchist education is based largely on the idea that a child's right to develop freely and without manipulation ought to be respected and that rationality will lead children to morally good conclusions. Anarchism_sentence_248

However, there has been little consensus among anarchist figures as to what constitutes manipulation. Anarchism_sentence_249

Ferrer believed that moral indoctrination was necessary and explicitly taught pupils that equality, liberty and social justice were not possible under capitalism, along with other critiques of government and nationalism. Anarchism_sentence_250

Late 20th century and contemporary anarchist writers (Colin Ward, Herbert Read and Paul Goodman) intensified and expanded the anarchist critique of state education, largely focusing on the need for a system that focuses on children's creativity rather than on their ability to attain a career or participate in consumerism as part of a consumer society. Anarchism_sentence_251

Contemporary anarchists such as Ward have further argued that state education serves to perpetuate socioeconomic inequality. Anarchism_sentence_252

While few anarchist education institutions have survived to the modern-day, major tenets of anarchist schools, among them respect for child autonomy and relying on reasoning rather than indoctrination as a teaching method, have spread among mainstream educational institutions. Anarchism_sentence_253

Judith Suissa names three schools as explicitly anarchists schools, namely the Free Skool Santa Cruz in the United States which is part of a wider American-Canadian network of schools, the Self-Managed Learning College in Brighton, England and the Paideia School in Spain. Anarchism_sentence_254

Anarchism and the state Anarchism_section_15

Objection to the state and its institutions is a sine qua non of anarchism. Anarchism_sentence_255

Anarchists consider the state as a tool of domination and believe it to be illegitimate regardless of its political tendencies. Anarchism_sentence_256

Instead of people being able to control the aspects of their life, major decisions are taken by a small elite. Anarchism_sentence_257

Authority ultimately rests solely on power, regardless of whether that power is open or transparent, as it still has the ability to coerce people. Anarchism_sentence_258

Another anarchist argument against states is that the people constituting a government, even the most altruistic among officials, will unavoidably seek to gain more power, leading to corruption. Anarchism_sentence_259

Anarchists consider the idea that the state is the collective will of the people to be an unachievable fiction due to the fact that the ruling class is distinct from the rest of society. Anarchism_sentence_260

Specific anarchist attitudes towards the state vary. Anarchism_sentence_261

Robert Paul Wolff believed that the tension between authority and autonomy would mean the state could never be legitimate. Anarchism_sentence_262

Bakunin saw the state as meaning "coercion, domination by means of coercion, camouflaged if possible but unceremonious and overt if need be". Anarchism_sentence_263

A. Anarchism_sentence_264 John Simmons and Leslie Green, who leaned toward philosophical anarchism, believed that the state could be legitimate if it is governed by consensus, although they saw this as highly unlikely. Anarchism_sentence_265

Beliefs on how to abolition the state also differ. Anarchism_sentence_266

Anarchism and art Anarchism_section_16

See also: Anarchism and the arts Anarchism_sentence_267

The connection between anarchism and art was quite profound during the classical era of anarchism, especially among artistic currents that were developing during that era such as futurists, surrealists and others. Anarchism_sentence_268

In literature, anarchism was mostly associated with the New Apocalyptics and the neo-romanticism movement. Anarchism_sentence_269

In music, anarchism has been associated with music scenes such as punk. Anarchism_sentence_270

Anarchists such as Leo Tolstoy and Herbert Read argued that the border between the artist and the non-artist, what separates art from a daily act, is a construct produced by the alienation caused by capitalism and it prevents humans from living a joyful life. Anarchism_sentence_271

Other anarchists advocated for or used art as a means to achieve anarchist ends. Anarchism_sentence_272

In his book Breaking the Spell: A History of Anarchist Filmmakers, Videotape Guerrillas, and Digital Ninjas, Chris Robé claims that "anarchist-inflected practices have increasingly structured movement-based video activism". Anarchism_sentence_273

Throughout the 20th century, many prominent anarchists (Peter Kropotkin, Emma Goldman, Gustav Landauer and Camillo Berneri) and publications such as Anarchy wrote about matters pertaining to the arts. Anarchism_sentence_274

Three overlapping properties made art useful to anarchists. Anarchism_sentence_275

It could depict a critique of existing society and hierarchies, serve as a prefigurative tool to reflect the anarchist ideal society and even turn into a means of direct action such as in protests. Anarchism_sentence_276

As it appeals to both emotion and reason, art could appeal to the whole human and have a powerful effect. Anarchism_sentence_277

The 19th-century neo-impressionist movement had an ecological aesthetic and offered an example of an anarchist perception of the road towards socialism. Anarchism_sentence_278

In Les chataigniers a Osny by anarchist painter Camille Pissarro, the blending of aestetic and social harmony is prefiguring an ideal anarchistic agrarian community. Anarchism_sentence_279

Criticism Anarchism_section_17

The most common critique of anarchism is that humans can not self govern and a state is necessary for human survival. Anarchism_sentence_280

Philosopher Bertrand Russell supported this critique, noting that "[p]eace and war, tariffs, regulations of sanitary conditions and the sale of noxious drugs, the preservation of a just system of distribution: these, among others, are functions which could hardly be performed in a community in which there was no central government". Anarchism_sentence_281

Another common criticism of anarchism is that it fits a world of isolation in which only the small enough entities can be self-governing. Anarchism_sentence_282

Colin Ward responds that major anarchist thinkers advocated federalism. Anarchism_sentence_283

Philosophy lecturer Andrew G. Fiala also believed that humans could not self govern and included it in his list of arguments against anarchism. Anarchism_sentence_284

Fiala's other critiques were that anarchism is innately related to violence and destruction, not only in the pragmatic world, i.e. at protests, but in the world of ethics as well. Anarchism_sentence_285

Secondly, anarchism is evaluated as unfeasible or utopian since the state can not be defeated practically. Anarchism_sentence_286

This line of arguments most often calls for political action within the system to reform it. Anarchism_sentence_287

The third argument is that anarchism is self-contradictory. Anarchism_sentence_288

While it advocates for no-one to archiei, if accepted by the many, then anarchism would turn into the ruling political theory. Anarchism_sentence_289

In this line of criticism also comes the self-contradiction that anarchism calls for collective action whilst endorsing the autonomy of the individual, hence no collective action can be taken. Anarchism_sentence_290

Lastly, Fiala mentions a critique towards philosophical anarchism of being ineffective (all talk and thoughts) and in the meantime capitalism and bourgeois class remains strong. Anarchism_sentence_291

Philosophical anarchism has met the criticism of members of academia following the release of pro-anarchist books such as A. Anarchism_sentence_292 John Simmons' Moral Principles and Political Obligations. Anarchism_sentence_293

Law professor William A. Edmundson authored an essay arguing against three major philosophical anarchist principles which he finds fallacious. Anarchism_sentence_294

Edmundson claims that while the individual does not owe the state a duty of obedience, this does not imply that anarchism is the inevitable conclusion and the state is still morally legitimate. Anarchism_sentence_295

In The Problem of Political Authority, Michael Huemer defends philosophical anarchism, claiming that "political authority is a moral illusion". Anarchism_sentence_296

Another criticism is that anarchism defies and fails to understand the biological inclination to authority as first articulated in an 1886 article for the North American Review by Frances L. Ferguson. Anarchism_sentence_297

Joseph Raz argues that the acceptance of authority implies the belief that following their instructions will afford more success. Anarchism_sentence_298

Raz believes that this argument is true in following both authorities' successful and mistaken instruction. Anarchism_sentence_299

Anarchists reject this criticism because challenging or disobeying authority does not entail the disappearance of its advantages by acknowledging authority such as doctors or lawyers as reliable, nor does it involve a complete surrender of independent judgment. Anarchism_sentence_300

Anarchist perception of human nature, rejection of the state and commitment to social revolution has been criticised by academics as naive, overly simplistic and unrealistic, respectively. Anarchism_sentence_301

Classical anarchism has been criticised for relying too heavily on the belief that the abolition of the state will lead to human cooperation prospering. Anarchism_sentence_302

Academic John Molyneux notes in his book Anarchism: A Marxist Criticism that "anarchism cannot win", believing that it lacks the ability to properly implement its ideas. Anarchism_sentence_303

The Marxist criticism of anarchism is that it has a utopian character because all individuals should have anarchist views and values. Anarchism_sentence_304

According to the Marxist view, that a social idea would follow directly from this human ideal and out of the free will of every individual formed its essence. Anarchism_sentence_305

Marxists argue that this contradiction was responsible for their inability to act. Anarchism_sentence_306

In the anarchist vision, the conflict between liberty and equality was resolved through coexistence and intertwining. Anarchism_sentence_307

Anarchism is also seen by Marxists as unrealistic and overly idealistic. Anarchism_sentence_308

Karl Marx described it as "schoolboy asininity". Anarchism_sentence_309

See also Anarchism_section_18


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: