Ancient Greece

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Ancient Greece (Greek: Ἑλλάς, romanized: Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (c. AD 600). Ancient Greece_sentence_0

This era was immediately followed by the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine period. Ancient Greece_sentence_1

Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the Archaic period and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin. Ancient Greece_sentence_2

This was followed by the age of Classical Greece, from the Greco-Persian Wars to the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Ancient Greece_sentence_3

The conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon spread Hellenistic civilization from the western Mediterranean to Central Asia. Ancient Greece_sentence_4

The Hellenistic period ended with the conquest of the eastern Mediterranean world by the Roman Republic, and the annexation of the Roman province of Macedonia in Roman Greece, and later the province of Achaea during the Roman Empire. Ancient Greece_sentence_5

Classical Greek culture, especially philosophy, had a powerful influence on ancient Rome, which carried a version of it throughout the Mediterranean and much of Europe. Ancient Greece_sentence_6

For this reason, Classical Greece is generally considered the cradle of Western civilization, the culture from which the modern West derives many of its founding archetypes and ideas in politics, philosophy, science, and art. Ancient Greece_sentence_7

Chronology Ancient Greece_section_0

Further information: Timeline of ancient Greece Ancient Greece_sentence_8

Classical antiquity in the Mediterranean region is commonly considered to have begun in the 8th century BC (around the time of the earliest recorded poetry of Homer) and ended in the 6th century AD. Ancient Greece_sentence_9

Classical antiquity in Greece was preceded by the Greek Dark Ages (c. Ancient Greece_sentence_10

1200 – c. 800 BC), archaeologically characterised by the protogeometric and geometric styles of designs on pottery. Ancient Greece_sentence_11

Following the Dark Ages was the Archaic Period, beginning around the 8th century BC, which saw early developments in Greek culture and society leading to the Classical Period from the Persian invasion of Greece in 480 until the death of Alexander the Great in 323. Ancient Greece_sentence_12

The Classical Period is characterized by a "classical" style, i.e. one which was considered exemplary by later observers, most famously in the Parthenon of Athens. Ancient Greece_sentence_13

Politically, the Classical Period was dominated by Athens and the Delian League during the 5th century, but displaced by Spartan hegemony during the early 4th century BC, before power shifted to Thebes and the Boeotian League and finally to the League of Corinth led by Macedon. Ancient Greece_sentence_14

This period was shaped by the Greco-Persian Wars, the Peloponnesian War, and the Rise of Macedon. Ancient Greece_sentence_15

Following the Classical period was the Hellenistic period (323–146 BC), during which Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East from the death of Alexander until the Roman conquest. Ancient Greece_sentence_16

Roman Greece is usually counted from the Roman victory over the Corinthians at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC to the establishment of Byzantium by Constantine as the capital of the Roman Empire in AD 330. Ancient Greece_sentence_17

Finally, Late Antiquity refers to the period of Christianization during the later 4th to early 6th centuries AD, consummated by the closure of the Academy of Athens by Justinian I in 529. Ancient Greece_sentence_18

Historiography Ancient Greece_section_1

Main article: Greek historiographers Ancient Greece_sentence_19

The historical period of ancient Greece is unique in world history as the first period attested directly in comprehensive, narrative historiography, while earlier ancient history or protohistory is known from much more fragmentary documents such as annals, king lists, and pragmatic epigraphy. Ancient Greece_sentence_20

Herodotus is widely known as the "father of history": his Histories are eponymous of the entire field. Ancient Greece_sentence_21

Written between the 450s and 420s BC, Herodotus' work reaches about a century into the past, discussing 6th century historical figures such as Darius I of Persia, Cambyses II and Psamtik III, and alluding to some 8th century persons such as Candaules. Ancient Greece_sentence_22

The accuracy of Herodotus' works is debated. Ancient Greece_sentence_23

Herodotus was succeeded by authors such as Thucydides, Xenophon, Demosthenes, Plato and Aristotle. Ancient Greece_sentence_24

Most were either Athenian or pro-Athenian, which is why far more is known about the history and politics of Athens than of many other cities. Ancient Greece_sentence_25

Their scope is further limited by a focus on political, military and diplomatic history, ignoring economic and social history. Ancient Greece_sentence_26

History Ancient Greece_section_2

Further information: History of Greece Ancient Greece_sentence_27

Archaic period Ancient Greece_section_3

Main article: Archaic period in Greece Ancient Greece_sentence_28

In the 8th century BC, Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the collapse of Mycenaean civilization. Ancient Greece_sentence_29

Literacy had been lost and Mycenaean script forgotten, but the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet, modifying it to create the Greek alphabet. Ancient Greece_sentence_30

Objects inscribed with Phoenician writing may have been available in Greece from the 9th century BC, but the earliest evidence of Greek writing comes from graffiti on Greek pottery from the mid-8th century. Ancient Greece_sentence_31

Greece was divided into many small self-governing communities, a pattern largely dictated by its geography: every island, valley and plain is cut off from its neighbors by the sea or mountain ranges. Ancient Greece_sentence_32

The Lelantine War (c. 710 – c. 650 BC) is the earliest documented war of the ancient Greek period. Ancient Greece_sentence_33

It was fought between the important poleis (city-states) of Chalcis and Eretria over the fertile Lelantine plain of Euboea. Ancient Greece_sentence_34

Both cities seem to have suffered a decline as result of the long war, though Chalcis was the nominal victor. Ancient Greece_sentence_35

A mercantile class arose in the first half of the 7th century BC, shown by the introduction of coinage in about 680 BC. Ancient Greece_sentence_36

This seems to have introduced tension to many city-states, as their aristocratic regimes were threatened by the new wealth of merchants ambitious for political power. Ancient Greece_sentence_37

From 650 BC onwards, the aristocracies had to fight to maintain themselves against populist tyrants. Ancient Greece_sentence_38

A growing population and a shortage of land also seem to have created internal strife between rich and poor in many city-states. Ancient Greece_sentence_39

In Sparta, the Messenian Wars resulted in the conquest of Messenia and enserfment of the Messenians, beginning in the latter half of the 8th century BC. Ancient Greece_sentence_40

This was an unprecedented act in ancient Greece, which led to a social revolution in which the subjugated population of helots farmed and labored for Sparta, whilst every Spartan male citizen became a soldier of the Spartan army permanently in arms. Ancient Greece_sentence_41

Rich and poor citizens alike were obliged to live and train as soldiers, an equality which defused social conflict. Ancient Greece_sentence_42

These reforms, attributed to Lycurgus of Sparta, were probably complete by 650 BC. Ancient Greece_sentence_43

Athens suffered a land and agrarian crisis in the late 7th century BC, again resulting in civil strife. Ancient Greece_sentence_44

The Archon (chief magistrate) Draco made severe reforms to the law code in 621 BC (hence ""), but these failed to quell the conflict. Ancient Greece_sentence_45

Eventually the moderate reforms of Solon (594 BC), improving the lot of the poor but firmly entrenching the aristocracy in power, gave Athens some stability. Ancient Greece_sentence_46

By the 6th century BC several cities had emerged as dominant in Greek affairs: Athens, Sparta, Corinth, and Thebes. Ancient Greece_sentence_47

Each of them had brought the surrounding rural areas and smaller towns under their control, and Athens and Corinth had become major maritime and mercantile powers as well. Ancient Greece_sentence_48

Rapidly increasing population in the 8th and 7th centuries BC had resulted in emigration of many Greeks to form colonies in Magna Graecia (Southern Italy and Sicily), Asia Minor and further afield. Ancient Greece_sentence_49

The emigration effectively ceased in the 6th century BC by which time the Greek world had, culturally and linguistically, become much larger than the area of present-day Greece. Ancient Greece_sentence_50

Greek colonies were not politically controlled by their founding cities, although they often retained religious and commercial links with them. Ancient Greece_sentence_51

The Greek colonies of Sicily, especially Syracuse, were soon drawn into prolonged conflicts with the Carthaginians. Ancient Greece_sentence_52

These conflicts lasted from 600 BC to 265 BC, when the Roman Republic allied with the Mamertines to fend off the new tyrant of Syracuse, Hiero II, and then the Carthaginians. Ancient Greece_sentence_53

As a result, Rome became the new dominant power against the fading strength of the Sicilian Greek cities and the fading Carthaginian hegemony. Ancient Greece_sentence_54

One year later the First Punic War erupted. Ancient Greece_sentence_55

In this period, Greece and its overseas colonies enjoyed huge economic development in commerce and manufacturing, with rising general prosperity. Ancient Greece_sentence_56

Some studies estimate that the average Greek household grew fivefold between 800 and 300 BC, indicating a large increase in average income. Ancient Greece_sentence_57

In the second half of the 6th century BC, Athens fell under the tyranny of Peisistratos followed by his sons Hippias and Hipparchos. Ancient Greece_sentence_58

However, in 510 BC, at the instigation of the Athenian aristocrat Cleisthenes, the Spartan king Cleomenes I helped the Athenians overthrow the tyranny. Ancient Greece_sentence_59

Sparta and Athens promptly turned on each other, at which point Cleomenes I installed Isagoras as a pro-Spartan archon. Ancient Greece_sentence_60

Eager to secure Athens' independence from Spartan control, Cleisthenes proposed a political revolution: that all citizens share power, regardless of status, making Athens a "democracy". Ancient Greece_sentence_61

The democratic enthusiasm of the Athenians swept out Isagoras and threw back the Spartan-led invasion to restore him. Ancient Greece_sentence_62

The advent of democracy cured many of the social ills of Athens and ushered in the Golden Age. Ancient Greece_sentence_63

Classical Greece Ancient Greece_section_4

Main article: Classical Greece Ancient Greece_sentence_64

In 499 BC, the Ionian city states under Persian rule rebelled against their Persian-supported tyrant rulers. Ancient Greece_sentence_65

Supported by troops sent from Athens and Eretria, they advanced as far as Sardis and burnt the city before being driven back by a Persian counterattack. Ancient Greece_sentence_66

The revolt continued until 494, when the rebelling Ionians were defeated. Ancient Greece_sentence_67

Darius did not forget that Athens had assisted the Ionian revolt, and in 490 he assembled an armada to retaliate. Ancient Greece_sentence_68

Though heavily outnumbered, the Athenians—supported by their Plataean allies—defeated the Persian hordes at the Battle of Marathon, and the Persian fleet turned tail. Ancient Greece_sentence_69

Ten years later, a second invasion was launched by Darius' son Xerxes. Ancient Greece_sentence_70

The city-states of northern and central Greece submitted to the Persian forces without resistance, but a coalition of 31 Greek city states, including Athens and Sparta, determined to resist the Persian invaders. Ancient Greece_sentence_71

At the same time, Greek Sicily was invaded by a Carthaginian force. Ancient Greece_sentence_72

In 480 BC, the first major battle of the invasion was fought at Thermopylae, where a small rearguard of Greeks, led by three hundred Spartans, held a crucial pass guarding the heart of Greece for several days; at the same time Gelon, tyrant of Syracuse, defeated the Carthaginian invasion at the Battle of Himera. Ancient Greece_sentence_73

The Persians were decisively defeated at sea by a primarily Athenian naval force at the Battle of Salamis, and on land in 479 at the Battle of Plataea. Ancient Greece_sentence_74

The alliance against Persia continued, initially led by the Spartan Pausanias but from 477 by Athens, and by 460 Persia had been driven out of the Aegean. Ancient Greece_sentence_75

During this long campaign, the Delian League gradually transformed from a defensive alliance of Greek states into an Athenian empire, as Athens' growing naval power intimidated the other league states. Ancient Greece_sentence_76

Athens ended its campaigns against Persia in 450 BC, after a disastrous defeat in Egypt in 454 BC, and the death of Cimon in action against the Persians on Cyprus in 450. Ancient Greece_sentence_77

As the Athenian fight against the Persian empire waned, conflict grew between Athens and Sparta. Ancient Greece_sentence_78

Suspicious of the increasing Athenian power funded by the Delian League, Sparta offered aid to reluctant members of the League to rebel against Athenian domination. Ancient Greece_sentence_79

These tensions were exacerbated in 462, when Athens sent a force to aid Sparta in overcoming a helot revolt, but this aid was rejected by the Spartans. Ancient Greece_sentence_80

In the 450s, Athens took control of Boeotia, and won victories over Aegina and Corinth. Ancient Greece_sentence_81

However, Athens failed to win a decisive victory, and in 447 lost Boeotia again. Ancient Greece_sentence_82

Athens and Sparta signed the Thirty Years' Peace in the winter of 446/5, ending the conflict. Ancient Greece_sentence_83

Despite the treaty, Athenian relations with Sparta declined again in the 430s, and in 431 the Peloponnesian War began. Ancient Greece_sentence_84

The first phase of the war saw a series of fruitless annual invasions of Attica by Sparta, while Athens successfully fought the Corinthian empire in northwest Greece and defended its own empire, despite a plague which killed the leading Athenian statesman Pericles. Ancient Greece_sentence_85

The war turned after Athenian victories led by Cleon at Pylos and Sphakteria, and Sparta sued for peace, but the Athenians rejected the proposal. Ancient Greece_sentence_86

The Athenian failure to regain control of Boeotia at Delium and Brasidas' successes in northern Greece in 424 improved Sparta's position after Sphakteria. Ancient Greece_sentence_87

After the deaths of Cleon and Brasidas, the strongest proponents of war on each side, a peace treaty was negoitiated in 421 by the Athenian general Nicias. Ancient Greece_sentence_88

The peace did not last, however. Ancient Greece_sentence_89

In 418 allied forces of Athens and Argos were defeated by Sparta at Mantinea. Ancient Greece_sentence_90

In 415 Athens launched an ambitious naval expedition to dominate Sicily; the expedition ended in disaster at the harbor of Syracuse, with almost the entire army killed and the ships destroyed. Ancient Greece_sentence_91

Soon after the Athenian defeat in Syracuse, Athens' Ionian allies began to rebel against the Delian league, while Persia began to once again involve itself in Greek affairs on the Spartan side. Ancient Greece_sentence_92

Initially the Athenian position continued relatively strong, with important victories at Cyzicus in 410 and Arginusae in 406. Ancient Greece_sentence_93

However, in 405 the Spartan Lysander defeated Athens in the Battle of Aegospotami, and began to blockade Athens' harbour; driven by hunger, Athens sued for peace, agreeing to surrender their fleet and join the Spartan-led Peloponnesian League. Ancient Greece_sentence_94

Greece thus entered the 4th century BC under a Spartan hegemony, but it was clear from the start that this was weak. Ancient Greece_sentence_95

A drastically dwindling population meant Sparta was overstretched, and by 395 BC Athens, Argos, Thebes, and Corinth felt able to challenge Spartan dominance, resulting in the Corinthian War (395–387 BC). Ancient Greece_sentence_96

Another war of stalemates, it ended with the status quo restored, after the threat of Persian intervention on behalf of the Spartans. Ancient Greece_sentence_97

The Spartan hegemony lasted another 16 years, until, when attempting to impose their will on the Thebans, the Spartans were defeated at Leuctra in 371 BC. Ancient Greece_sentence_98

The Theban general Epaminondas then led Theban troops into the Peloponnese, whereupon other city-states defected from the Spartan cause. Ancient Greece_sentence_99

The Thebans were thus able to march into Messenia and free the helot population. Ancient Greece_sentence_100

Deprived of land and its serfs, Sparta declined to a second-rank power. Ancient Greece_sentence_101

The Theban hegemony thus established was short-lived; at the Battle of Mantinea in 362 BC, Thebes lost its key leader, Epaminondas, and much of its manpower, even though they were victorious in battle. Ancient Greece_sentence_102

In fact such were the losses to all the great city-states at Mantinea that none could dominate the aftermath. Ancient Greece_sentence_103

The exhaustion of the Greek heartland coincided with the rise of Macedon, led by Philip II. Ancient Greece_sentence_104

In twenty years, Philip had unified his kingdom, expanded it north and west at the expense of Illyrian tribes, and then conquered Thessaly and Thrace. Ancient Greece_sentence_105

His success stemmed from his innovative reforms to the Macedonian army. Ancient Greece_sentence_106

Phillip intervened repeatedly in the affairs of the southern city-states, culminating in his invasion of 338 BC. Ancient Greece_sentence_107

Decisively defeating an allied army of Thebes and Athens at the Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC), he became de facto hegemon of all of Greece, except Sparta. Ancient Greece_sentence_108

He compelled the majority of the city-states to join the Hellenic League, allying them to him and imposing peace among them. Ancient Greece_sentence_109

Philip then entered into war against the Achaemenid Empire but was assassinated by Pausanias of Orestis early in the conflict. Ancient Greece_sentence_110

Alexander, son and successor of Philip, continued the war. Ancient Greece_sentence_111

In an unequalled series of campaigns, Alexander defeated Darius III of Persia and completely destroyed the Achaemenid Empire, annexing it to Macedon and earning himself the epithet 'the Great'. Ancient Greece_sentence_112

When Alexander died in 323 BC, Greek power and influence was at its zenith. Ancient Greece_sentence_113

However, there had been a fundamental shift away from the fierce independence and classical culture of the poleis—and instead towards the developing Hellenistic culture. Ancient Greece_sentence_114

Hellenistic Greece Ancient Greece_section_5

Main articles: Wars of Alexander the Great and Hellenistic period Ancient Greece_sentence_115

The Hellenistic period lasted from 323 BC, the end of the wars of Alexander the Great, to the annexation of Greece by the Roman Republic in 146 BC. Ancient Greece_sentence_116

Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which remained essentially unchanged until the advent of Christianity, it did mark the end of Greek political independence. Ancient Greece_sentence_117

After the death of Alexander, his empire was, after quite some conflict, divided among his generals, resulting in the Ptolemaic Kingdom (Egypt and adjoining North Africa), the Seleucid Empire (the Levant, Mesopotamia and Persia) and the Antigonid dynasty (Macedonia). Ancient Greece_sentence_118

In the intervening period, the poleis of Greece were able to wrest back some of their freedom, although still nominally subject to Macedon. Ancient Greece_sentence_119

During the Hellenistic period, the importance of "Greece proper" (the territory of modern Greece) within the Greek-speaking world declined sharply. Ancient Greece_sentence_120

The great capitals of Hellenistic culture were Alexandria in the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Antioch in the Seleucid Empire. Ancient Greece_sentence_121

The conquests of Alexander had numerous consequences for the Greek city-states. Ancient Greece_sentence_122

It greatly widened the horizons of the Greeks and led to a steady emigration of the young and ambitious to the new Greek empires in the east. Ancient Greece_sentence_123

Many Greeks migrated to Alexandria, Antioch and the many other new Hellenistic cities founded in Alexander's wake, as far away as present-day Afghanistan and Pakistan, where the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom and the Indo-Greek Kingdom survived until the end of the first century BC. Ancient Greece_sentence_124

The city-states within Greece formed themselves into two leagues; the Achaean League (including Thebes, Corinth and Argos) and the Aetolian League (including Sparta and Athens). Ancient Greece_sentence_125

For much of the period until the Roman conquest, these leagues were at war, often participating in the conflicts between the Diadochi (the successor states to Alexander's empire). Ancient Greece_sentence_126

The Antigonid Kingdom became involved in a war with the Roman Republic in the late 3rd century. Ancient Greece_sentence_127

Although the First Macedonian War was inconclusive, the Romans, in typical fashion, continued to fight Macedon until it was completely absorbed into the Roman Republic (by 149 BC). Ancient Greece_sentence_128

In the east, the unwieldy Seleucid Empire gradually disintegrated, although a rump survived until 64 BC, whilst the Ptolemaic Kingdom continued in Egypt until 30 BC, when it too was conquered by the Romans. Ancient Greece_sentence_129

The Aetolian league grew wary of Roman involvement in Greece, and sided with the Seleucids in the Roman–Seleucid War; when the Romans were victorious, the league was effectively absorbed into the Republic. Ancient Greece_sentence_130

Although the Achaean league outlasted both the Aetolian league and Macedon, it was also soon defeated and absorbed by the Romans in 146 BC, bringing Greek independence to an end. Ancient Greece_sentence_131

Roman Greece Ancient Greece_section_6

Main article: Roman Greece Ancient Greece_sentence_132

Further information: Byzantine Greece Ancient Greece_sentence_133

The Greek peninsula came under Roman rule during the 146 BC conquest of Greece after the Battle of Corinth. Ancient Greece_sentence_134

Macedonia became a Roman province while southern Greece came under the surveillance of Macedonia's prefect; however, some Greek poleis managed to maintain a partial independence and avoid taxation. Ancient Greece_sentence_135

The Aegean islands were added to this territory in 133 BC. Ancient Greece_sentence_136

Athens and other Greek cities revolted in 88 BC, and the peninsula was crushed by the Roman general Sulla. Ancient Greece_sentence_137

The Roman civil wars devastated the land even further, until Augustus organized the peninsula as the province of Achaea in 27 BC. Ancient Greece_sentence_138

Greece was a key eastern province of the Roman Empire, as the Roman culture had long been in fact Greco-Roman. Ancient Greece_sentence_139

The Greek language served as a lingua franca in the East and in Italy, and many Greek intellectuals such as Galen would perform most of their work in Rome. Ancient Greece_sentence_140

Geography Ancient Greece_section_7

Regions Ancient Greece_section_8

Main article: Regions of ancient Greece Ancient Greece_sentence_141

The territory of Greece is mountainous, and as a result, ancient Greece consisted of many smaller regions each with its own dialect, cultural peculiarities, and identity. Ancient Greece_sentence_142

Regionalism and regional conflicts were a prominent feature of ancient Greece. Ancient Greece_sentence_143

Cities tended to be located in valleys between mountains, or on coastal plains, and dominated a certain area around them. Ancient Greece_sentence_144

In the south lay the Peloponnese, itself consisting of the regions of Laconia (southeast), Messenia (southwest), Elis (west), Achaia (north), Korinthia (northeast), Argolis (east), and Arcadia (center). Ancient Greece_sentence_145

These names survive to the present day as regional units of modern Greece, though with somewhat different boundaries. Ancient Greece_sentence_146

Mainland Greece to the north, nowadays known as Central Greece, consisted of Aetolia and Acarnania in the west, Locris, Doris, and Phocis in the center, while in the east lay Boeotia, Attica, and Megaris. Ancient Greece_sentence_147

Northeast lay Thessaly, while Epirus lay to the northwest. Ancient Greece_sentence_148

Epirus stretched from the Ambracian Gulf in the south to the Ceraunian mountains and the Aoos river in the north, and consisted of Chaonia (north), Molossia (center), and Thesprotia (south). Ancient Greece_sentence_149

In the northeast corner was Macedonia, originally consisting Lower Macedonia and its regions, such as Elimeia, Pieria, and Orestis. Ancient Greece_sentence_150

Around the time of Alexander I of Macedon, the Argead kings of Macedon started to expand into Upper Macedonia, lands inhabited by independent Macedonian tribes like the Lyncestae, Orestae and the Elimiotae and to the West, beyond the Axius river, into Eordaia, Bottiaea, Mygdonia, and Almopia, regions settled by Thracian tribes. Ancient Greece_sentence_151

To the north of Macedonia lay various non-Greek peoples such as the Paeonians due north, the Thracians to the northeast, and the Illyrians, with whom the Macedonians were frequently in conflict, to the northwest. Ancient Greece_sentence_152

Chalcidice was settled early on by southern Greek colonists and was considered part of the Greek world, while from the late 2nd millennium BC substantial Greek settlement also occurred on the eastern shores of the Aegean, in Anatolia. Ancient Greece_sentence_153

Colonies Ancient Greece_section_9

See also: Greeks in pre-Roman Gaul, Magna Graecia, and List of ancient cities in Thrace and Dacia § Greek Ancient Greece_sentence_154

During the Archaic period, the population of Greece grew beyond the capacity of its limited arable land (according to one estimate, the population of ancient Greece increased by a factor larger than ten during the period from 800 BC to 400 BC, increasing from a population of 800,000 to a total estimated population of 10 to 13 million). Ancient Greece_sentence_155

From about 750 BC the Greeks began 250 years of expansion, settling colonies in all directions. Ancient Greece_sentence_156

To the east, the Aegean coast of Asia Minor was colonized first, followed by Cyprus and the coasts of Thrace, the Sea of Marmara and south coast of the Black Sea. Ancient Greece_sentence_157

Eventually Greek colonization reached as far northeast as present day Ukraine and Russia (Taganrog). Ancient Greece_sentence_158

To the west the coasts of Illyria, Sicily and Southern Italy were settled, followed by Southern France, Corsica, and even northeastern Spain. Ancient Greece_sentence_159

Greek colonies were also founded in Egypt and Libya. Ancient Greece_sentence_160

Modern Syracuse, Naples, Marseille and Istanbul had their beginnings as the Greek colonies Syracusae (Συράκουσαι), Neapolis (Νεάπολις), Massalia (Μασσαλία) and Byzantion (Βυζάντιον). Ancient Greece_sentence_161

These colonies played an important role in the spread of Greek influence throughout Europe and also aided in the establishment of long-distance trading networks between the Greek city-states, boosting the economy of ancient Greece. Ancient Greece_sentence_162

Politics and society Ancient Greece_section_10

Political structure Ancient Greece_section_11

Further information: History of citizenship § Ancient Greece Ancient Greece_sentence_163

Ancient Greece consisted of several hundred relatively independent city-states (poleis). Ancient Greece_sentence_164

This was a situation unlike that in most other contemporary societies, which were either tribal or kingdoms ruling over relatively large territories. Ancient Greece_sentence_165

Undoubtedly the geography of Greece—divided and sub-divided by hills, mountains, and rivers—contributed to the fragmentary nature of ancient Greece. Ancient Greece_sentence_166

On the one hand, the ancient Greeks had no doubt that they were "one people"; they had the same religion, same basic culture, and same language. Ancient Greece_sentence_167

Furthermore, the Greeks were very aware of their tribal origins; Herodotus was able to extensively categorise the city-states by tribe. Ancient Greece_sentence_168

Yet, although these higher-level relationships existed, they seem to have rarely had a major role in Greek politics. Ancient Greece_sentence_169

The independence of the poleis was fiercely defended; unification was something rarely contemplated by the ancient Greeks. Ancient Greece_sentence_170

Even when, during the second Persian invasion of Greece, a group of city-states allied themselves to defend Greece, the vast majority of poleis remained neutral, and after the Persian defeat, the allies quickly returned to infighting. Ancient Greece_sentence_171

Thus, the major peculiarities of the ancient Greek political system were its fragmentary nature (and that this does not particularly seem to have tribal origin), and the particular focus on urban centers within otherwise tiny states. Ancient Greece_sentence_172

The peculiarities of the Greek system are further evidenced by the colonies that they set up throughout the Mediterranean Sea, which, though they might count a certain Greek polis as their 'mother' (and remain sympathetic to her), were completely independent of the founding city. Ancient Greece_sentence_173

Inevitably smaller poleis might be dominated by larger neighbors, but conquest or direct rule by another city-state appears to have been quite rare. Ancient Greece_sentence_174

Instead the poleis grouped themselves into leagues, membership of which was in a constant state of flux. Ancient Greece_sentence_175

Later in the Classical period, the leagues would become fewer and larger, be dominated by one city (particularly Athens, Sparta and Thebes); and often poleis would be compelled to join under threat of war (or as part of a peace treaty). Ancient Greece_sentence_176

Even after Philip II of Macedon "conquered" the heartlands of ancient Greece, he did not attempt to annex the territory, or unify it into a new province, but simply compelled most of the poleis to join his own Corinthian League. Ancient Greece_sentence_177

Government and law Ancient Greece_section_12

Main article: Ancient Greek law Ancient Greece_sentence_178

Initially many Greek city-states seem to have been petty kingdoms; there was often a city official carrying some residual, ceremonial functions of the king (basileus), e.g., the archon basileus in Athens. Ancient Greece_sentence_179

However, by the Archaic period and the first historical consciousness, most had already become aristocratic oligarchies. Ancient Greece_sentence_180

It is unclear exactly how this change occurred. Ancient Greece_sentence_181

For instance, in Athens, the kingship had been reduced to a hereditary, lifelong chief magistracy (archon) by c. Ancient Greece_sentence_182

1050 BC; by 753 BC this had become a decennial, elected archonship; and finally by 683 BC an annually elected archonship. Ancient Greece_sentence_183

Through each stage more power would have been transferred to the aristocracy as a whole, and away from a single individual. Ancient Greece_sentence_184

Inevitably, the domination of politics and concomitant aggregation of wealth by small groups of families was apt to cause social unrest in many poleis. Ancient Greece_sentence_185

In many cities a tyrant (not in the modern sense of repressive autocracies), would at some point seize control and govern according to their own will; often a populist agenda would help sustain them in power. Ancient Greece_sentence_186

In a system wracked with class conflict, government by a 'strongman' was often the best solution. Ancient Greece_sentence_187

Athens fell under a tyranny in the second half of the 6th century. Ancient Greece_sentence_188

When this tyranny was ended, the Athenians founded the world's first democracy as a radical solution to prevent the aristocracy regaining power. Ancient Greece_sentence_189

A citizens' assembly (the Ecclesia), for the discussion of city policy, had existed since the reforms of Draco in 621 BC; all citizens were permitted to attend after the reforms of Solon (early 6th century), but the poorest citizens could not address the assembly or run for office. Ancient Greece_sentence_190

With the establishment of the democracy, the assembly became the de jure mechanism of government; all citizens had equal privileges in the assembly. Ancient Greece_sentence_191

However, non-citizens, such as metics (foreigners living in Athens) or slaves, had no political rights at all. Ancient Greece_sentence_192

After the rise of the democracy in Athens, other city-states founded democracies. Ancient Greece_sentence_193

However, many retained more traditional forms of government. Ancient Greece_sentence_194

As so often in other matters, Sparta was a notable exception to the rest of Greece, ruled through the whole period by not one, but two hereditary monarchs. Ancient Greece_sentence_195

This was a form of diarchy. Ancient Greece_sentence_196

The Kings of Sparta belonged to the Agiads and the Eurypontids, descendants respectively of Eurysthenes and Procles. Ancient Greece_sentence_197

Both dynasties' founders were believed to be twin sons of Aristodemus, a Heraclid ruler. Ancient Greece_sentence_198

However, the powers of these kings were held in check by both a council of elders (the Gerousia) and magistrates specifically appointed to watch over the kings (the Ephors). Ancient Greece_sentence_199

Social structure Ancient Greece_section_13

Only free, land owning, native-born men could be citizens entitled to the full protection of the law in a city-state. Ancient Greece_sentence_200

In most city-states, unlike the situation in Rome, social prominence did not allow special rights. Ancient Greece_sentence_201

Sometimes families controlled public religious functions, but this ordinarily did not give any extra power in the government. Ancient Greece_sentence_202

In Athens, the population was divided into four social classes based on wealth. Ancient Greece_sentence_203

People could change classes if they made more money. Ancient Greece_sentence_204

In Sparta, all male citizens were called homoioi, meaning "peers". Ancient Greece_sentence_205

However, Spartan kings, who served as the city-state's dual military and religious leaders, came from two families. Ancient Greece_sentence_206

Slavery Ancient Greece_section_14

Main article: Slavery in ancient Greece Ancient Greece_sentence_207

Slaves had no power or status. Ancient Greece_sentence_208

They had the right to have a family and own property, subject to their master's goodwill and permission, but they had no political rights. Ancient Greece_sentence_209

By 600 BC chattel slavery had spread in Greece. Ancient Greece_sentence_210

By the 5th century BC slaves made up one-third of the total population in some city-states. Ancient Greece_sentence_211

Between forty and eighty per cent of the population of Classical Athens were slaves. Ancient Greece_sentence_212

Slaves outside of Sparta almost never revolted because they were made up of too many nationalities and were too scattered to organize. Ancient Greece_sentence_213

However, unlike later Western culture, the Ancient Greeks did not think in terms of race. Ancient Greece_sentence_214

Most families owned slaves as household servants and laborers, and even poor families might have owned a few slaves. Ancient Greece_sentence_215

Owners were not allowed to beat or kill their slaves. Ancient Greece_sentence_216

Owners often promised to free slaves in the future to encourage slaves to work hard. Ancient Greece_sentence_217

Unlike in Rome, freedmen did not become citizens. Ancient Greece_sentence_218

Instead, they were mixed into the population of metics, which included people from foreign countries or other city-states who were officially allowed to live in the state. Ancient Greece_sentence_219

City-states legally owned slaves. Ancient Greece_sentence_220

These public slaves had a larger measure of independence than slaves owned by families, living on their own and performing specialized tasks. Ancient Greece_sentence_221

In Athens, public slaves were trained to look out for counterfeit coinage, while temple slaves acted as servants of the temple's deity and Scythian slaves were employed in Athens as a police force corralling citizens to political functions. Ancient Greece_sentence_222

Sparta had a special type of slaves called helots. Ancient Greece_sentence_223

Helots were Messenians enslaved during the Messenian Wars by the state and assigned to families where they were forced to stay. Ancient Greece_sentence_224

Helots raised food and did household chores so that women could concentrate on raising strong children while men could devote their time to training as hoplites. Ancient Greece_sentence_225

Their masters treated them harshly, and helots revolted against their masters several times before in 370/69 they won their freedom. Ancient Greece_sentence_226

Education Ancient Greece_section_15

Main article: Education in ancient Greece Ancient Greece_sentence_227

For most of Greek history, education was private, except in Sparta. Ancient Greece_sentence_228

During the Hellenistic period, some city-states established public schools. Ancient Greece_sentence_229

Only wealthy families could afford a teacher. Ancient Greece_sentence_230

Boys learned how to read, write and quote literature. Ancient Greece_sentence_231

They also learned to sing and play one musical instrument and were trained as athletes for military service. Ancient Greece_sentence_232

They studied not for a job but to become an effective citizen. Ancient Greece_sentence_233

Girls also learned to read, write and do simple arithmetic so they could manage the household. Ancient Greece_sentence_234

They almost never received education after childhood. Ancient Greece_sentence_235

Boys went to school at the age of seven, or went to the barracks, if they lived in Sparta. Ancient Greece_sentence_236

The three types of teachings were: grammatistes for arithmetic, kitharistes for music and dancing, and Paedotribae for sports. Ancient Greece_sentence_237

Boys from wealthy families attending the private school lessons were taken care of by a paidagogos, a household slave selected for this task who accompanied the boy during the day. Ancient Greece_sentence_238

Classes were held in teachers' private houses and included reading, writing, mathematics, singing, and playing the lyre and flute. Ancient Greece_sentence_239

When the boy became 12 years old the schooling started to include sports such as wrestling, running, and throwing discus and javelin. Ancient Greece_sentence_240

In Athens some older youths attended academy for the finer disciplines such as culture, sciences, music, and the arts. Ancient Greece_sentence_241

The schooling ended at age 18, followed by military training in the army usually for one or two years. Ancient Greece_sentence_242

Only a small number of boys continued their education after childhood, as in the Spartan agoge. Ancient Greece_sentence_243

A crucial part of a wealthy teenager's education was a mentorship with an elder, which in a few places and times may have included pederasty. Ancient Greece_sentence_244

The teenager learned by watching his mentor talking about politics in the agora, helping him perform his public duties, exercising with him in the gymnasium and attending symposia with him. Ancient Greece_sentence_245

The richest students continued their education by studying with famous teachers. Ancient Greece_sentence_246

Some of Athens' greatest such schools included the Lyceum (the so-called Peripatetic school founded by Aristotle of Stageira) and the Platonic Academy (founded by Plato of Athens). Ancient Greece_sentence_247

The education system of the wealthy ancient Greeks is also called Paideia. Ancient Greece_sentence_248

Economy Ancient Greece_section_16

Main articles: Economy of ancient Greece, Agriculture in ancient Greece, and Slavery in ancient Greece Ancient Greece_sentence_249

At its economic height, in the 5th and 4th centuries BC, ancient Greece was the most advanced economy in the world. Ancient Greece_sentence_250

According to some economic historians, it was one of the most advanced pre-industrial economies. Ancient Greece_sentence_251

This is demonstrated by the average daily wage of the Greek worker which was, in terms of wheat, about 12 kg. Ancient Greece_sentence_252

This was more than 3 times the average daily wage of an Egyptian worker during the Roman period, about 3.75 kg. Ancient Greece_sentence_253

Warfare Ancient Greece_section_17

Main articles: Ancient Greek warfare and Ancient Macedonian army Ancient Greece_sentence_254

At least in the Archaic Period, the fragmentary nature of ancient Greece, with many competing city-states, increased the frequency of conflict but conversely limited the scale of warfare. Ancient Greece_sentence_255

Unable to maintain professional armies, the city-states relied on their own citizens to fight. Ancient Greece_sentence_256

This inevitably reduced the potential duration of campaigns, as citizens would need to return to their own professions (especially in the case of, for example, farmers). Ancient Greece_sentence_257

Campaigns would therefore often be restricted to summer. Ancient Greece_sentence_258

When battles occurred, they were usually set piece and intended to be decisive. Ancient Greece_sentence_259

Casualties were slight compared to later battles, rarely amounting to more than 5% of the losing side, but the slain often included the most prominent citizens and generals who led from the front. Ancient Greece_sentence_260

The scale and scope of warfare in ancient Greece changed dramatically as a result of the Greco-Persian Wars. Ancient Greece_sentence_261

To fight the enormous armies of the Achaemenid Empire was effectively beyond the capabilities of a single city-state. Ancient Greece_sentence_262

The eventual triumph of the Greeks was achieved by alliances of city-states (the exact composition changing over time), allowing the pooling of resources and division of labor. Ancient Greece_sentence_263

Although alliances between city-states occurred before this time, nothing on this scale had been seen before. Ancient Greece_sentence_264

The rise of Athens and Sparta as pre-eminent powers during this conflict led directly to the Peloponnesian War, which saw further development of the nature of warfare, strategy and tactics. Ancient Greece_sentence_265

Fought between leagues of cities dominated by Athens and Sparta, the increased manpower and financial resources increased the scale, and allowed the diversification of warfare. Ancient Greece_sentence_266

Set-piece battles during the Peloponnesian war proved indecisive and instead there was increased reliance on attritionary strategies, naval battle and blockades and sieges. Ancient Greece_sentence_267

These changes greatly increased the number of casualties and the disruption of Greek society. Ancient Greece_sentence_268

Athens owned one of the largest war fleets in ancient Greece. Ancient Greece_sentence_269

It had over 200 triremes each powered by 170 oarsmen who were seated in 3 rows on each side of the ship. Ancient Greece_sentence_270

The city could afford such a large fleet—it had over 34,000 oars men—because it owned a lot of silver mines that were worked by slaves. Ancient Greece_sentence_271

According to Josiah Ober, Greek city-states faced approximately a one-in-three chance of destruction during the archaic and classical period. Ancient Greece_sentence_272

Culture Ancient Greece_section_18

Philosophy Ancient Greece_section_19

Main article: Ancient Greek philosophy Ancient Greece_sentence_273

Ancient Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. Ancient Greece_sentence_274

In many ways, it had an important influence on modern philosophy, as well as modern science. Ancient Greece_sentence_275

Clear unbroken lines of influence lead from ancient Greek and Hellenistic philosophers, to medieval Muslim philosophers and Islamic scientists, to the European Renaissance and Enlightenment, to the secular sciences of the modern day. Ancient Greece_sentence_276

Neither reason nor inquiry began with the Greeks. Ancient Greece_sentence_277

Defining the difference between the Greek quest for knowledge and the quests of the elder civilizations, such as the ancient Egyptians and Babylonians, has long been a topic of study by theorists of civilization. Ancient Greece_sentence_278

Some of the well-known philosophers of ancient Greece were Plato and Socrates, among others. Ancient Greece_sentence_279

They have aided in information about ancient Greek society through writings such as The Republic, by Plato. Ancient Greece_sentence_280

Literature and theatre Ancient Greece_section_20

Main articles: Ancient Greek literature, Ancient Greek comedy, and Theatre of ancient Greece Ancient Greece_sentence_281

The earliest Greek literature was poetry, and was composed for performance rather than private consumption. Ancient Greece_sentence_282

The earliest Greek poet known is Homer, although he was certainly part of an existing tradition of oral poetry. Ancient Greece_sentence_283

Homer's poetry, though it was developed around the same time that the Greeks developed writing, would have been composed orally; the first poet to certainly compose their work in writing was Archilochus, a lyric poet from the mid-seventh century BC. Ancient Greece_sentence_284

tragedy developed, around the end of the archaic period, taking elements from across the pre-existing genres of late archaic poetry. Ancient Greece_sentence_285

Towards the beginning of the classical period, comedy began to develop—the earliest date associated with the genre is 486 BC, when a competition for comedy became an official event at the City Dionysia in Athens, though the first preserved ancient comedy is Aristophanes' Acharnians, produced in 425. Ancient Greece_sentence_286

Like poetry, Greek prose had its origins in the archaic period, and the earliest writers of Greek philosophy, history, and medical literature all date to the sixth century BC. Ancient Greece_sentence_287

Prose first emerged as the writing style adopted by the presocratic philosophers Anaximander and Anaximenes—though Thales of Miletus, considered the first Greek philosopher, apparently wrote nothing. Ancient Greece_sentence_288

Prose as a genre reached maturity in the classical era, and the major Greek prose genres—philosophy, history, rhetoric, and dialogue—developed in this period. Ancient Greece_sentence_289

The Hellenistic period saw the literary centre of the Greek world move from Athens, where it had been in the classical period, to Alexandria. Ancient Greece_sentence_290

At the same time, other Hellenistic kings such as the Antigonids and the Attalids were patrons of scholarship and literature, turning Pella and Pergamon respectively into cultural centres. Ancient Greece_sentence_291

It was thanks to this cultural patronage by Hellenistic kings, and especially the Museum at Alexandria, which ensured that so much ancient Greek literature has survived. Ancient Greece_sentence_292

The Library of Alexandria, part of the Museum, had the previously-unenvisaged aim of collecting together copies of all known authors in Greek. Ancient Greece_sentence_293

Almost all of the surviving non-technical Hellenistic literature is poetry, and Hellenistic poetry tended to be highly intellectual, blending different genres and traditions, and avoiding linear narratives. Ancient Greece_sentence_294

The Hellenistic period also saw a shift in the ways literature was consumed—while in the archaic and classical periods literature had typically been experienced in public performance, in the Hellenistic period it was more commonly read privately. Ancient Greece_sentence_295

At the same time, Hellenistic poets began to write for private, rather than public, consumption. Ancient Greece_sentence_296

With Octavian's victory at Actium in 31 BC, Rome began to become a major centre of Greek literature, as important Greek authors such as Strabo and Dionysius of Halicarnassus came to Rome. Ancient Greece_sentence_297

The period of greatest innovation in Greek literature under Rome was the "long second century" from approximately AD 80 to around AD 230. Ancient Greece_sentence_298

This innovation was especially marked in prose, with the development of the novel and a revival of prominence for display oratory both dating to this period. Ancient Greece_sentence_299

Music and dance Ancient Greece_section_21

Main article: Music of ancient Greece Ancient Greece_sentence_300

Music was present almost universally in Greek society, from marriages and funerals to religious ceremonies, theatre, folk music and the ballad-like reciting of epic poetry. Ancient Greece_sentence_301

There are significant fragments of actual Greek musical notation as well as many literary references to ancient Greek music. Ancient Greece_sentence_302

Greek art depicts musical instruments and dance. Ancient Greece_sentence_303

The word music derives from the name of the Muses, the daughters of Zeus who were patron goddesses of the arts. Ancient Greece_sentence_304

Science and technology Ancient Greece_section_22

Main articles: List of Graeco-Roman geographers, Greek astronomy, Greek mathematics, Ancient Greek medicine, and Ancient Greek technology Ancient Greece_sentence_305

Ancient Greek mathematics contributed many important developments to the field of mathematics, including the basic rules of geometry, the idea of formal mathematical proof, and discoveries in number theory, mathematical analysis, applied mathematics, and approached close to establishing integral calculus. Ancient Greece_sentence_306

The discoveries of several Greek mathematicians, including Pythagoras, Euclid, and Archimedes, are still used in mathematical teaching today. Ancient Greece_sentence_307

The Greeks developed astronomy, which they treated as a branch of mathematics, to a highly sophisticated level. Ancient Greece_sentence_308

The first geometrical, three-dimensional models to explain the apparent motion of the planets were developed in the 4th century BC by Eudoxus of Cnidus and Callippus of Cyzicus. Ancient Greece_sentence_309

Their younger contemporary Heraclides Ponticus proposed that the Earth rotates around its axis. Ancient Greece_sentence_310

In the 3rd century BC Aristarchus of Samos was the first to suggest a heliocentric system. Ancient Greece_sentence_311

Archimedes in his treatise The Sand Reckoner revives Aristarchus' hypothesis that "the fixed stars and the Sun remain unmoved, while the Earth revolves about the Sun on the circumference of a circle". Ancient Greece_sentence_312

Otherwise, only fragmentary descriptions of Aristarchus' idea survive. Ancient Greece_sentence_313

Eratosthenes, using the angles of shadows created at widely separated regions, estimated the circumference of the Earth with great accuracy. Ancient Greece_sentence_314

In the 2nd century BC Hipparchus of Nicea made a number of contributions, including the first measurement of precession and the compilation of the first star catalog in which he proposed the modern system of apparent magnitudes. Ancient Greece_sentence_315

The Antikythera mechanism, a device for calculating the movements of planets, dates from about 80 BC, and was the first ancestor of the astronomical computer. Ancient Greece_sentence_316

It was discovered in an ancient shipwreck off the Greek island of Antikythera, between Kythera and Crete. Ancient Greece_sentence_317

The device became famous for its use of a differential gear, previously believed to have been invented in the 16th century, and the miniaturization and complexity of its parts, comparable to a clock made in the 18th century. Ancient Greece_sentence_318

The original mechanism is displayed in the Bronze collection of the National Archaeological Museum of Athens, accompanied by a replica. Ancient Greece_sentence_319

The ancient Greeks also made important discoveries in the medical field. Ancient Greece_sentence_320

Hippocrates was a physician of the Classical period, and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. Ancient Greece_sentence_321

He is referred to as the "father of medicine" in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic school of medicine. Ancient Greece_sentence_322

This intellectual school revolutionized medicine in ancient Greece, establishing it as a discipline distinct from other fields that it had traditionally been associated with (notably theurgy and philosophy), thus making medicine a profession. Ancient Greece_sentence_323

Art and architecture Ancient Greece_section_23

Main articles: Ancient Greek art and Ancient Greek architecture Ancient Greece_sentence_324

The art of ancient Greece has exercised an enormous influence on the culture of many countries from ancient times to the present day, particularly in the areas of sculpture and architecture. Ancient Greece_sentence_325

In the West, the art of the Roman Empire was largely derived from Greek models. Ancient Greece_sentence_326

In the East, Alexander the Great's conquests initiated several centuries of exchange between Greek, Central Asian and Indian cultures, resulting in Greco-Buddhist art, with ramifications as far as Japan. Ancient Greece_sentence_327

Following the Renaissance in Europe, the humanist aesthetic and the high technical standards of Greek art inspired generations of European artists. Ancient Greece_sentence_328

Well into the 19th century, the classical tradition derived from Greece dominated the art of the western world. Ancient Greece_sentence_329

Religion Ancient Greece_section_24

Main article: Ancient Greek religion Ancient Greece_sentence_330

Religion was a central part of ancient Greek life. Ancient Greece_sentence_331

Though the Greeks of different cities and tribes worshipped similar gods, religious practices were not uniform and the gods were thought of differently in different places. Ancient Greece_sentence_332

The Greeks were polytheistic, worshipping many gods, but as early as the sixth century BC a pantheon of twelve Olympians began to develop. Ancient Greece_sentence_333

Greek religion was influenced by the practices of the Greeks' near eastern neighbours at least as early as the archaic period, and by the Hellenistic period this influence was seen in both directions. Ancient Greece_sentence_334

The most important religious act in ancient Greece was animal sacrifice, most commonly of sheep and goats. Ancient Greece_sentence_335

Sacrifice was accompanied by public prayer, and prayer and hymns were themselves a major part of ancient Greek religious life. Ancient Greece_sentence_336

Legacy Ancient Greece_section_25

Further information: Classics Ancient Greece_sentence_337

The civilization of ancient Greece has been immensely influential on language, politics, educational systems, philosophy, science, and the arts. Ancient Greece_sentence_338

It became the Leitkultur of the Roman Empire to the point of marginalizing native Italic traditions. Ancient Greece_sentence_339

As Horace put it, Ancient Greece_sentence_340

Ancient Greece_description_list_0

  • Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit et artis / intulit agresti Latio (Epistulae 2.1.156f.)Ancient Greece_item_0_0
  • "Captive Greece took captive her uncivilised conqueror and instilled her arts in rustic Latium."Ancient Greece_item_0_1

Via the Roman Empire, Greek culture came to be foundational to Western culture in general. Ancient Greece_sentence_341

The Byzantine Empire inherited Classical Greek-Hellenistic culture directly, without Latin intermediation, and the preservation of classical Greek learning in medieval Byzantine tradition further exerted strong influence on the Slavs and later on the Islamic Golden Age and the Western European Renaissance. Ancient Greece_sentence_342

A modern revival of Classical Greek learning took place in the Neoclassicism movement in 18th- and 19th-century Europe and the Americas. Ancient Greece_sentence_343

See also Ancient Greece_section_26

Ancient Greece_unordered_list_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient Greece.