Ancient Rome

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This article is about the history of Rome in antiquity. Ancient Rome_sentence_0

For a general overview, see Rome. Ancient Rome_sentence_1

For other uses, see Ancient Rome (disambiguation). Ancient Rome_sentence_2

Ancient Rome_table_infobox_0

Ancient Rome

RomaAncient Rome_header_cell_0_0_0

CapitalAncient Rome_header_cell_0_1_0 Rome, several others during the late Empire, notably Constantinople and Ravenna.Ancient Rome_cell_0_1_1
Common languagesAncient Rome_header_cell_0_2_0 LatinAncient Rome_cell_0_2_1
GovernmentAncient Rome_header_cell_0_3_0 Kingdom (753–509 BC)

Republic (509–27 BC) Empire (27 BC–476 AD)Ancient Rome_cell_0_3_1

Historical eraAncient Rome_header_cell_0_4_0 Ancient historyAncient Rome_cell_0_4_1
Founding of RomeAncient Rome_header_cell_0_5_0 753 BCAncient Rome_cell_0_5_1
Overthrow of Tarquin the ProudAncient Rome_header_cell_0_6_0 509 BCAncient Rome_cell_0_6_1
Octavian proclaimed AugustusAncient Rome_header_cell_0_7_0 27 BCAncient Rome_cell_0_7_1
Collapse of the Western Roman EmpireAncient Rome_header_cell_0_8_0 476 ADAncient Rome_cell_0_8_1

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom (753 BC–509 BC), Roman Republic (509 BC–27 BC) and Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD) until the fall of the western empire. Ancient Rome_sentence_3

The civilisation began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, traditionally dated to 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. Ancient Rome_sentence_4

The civilization was led and ruled by the Romans, alternately considered an ethnic group or a nationality. Ancient Rome_sentence_5

The Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population at the time) and covering 5 million square kilometres (1.9 million square miles) at its height in AD 117. Ancient Rome_sentence_6

In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from an elective monarchy to a democratic classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic semi-elective military dictatorship during the Empire. Ancient Rome_sentence_7

Through conquest, cultural, and linguistic assimilation, at its height it controlled the North African coast, Egypt, Southern Europe, and most of Western Europe, the Balkans, Crimea and much of the Middle East, including Anatolia, Levant and parts of Mesopotamia and Arabia. Ancient Rome_sentence_8

It is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Rome_sentence_9

Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, religion, society, technology, law, politics, government, warfare, art, literature, architecture and engineering. Ancient Rome_sentence_10

Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France. Ancient Rome_sentence_11

It achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments, palaces, and public facilities. Ancient Rome_sentence_12

The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. Ancient Rome_sentence_13

In this series of wars, Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily; took Hispania (modern Spain and Portugal); and destroyed the city of Carthage in 146 BC, giving Rome supremacy in the Mediterranean. Ancient Rome_sentence_14

By the end of the Republic (27 BC), Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa. Ancient Rome_sentence_15

The Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus. Ancient Rome_sentence_16

Seven-hundred and twenty-one years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with the first struggle against Parthia. Ancient Rome_sentence_17

It would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Ancient Rome_sentence_18

Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak. Ancient Rome_sentence_19

It stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Ancient Rome_sentence_20

Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Ancient Rome_sentence_21

Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century before some stability was restored in the Tetrarchy phase of imperial rule. Ancient Rome_sentence_22

Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent barbarian kingdoms in the 5th century. Ancient Rome_sentence_23

The eastern part of the empire remained a power through the Middle Ages until its fall in 1453 AD. Ancient Rome_sentence_24

Founding myth Ancient Rome_section_0

Main article: Founding of Rome Ancient Rome_sentence_25

According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC on the banks of the river Tiber in central Italy, by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, and who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa. Ancient Rome_sentence_26

King Numitor was deposed by his brother, Amulius, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins. Ancient Rome_sentence_27

Since Rhea Silvia had been raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine. Ancient Rome_sentence_28

The new king, Amulius, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so he ordered them to be drowned. Ancient Rome_sentence_29

A she-wolf (or a shepherd's wife in some accounts) saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor. Ancient Rome_sentence_30

The twins then founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the Roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about who was going to rule or give his name to the city. Ancient Rome_sentence_31

Romulus became the source of the city's name. Ancient Rome_sentence_32

In order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent, exiled, and unwanted. Ancient Rome_sentence_33

This caused a problem, in that Rome came to have a large male population but was bereft of women. Ancient Rome_sentence_34

Romulus visited neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables he was refused. Ancient Rome_sentence_35

Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins with the Sabines. Ancient Rome_sentence_36

Another legend, recorded by Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus, says that Prince Aeneas led a group of Trojans on a sea voyage to found a new Troy, since the original was destroyed at the end of the Trojan War. Ancient Rome_sentence_37

After a long time in rough seas, they landed on the banks of the Tiber River. Ancient Rome_sentence_38

Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, but the women who were traveling with them did not want to leave. Ancient Rome_sentence_39

One woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent their leaving. Ancient Rome_sentence_40

At first, the men were angry with Roma, but they soon realized that they were in the ideal place to settle. Ancient Rome_sentence_41

They named the settlement after the woman who torched their ships. Ancient Rome_sentence_42

The Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the Aeneid, where the Trojan prince Aeneas is destined by the gods to found a new Troy. Ancient Rome_sentence_43

In the epic, the women also refuse to go back to the sea, but they were not left on the Tiber. Ancient Rome_sentence_44

After reaching Italy, Aeneas, who wanted to marry Lavinia, was forced to wage war with her former suitor, Turnus. Ancient Rome_sentence_45

According to the poem, the Alban kings were descended from Aeneas, and thus Romulus, the founder of Rome, was his descendant. Ancient Rome_sentence_46

Kingdom Ancient Rome_section_1

Main article: Roman Kingdom Ancient Rome_sentence_47

The city of Rome grew from settlements around a ford on the river Tiber, a crossroads of traffic and trade. Ancient Rome_sentence_48

According to archaeological evidence, the village of Rome was probably founded some time in the 8th century BC, though it may go back as far as the 10th century BC, by members of the Latin tribe of Italy, on the top of the Palatine Hill. Ancient Rome_sentence_49

The Etruscans, who had previously settled to the north in Etruria, seem to have established political control in the region by the late 7th century BC, forming an aristocratic and monarchical elite. Ancient Rome_sentence_50

The Etruscans apparently lost power by the late 6th century BC, and at this point, the original Latin and Sabine tribes reinvented their government by creating a republic, with much greater restraints on the ability of rulers to exercise power. Ancient Rome_sentence_51

Roman tradition and archaeological evidence point to a complex within the Forum Romanum as the seat of power for the king and the beginnings of the religious center there as well. Ancient Rome_sentence_52

Numa Pompilius the second king of Rome, succeeding Romulus, began Rome's building projects with his royal palace the Regia and the complex of the Vestal virgins. Ancient Rome_sentence_53

Republic Ancient Rome_section_2

Main article: Roman Republic Ancient Rome_sentence_54

According to tradition and later writers such as Livy, the Roman Republic was established around 509 BC, when the last of the seven kings of Rome, Tarquin the Proud, was deposed by Lucius Junius Brutus and a system based on annually elected magistrates and various representative assemblies was established. Ancient Rome_sentence_55

A constitution set a series of checks and balances, and a separation of powers. Ancient Rome_sentence_56

The most important magistrates were the two consuls, who together exercised executive authority such as imperium, or military command. Ancient Rome_sentence_57

The consuls had to work with the senate, which was initially an advisory council of the ranking nobility, or patricians, but grew in size and power. Ancient Rome_sentence_58

Other magistrates of the Republic include tribunes, quaestors, aediles, praetors and censors. Ancient Rome_sentence_59

The magistracies were originally restricted to patricians, but were later opened to common people, or plebeians. Ancient Rome_sentence_60

Republican voting assemblies included the comitia centuriata (centuriate assembly), which voted on matters of war and peace and elected men to the most important offices, and the comitia tributa (tribal assembly), which elected less important offices. Ancient Rome_sentence_61

In the 4th century BC, Rome had come under attack by the Gauls, who now extended their power in the Italian peninsula beyond the Po Valley and through Etruria. Ancient Rome_sentence_62

On 16 July 390 BC, a Gallic army under the leadership of tribal chieftain Brennus, met the Romans on the banks of the Allia River ten miles north of Rome. Ancient Rome_sentence_63

Brennus defeated the Romans, and the Gauls marched to Rome. Ancient Rome_sentence_64

Most Romans had fled the city, but some barricaded themselves upon the Capitoline Hill for a last stand. Ancient Rome_sentence_65

The Gauls looted and burned the city, then laid siege to the Capitoline Hill. Ancient Rome_sentence_66

The siege lasted seven months. Ancient Rome_sentence_67

The Gauls then agreed to give the Romans peace in exchange for 1,000 pounds (450 kg) of gold. Ancient Rome_sentence_68

According to later legend, the Roman supervising the weighing noticed that the Gauls were using false scales. Ancient Rome_sentence_69

The Romans then took up arms and defeated the Gauls. Ancient Rome_sentence_70

Their victorious general Camillus remarked "With iron, not with gold, Rome buys her freedom." Ancient Rome_sentence_71

The Romans gradually subdued the other peoples on the Italian peninsula, including the Etruscans. Ancient Rome_sentence_72

The last threat to Roman hegemony in Italy came when Tarentum, a major Greek colony, enlisted the aid of Pyrrhus of Epirus in 281 BC, but this effort failed as well. Ancient Rome_sentence_73

The Romans secured their conquests by founding Roman colonies in strategic areas, thereby establishing stable control over the region of Italy they had conquered. Ancient Rome_sentence_74

Punic Wars Ancient Rome_section_3

Main article: Punic Wars Ancient Rome_sentence_75

See also: Roman conquest of the Iberian peninsula Ancient Rome_sentence_76

Marius and Sulla Ancient Rome_section_4

Gaius Marius, a novus homo, who started his political career with the help of the powerful Metelli family soon become a leader of the Republic, holding the first of his seven consulships (an unprecedented number) in 107 BC by arguing that his former patron Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus was not able to defeat and capture the Numidian king Jugurtha. Ancient Rome_sentence_77

Marius then started his military reform: in his recruitment to fight Jugurtha, he levied the very poor (an innovation), and many landless men entered the army; this was the seed of securing loyalty of the army to the General in command. Ancient Rome_sentence_78

Lucius Cornelius Sulla was born into a poor family that used to be a patrician family. Ancient Rome_sentence_79

He had a good education but became poor when his father died and left none of his will. Ancient Rome_sentence_80

Sulla joined the theater and found many friends there, prior to becoming a general in the Jugurthine war. Ancient Rome_sentence_81

At this time, Marius began his quarrel with Sulla: Marius, who wanted to capture Jugurtha, asked Bocchus, son-in-law of Jugurtha, to hand him over. Ancient Rome_sentence_82

As Marius failed, Sulla, a general of Marius at that time, in a dangerous enterprise, went himself to Bocchus and convinced Bocchus to hand Jugurtha over to him. Ancient Rome_sentence_83

This was very provocative to Marius, since many of his enemies were encouraging Sulla to oppose Marius. Ancient Rome_sentence_84

Despite this, Marius was elected for five consecutive consulships from 104 to 100 BC, as Rome needed a military leader to defeat the Cimbri and the Teutones, who were threatening Rome. Ancient Rome_sentence_85

After Marius's retirement, Rome had a brief peace, during which the Italian socii ("allies" in Latin) requested Roman citizenship and voting rights. Ancient Rome_sentence_86

The reformist Marcus Livius Drusus supported their legal process but was assassinated, and the socii revolted against the Romans in the Social War. Ancient Rome_sentence_87

At one point both consuls were killed; Marius was appointed to command the army together with Lucius Julius Caesar and Sulla. Ancient Rome_sentence_88

By the end of the Social War, Marius and Sulla were the premier military men in Rome and their partisans were in conflict, both sides jostling for power. Ancient Rome_sentence_89

In 88 BC, Sulla was elected for his first consulship and his first assignment was to defeat Mithridates VI of Pontus, whose intentions were to conquer the Eastern part of the Roman territories. Ancient Rome_sentence_90

However, Marius's partisans managed his installation to the military command, defying Sulla and the Senate, and this caused Sulla's wrath. Ancient Rome_sentence_91

To consolidate his own power, Sulla conducted a surprising and illegal action: he marched to Rome with his legions, killing all those who showed support to Marius's cause and impaling their heads in the Roman Forum. Ancient Rome_sentence_92

In the following year, 87 BC, Marius, who had fled at Sulla's march, returned to Rome while Sulla was campaigning in Greece. Ancient Rome_sentence_93

He seized power along with the consul Lucius Cornelius Cinna and killed the other consul, Gnaeus Octavius, achieving his seventh consulship. Ancient Rome_sentence_94

In an attempt to raise Sulla's anger, Marius and Cinna revenged their partisans by conducting a massacre. Ancient Rome_sentence_95

Marius died in 86 BC, due to age and poor health, just a few months after seizing power. Ancient Rome_sentence_96

Cinna exercised absolute power until his death in 84 BC. Ancient Rome_sentence_97

Sulla after returning from his Eastern campaigns, had a free path to reestablish his own power. Ancient Rome_sentence_98

In 83 BC he made his second march in Rome and began a time of terror: thousands of nobles, knights and senators were executed. Ancient Rome_sentence_99

Sulla also held two dictatorships and one more consulship, which began the crisis and decline of Roman Republic. Ancient Rome_sentence_100

Caesar and the First Triumvirate Ancient Rome_section_5

Octavian and the Second Triumvirate Ancient Rome_section_6

Caesar's assassination caused political and social turmoil in Rome; without the dictator's leadership, the city was ruled by his friend and colleague, Marcus Antonius. Ancient Rome_sentence_101

Soon afterward, Octavius, whom Caesar adopted through his will, arrived in Rome. Ancient Rome_sentence_102

Octavian (historians regard Octavius as Octavian due to the Roman naming conventions) tried to align himself with the Caesarian faction. Ancient Rome_sentence_103

In 43 BC, along with Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, Caesar's best friend, he legally established the Second Triumvirate. Ancient Rome_sentence_104

This alliance would last for five years. Ancient Rome_sentence_105

Upon its formation, 130–300 senators were executed, and their property was confiscated, due to their supposed support for the Liberatores. Ancient Rome_sentence_106

In 42 BC, the Senate deified Caesar as Divus Iulius; Octavian thus became Divi filius, the son of the deified. Ancient Rome_sentence_107

In the same year, Octavian and Antony defeated both Caesar's assassins and the leaders of the Liberatores, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus, in the Battle of Philippi. Ancient Rome_sentence_108

The Second Triumvirate was marked by the proscriptions of many senators and equites: after a revolt led by Antony's brother Lucius Antonius, more than 300 senators and equites involved were executed on the anniversary of the Ides of March, although Lucius was spared. Ancient Rome_sentence_109

The Triumvirate proscribed several important men, including Cicero, whom Antony hated; Quintus Tullius Cicero, the younger brother of the orator; and Lucius Julius Caesar, cousin and friend of the acclaimed general, for his support of Cicero. Ancient Rome_sentence_110

However, Lucius was pardoned, perhaps because his sister Julia had intervened for him. Ancient Rome_sentence_111

The Triumvirate divided the Empire among the triumvirs: Lepidus was given charge of Africa, Antony, the eastern provinces, and Octavian remained in Italia and controlled Hispania and Gaul. Ancient Rome_sentence_112

The Second Triumvirate expired in 38 BC but was renewed for five more years. Ancient Rome_sentence_113

However, the relationship between Octavian and Antony had deteriorated, and Lepidus was forced to retire in 36 BC after betraying Octavian in Sicily. Ancient Rome_sentence_114

By the end of the Triumvirate, Antony was living in Ptolemaic Egypt, an independent and rich kingdom ruled by Antony's lover, Cleopatra VII. Ancient Rome_sentence_115

Antony's affair with Cleopatra was seen as an act of treason, since she was queen of another country. Ancient Rome_sentence_116

Additionally, Antony adopted a lifestyle considered too extravagant and Hellenistic for a Roman statesman. Ancient Rome_sentence_117

Following Antony's Donations of Alexandria, which gave to Cleopatra the title of "Queen of Kings", and to Antony's and Cleopatra's children the regal titles to the newly conquered Eastern territories, war between Octavian and Antony broke out. Ancient Rome_sentence_118

Octavian annihilated Egyptian forces in the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. Ancient Rome_sentence_119

Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide. Ancient Rome_sentence_120

Now Egypt was conquered by the Roman Empire, and for the Romans, a new era had begun. Ancient Rome_sentence_121

Empire – the Principate Ancient Rome_section_7

Main article: Roman Empire Ancient Rome_sentence_122

In 27 BC and at the age of 36, Octavian was the sole Roman leader. Ancient Rome_sentence_123

In that year, he took the name Augustus. Ancient Rome_sentence_124

That event is usually taken by historians as the beginning of Roman Empire—although Rome was an "imperial" state since 146 BC, when Carthage was razed by Scipio Aemilianus and Greece was conquered by Lucius Mummius. Ancient Rome_sentence_125

Officially, the government was republican, but Augustus assumed absolute powers. Ancient Rome_sentence_126

His reform of the government brought about a two-century period colloquially referred to by Romans as the Pax Romana. Ancient Rome_sentence_127

Julio-Claudian dynasty Ancient Rome_section_8

The Julio-Claudian dynasty was established by Augustus. Ancient Rome_sentence_128

The emperors of this dynasty were: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero. Ancient Rome_sentence_129

The dynasty is so-called due to the gens Julia, family of Augustus, and the gens Claudia, family of Tiberius. Ancient Rome_sentence_130

The Julio-Claudians started the destruction of republican values, but on the other hand, they boosted Rome's status as the central power in the world. Ancient Rome_sentence_131

While Caligula and Nero are usually remembered as dysfunctional emperors in popular culture, Augustus and Claudius are remembered as emperors who were successful in politics and the military. Ancient Rome_sentence_132

This dynasty instituted imperial tradition in Rome and frustrated any attempt to reestablish a Republic. Ancient Rome_sentence_133

Augustus Ancient Rome_section_9

Augustus gathered almost all the republican powers under his official title, princeps: he had powers of consul, princeps senatus, aedile, censor and tribune—including tribunician sacrosanctity. Ancient Rome_sentence_134

This was the base of an emperor's power. Ancient Rome_sentence_135

Augustus also styled himself as Imperator Gaius Julius Caesar divi filius, "Commander Gaius Julius Caesar, son of the deified one". Ancient Rome_sentence_136

With this title he not only boasted his familial link to deified Julius Caesar, but the use of Imperator signified a permanent link to the Roman tradition of victory. Ancient Rome_sentence_137

He also diminished the Senatorial class influence in politics by boosting the equestrian class. Ancient Rome_sentence_138

The senators lost their right to rule certain provinces, like Egypt; since the governor of that province was directly nominated by the emperor. Ancient Rome_sentence_139

The creation of the Praetorian Guard and his reforms in the military, creating a standing army with a fixed size of 28 legions, ensured his total control over the army. Ancient Rome_sentence_140

Compared with the Second Triumvirate's epoch, Augustus' reign as princeps was very peaceful. Ancient Rome_sentence_141

This peace and richness (that was granted by the agrarian province of Egypt) led the people and the nobles of Rome to support Augustus increasing his strength in political affairs. Ancient Rome_sentence_142

In military activity, Augustus was absent at battles. Ancient Rome_sentence_143

His generals were responsible for the field command; gaining such commanders as Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Nero Claudius Drusus and Germanicus much respect from the populace and the legions. Ancient Rome_sentence_144

Augustus intended to extend the Roman Empire to the whole known world, and in his reign, Rome conquered Cantabria, Aquitania, Raetia, Dalmatia, Illyricum and Pannonia. Ancient Rome_sentence_145

Under Augustus's reign, Roman literature grew steadily in what is known as the Golden Age of Latin Literature. Ancient Rome_sentence_146

Poets like Virgil, Horace, Ovid and Rufus developed a rich literature, and were close friends of Augustus. Ancient Rome_sentence_147

Along with Maecenas, he stimulated patriotic poems, as Virgil's epic Aeneid and also historiographical works, like those of Livy. Ancient Rome_sentence_148

The works of this literary age lasted through Roman times, and are classics. Ancient Rome_sentence_149

Augustus also continued the shifts on the calendar promoted by Caesar, and the month of August is named after him. Ancient Rome_sentence_150

Augustus brought a peaceful and thriving era to Rome, known as Pax Augusta or Pax Romana. Ancient Rome_sentence_151

Augustus died in 14 AD, but the empire's glory continued after his era. Ancient Rome_sentence_152

From Tiberius to Nero Ancient Rome_section_10

The Julio-Claudians continued to rule Rome after Augustus' death and remained in power until the death of Nero in 68 AD. Ancient Rome_sentence_153

Augustus' favorites for succeeding him were already dead in his senescence: his nephew Marcellus died in 23 BC, his friend and military commander Agrippa in 12 BC and his grandson Gaius Caesar in 4 AD. Ancient Rome_sentence_154

Influenced by his wife, Livia Drusilla, Augustus appointed her son from another marriage, Tiberius, as his heir. Ancient Rome_sentence_155

The Senate agreed with the succession, and granted to Tiberius the same titles and honors once granted to Augustus: the title of princeps and Pater patriae, and the Civic Crown. Ancient Rome_sentence_156

However, Tiberius was not an enthusiast of political affairs: after agreement with the Senate, he retired to Capri in 26 AD, and left control of the city of Rome in the hands of the praetorian prefect Sejanus (until 31 AD) and Macro (from 31 to 37 AD). Ancient Rome_sentence_157

Tiberius was regarded as an evil and melancholic man, who may have ordered the murder of his relatives, the popular general Germanicus in 19 AD, and his own son Drusus Julius Caesar in 23 AD. Ancient Rome_sentence_158

Tiberius died (or was killed) in 37 AD. Ancient Rome_sentence_159

The male line of the Julio-Claudians was limited to Tiberius' nephew Claudius, his grandson Tiberius Gemellus and his grand-nephew Caligula. Ancient Rome_sentence_160

As Gemellus was still a child, Caligula was chosen to rule the Empire. Ancient Rome_sentence_161

He was a popular leader in the first half of his reign, but became a crude and insane tyrant in his years controlling government. Ancient Rome_sentence_162

Suetonius states that he committed incest with his sisters, killed some men just for amusement and nominated a horse for a consulship. Ancient Rome_sentence_163

The Praetorian Guard murdered Caligula four years after the death of Tiberius, and, with belated support from the senators, proclaimed his uncle Claudius as the new emperor. Ancient Rome_sentence_164

Claudius was not as authoritarian as Tiberius and Caligula. Ancient Rome_sentence_165

Claudius conquered Lycia and Thrace; his most important deed was the beginning of the conquest of Britannia. Ancient Rome_sentence_166

Claudius was poisoned by his wife, Agrippina the Younger in 54 AD. Ancient Rome_sentence_167

His heir was Nero, son of Agrippina and her former husband, since Claudius' son Britannicus had not reached manhood upon his father's death. Ancient Rome_sentence_168

Nero sent his general, Suetonius Paulinus, to invade modern-day Wales, where he encountered stiff resistance. Ancient Rome_sentence_169

The Celts in modern-day Wales were independent, tough and resistant to tax collectors and fought Paulinus, as he battled his way across from East to West. Ancient Rome_sentence_170

It took him a long time to reach the North West coast and in 60 AD he finally crossed the Menai Strait to the sacred island of Mona (modern-day Anglesey), the last stronghold of the Druids. Ancient Rome_sentence_171

His soldiers attacked the island and massacred the Druids, men, women and children, destroyed the shrine and the sacred groves and threw many of the sacred standing stones into the sea. Ancient Rome_sentence_172

While Paulinus and his troops were massacring Druids in Mona, the tribes of modern-day East Anglia staged a revolt led by queen Boadicea of the Iceni. Ancient Rome_sentence_173

The rebels sacked and burned Camulodunum, Londinium and Verulamium (modern-day Colchester, London and St Albans respectively) before they were crushed by Paulinus. Ancient Rome_sentence_174

Boadicea, like Cleopatra before her, committed suicide to avoid the disgrace of being paraded in triumph in Rome. Ancient Rome_sentence_175

The fault of Nero in this rebellion is debatable but there was certainly an impact (both positive and negative) upon the prestige of his regime. Ancient Rome_sentence_176

Nero is widely known as the first persecutor of Christians and for the Great Fire of Rome, rumoured to have been started by the emperor himself. Ancient Rome_sentence_177

In 59 AD he murdered his mother and in 62 AD, his wife Claudia Octavia. Ancient Rome_sentence_178

Never very stable, he allowed his advisers to run the government while he slid into debauchery, excess, and madness. Ancient Rome_sentence_179

He was married three times, and had numerous affairs with both men and women, and, according to some rumors, even his mother. Ancient Rome_sentence_180

A conspiracy against Nero in 65 AD under Calpurnius Piso failed, but in 68 AD the armies under Julius Vindex in Gaul and Servius Sulpicius Galba in modern-day Spain revolted. Ancient Rome_sentence_181

Deserted by the Praetorian Guards and condemned to death by the senate, Nero killed himself. Ancient Rome_sentence_182

Flavian dynasty Ancient Rome_section_11

The Flavians were the second dynasty to rule Rome. Ancient Rome_sentence_183

By 68 AD, year of Nero's death, there was no chance of return to the old and traditional Roman Republic, thus a new emperor had to rise. Ancient Rome_sentence_184

After the turmoil in the Year of the Four Emperors, Titus Flavius Vespasianus (anglicized as Vespasian) took control of the Empire and established a new dynasty. Ancient Rome_sentence_185

Under the Flavians, Rome continued its expansion, and the state remained secure. Ancient Rome_sentence_186

The most significant military campaign undertaken during the Flavian period, was the siege and destruction of Jerusalem in 70 by Titus. Ancient Rome_sentence_187

The destruction of the city was the culmination of the Roman campaign in Judea following the Jewish uprising of 66. Ancient Rome_sentence_188

The Second Temple was completely demolished, after which Titus's soldiers proclaimed him imperator in honor of the victory. Ancient Rome_sentence_189

Jerusalem was sacked and much of the population killed or dispersed. Ancient Rome_sentence_190

Josephus claims that 1,100,000 people were killed during the siege, of which a majority were Jewish. Ancient Rome_sentence_191

97,000 were captured and enslaved, including Simon bar Giora and John of Giscala. Ancient Rome_sentence_192

Many fled to areas around the Mediterranean. Ancient Rome_sentence_193

Titus reportedly refused to accept a wreath of victory, as there is "no merit in vanquishing people forsaken by their own God". Ancient Rome_sentence_194

Vespasian Ancient Rome_section_12

Vespasian was a general under Claudius and Nero. Ancient Rome_sentence_195

He fought as a commander in the First Jewish-Roman War along with his son Titus. Ancient Rome_sentence_196

Following the turmoil of the Year of the Four Emperors, in 69 AD, four emperors were enthroned: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and, lastly, Vespasian, who crushed Vitellius' forces and became emperor. Ancient Rome_sentence_197

He reconstructed many buildings which were uncompleted, like a statue of Apollo and the temple of Divus Claudius ("the deified Claudius"), both initiated by Nero. Ancient Rome_sentence_198

Buildings once destroyed by the Great Fire of Rome were rebuilt, and he revitalized the Capitol. Ancient Rome_sentence_199

Vespasian also started the construction of the Flavian Amphitheater, more commonly known as the Colosseum. Ancient Rome_sentence_200

The historians Josephus and Pliny the Elder wrote their works during Vespasian's reign. Ancient Rome_sentence_201

Vespasian was Josephus' sponsor and Pliny dedicated his Naturalis Historia to Titus, son of Vespasian. Ancient Rome_sentence_202

Vespasian sent legions to defend the eastern frontier in Cappadocia, extended the occupation in Britannia (modern-day England, Wales and southern Scotland) and reformed the tax system. Ancient Rome_sentence_203

He died in 79 AD. Ancient Rome_sentence_204

Titus and Domitian Ancient Rome_section_13

Titus had a short-lived rule; he was emperor from 79 to 81 AD. Ancient Rome_sentence_205

He finished the Flavian Amphitheater, which was constructed with war spoils from the First Jewish-Roman War, and promoted games celebrating the victory over the Jews that lasted for a hundred days. Ancient Rome_sentence_206

These games included gladiatorial combats, chariot races and a sensational mock naval battle on the flooded grounds of the Colosseum. Ancient Rome_sentence_207

Titus died of fever in 81 AD, and was succeeded by his brother Domitian. Ancient Rome_sentence_208

As emperor, Domitian assumed totalitarian characteristics, thought he could be a new Augustus, and tried to make a personal cult of himself. Ancient Rome_sentence_209

Domitian ruled for fifteen years, and his reign was marked by his attempts to compare himself to the gods. Ancient Rome_sentence_210

He constructed at least two temples in honour of Jupiter, the supreme deity in Roman religion. Ancient Rome_sentence_211

He also liked to be called "Dominus et Deus" ("Master and God"). Ancient Rome_sentence_212

Nerva–Antonine dynasty Ancient Rome_section_14

The Nerva–Antonine dynasty from 96 AD to 192 AD was the rule of the emperors Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus, and Commodus. Ancient Rome_sentence_213

During their rule, Rome reached its territorial and economical apogee. Ancient Rome_sentence_214

This was a time of peace for Rome. Ancient Rome_sentence_215

The criteria for choosing an emperor were the qualities of the candidate and no longer ties of kinship; additionally, there were no civil wars or military defeats in this period. Ancient Rome_sentence_216

Following Domitian's murder, the Senate rapidly appointed Nerva to hold imperial dignity. Ancient Rome_sentence_217

This was the first time that senators chose the emperor since Octavian was honored with the titles of princeps and Augustus. Ancient Rome_sentence_218

Nerva had a noble ancestry, and he had served as an advisor to Nero and the Flavians. Ancient Rome_sentence_219

His rule restored many of the liberties once assumed by Domitian and started the last golden era of Rome. Ancient Rome_sentence_220

Trajan Ancient Rome_section_15

Nerva died in 98 AD and his successor and heir was the general Trajan. Ancient Rome_sentence_221

Trajan was born in a non-patrician family from Hispania Baetica (modern-day Andalusia) and his preeminence emerged in the army, under Domitian. Ancient Rome_sentence_222

He is the second of the Five Good Emperors, the first being Nerva. Ancient Rome_sentence_223

Trajan was greeted by the people of Rome with enthusiasm, which he justified by governing well and without the bloodiness that had marked Domitian's reign. Ancient Rome_sentence_224

He freed many people who had been unjustly imprisoned by Domitian and returned private property that Domitian had confiscated; a process begun by Nerva before his death. Ancient Rome_sentence_225

Trajan conquered Dacia (roughly modern-day Romania and Moldova), and defeated the king Decebalus, who had defeated Domitian's forces. Ancient Rome_sentence_226

In the First Dacian War (101–102), the defeated Dacia became a client kingdom; in the Second Dacian War (105–106), Trajan completely devastated the enemy's resistance and annexed Dacia to the Empire. Ancient Rome_sentence_227

Trajan also annexed the client state of Nabatea to form the province of Arabia Petraea, which included the lands of southern Syria and northwestern Arabia. Ancient Rome_sentence_228

He erected many buildings that survive to this day, such as Trajan's Forum, Trajan's Market and Trajan's Column. Ancient Rome_sentence_229

His main architect was Apollodorus of Damascus; Apollodorus made the project of the Forum and of the Column, and also reformed the Pantheon. Ancient Rome_sentence_230

Trajan's triumphal arches in Ancona and Beneventum are other constructions projected by him. Ancient Rome_sentence_231

In the Second Dacian War, Apollodorus made a great bridge over the Danube for Trajan. Ancient Rome_sentence_232

Trajan's final war was against Parthia. Ancient Rome_sentence_233

When Parthia appointed a king for Armenia who was unacceptable to Rome (Parthia and Rome shared dominance over Armenia), he declared war. Ancient Rome_sentence_234

He probably wanted to be the first Roman leader to conquer Parthia, and repeat the glory of Alexander the Great, conqueror of Asia, whom Trajan next followed in the clash of Greek-Romans and the Persian cultures. Ancient Rome_sentence_235

In 113 he marched to Armenia and deposed the local king. Ancient Rome_sentence_236

In 115 Trajan turned south into the core of Parthian hegemony, took the Northern Mesopotamian cities of Nisibis and Batnae, organized a province of Mesopotamia (116), and issued coins announcing that Armenia and Mesopotamia was under the authority of the Roman people. Ancient Rome_sentence_237

In that same year, he captured Seleucia and the Parthian capital Ctesiphon (near modern Baghdad). Ancient Rome_sentence_238

After defeating a Parthian revolt and a Jewish revolt, he withdrew due to health issues. Ancient Rome_sentence_239

In 117, his illness grew and he died of edema. Ancient Rome_sentence_240

He nominated Hadrian as his heir. Ancient Rome_sentence_241

Under Trajan's leadership the Roman Empire reached the peak of its territorial expansion; Rome's dominion now spanned 5.0 million square kilometres (1.9 million square miles). Ancient Rome_sentence_242

From Hadrian to Commodus Ancient Rome_section_16

Many Romans emigrated to Hispania (modern-day Spain and Portugal) and stayed for generations, in some cases intermarrying with Iberians; one of these families produced the emperor Hadrian. Ancient Rome_sentence_243

Hadrian withdrew all the troops stationed in Parthia, Armenia and Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq), abandoning Trajan's conquests. Ancient Rome_sentence_244

Hadrian's army crushed a revolt in Mauretania and the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judea. Ancient Rome_sentence_245

This was the last large-scale Jewish revolt against the Romans, and was suppressed with massive repercussions in Judea. Ancient Rome_sentence_246

Hundreds of thousands of Jews were killed. Ancient Rome_sentence_247

Hadrian renamed the province of Judea "Provincia Syria Palaestina," after one of Judea's most hated enemies. Ancient Rome_sentence_248

He constructed fortifications and walls, like the celebrated Hadrian's Wall which separated Roman Britannia and the tribes of modern-day Scotland. Ancient Rome_sentence_249

Hadrian promoted culture, especially the Greek. Ancient Rome_sentence_250

He also forbade torture and humanized the laws. Ancient Rome_sentence_251

His many building projects included aqueducts, baths, libraries and theaters; additionally, he travelled nearly every province in the Empire to check the military and infrastructural conditions. Ancient Rome_sentence_252

Following Hadrian's death in 138 AD, his successor Antoninus Pius built temples, theaters, and mausoleums, promoted the arts and sciences, and bestowed honours and financial rewards upon the teachers of rhetoric and philosophy. Ancient Rome_sentence_253

On becoming emperor, Antoninus made few initial changes, leaving intact as far as possible the arrangements instituted by his predecessor. Ancient Rome_sentence_254

Antoninus expanded Roman Britannia by invading what is now southern Scotland and building the Antonine Wall. Ancient Rome_sentence_255

He also continued Hadrian's policy of humanizing the laws. Ancient Rome_sentence_256

He died in 161 AD. Ancient Rome_sentence_257

Marcus Aurelius, known as the Philosopher, was the last of the Five Good Emperors. Ancient Rome_sentence_258

He was a stoic philosopher and wrote the Meditations. Ancient Rome_sentence_259

He defeated barbarian tribes in the Marcomannic Wars as well as the Parthian Empire. Ancient Rome_sentence_260

His co-emperor, Lucius Verus died in 169 AD, probably victim of the Antonine Plague, a pandemic that killed nearly five million people through the Empire in 165–180 AD. Ancient Rome_sentence_261

From Nerva to Marcus Aurelius, the empire achieved an unprecedented status. Ancient Rome_sentence_262

The powerful influence of laws and manners had gradually cemented the union of the provinces. Ancient Rome_sentence_263

All the citizens enjoyed and abused the advantages of wealth. Ancient Rome_sentence_264

The image of a free constitution was preserved with decent reverence. Ancient Rome_sentence_265

The Roman senate appeared to possess the sovereign authority, and devolved on the emperors all the executive powers of government. Ancient Rome_sentence_266

The Five Good Emperors' rule is considered the golden era of the Empire. Ancient Rome_sentence_267

Commodus, son of Marcus Aurelius, became emperor after his father's death. Ancient Rome_sentence_268

He is not counted as one of the Five Good Emperors. Ancient Rome_sentence_269

Firstly, this was due to his direct kinship with the latter emperor; in addition, he was militarily passive compared to his predecessors, who had frequently led their armies in person. Ancient Rome_sentence_270

Commodus usually participated in gladiatorial combats, which were frequently brutal and rough. Ancient Rome_sentence_271

He killed many citizens, and Cassius Dio identifies his reign as the beginning of Roman decadence: "(Rome has transformed) from a kingdom of gold to one of iron and rust." Ancient Rome_sentence_272

Severan dynasty Ancient Rome_section_17

Commodus was killed by a conspiracy involving Quintus Aemilius Laetus and his wife Marcia in late 192 AD. Ancient Rome_sentence_273

The following year is known as the Year of the Five Emperors, during which Helvius Pertinax, Didius Julianus, Pescennius Niger, Clodius Albinus and Septimius Severus held the imperial dignity. Ancient Rome_sentence_274

Pertinax, a member of the senate who had been one of Marcus Aurelius's right hand men, was the choice of Laetus, and he ruled vigorously and judiciously. Ancient Rome_sentence_275

Laetus soon became jealous and instigated Pertinax's murder by the Praetorian Guard, who then auctioned the empire to the highest bidder, Didius Julianus, for 25,000 sesterces per man. Ancient Rome_sentence_276

The people of Rome were appalled and appealed to the frontier legions to save them. Ancient Rome_sentence_277

The legions of three frontier provinces—Britannia, Pannonia Superior, and Syria—resented being excluded from the "donative" and replied by declaring their individual generals to be emperor. Ancient Rome_sentence_278

Lucius Septimius Severus Geta, the Pannonian commander, bribed the opposing forces, pardoned the Praetorian Guards and installed himself as emperor. Ancient Rome_sentence_279

He and his successors governed with the legions' support. Ancient Rome_sentence_280

The changes on coinage and military expenditures were the root of the financial crisis that marked the Crisis of the Third Century. Ancient Rome_sentence_281

Septimius Severus Ancient Rome_section_18

Severus was enthroned after invading Rome and having Didius Julianus killed. Ancient Rome_sentence_282

His two other rivals, Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus, were both were hailed by other factions as Imperator. Ancient Rome_sentence_283

Severus quickly subdued Niger in Byzantium and promised to Albinus the title of Caesar (which meant he would be a co-emperor). Ancient Rome_sentence_284

However, Severus betrayed Albinus by blaming him for a plot against his life. Ancient Rome_sentence_285

Severus marched to Gaul and defeated Albinus. Ancient Rome_sentence_286

For these acts, Machiavelli said that Severus was "a ferocious lion and a clever fox" Ancient Rome_sentence_287

Severus attempted to revive totalitarianism and, addressing the Roman people and Senate, praised the severity and cruelty of Marius and Sulla, which worried the senators. Ancient Rome_sentence_288

When Parthia invaded Roman territory, Severus waged war against that country and seized the cities of Nisibis, Babylon and Seleucia. Ancient Rome_sentence_289

Reaching Ctesiphon, the Parthian capital, he ordered plundering and his army slew and captured many people. Ancient Rome_sentence_290

Notwithstanding this military success, Severus failed in invading Hatra, a rich Arabian city. Ancient Rome_sentence_291

Severus killed his legate, who was gaining respect from the legions; and his soldiers fell victim to famine. Ancient Rome_sentence_292

After this disastrous campaign, he withdrew. Ancient Rome_sentence_293

Severus also intended to vanquish the whole of Britannia. Ancient Rome_sentence_294

To achieve this, he waged war against the Caledonians. Ancient Rome_sentence_295

After many casualties in the army due to the terrain and the barbarians' ambushes, Severus himself went to the field. Ancient Rome_sentence_296

However, he became ill and died in 211 AD, at the age of 65. Ancient Rome_sentence_297

From Caracalla to Alexander Severus Ancient Rome_section_19

Upon the death of Severus, his sons Caracalla and Geta were made emperors. Ancient Rome_sentence_298

During their youth, their squabbles had divided Rome. Ancient Rome_sentence_299

In that same year Caracalla had his brother, a youth, assassinated in his mother's arms, and may have murdered 20,000 of Geta's followers. Ancient Rome_sentence_300

Like his father, Caracalla was warlike. Ancient Rome_sentence_301

He continued Severus' policy and gained respect from the legions. Ancient Rome_sentence_302

A cruel man, Caracalla was pursued by the guilt of his brother's murder. Ancient Rome_sentence_303

He ordered the death of people of his own circle, like his tutor, Cilo, and a friend of his father, Papinian. Ancient Rome_sentence_304

Knowing that the citizens of Alexandria disliked him and were denigrating his character, Caracalla served a banquet for its notable citizens, after which his soldiers killed all the guests. Ancient Rome_sentence_305

From the security of the temple of Sarapis, he then directed an indiscriminate slaughter of Alexandria's people. Ancient Rome_sentence_306

In 212, he issued the Edict of Caracalla, giving full Roman citizenship to all free men living in the Empire, and at the same time raised the inheritance tax, levied only on Roman citizens, to ten percent. Ancient Rome_sentence_307

A report that a soothsayer had predicted that the Praetorian prefect Macrinus and his son were to rule over the empire was dutifully sent to Caracalla. Ancient Rome_sentence_308

But the report fell into the hands of Macrinus, who felt he must act or die. Ancient Rome_sentence_309

Macrinus conspired to have Caracalla assassinated by one of his soldiers during a pilgrimage to the Temple of the Moon in Carrhae, in 217 AD. Ancient Rome_sentence_310

The incompetent Macrinus assumed power, but soon removed himself from Rome to the east and Antioch. Ancient Rome_sentence_311

His brief reign ended in 218, when the youngster Bassianus, high priest of the temple of the Sun at Emesa, and supposedly illegitimate son of Caracalla, was declared Emperor by the disaffected soldiers of Macrinus. Ancient Rome_sentence_312

Bribes gained Bassianus support from the legionaries and they fought against Macrinus and his Praetorian guards. Ancient Rome_sentence_313

He adopted the name of Antoninus but history has named him after his Sun god Elagabalus, represented on Earth in the form of a large black stone. Ancient Rome_sentence_314

An incompetent and lascivious ruler, Elagabalus offended all but his favourites. Ancient Rome_sentence_315

Cassius Dio, Herodian and the Historia Augusta give many accounts of his notorious extravagance. Ancient Rome_sentence_316

Elagabalus adopted his cousin Alexander Severus, as Caesar, but subsequently grew jealous and attempted to assassinate him. Ancient Rome_sentence_317

However, the Praetorian guard preferred Alexander, murdered Elagabalus, dragged his mutilated corpse through the streets of Rome, and threw it into the Tiber. Ancient Rome_sentence_318

Alexander Severus then succeeded him. Ancient Rome_sentence_319

Alexander waged war against many foes, including the revitalized Persia and also the Germanic peoples, who invaded Gaul. Ancient Rome_sentence_320

His losses generated dissatisfaction among his soldiers, and some of them murdered him during his Germanic campaign in 235 AD. Ancient Rome_sentence_321

Crisis of the Third Century Ancient Rome_section_20

Main article: Crisis of the Third Century Ancient Rome_sentence_322

A disastrous scenario emerged after the death of Alexander Severus: the Roman state was plagued by civil wars, external invasions, political chaos, pandemics and economic depression. Ancient Rome_sentence_323

The old Roman values had fallen, and Mithraism and Christianity had begun to spread through the populace. Ancient Rome_sentence_324

Emperors were no longer men linked with nobility; they usually were born in lower-classes of distant parts of the Empire. Ancient Rome_sentence_325

These men rose to prominence through military ranks, and became emperors through civil wars. Ancient Rome_sentence_326

There were 26 emperors in a 49-year period, a signal of political instability. Ancient Rome_sentence_327

Maximinus Thrax was the first ruler of that time, governing for just three years. Ancient Rome_sentence_328

Others ruled just for a few months, like Gordian I, Gordian II, Balbinus and Hostilian. Ancient Rome_sentence_329

The population and the frontiers were abandoned, since the emperors were mostly concerned with defeating rivals and establishing their power. Ancient Rome_sentence_330

The economy also suffered during that epoch. Ancient Rome_sentence_331

The massive military expenditures from the Severi caused a devaluation of Roman coins. Ancient Rome_sentence_332

Hyperinflation came at this time as well. Ancient Rome_sentence_333

The Plague of Cyprian broke out in 250 and killed a huge portion of the population. Ancient Rome_sentence_334

In 260 AD, the provinces of Syria Palaestina, Asia Minor and Egypt separated from the rest of the Roman state to form the Palmyrene Empire, ruled by Queen Zenobia and centered on Palmyra. Ancient Rome_sentence_335

In that same year the Gallic Empire was created by Postumus, retaining Britannia and Gaul. Ancient Rome_sentence_336

These countries separated from Rome after the capture of emperor Valerian by the Sassanids of Persia, the first Roman ruler to be captured by his enemies; it was a humiliating fact for the Romans. Ancient Rome_sentence_337

The crisis began to recede during the reigns of Claudius Gothicus (268–270), who defeated the Gothic invaders, and Aurelian (271–275), who reconquered both the Gallic and Palmyrene Empires. Ancient Rome_sentence_338

The crisis was overcome during the reign of Diocletian. Ancient Rome_sentence_339

Empire – The Tetrarchy Ancient Rome_section_21

Main article: Roman Empire Ancient Rome_sentence_340

Diocletian Ancient Rome_section_22

In 284 AD, Diocletian was hailed as Imperator by the eastern army. Ancient Rome_sentence_341

Diocletian healed the empire from the crisis, by political and economic shifts. Ancient Rome_sentence_342

A new form of government was established: the Tetrarchy. Ancient Rome_sentence_343

The Empire was divided among four emperors, two in the West and two in the East. Ancient Rome_sentence_344

The first tetrarchs were Diocletian (in the East), Maximian (in the West), and two junior emperors, Galerius (in the East) and Flavius Constantius (in the West). Ancient Rome_sentence_345

To adjust the economy, Diocletian made several tax reforms. Ancient Rome_sentence_346

Diocletian expelled the Persians who plundered Syria and conquered some barbarian tribes with Maximian. Ancient Rome_sentence_347

He adopted many behaviors of Eastern monarchs, like wearing pearls and golden sandals and robes. Ancient Rome_sentence_348

Anyone in the presence of the emperor had now to prostrate himself—a common act in the East, but never practiced in Rome before. Ancient Rome_sentence_349

Diocletian did not use a disguised form of Republic, as the other emperors since Augustus had done. Ancient Rome_sentence_350

Between 290 and 330, half a dozen new capitals had been established by the members of the Tetrarchy, officially or not: Antioch, Nicomedia, Thessalonike, Sirmium, Milan, and Trier. Ancient Rome_sentence_351

Diocletian was also responsible for a significant Christian persecution. Ancient Rome_sentence_352

In 303 he and Galerius started the persecution and ordered the destruction of all the Christian churches and scripts and forbade Christian worship. Ancient Rome_sentence_353

Diocletian abdicated in 305 AD together with Maximian, thus, he was the first Roman emperor to resign. Ancient Rome_sentence_354

His reign ended the traditional form of imperial rule, the Principate (from princeps) and started the Tetrarchy. Ancient Rome_sentence_355

Constantine and Christianity Ancient Rome_section_23

Constantine assumed the empire as a tetrarch in 306. Ancient Rome_sentence_356

He conducted many wars against the other tetrarchs. Ancient Rome_sentence_357

Firstly he defeated Maxentius in 312. Ancient Rome_sentence_358

In 313, he issued the Edict of Milan, which granted liberty for Christians to profess their religion. Ancient Rome_sentence_359

Constantine was converted to Christianity, enforcing the Christian faith. Ancient Rome_sentence_360

He began the Christianization of the Empire and of Europe—a process concluded by the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages. Ancient Rome_sentence_361

He was defeated by the Franks and the Alamanni during 306–308. Ancient Rome_sentence_362

In 324 he defeated another tetrarch, Licinius, and controlled all the empire, as it was before Diocletian. Ancient Rome_sentence_363

To celebrate his victories and Christianity's relevance, he rebuilt Byzantium and renamed it Nova Roma ("New Rome"); but the city soon gained the informal name of Constantinople ("City of Constantine"). Ancient Rome_sentence_364

The reign of Julian, who under the influence of his adviser Mardonius attempted to restore Classical Roman and Hellenistic religion, only briefly interrupted the succession of Christian emperors. Ancient Rome_sentence_365

Constantinople served as a new capital for the Empire. Ancient Rome_sentence_366

In fact, Rome had lost its central importance since the Crisis of the Third Century—Mediolanum was the western capital from 286 to 330, until the reign of Honorius, when Ravenna was made capital, in the 5th century. Ancient Rome_sentence_367

Constantine's administrative and monetary reforms, that reunited the Empire under one emperor, and rebuilt the city of Byzantium changed the high period of the ancient world. Ancient Rome_sentence_368

Fall of the Western Roman Empire Ancient Rome_section_24

Main article: Fall of the Western Roman Empire Ancient Rome_sentence_369

In the late 4th and 5th centuries the Western Empire entered a critical stage which terminated with the fall of the Western Roman Empire. Ancient Rome_sentence_370

Under the last emperors of the Constantinian dynasty and the Valentinianic dynasty, Rome lost decisive battles against the Sasanian Empire and Germanic barbarians: in 363, emperor Julian the Apostate was killed in the Battle of Samarra, against the Persians and the Battle of Adrianople cost the life of emperor Valens (364–378); the victorious Goths were never expelled from the Empire nor assimilated. Ancient Rome_sentence_371

The next emperor, Theodosius I (379–395), gave even more force to the Christian faith, and after his death, the Empire was divided into the Eastern Roman Empire, ruled by Arcadius and the Western Roman Empire, commanded by Honorius, both of which were Theodosius' sons. Ancient Rome_sentence_372

The situation became more critical in 408, after the death of Stilicho, a general who tried to reunite the Empire and repel barbarian invasion in the early years of the 5th century. Ancient Rome_sentence_373

The professional field army collapsed. Ancient Rome_sentence_374

In 410, the Theodosian dynasty saw the Visigoths sack Rome. Ancient Rome_sentence_375

During the 5th century, the Western Empire experienced a significant reduction of its territory. Ancient Rome_sentence_376

The Vandals conquered North Africa, the Visigoths claimed the southern part of Gaul, Gallaecia was taken by the Suebi, Britannia was abandoned by the central government, and the Empire suffered further from the invasions of Attila, chief of the Huns. Ancient Rome_sentence_377

General Orestes refused to meet the demands of the barbarian "allies" who now formed the army, and tried to expel them from Italy. Ancient Rome_sentence_378

Unhappy with this, their chieftain Odoacer defeated and killed Orestes, invaded Ravenna and dethroned Romulus Augustus, son of Orestes. Ancient Rome_sentence_379

This event of 476, usually marks the end of Classical antiquity and beginning of the Middle Ages. Ancient Rome_sentence_380

The Roman noble and former emperor Julius Nepos continued to rule as emperor from Dalmatia even after the deposition of Romulus Augustus until his death in 480. Ancient Rome_sentence_381

Some historians consider him to be the last emperor of the Western Empire instead of Romulus Augustus. Ancient Rome_sentence_382

After some 1200 years of independence and nearly 700 years as a great power, the rule of Rome in the West ended. Ancient Rome_sentence_383

Various reasons for Rome's fall have been proposed ever since, including loss of Republicanism, moral decay, military tyranny, class war, slavery, economic stagnation, environmental change, disease, the decline of the Roman race, as well as the inevitable ebb and flow that all civilizations experience. Ancient Rome_sentence_384

At the time many pagans argued that Christianity and the decline of traditional Roman religion were responsible; some rationalist thinkers of the modern era attribute the fall to a change from a martial to a more pacifist religion that lessened the number of available soldiers; while Christians such as Augustine of Hippo argued that the sinful nature of Roman society itself was to blame. Ancient Rome_sentence_385

The Eastern Empire had a different fate. Ancient Rome_sentence_386

It survived for almost 1000 years after the fall of its Western counterpart and became the most stable Christian realm during the Middle Ages. Ancient Rome_sentence_387

During the 6th century, Justinian reconquered the Italian peninsula from the Ostrogoths, North Africa from the Vandals, and southern Hispania from the Visigoths. Ancient Rome_sentence_388

But within a few years of Justinian's death, Byzantine possessions in Italy were greatly reduced by the Lombards who settled in the peninsula. Ancient Rome_sentence_389

In the east, partially due to the weakening effect of the Plague of Justinian, the Byzantines were threatened by the rise of Islam. Ancient Rome_sentence_390

Its followers rapidly brought about the conquest of the Levant, the conquest of Armenia and the conquest of Egypt during the Arab–Byzantine wars, and soon presented a direct threat to Constantinople. Ancient Rome_sentence_391

In the following century, the Arabs also captured southern Italy and Sicily. Ancient Rome_sentence_392

On the west, Slavic populations were also able to penetrate deep into the Balkans. Ancient Rome_sentence_393

The Byzantines, however, managed to stop further Islamic expansion into their lands during the 8th century and, beginning in the 9th century, reclaimed parts of the conquered lands. Ancient Rome_sentence_394

In 1000 AD, the Eastern Empire was at its height: Basil II reconquered Bulgaria and Armenia, and culture and trade flourished. Ancient Rome_sentence_395

However, soon after, this expansion was abruptly stopped in 1071 with the Byzantine defeat in the Battle of Manzikert. Ancient Rome_sentence_396

The aftermath of this battle sent the empire into a protracted period of decline. Ancient Rome_sentence_397

Two decades of internal strife and Turkic invasions ultimately led Emperor Alexios I Komnenos to send a call for help to the Western European kingdoms in 1095. Ancient Rome_sentence_398

The West responded with the Crusades, eventually resulting in the Sack of Constantinople by participants of the Fourth Crusade. Ancient Rome_sentence_399

The conquest of Constantinople in 1204 fragmented what remained of the Empire into successor states; the ultimate victor was the Empire of Nicaea. Ancient Rome_sentence_400

After the recapture of Constantinople by Imperial forces, the Empire was little more than a Greek state confined to the Aegean coast. Ancient Rome_sentence_401

The Byzantine Empire collapsed when Mehmed the Conqueror conquered Constantinople on 29 May, 1453. Ancient Rome_sentence_402

Society Ancient Rome_section_25

Culture Ancient Rome_section_26

Main article: Culture of ancient Rome Ancient Rome_sentence_403

Life in ancient Rome revolved around the city of Rome, located on seven hills. Ancient Rome_sentence_404

The city had a vast number of monumental structures like the Colosseum, the Forum of Trajan and the Pantheon. Ancient Rome_sentence_405

It had theatres, gymnasiums, marketplaces, functional sewers, bath complexes complete with libraries and shops, and fountains with fresh drinking water supplied by hundreds of miles of aqueducts. Ancient Rome_sentence_406

Throughout the territory under the control of ancient Rome, residential architecture ranged from modest houses to country villas. Ancient Rome_sentence_407

In the capital city of Rome, there were imperial residences on the elegant Palatine Hill, from which the word palace derives. Ancient Rome_sentence_408

The low Plebeian and middle Equestrian classes lived in the city center, packed into apartments, or Insulae, which were almost like modern ghettos. Ancient Rome_sentence_409

These areas, often built by upper class property owners to rent, were often centred upon collegia or taberna. Ancient Rome_sentence_410

These people, provided with a free supply of grain, and entertained by gladiatorial games, were enrolled as clients of patrons among the upper class Patricians, whose assistance they sought and whose interests they upheld. Ancient Rome_sentence_411

Language Ancient Rome_section_27

Main article: Latin Ancient Rome_sentence_412

The native language of the Romans was Latin, an Italic language the grammar of which relies little on word order, conveying meaning through a system of affixes attached to word stems. Ancient Rome_sentence_413

Its alphabet was based on the Etruscan alphabet, which was in turn based on the Greek alphabet. Ancient Rome_sentence_414

Although surviving Latin literature consists almost entirely of Classical Latin, an artificial and highly stylized and polished literary language from the 1st century BC, the spoken language of the Roman Empire was Vulgar Latin, which significantly differed from Classical Latin in grammar and vocabulary, and eventually in pronunciation. Ancient Rome_sentence_415

Speakers of Latin could understand both until the 7th century when spoken Latin began to diverge so much that 'Classical' or 'Good Latin' had to be learned as a second language Ancient Rome_sentence_416

While Latin remained the main written language of the Roman Empire, Greek came to be the language spoken by the well-educated elite, as most of the literature studied by Romans was written in Greek. Ancient Rome_sentence_417

In the eastern half of the Roman Empire, which later became the Byzantine Empire, Latin was never able to replace Greek, and after the death of Justinian, Greek became the official language of the Byzantine government. Ancient Rome_sentence_418

The expansion of the Roman Empire spread Latin throughout Europe, and Vulgar Latin evolved into dialects in different locations, gradually shifting into many distinct Romance languages. Ancient Rome_sentence_419

Religion Ancient Rome_section_28

Main articles: Religion in ancient Rome, Roman mythology, and Roman temple Ancient Rome_sentence_420

Further information: Constantine the Great and Christianity and State church of the Roman Empire Ancient Rome_sentence_421

Archaic Roman religion, at least concerning the gods, was made up not of written narratives, but rather of complex interrelations between gods and humans. Ancient Rome_sentence_422

Unlike in Greek mythology, the gods were not personified, but were vaguely defined sacred spirits called numina. Ancient Rome_sentence_423

Romans also believed that every person, place or thing had its own genius, or divine soul. Ancient Rome_sentence_424

During the Roman Republic, Roman religion was organized under a strict system of priestly offices, which were held by men of senatorial rank. Ancient Rome_sentence_425

The College of Pontifices was uppermost body in this hierarchy, and its chief priest, the Pontifex Maximus, was the head of the state religion. Ancient Rome_sentence_426

Flamens took care of the cults of various gods, while augurs were trusted with taking the auspices. Ancient Rome_sentence_427

The sacred king took on the religious responsibilities of the deposed kings. Ancient Rome_sentence_428

In the Roman Empire, emperors were deified, and the formalized imperial cult became increasingly prominent. Ancient Rome_sentence_429

As contact with the Greeks increased, the old Roman gods became increasingly associated with Greek gods. Ancient Rome_sentence_430

Thus, Jupiter was perceived to be the same deity as Zeus, Mars became associated with Ares, and Neptune with Poseidon. Ancient Rome_sentence_431

The Roman gods also assumed the attributes and mythologies of these Greek gods. Ancient Rome_sentence_432

Under the Empire, the Romans absorbed the mythologies of their conquered subjects, often leading to situations in which the temples and priests of traditional Italian deities existed side by side with those of foreign gods. Ancient Rome_sentence_433

Beginning with Emperor Nero in the 1st century AD, Roman official policy towards Christianity was negative, and at some points, simply being a Christian could be punishable by death. Ancient Rome_sentence_434

Under Emperor Diocletian, the persecution of Christians reached its peak. Ancient Rome_sentence_435

However, it became an officially supported religion in the Roman state under Diocletian's successor, Constantine I, with the signing of the Edict of Milan in 313, and quickly became dominant. Ancient Rome_sentence_436

All religions except Christianity were prohibited in 391 AD by an edict of Emperor Theodosius I. Ancient Rome_sentence_437

Ethics and morality Ancient Rome_section_29

Like many ancient cultures, concepts of ethics and morality, while sharing some commonalities with modern society, differed greatly in several important ways. Ancient Rome_sentence_438

Because ancient civilizations like Rome were under constant threat of attack from marauding tribes, their culture was necessarily militaristic with martial skills being a prized attribute. Ancient Rome_sentence_439

Whereas modern societies consider compassion a virtue, Roman society considered compassion a vice, a moral defect. Ancient Rome_sentence_440

Indeed, one of the primary purposes of the gladiatorial games was to inoculate Roman citizens from this weakness. Ancient Rome_sentence_441

Romans instead prized virtues such as courage and conviction (virtus), a sense of duty to one's people, moderation and avoiding excess (moderatio), forgiveness and understanding (clementia), fairness (severitas), and loyalty (pietas). Ancient Rome_sentence_442

Contrary to popular descriptions, Roman society had well-established and restrictive norms related to sexuality, though as with many societies, the lion's share of the responsibilities fell on women. Ancient Rome_sentence_443

Women were generally expected to be monogamous having only a single husband during their life (univira), though this was much less regarded by the elite, especially under the empire. Ancient Rome_sentence_444

Women were expected to be modest in public avoiding any provocative appearance and to demonstrate absolute fidelity to their husbands (pudicitia). Ancient Rome_sentence_445

Indeed, wearing a veil was a common expectation to preserve modesty. Ancient Rome_sentence_446

Sex outside of marriage was generally frowned upon for men and women and indeed was made illegal during the imperial period. Ancient Rome_sentence_447

Nevertheless, prostitution was seen entirely differently and indeed was an accepted and regulated practice. Ancient Rome_sentence_448

Art, music and literature Ancient Rome_section_30

Main articles: Roman art, Latin literature, Music of ancient Rome, Roman sculpture, and Theatre of ancient Rome Ancient Rome_sentence_449

Roman painting styles show Greek influences, and surviving examples are primarily frescoes used to adorn the walls and ceilings of country villas, though Roman literature includes mentions of paintings on wood, ivory, and other materials. Ancient Rome_sentence_450

Several examples of Roman painting have been found at Pompeii, and from these art historians divide the history of Roman painting into four periods. Ancient Rome_sentence_451

The first style of Roman painting was practiced from the early 2nd century BC to the early- or mid-1st century BC. Ancient Rome_sentence_452

It was mainly composed of imitations of marble and masonry, though sometimes including depictions of mythological characters. Ancient Rome_sentence_453

The second style of Roman painting began during the early 1st century BC, and attempted to depict realistically three-dimensional architectural features and landscapes. Ancient Rome_sentence_454

The third style occurred during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD), and rejected the realism of the second style in favor of simple ornamentation. Ancient Rome_sentence_455

A small architectural scene, landscape, or abstract design was placed in the center with a background. Ancient Rome_sentence_456

The fourth style, which began in the 1st century AD, depicted scenes from mythology, while retaining architectural details and abstract patterns. Ancient Rome_sentence_457

Portrait sculpture during the period utilized youthful and classical proportions, evolving later into a mixture of realism and idealism. Ancient Rome_sentence_458

During the Antonine and Severan periods, ornate hair and bearding, with deep cutting and drilling, became popular. Ancient Rome_sentence_459

Advancements were also made in relief sculptures, usually depicting Roman victories. Ancient Rome_sentence_460

Latin literature was, from its start, influenced heavily by Greek authors. Ancient Rome_sentence_461

Some of the earliest extant works are of historical epics telling the early military history of Rome. Ancient Rome_sentence_462

As the Republic expanded, authors began to produce poetry, comedy, history, and tragedy. Ancient Rome_sentence_463

Roman music was largely based on Greek music, and played an important part in many aspects of Roman life. Ancient Rome_sentence_464

In the Roman military, musical instruments such as the (a long trumpet) or the cornu (similar to a French horn) were used to give various commands, while the bucina (possibly a trumpet or horn) and the lituus (probably an elongated J-shaped instrument), were used in ceremonial capacities. Ancient Rome_sentence_465

Music was used in the amphitheaters between fights and in the odea, and in these settings is known to have featured the cornu and the hydraulis (a type of water organ). Ancient Rome_sentence_466

Most religious rituals featured musical performances, with tibiae (double pipes) at sacrifices, cymbals and Tambourines at orgiastic cults, and rattles and hymns across the spectrum. Ancient Rome_sentence_467

Some music historians believe that music was used at almost all public ceremonies. Ancient Rome_sentence_468

Music historians are not certain if Roman musicians made a significant contribution to the theory or practice of music. Ancient Rome_sentence_469

The graffiti, brothels, paintings, and sculptures found in Pompeii and Herculaneum suggest that the Romans had a sex-saturated culture. Ancient Rome_sentence_470

Cuisine Ancient Rome_section_31

Main article: Ancient Roman cuisine Ancient Rome_sentence_471

Ancient Roman cuisine changed over the long duration of this ancient civilization. Ancient Rome_sentence_472

Dietary habits were affected by the influence of Greek culture, the political changes from kingdom to republic to empire, and empire's enormous expansion, which exposed Romans to many new, provincial culinary habits and cooking techniques. Ancient Rome_sentence_473

In the beginning the differences between social classes were relatively small, but disparities evolved with the empire's growth. Ancient Rome_sentence_474

Men and women drank wine with their meals, a tradition that has been carried through to the present day. Ancient Rome_sentence_475

Games and recreation Ancient Rome_section_32

In Roman times Ancient Rome_section_33

The first historians used their works for the lauding of Roman culture and customs. Ancient Rome_sentence_476

By the end of Republic, some historians distorted their histories to flatter their patrons—especially at the time of Marius's and Sulla's clash. Ancient Rome_sentence_477

Caesar wrote his own histories to make a complete account of his military campaigns in Gaul and during the Civil War. Ancient Rome_sentence_478

In the Empire, the biographies of famous men and early emperors flourished, examples being The Twelve Caesars of Suetonius, and Plutarch's Parallel Lives. Ancient Rome_sentence_479

Other major works of Imperial times were that of Livy and Tacitus. Ancient Rome_sentence_480

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In modern times Ancient Rome_section_34

Interest in studying, and even idealizing, ancient Rome became prevalent during the Italian Renaissance, and continues until the present day. Ancient Rome_sentence_481

Charles Montesquieu wrote a work Reflections on the Causes of the Grandeur and Declension of the Romans. Ancient Rome_sentence_482

The first major work was The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon, which encompassed the Roman civilization from the end of the 2nd century to the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453. Ancient Rome_sentence_483

Like Montesquieu, Gibbon paid tribute to the virtue of Roman citizens. Ancient Rome_sentence_484

Barthold Georg Niebuhr was a founder of the examination of ancient Roman history and wrote The Roman History, tracing the period until the First Punic war. Ancient Rome_sentence_485

Niebuhr tried to determine the way the Roman tradition evolved. Ancient Rome_sentence_486

According to him, Romans, like other people, had an historical ethos preserved mainly in the noble families. Ancient Rome_sentence_487

During the Napoleonic period a work titled The History of Romans by Victor Duruy appeared. Ancient Rome_sentence_488

It highlighted the Caesarean period popular at the time. Ancient Rome_sentence_489

History of Rome, Roman constitutional law and Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, all by Theodor Mommsen, became very important milestones. Ancient Rome_sentence_490

Later the work Greatness and Decline of Rome by Guglielmo Ferrero was published. Ancient Rome_sentence_491

The Russian work Очерки по истории римского землевладения, преимущественно в эпоху Империи (The Outlines on Roman Landownership History, Mainly During the Empire) by Ivan Grevs contained information on the economy of Pomponius Atticus, one of the largest landowners at the end of the Republic. Ancient Rome_sentence_492

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See also Ancient Rome_section_35

Ancient Rome_unordered_list_2

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Rome.