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"Anglican Church" redirects here. Anglicanism_sentence_0

For other uses, see Anglican Church (disambiguation). Anglicanism_sentence_1

"Episcopalian" redirects here. Anglicanism_sentence_2

For the ecclesiastical governance structure, see Episcopal polity. Anglicanism_sentence_3

For other uses, see Episcopal (disambiguation) and Episcopal Church (disambiguation). Anglicanism_sentence_4

Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Anglicanism_sentence_5

Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans; they are also called Episcopalians in some countries. Anglicanism_sentence_6

The majority of Anglicans are members of national or regional ecclesiastical provinces of the international Anglican Communion, which forms the third-largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. Anglicanism_sentence_7

They are in full communion with the See of Canterbury and thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, whom the communion refers to as its primus inter pares (Latin, 'first among equals'). Anglicanism_sentence_8

He calls the decennial Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of primates, and is the president of the Anglican Consultative Council. Anglicanism_sentence_9

Some churches that are not part of the Anglican Communion or recognised by it also call themselves Anglican, including those that are within the Continuing Anglican movement and Anglican realignment. Anglicanism_sentence_10

Anglicans base their Christian faith on the Bible, traditions of the apostolic Church, apostolic succession ("historic episcopate"), and the writings of the Church Fathers. Anglicanism_sentence_11

Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having definitively declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Anglicanism_sentence_12

Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded closely to those of contemporary Protestantism. Anglicanism_sentence_13

These reforms in the Church of England were understood by one of those most responsible for them, Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, and others as navigating a middle way between two of the emerging Protestant traditions, namely Lutheranism and Calvinism. Anglicanism_sentence_14

In the first half of the 17th century, the Church of England and its associated Church of Ireland were presented by some Anglican divines as comprising a distinct Christian tradition, with theologies, structures, and forms of worship representing a different kind of middle way, or via media, between Protestantism and Catholicism – a perspective that came to be highly influential in later theories of Anglican identity and expressed in the description of Anglicanism as "Catholic and Reformed". Anglicanism_sentence_15

The degree of distinction between Protestant and Catholic tendencies within the Anglican tradition is routinely a matter of debate both within specific Anglican churches and throughout the Anglican Communion. Anglicanism_sentence_16

Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services in one Book used for centuries. Anglicanism_sentence_17

The Book is acknowledged as a principal tie that binds the Anglican Communion together as a liturgical rather than a confessional tradition or one possessing a magisterium as in the Roman Catholic Church. Anglicanism_sentence_18

After the American Revolution, Anglican congregations in the United States and British North America (which would later form the basis for the modern country of Canada) were each reconstituted into autonomous churches with their own bishops and self-governing structures; these were known as the American Episcopal Church and the Church of England in the Dominion of Canada. Anglicanism_sentence_19

Through the expansion of the British Empire and the activity of Christian missions, this model was adopted as the model for many newly formed churches, especially in Africa, Australasia, and Asia-Pacific. Anglicanism_sentence_20

In the 19th century, the term Anglicanism was coined to describe the common religious tradition of these churches; as also that of the Scottish Episcopal Church, which, though originating earlier within the Church of Scotland, had come to be recognised as sharing this common identity. Anglicanism_sentence_21

Terminology Anglicanism_section_0

The word Anglican originates in Anglicana ecclesia libera sit, a phrase from the Magna Carta dated 15 June 1215, meaning "the Anglican Church shall be free". Anglicanism_sentence_22

Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans. Anglicanism_sentence_23

As an adjective, "Anglican" is used to describe the people, institutions, and churches, as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the Church of England. Anglicanism_sentence_24

As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion. Anglicanism_sentence_25

The word is also used by followers of separated groups which have left the communion or have been founded separately from it, although this is considered as a misuse by the Anglican Communion. Anglicanism_sentence_26

The word Anglicanism came into being in the 19th century. Anglicanism_sentence_27

The word originally referred only to the teachings and rites of Christians throughout the world in communion with the see of Canterbury, but has come to sometimes be extended to any church following those traditions rather than actual membership in the modern Anglican Communion. Anglicanism_sentence_28

Although the term Anglican is found referring to the Church of England as far back as the 16th century, its use did not become general until the latter half of the 19th century. Anglicanism_sentence_29

In British parliamentary legislation referring to the English Established Church, there is no need for a description; it is simply the Church of England, though the word "Protestant" is used in many legal acts specifying the succession to the Crown and qualifications for office. Anglicanism_sentence_30

When the Union with Ireland Act created the United Church of England and Ireland, it is specified that it shall be one "Protestant Episcopal Church", thereby distinguishing its form of church government from the Presbyterian polity that prevails in the Church of Scotland. Anglicanism_sentence_31

The word Episcopal is preferred in the title of the Episcopal Church (the province of the Anglican Communion covering the United States) and the Scottish Episcopal Church, though the full name of the former is The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America. Anglicanism_sentence_32

Elsewhere, however, the term "Anglican Church" came to be preferred as it distinguished these churches from others that maintain an episcopal polity. Anglicanism_sentence_33

Definition Anglicanism_section_1

Anglicanism, in its structures, theology, and forms of worship, is commonly understood as a distinct Christian tradition representing a middle ground between what are perceived to be the extremes of the claims of 16th-century Roman Catholicism and the Lutheran and Reformed varieties of Protestantism of that era. Anglicanism_sentence_34

As such, it is often referred to as being a via media (or "middle way") between these traditions. Anglicanism_sentence_35

The faith of Anglicans is founded in the Scriptures and the Gospels, the traditions of the Apostolic Church, the historical episcopate, the first four ecumenical councils, and the early Church Fathers (among these councils, especially the premier four ones, and among these Fathers, especially those active during the five initial centuries of Christianity, according to the quinquasaecularist principle proposed by the English bishop Lancelot Andrewes and the Lutheran dissident Georg Calixtus). Anglicanism_sentence_36

Anglicans understand the Old and New Testaments as "containing all things necessary for salvation" and as being the rule and ultimate standard of faith. Anglicanism_sentence_37

Reason and tradition are seen as valuable means to interpret scripture (a position first formulated in detail by Richard Hooker), but there is no full mutual agreement among Anglicans about exactly how scripture, reason, and tradition interact (or ought to interact) with each other. Anglicanism_sentence_38

Anglicans understand the Apostles' Creed as the baptismal symbol and the Nicene Creed as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith. Anglicanism_sentence_39

Anglicans believe the catholic and apostolic faith is revealed in Holy Scripture and the Catholic creeds and interpret these in light of the Christian tradition of the historic church, scholarship, reason, and experience. Anglicanism_sentence_40

Anglicans celebrate the traditional sacraments, with special emphasis being given to the Eucharist, also called Holy Communion, the Lord's Supper or the Mass. Anglicanism_sentence_41

The Eucharist is central to worship for most Anglicans as a communal offering of prayer and praise in which the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ are proclaimed through prayer, reading of the Bible, singing, giving God thanks over the bread and wine for the innumerable benefits obtained through the passion of Christ, the breaking of the bread, the blessing of the cup, and the partaking of the body and blood of Christ as instituted at the Last Supper, however one wished to define the Presence. Anglicanism_sentence_42

The consecrated bread and wine which are the true body and blood of Christ after a spiritual manner (not in a crude physical way) are outward symbols of an inner grace given by Christ, which to the repentant conveys forgiveness and cleaning from sin. Anglicanism_sentence_43

While many Anglicans celebrate the Eucharist in similar ways to the predominant western Catholic tradition, a considerable degree of liturgical freedom is permitted, and worship styles range from the simple to elaborate. Anglicanism_sentence_44

Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer (BCP), the collection of services that worshippers in most Anglican churches have used for centuries. Anglicanism_sentence_45

It was called common prayer originally because it was intended for use in all Church of England churches, which had previously followed differing local liturgies. Anglicanism_sentence_46

The term was kept when the church became international, because all Anglicans used to share in its use around the world. Anglicanism_sentence_47

In 1549, the first Book of Common Prayer was compiled by Thomas Cranmer, who was then Archbishop of Canterbury. Anglicanism_sentence_48

While it has since undergone many revisions and Anglican churches in different countries have developed other service books, the Prayer Book is still acknowledged as one of the ties that bind Anglicans together. Anglicanism_sentence_49

Anglican identity Anglicanism_section_2

See also: History of the Anglican Communion Anglicanism_sentence_50

Early history Anglicanism_section_3

The founding of Christianity in Britain is commonly attributed to Joseph of Arimathea, according to Anglican legend, and is commemorated in Glastonbury Abbey. Anglicanism_sentence_51

Many of the early Church Fathers wrote of the presence of Christianity in Roman Britain, with Tertullian stating "those parts of Britain into which the Roman arms had never penetrated were become subject to Christ". Anglicanism_sentence_52

Saint Alban, who was executed in AD 209, is the first Christian martyr in the British Isles. Anglicanism_sentence_53

For this reason he is venerated as the British protomartyr. Anglicanism_sentence_54

The historian Heinrich Zimmer writes that "Just as Britain was a part of the Roman Empire, so the British Church formed (during the fourth century) a branch of the Catholic Church of the West; and during the whole of that century, from the Council of Arles (316) onward, took part in all proceedings concerning the Church." Anglicanism_sentence_55

After Roman troops withdrew from Britain, the "absence of Roman military and governmental influence and overall decline of Roman imperial political power enabled Britain and the surrounding isles to develop distinctively from the rest of the West. Anglicanism_sentence_56

A new culture emerged around the Irish Sea among the Celtic peoples with Celtic Christianity at its core. Anglicanism_sentence_57

What resulted was a form of Christianity distinct from Rome in many traditions and practices." Anglicanism_sentence_58

The historian Charles Thomas, in addition to the Celticist Heinrich Zimmer, writes that the distinction between sub-Roman and post-Roman Insular Christianity, also known as Celtic Christianity, began to become apparent around AD 475, with the Celtic churches allowing married clergy, observing Lent and Easter according to their own calendar, and having a different tonsure; moreover, like the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Celtic churches operated independently of the Pope's authority, as a result of their isolated development in the British Isles. Anglicanism_sentence_59

In what is known as the Gregorian mission, Pope Gregory I sent Augustine of Canterbury to the British Isles in AD 596, with the purpose of evangelising the pagans there (who were largely Anglo-Saxons), as well as to reconcile the Celtic churches in the British Isles to the See of Rome. Anglicanism_sentence_60

In Kent, Augustine persuaded the Anglo-Saxon king "Æthelberht and his people to accept Christianity". Anglicanism_sentence_61

Augustine, on two occasions, "met in conference with members of the Celtic episcopacy, but no understanding was reached between them." Anglicanism_sentence_62

Eventually, the "Christian Church of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria convened the Synod of Whitby in 663/664 to decide whether to follow Celtic or Roman usages." Anglicanism_sentence_63

This meeting, with King Oswiu as the final decision maker, "led to the acceptance of Roman usage elsewhere in England and brought the English Church into close contact with the Continent". Anglicanism_sentence_64

As a result of assuming Roman usages, the Celtic Church surrendered its independence, and, from this point on, the Church in England "was no longer purely Celtic, but became Anglo-Roman-Celtic". Anglicanism_sentence_65

The theologian Christopher L. Webber writes that, although "the Roman form of Christianity became the dominant influence in Britain as in all of western Europe, Anglican Christianity has continued to have a distinctive quality because of its Celtic heritage." Anglicanism_sentence_66

The Church in England remained united with Rome until the English Parliament, through the Act of Supremacy (1534), declared King Henry VIII to be the Supreme Head of the Church of England to fulfill the "English desire to be independent from continental Europe religiously and politically." Anglicanism_sentence_67

As the change is mostly political for the annulment of Henry VIII's marriage, the English Church under Henry VIII continued to maintain Roman Catholic doctrines and the sacraments despite the separation from Rome. Anglicanism_sentence_68

With little exception, Henry VIII allowed no changes during his lifetime. Anglicanism_sentence_69

Under King Edward VI (1547–1553), however, the church in England underwent what is known as the English Reformation, in the course of which it acquired a number of characteristics that would subsequently become recognised as constituting its distinctive "Anglican" identity. Anglicanism_sentence_70

Development Anglicanism_section_4

See also: History of the Anglican Communion Anglicanism_sentence_71

With the Elizabethan Settlement of 1559, the Protestant identity of the English and Irish churches was affirmed by means of parliamentary legislation which mandated allegiance and loyalty to the English Crown in all their members. Anglicanism_sentence_72

The Elizabethan church began to develop distinct religious traditions, assimilating some of the theology of Reformed churches with the services in the Book of Common Prayer (which drew extensively on the Sarum Rite native to England), under the leadership and organisation of a continuing episcopate. Anglicanism_sentence_73

Over the years, these traditions themselves came to command adherence and loyalty. Anglicanism_sentence_74

The Elizabethan Settlement stopped the radical Protestant tendencies under Edward VI by combining the more radical elements of the Second Prayer Book of 1552 with the conservative "Catholic" First Prayer Book of 1549. Anglicanism_sentence_75

From then on, Protestantism was in a "state of arrested development", regardless of the attempts to detach the Church of England from its "idiosyncratic anchorage in the medieval past" by various groups which tried to push it towards a more Reformed theology and governance in the years 1560–1660. Anglicanism_sentence_76

Although two important constitutive elements of what later would emerge as Anglicanism were present in 1559 – scripture, the historic episcopate, the Book of Common Prayer, the teachings of the First Four Ecumenical Councils as the yardstick of catholicity, the teaching of the Church Fathers and Catholic bishops, and informed reason – neither the laypeople nor the clergy perceived themselves as Anglicans at the beginning of Elizabeth I's reign, as there was no such identity. Anglicanism_sentence_77

Neither does the term via media appear until the 1627 to describe a church which refused to identify itself definitely as Catholic or Protestant, or as both, "and had decided in the end that this is virtue rather than a handicap". Anglicanism_sentence_78

Historical studies on the period 1560–1660 written before the late 1960s tended to project the predominant conformist spirituality and doctrine of the 1660s on the ecclesiastical situation one hundred years before, and there was also a tendency to take polemically binary partitions of reality claimed by contestants studied (such as the dichotomies Protestant-"Popish" or "Laudian"-"Puritan") at face value. Anglicanism_sentence_79

Since the late 1960s, these interpretations have been criticised. Anglicanism_sentence_80

Studies on the subject written during the last forty-five years have, however, not reached any consensus on how to interpret this period in English church history. Anglicanism_sentence_81

The extent to which one or several positions concerning doctrine and spirituality existed alongside the more well-known and articulate Puritan movement and the Durham House Party, and the exact extent of continental Calvinism among the English elite and among the ordinary churchgoers from the 1560s to the 1620s are subjects of current and ongoing debate. Anglicanism_sentence_82

In 1662, under King Charles II, a revised Book of Common Prayer was produced, which was acceptable to high churchmen as well as some Puritans, and is still considered authoritative to this day. Anglicanism_sentence_83

In so far as Anglicans derived their identity from both parliamentary legislation and ecclesiastical tradition, a crisis of identity could result wherever secular and religious loyalties came into conflict – and such a crisis indeed occurred in 1776 with the American Declaration of Independence, most of whose signatories were, at least nominally, Anglican. Anglicanism_sentence_84

For these American patriots, even the forms of Anglican services were in doubt, since the Prayer Book rites of Matins, Evensong, and Holy Communion all included specific prayers for the British Royal Family. Anglicanism_sentence_85

Consequently, the conclusion of the War of Independence eventually resulted in the creation of two new Anglican churches, the Episcopal Church in the United States in those states that had achieved independence; and in the 1830s The Church of England in Canada became independent from the Church of England in those North American colonies which had remained under British control and to which many Loyalist churchmen had migrated. Anglicanism_sentence_86

Reluctantly, legislation was passed in the British Parliament (the Consecration of Bishops Abroad Act 1786) to allow bishops to be consecrated for an American church outside of allegiance to the British Crown (since no dioceses had ever been established in the former American colonies). Anglicanism_sentence_87

Both in the United States and in Canada, the new Anglican churches developed novel models of self-government, collective decision-making, and self-supported financing; that would be consistent with separation of religious and secular identities. Anglicanism_sentence_88

In the following century, two further factors acted to accelerate the development of a distinct Anglican identity. Anglicanism_sentence_89

From 1828 and 1829, Dissenters and Catholics could be elected to the House of Commons, which consequently ceased to be a body drawn purely from the established churches of Scotland, England, and Ireland; but which nevertheless, over the following ten years, engaged in extensive reforming legislation affecting the interests of the English and Irish churches; which, by the Acts of Union of 1800, had been reconstituted as the United Church of England and Ireland. Anglicanism_sentence_90

The propriety of this legislation was bitterly contested by the Oxford Movement (Tractarians), who in response developed a vision of Anglicanism as religious tradition deriving ultimately from the ecumenical councils of the patristic church. Anglicanism_sentence_91

Those within the Church of England opposed to the Tractarians, and to their revived ritual practices, introduced a stream of bills in parliament aimed to control innovations in worship. Anglicanism_sentence_92

This only made the dilemma more acute, with consequent continual litigation in the secular and ecclesiastical courts. Anglicanism_sentence_93

Over the same period, Anglican churches engaged vigorously in Christian missions, resulting in the creation, by the end of the century, of over ninety colonial bishoprics, which gradually coalesced into new self-governing churches on the Canadian and American models. Anglicanism_sentence_94

However, the case of John Colenso, Bishop of Natal, reinstated in 1865 by the English Judicial Committee of the Privy Council over the heads of the Church in South Africa, demonstrated acutely that the extension of episcopacy had to be accompanied by a recognised Anglican ecclesiology of ecclesiastical authority, distinct from secular power. Anglicanism_sentence_95

Consequently, at the instigation of the bishops of Canada and South Africa, the first Lambeth Conference was called in 1867; to be followed by further conferences in 1878 and 1888, and thereafter at ten-year intervals. Anglicanism_sentence_96

The various papers and declarations of successive Lambeth Conferences have served to frame the continued Anglican debate on identity, especially as relating to the possibility of ecumenical discussion with other churches. Anglicanism_sentence_97

This ecumenical aspiration became much more of a possibility, as other denominational groups rapidly followed the example of the Anglican Communion in founding their own transnational alliances: the Alliance of Reformed Churches, the Ecumenical Methodist Council, the International Congregational Council, and the Baptist World Alliance. Anglicanism_sentence_98

Theories Anglicanism_section_5

Anglicanism was seen as a middle way, or via media, between two branches of Protestantism, Lutheranism and Reformed Christianity. Anglicanism_sentence_99

In their rejection of absolute parliamentary authority, the Tractarians – and in particular John Henry Newman – looked back to the writings of 17th-century Anglican divines, finding in these texts the idea of the English church as a via media between the Protestant and Catholic traditions. Anglicanism_sentence_100

This view was associated – especially in the writings of Edward Bouverie Pusey – with the theory of Anglicanism as one of three "branches" (alongside the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church) historically arising out of the common tradition of the earliest ecumenical councils. Anglicanism_sentence_101

Newman himself subsequently rejected his theory of the via media, as essentially historicist and static and hence unable to accommodate any dynamic development within the church. Anglicanism_sentence_102

Nevertheless, the aspiration to ground Anglican identity in the writings of the 17th-century divines and in faithfulness to the traditions of the Church Fathers reflects a continuing theme of Anglican ecclesiology, most recently in the writings of Henry Robert McAdoo. Anglicanism_sentence_103

The Tractarian formulation of the theory of the via media between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism was essentially a party platform, and not acceptable to Anglicans outside the confines of the Oxford Movement. Anglicanism_sentence_104

However, this theory of the via media was reworked in the ecclesiological writings of Frederick Denison Maurice, in a more dynamic form that became widely influential. Anglicanism_sentence_105

Both Maurice and Newman saw the Church of England of their day as sorely deficient in faith; but whereas Newman had looked back to a distant past when the light of faith might have appeared to burn brighter, Maurice looked forward to the possibility of a brighter revelation of faith in the future. Anglicanism_sentence_106

Maurice saw the Protestant and Catholic strands within the Church of England as contrary but complementary, both maintaining elements of the true church, but incomplete without the other; such that a true catholic and evangelical church might come into being by a union of opposites. Anglicanism_sentence_107

Central to Maurice's perspective was his belief that the collective elements of family, nation, and church represented a divine order of structures through which God unfolds his continuing work of creation. Anglicanism_sentence_108

Hence, for Maurice, the Protestant tradition had maintained the elements of national distinction which were amongst the marks of the true universal church, but which had been lost within contemporary Roman Catholicism in the internationalism of centralised papal authority. Anglicanism_sentence_109

Within the coming universal church that Maurice foresaw, national churches would each maintain the six signs of Catholicity: baptism, Eucharist, the creeds, Scripture, an episcopal ministry, and a fixed liturgy (which could take a variety of forms in accordance with divinely ordained distinctions in national characteristics). Anglicanism_sentence_110

Not surprisingly, this vision of a becoming universal church as a congregation of autonomous national churches proved highly congenial in Anglican circles; and Maurice's six signs were adapted to form the Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral of 1888. Anglicanism_sentence_111

In the latter decades of the 20th century, Maurice's theory, and the various strands of Anglican thought that derived from it, have been criticised by Stephen Sykes, who argues that the terms Protestant and Catholic as used in these approaches are synthetic constructs denoting ecclesiastic identities unacceptable to those to whom the labels are applied. Anglicanism_sentence_112

Hence, the Catholic Church does not regard itself as a party or strand within the universal church – but rather identifies itself as the universal church. Anglicanism_sentence_113

Moreover, Sykes criticises the proposition, implicit in theories of via media, that there is no distinctive body of Anglican doctrines, other than those of the universal church; accusing this of being an excuse not to undertake systematic doctrine at all. Anglicanism_sentence_114

Contrariwise, Sykes notes a high degree of commonality in Anglican liturgical forms and in the doctrinal understandings expressed within those liturgies. Anglicanism_sentence_115

He proposes that Anglican identity might rather be found within a shared consistent pattern of prescriptive liturgies, established and maintained through canon law, and embodying both a historic deposit of formal statements of doctrine, and also framing the regular reading and proclamation of scripture. Anglicanism_sentence_116

Sykes nevertheless agrees with those heirs of Maurice who emphasise the incompleteness of Anglicanism as a positive feature, and quotes with qualified approval the words of Michael Ramsey: Anglicanism_sentence_117

Doctrine Anglicanism_section_6

Main article: Anglican doctrine Anglicanism_sentence_118

"Catholic and Reformed" Anglicanism_section_7

The distinction between Reformed and Catholic, and the coherence of the two, is a matter of debate within the Anglican Communion. Anglicanism_sentence_119

The Oxford Movement of the mid-19th century revived and extended doctrinal, liturgical, and pastoral practices similar to those of Roman Catholicism. Anglicanism_sentence_120

This extends beyond the ceremony of high-church services to even more theologically significant territory, such as sacramental theology (see Anglican sacraments). Anglicanism_sentence_121

While Anglo-Catholic practices, particularly liturgical ones, have become more common within the tradition over the last century, there are also places where practices and beliefs resonate more closely with the evangelical movements of the 1730s (see Sydney Anglicanism). Anglicanism_sentence_122

Guiding principles Anglicanism_section_8

For high-church Anglicans, doctrine is neither established by a magisterium, nor derived from the theology of an founder (such as Calvinism), nor summed up in a confession of faith beyond the ecumenical creeds (such as the Lutheran Book of Concord). Anglicanism_sentence_123

For them, the earliest Anglican theological documents are its prayer books, which they see as the products of profound theological reflection, compromise, and synthesis. Anglicanism_sentence_124

They emphasise the Book of Common Prayer as a key expression of Anglican doctrine. Anglicanism_sentence_125

The principle of looking to the prayer books as a guide to the parameters of belief and practice is called by the Latin name lex orandi, lex credendi ("the law of prayer is the law of belief"). Anglicanism_sentence_126

Within the prayer books are the fundamentals of Anglican doctrine: the Apostles' and Nicene creeds, the Athanasian Creed (now rarely used), the scriptures (via the lectionary), the sacraments, daily prayer, the catechism, and apostolic succession in the context of the historic threefold ministry. Anglicanism_sentence_127

For some low-church and evangelical Anglicans, the 16th-century Reformed Thirty-Nine Articles form the basis of doctrine. Anglicanism_sentence_128

Distinctives of Anglican belief Anglicanism_section_9

The Thirty-Nine Articles played a significant role in Anglican doctrine and practice. Anglicanism_sentence_129

Following the passing of the 1604 canons, all Anglican clergy had to formally subscribe to the articles. Anglicanism_sentence_130

Today, however, the articles are no longer binding, but are seen as a historical document which has played a significant role in the shaping of Anglican identity. Anglicanism_sentence_131

The degree to which each of the articles has remained influential varies. Anglicanism_sentence_132

On the doctrine of justification, for example, there is a wide range of beliefs within the Anglican Communion, with some Anglo-Catholics arguing for a faith with good works and the sacraments. Anglicanism_sentence_133

At the same time, however, some evangelical Anglicans ascribe to the Reformed emphasis on sola fide ("faith alone") in their doctrine of justification (see Sydney Anglicanism). Anglicanism_sentence_134

Still other Anglicans adopt a nuanced view of justification, taking elements from the early Church Fathers, Catholicism, Protestantism, liberal theology, and latitudinarian thought. Anglicanism_sentence_135

Arguably, the most influential of the original articles has been Article VI on the "sufficiency of scripture", which says that "Scripture containeth all things necessary to salvation: so that whatsoever is not read therein, nor may be proved thereby, is not to be required of any man, that it should be believed as an article of the Faith, or be thought requisite or necessary to salvation." Anglicanism_sentence_136

This article has informed Anglican biblical exegesis and hermeneutics since earliest times. Anglicanism_sentence_137

Anglicans look for authority in their "standard divines" (see below). Anglicanism_sentence_138

Historically, the most influential of these – apart from Cranmer – has been the 16th-century cleric and theologian Richard Hooker, who after 1660 was increasingly portrayed as the founding father of Anglicanism. Anglicanism_sentence_139

Hooker's description of Anglican authority as being derived primarily from scripture, informed by reason (the intellect and the experience of God) and tradition (the practices and beliefs of the historical church), has influenced Anglican self-identity and doctrinal reflection perhaps more powerfully than any other formula. Anglicanism_sentence_140

The analogy of the "three-legged stool" of scripture, reason, and tradition is often incorrectly attributed to Hooker. Anglicanism_sentence_141

Rather, Hooker's description is a hierarchy of authority, with scripture as foundational and reason and tradition as vitally important, but secondary, authorities. Anglicanism_sentence_142

Finally, the extension of Anglicanism into non-English cultures, the growing diversity of prayer books, and the increasing interest in ecumenical dialogue have led to further reflection on the parameters of Anglican identity. Anglicanism_sentence_143

Many Anglicans look to the Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral of 1888 as the sine qua non of communal identity. Anglicanism_sentence_144

In brief, the quadrilateral's four points are the scriptures as containing all things necessary to salvation; the creeds (specifically, the Apostles' and Nicene Creeds) as the sufficient statement of Christian faith; the dominical sacraments of Baptism and Holy Communion; and the historic episcopate. Anglicanism_sentence_145

Anglican divines Anglicanism_section_10

See also: John Donne, George Herbert, and William Laud Anglicanism_sentence_146

Within the Anglican tradition, "divines" are clergy of the Church of England whose theological writings have been considered standards for faith, doctrine, worship, and spirituality, and whose influence has permeated the Anglican Communion in varying degrees through the years. Anglicanism_sentence_147

While there is no authoritative list of these Anglican divines, there are some whose names would likely be found on most lists – those who are commemorated in lesser feasts of the Anglican churches and those whose works are frequently anthologised. Anglicanism_sentence_148

The corpus produced by Anglican divines is diverse. Anglicanism_sentence_149

What they have in common is a commitment to the faith as conveyed by scripture and the Book of Common Prayer, thus regarding prayer and theology in a manner akin to that of the Apostolic Fathers. Anglicanism_sentence_150

On the whole, Anglican divines view the via media of Anglicanism not as a compromise, but as "a positive position, witnessing to the universality of God and God's kingdom working through the fallible, earthly ecclesia Anglicana". Anglicanism_sentence_151

These theologians regard scripture as interpreted through tradition and reason as authoritative in matters concerning salvation. Anglicanism_sentence_152

Reason and tradition, indeed, is extant in and presupposed by scripture, thus implying co-operation between God and humanity, God and nature, and between the sacred and secular. Anglicanism_sentence_153

Faith is thus regarded as incarnational and authority as dispersed. Anglicanism_sentence_154

Amongst the early Anglican divines of the 16th and 17th centuries, the names of Thomas Cranmer, John Jewel, Matthew Parker, Richard Hooker, Lancelot Andrewes, and Jeremy Taylor predominate. Anglicanism_sentence_155

The influential character of Hooker's Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity cannot be overestimated. Anglicanism_sentence_156

Published in 1593 and subsequently, Hooker's eight-volume work is primarily a treatise on church-state relations, but it deals comprehensively with issues of biblical interpretation, soteriology, ethics, and sanctification. Anglicanism_sentence_157

Throughout the work, Hooker makes clear that theology involves prayer and is concerned with ultimate issues and that theology is relevant to the social mission of the church. Anglicanism_sentence_158

The 18th century saw the rise of two important movements in Anglicanism: Cambridge Platonism, with its mystical understanding of reason as the "candle of the Lord", and the evangelical revival, with its emphasis on the personal experience of the Holy Spirit. Anglicanism_sentence_159

The Cambridge Platonist movement evolved into a school called Latitudinarianism, which emphasised reason as the barometer of discernment and took a stance of indifference towards doctrinal and ecclesiological differences. Anglicanism_sentence_160

The evangelical revival, influenced by such figures as John Wesley and Charles Simeon, re-emphasised the importance of justification through faith and the consequent importance of personal conversion. Anglicanism_sentence_161

Some in this movement, such as Wesley and George Whitefield, took the message to the United States, influencing the First Great Awakening and creating an Anglo-American movement called Methodism that would eventually break away, structurally, from the Anglican churches after the American Revolution. Anglicanism_sentence_162

By the 19th century, there was a renewed interest in pre-Reformation English religious thought and practice. Anglicanism_sentence_163

Theologians such as John Keble, Edward Bouverie Pusey, and John Henry Newman had widespread influence in the realm of polemics, homiletics and theological and devotional works, not least because they largely repudiated the old high-church tradition and replaced it with a dynamic appeal to antiquity which looked beyond the Reformers and Anglican formularies. Anglicanism_sentence_164

Their work is largely credited with the development of the Oxford Movement, which sought to reassert Catholic identity and practice in Anglicanism. Anglicanism_sentence_165

In contrast to this movement, clergy such as the Bishop of Liverpool, J. Anglicanism_sentence_166 C. Ryle, sought to uphold the distinctly Reformed identity of the Church of England. Anglicanism_sentence_167

He was not a servant of the status quo, but argued for a lively religion which emphasised grace, holy and charitable living, and the plain use of the 1662 Book of Common Prayer (interpreted in a partisan evangelical way) without additional rituals. Anglicanism_sentence_168

Frederick Denison Maurice, through such works as The Kingdom of Christ, played a pivotal role in inaugurating another movement, Christian socialism. Anglicanism_sentence_169

In this, Maurice transformed Hooker's emphasis on the incarnational nature of Anglican spirituality to an imperative for social justice. Anglicanism_sentence_170

In the 19th century, Anglican biblical scholarship began to assume a distinct character, represented by the so-called "Cambridge triumvirate" of Joseph Lightfoot, F. Anglicanism_sentence_171 J. A. Hort, and Brooke Foss Westcott. Anglicanism_sentence_172

Their orientation is best summed up by Lightfoot's observation that "Life which Christ is and which Christ communicates, the life which fills our whole beings as we realise its capacities, is active fellowship with God." Anglicanism_sentence_173

The earlier part of the 20th century is marked by Charles Gore, with his emphasis on natural revelation, and William Temple's focus on Christianity and society, while, from outside England, Robert Leighton, Archbishop of Glasgow, and several clergy from the United States have been suggested, such as William Porcher DuBose, John Henry Hobart (1775–1830, Bishop of New York 1816–30), William Meade, Phillips Brooks, and Charles Brent. Anglicanism_sentence_174

Churchmanship Anglicanism_section_11

Churchmanship can be defined as the manifestation of theology in the realms of liturgy, piety and, to some extent, spirituality. Anglicanism_sentence_175

Anglican diversity in this respect has tended to reflect the diversity in the tradition's Reformed and Catholic identity. Anglicanism_sentence_176

Different individuals, groups, parishes, dioceses and provinces may identify more closely with one or the other, or some mixture of the two. Anglicanism_sentence_177

The range of Anglican belief and practice became particularly divisive during the 19th century, when some clergy were disciplined and even imprisoned on charges of introducing illegal ritual while, at the same time, others were criticised for engaging in public worship services with ministers of Reformed churches. Anglicanism_sentence_178

Resistance to the growing acceptance and restoration of traditional Catholic ceremonial by the mainstream of Anglicanism ultimately led to the formation of small breakaway churches such as the Free Church of England in England (1844) and the Reformed Episcopal Church in North America (1873). Anglicanism_sentence_179

Anglo-Catholic (and some broad-church) Anglicans celebrate public liturgy in ways that understand worship to be something very special and of utmost importance. Anglicanism_sentence_180

Vestments are worn by the clergy, sung settings are often used, and incense may be used. Anglicanism_sentence_181

Nowadays, in most Anglican churches, the Eucharist is celebrated in a manner similar to the usage of Roman Catholics and some Lutherans, though, in many churches, more traditional, "pre–Vatican II" models of worship are common (e.g., an "eastward orientation" at the altar). Anglicanism_sentence_182

Whilst many Anglo-Catholics derive much of their liturgical practice from that of the pre-Reformation English church, others more closely follow traditional Roman Catholic practices. Anglicanism_sentence_183

The Eucharist may sometimes be celebrated in the form known as High Mass, with a priest, deacon and subdeacon (usually actually a layperson) dressed in traditional vestments, with incense and sanctus bells and prayers adapted from the Roman Missal or other sources by the celebrant. Anglicanism_sentence_184

Such churches may also have forms of eucharistic adoration such as Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. Anglicanism_sentence_185

In terms of personal piety, some Anglicans may recite the Rosary and Angelus, be involved in a devotional society dedicated to "Our Lady" (the Blessed Virgin Mary) and seek the intercession of the saints. Anglicanism_sentence_186

In recent decades, the prayer books of several provinces have, out of deference to a greater agreement with Eastern Conciliarism (and a perceived greater respect accorded Anglicanism by Eastern Orthodoxy than by Roman Catholicism), instituted a number of historically Eastern and Oriental Orthodox elements in their liturgies, including introduction of the Trisagion and deletion of the filioque clause from the Nicene Creed. Anglicanism_sentence_187

For their part, those evangelical (and some broad-church) Anglicans who emphasise the more Protestant aspects of the Church stress the Reformation theme of salvation by grace through faith. Anglicanism_sentence_188

They emphasise the two dominical sacraments of Baptism and Eucharist, viewing the other five as "lesser rites". Anglicanism_sentence_189

Some evangelical Anglicans may even tend to take the inerrancy of scripture literally, adopting the view of Article VI that it contains all things necessary to salvation in an explicit sense. Anglicanism_sentence_190

Worship in churches influenced by these principles tends to be significantly less elaborate, with greater emphasis on the Liturgy of the Word (the reading of the scriptures, the sermon, and the intercessory prayers). Anglicanism_sentence_191

The Order for Holy Communion may be celebrated bi-weekly or monthly (in preference to the daily offices), by priests attired in choir habit, or more regular clothes, rather than Eucharistic vestments. Anglicanism_sentence_192

Ceremony may be in keeping with their view of the provisions of the 17th-century Puritans – being a Reformed interpretation of the Ornaments Rubric – no candles, no incense, no bells, and a minimum of manual actions by the presiding celebrant (such as touching the elements at the Words of Institution). Anglicanism_sentence_193

In recent decades, there has been a growth of charismatic worship among Anglicans. Anglicanism_sentence_194

Both Anglo-Catholics and evangelicals have been affected by this movement such that it is not uncommon to find typically charismatic postures, music, and other themes evident during the services of otherwise Anglo-Catholic or evangelical parishes. Anglicanism_sentence_195

The spectrum of Anglican beliefs and practice is too large to be fit into these labels. Anglicanism_sentence_196

Many Anglicans locate themselves somewhere in the spectrum of the broad-church tradition and consider themselves an amalgam of evangelical and Catholic. Anglicanism_sentence_197

Such Anglicans stress that Anglicanism is the via media (middle way) between the two major strains of Western Christianity and that Anglicanism is like a "bridge" between the two strains. Anglicanism_sentence_198

Sacramental doctrine and practice Anglicanism_section_12

Main article: Anglican sacraments Anglicanism_sentence_199

In accord with its prevailing self-identity as a via media or "middle path" of Western Christianity, Anglican sacramental theology expresses elements in keeping with its status as being both a church in the Catholic tradition as well as a Reformed church. Anglicanism_sentence_200

With respect to sacramental theology, the Catholic heritage is perhaps most strongly asserted in the importance Anglicanism places on the sacraments as a means of grace, sanctification, and salvation, as expressed in the church's liturgy and doctrine. Anglicanism_sentence_201

Of the seven sacraments, all Anglicans recognise Baptism and the Eucharist as being directly instituted by Christ. Anglicanism_sentence_202

The other five – Confession/Absolution, Matrimony, Confirmation, Holy Orders (also called Ordination), and Anointing of the Sick (also called Unction) – are regarded variously as full sacraments by Anglo-Catholics and many high-church and some broad-church Anglicans, but merely as "sacramental rites" by other broad-church and low-church Anglicans, especially evangelicals associated with Reform UK and the Diocese of Sydney. Anglicanism_sentence_203

Eucharistic theology Anglicanism_section_13

Main article: Anglican eucharistic theology Anglicanism_sentence_204

Anglican eucharistic theology is divergent in practice, reflecting the essential comprehensiveness of the tradition. Anglicanism_sentence_205

A few low-church Anglicans take a strictly memorialist (Zwinglian) view of the sacrament. Anglicanism_sentence_206

In other words, they see Holy Communion as a memorial to Christ's suffering, and participation in the Eucharist as both a re-enactment of the Last Supper and a foreshadowing of the heavenly banquet – the fulfilment of the eucharistic promise. Anglicanism_sentence_207

Other low-church Anglicans believe in the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist but deny that the presence of Christ is carnal or is necessarily localised in the bread and wine. Anglicanism_sentence_208

Despite explicit criticism in the Thirty-Nine Articles, many high-church or Anglo-Catholic Anglicans hold, more or less, the Catholic view of the real presence as expressed in the doctrine of transubstantiation, seeing the Eucharist as a liturgical representation of Christ's atoning sacrifice with the elements actually transformed into Christ's body and blood. Anglicanism_sentence_209

The majority of Anglicans, however, have in common a belief in the real presence, defined in one way or another. Anglicanism_sentence_210

To that extent, they are in the company of the continental reformer Martin Luther and Calvin rather than Ulrich Zwingli. Anglicanism_sentence_211

The Catechism of the American BCP of 1976 repeats the standard Anglican view ("The outward and visible sign in the Eucharist is the bread and wine"..."The inward and spiritual grace in the Holy Communion is the Body and Blood of Christ given to his people, and received by faith") without further definition. Anglicanism_sentence_212

It should be remembered that Anglicanism has no official doctrine on this matter, believing it is wiser to leave the Presence a mystery. Anglicanism_sentence_213

The faithful can believe privately whatever explanation they favor, be it transubstantiation, consubstantiation, receptionism, or virtualism (the two most congenial to Anglicans for centuries until the Oxford Movement), each of which espouses belief in the real presence in one way or another, or memorialism, which has never been an option with Anglicans. Anglicanism_sentence_214

A famous Anglican aphorism regarding Christ's presence in the sacrament, commonly misattributed to Queen Elizabeth I, is first found in print in a poem by John Donne: Anglicanism_sentence_215

An Anglican position on the eucharistic sacrifice ("Sacrifice of the Mass") was expressed in the response Saepius officio of the Archbishops of Canterbury and York to Pope Leo XIII's Papal Encyclical Apostolicae curae: viz. that the Prayer Book contained a strong sacrificial theology. Anglicanism_sentence_216

Later revisions of the Prayer Book influenced by the Scottish Canon of 1764 first adopted by the Protestant Episcopal Church in 1789 made this assertion quite evident: "we do make and celebrate before thy Divine Majesty with these thy holy gifts, which we now OFFER unto thee, the memorial thy Son has commanded us to make", which is repeated in the 1929 English BCP and included in such words or others such as "present" or "show forth" in subsequent revisions. Anglicanism_sentence_217

Anglican and Roman Catholic representatives declared that they had "substantial agreement on the doctrine of the Eucharist" in the Windsor Statement on Eucharistic Doctrine by the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Consultation (1971) and the Elucidation of the ARCIC Windsor Statement (1979). Anglicanism_sentence_218

The final response (1991) to these documents by the Vatican made it plain that it did not consider the degree of agreement reached to be satisfactory. Anglicanism_sentence_219

Practices Anglicanism_section_14

Further information on the daily Anglican morning office: Morning Prayer (Anglican) Anglicanism_sentence_220

See also: Evening Prayer (Anglican) and Prayer of Humble Access Anglicanism_sentence_221

In Anglicanism, there is a distinction between liturgy, which is the formal public and communal worship of the Church, and personal prayer and devotion, which may be public or private. Anglicanism_sentence_222

Liturgy is regulated by the prayer books and consists of the Holy Eucharist (some call it Holy Communion or Mass), the other six Sacraments, and the Divine Office or Liturgy of the Hours. Anglicanism_sentence_223

Book of Common Prayer Anglicanism_section_15

The Book of Common Prayer (BCP) is the foundational prayer book of Anglicanism. Anglicanism_sentence_224

The original book of 1549 (revised in 1552) was one of the instruments of the English Reformation, replacing the various "uses" or rites in Latin that had been used in different parts of the country with a single compact volume in the language of the people, so that "now from henceforth all the Realm shall have but one use". Anglicanism_sentence_225

Suppressed under Queen Mary I, it was revised in 1559, and then again in 1662, after the Restoration of Charles II. Anglicanism_sentence_226

This version was made mandatory in England and Wales by the Act of Uniformity and was in standard use until the mid-20th century. Anglicanism_sentence_227

With British colonial expansion from the 17th century onwards, Anglican churches were planted around the globe. Anglicanism_sentence_228

These churches at first used and then revised the Book of Common Prayer until they, like their parent church, produced prayer books which took into account the developments in liturgical study and practice in the 19th and 20th centuries, which come under the general heading of the Liturgical Movement. Anglicanism_sentence_229

Worship Anglicanism_section_16

See also: Church of England parish church Anglicanism_sentence_230

Anglican worship services are open to all visitors. Anglicanism_sentence_231

Anglican worship originates principally in the reforms of Thomas Cranmer, who aimed to create a set order of service like that of the pre-Reformation church but less complex in its seasonal variety and said in English rather than Latin. Anglicanism_sentence_232

This use of a set order of service is not unlike the Catholic tradition. Anglicanism_sentence_233

Traditionally, the pattern was that laid out in the Book of Common Prayer. Anglicanism_sentence_234

Although many Anglican churches now use a wide range of modern service books written in the local language, the structures of the Book of Common Prayer are largely retained. Anglicanism_sentence_235

Churches which call themselves Anglican will have identified themselves so because they use some form or variant of the Book of Common Prayer in the shaping of their worship. Anglicanism_sentence_236

Anglican worship, however, is as diverse as Anglican theology. Anglicanism_sentence_237

A contemporary "low-church" service may differ little from the worship of many mainstream non-Anglican Protestant churches. Anglicanism_sentence_238

The service is constructed around a sermon focused on Biblical exposition and opened with one or more Bible readings and closed by a series of prayers (both set and extemporised) and hymns or songs. Anglicanism_sentence_239

A "high-church" or Anglo-Catholic service, by contrast, is usually a more formal liturgy celebrated by clergy in distinctive vestments and may be almost indistinguishable from a Roman Catholic service, often resembling the "pre–Vatican II" Tridentine rite. Anglicanism_sentence_240

Between these extremes are a variety of styles of worship, often involving a robed choir and the use of the organ to accompany the singing and to provide music before and after the service. Anglicanism_sentence_241

Anglican churches tend to have pews or chairs, and it is usual for the congregation to kneel for some prayers but to stand for hymns and other parts of the service such as the Gloria, Collect, Gospel reading, Creed and either the Preface or all of the Eucharistic Prayer. Anglicanism_sentence_242

Anglicans may genuflect or cross themselves in the same way as Roman Catholics. Anglicanism_sentence_243

Other more traditional Anglicans tend to follow the 1662 Book of Common Prayer, and retain the use of the King James Bible. Anglicanism_sentence_244

This is typical in many Anglican cathedrals and particularly in Royal Peculiars such as the Savoy Chapel and the Queen's Chapel. Anglicanism_sentence_245

These services reflect older Anglican liturgies and differ from the Traditional Anglican Communion in that they are in favour of women priests and the ability of clergy to marry. Anglicanism_sentence_246

These Anglican church services include classical music instead of songs, hymns from the New English Hymnal (usually excluding modern hymns such as "Lord of the Dance"), and are generally non-evangelical and formal in practice. Anglicanism_sentence_247

Until the mid-20th century the main Sunday service was typically morning prayer, but the Eucharist has once again become the standard form of Sunday worship in many Anglican churches; this again is similar to Roman Catholic practice. Anglicanism_sentence_248

Other common Sunday services include an early morning Eucharist without music, an abbreviated Eucharist following a service of morning prayer, and a service of evening prayer, sometimes in the form of sung Evensong, usually celebrated between 3 and 6 pm. Anglicanism_sentence_249

The late-evening service of Compline was revived in parish use in the early 20th century. Anglicanism_sentence_250

Many Anglican churches will also have daily morning and evening prayer, and some have midweek or even daily celebration of the Eucharist. Anglicanism_sentence_251

An Anglican service (whether or not a Eucharist) will include readings from the Bible that are generally taken from a standardised lectionary, which provides for much of the Bible (and some passages from the Apocrypha) to be read out loud in the church over a cycle of one, two, or three years (depending on which eucharistic and office lectionaries are used, respectively). Anglicanism_sentence_252

The sermon (or homily) is typically about ten to twenty minutes in length, often comparably short to sermons in evangelical churches. Anglicanism_sentence_253

Even in the most informal Anglican services, it is common for set prayers such as the weekly Collect to be read. Anglicanism_sentence_254

There are also set forms for intercessory prayer, though this is now more often extemporaneous. Anglicanism_sentence_255

In high and Anglo-Catholic churches there are generally prayers for the dead. Anglicanism_sentence_256

Although Anglican public worship is usually ordered according to the canonically approved services, in practice many Anglican churches use forms of service outside these norms. Anglicanism_sentence_257

Liberal churches may use freely structured or experimental forms of worship, including patterns borrowed from ecumenical traditions such as those of the Taizé Community or the Iona Community. Anglicanism_sentence_258

Anglo-Catholic parishes might use the modern Roman Catholic liturgy of the Mass or more traditional forms, such as the Tridentine Mass (which is translated into English in the English Missal), the Anglican Missal, or, less commonly, the Sarum Rite. Anglicanism_sentence_259

Catholic devotions such as the Rosary, Angelus, and Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament are also common among Anglo-Catholics. Anglicanism_sentence_260

Eucharistic discipline Anglicanism_section_17

Only baptised persons are eligible to receive communion, although in many churches communion is restricted to those who have not only been baptised but also confirmed. Anglicanism_sentence_261

In many Anglican provinces, however, all baptised Christians are now often invited to receive communion and some dioceses have regularised a system for admitting baptised young people to communion before they are confirmed. Anglicanism_sentence_262

The discipline of fasting before communion is practised by some Anglicans. Anglicanism_sentence_263

Most Anglican priests require the presence of at least one other person for the celebration of the Eucharist (referring back to Christ's statement in Matthew 18:20, "When two or more are gathered in my name, I will be in the midst of them. Anglicanism_sentence_264

"), though some Anglo-Catholic priests (like Roman Catholic priests) may say private Masses. Anglicanism_sentence_265

As in the Roman Catholic Church, it is a canonical requirement to use fermented wine for communion. Anglicanism_sentence_266

Unlike in Roman Catholicism, the consecrated bread and wine are always offered to the congregation at a eucharistic service ("communion in both kinds"). Anglicanism_sentence_267

This practice is becoming more frequent in the Roman Catholic Church as well, especially through the Neocatechumenal Way. Anglicanism_sentence_268

In some churches, the sacrament is reserved in a tabernacle or aumbry with a lighted candle or lamp nearby. Anglicanism_sentence_269

In Anglican churches, only a priest or a bishop may be the celebrant at the Eucharist. Anglicanism_sentence_270

Divine office Anglicanism_section_18

All Anglican prayer books contain offices for Morning Prayer (Matins) and Evening Prayer (Evensong). Anglicanism_sentence_271

In the original Book of Common Prayer, these were derived from combinations of the ancient monastic offices of Matins and Lauds; and Vespers and Compline, respectively. Anglicanism_sentence_272

The prayer offices have an important place in Anglican history. Anglicanism_sentence_273

Prior to the Catholic revival of the 19th century, which eventually restored the Holy Eucharist as the principal Sunday liturgy, and especially during the 18th century, a morning service combining Matins, the Litany, and ante-Communion comprised the usual expression of common worship, while Matins and Evensong were sung daily in cathedrals and some collegiate chapels. Anglicanism_sentence_274

This nurtured a tradition of distinctive Anglican chant applied to the canticles and psalms used at the offices (although plainsong is often used as well). Anglicanism_sentence_275

In some official and many unofficial Anglican service books, these offices are supplemented by other offices such as the Little Hours of Prime and prayer during the day such as (Terce, Sext, None, and Compline). Anglicanism_sentence_276

Some Anglican monastic communities have a Daily Office based on that of the Book of Common Prayer but with additional antiphons and canticles, etc., for specific days of the week, specific psalms, etc. See, for example, Order of the Holy Cross and Order of St Helena, editors, A Monastic Breviary (Wilton, Conn.: Morehouse-Barlow, 1976). Anglicanism_sentence_277

The All Saints Sisters of the Poor, with convents in Catonsville, Maryland, and elsewhere, use an elaborated version of the Anglican Daily Office. Anglicanism_sentence_278

The Society of St. Francis publishes Celebrating Common Prayer, which has become especially popular for use among Anglicans. Anglicanism_sentence_279

In England, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and some other Anglican provinces, the modern prayer books contain four offices: Anglicanism_sentence_280


  • Morning Prayer, corresponding to Matins, Lauds and Prime;Anglicanism_item_0_0
  • Prayer During the Day, roughly corresponding to the combination of Terce, Sext, and None (Noonday Prayer in the USA);Anglicanism_item_0_1
  • Evening Prayer, corresponding to Vespers (and Compline);Anglicanism_item_0_2
  • Compline.Anglicanism_item_0_3

In addition, most prayer books include a section of prayers and devotions for family use. Anglicanism_sentence_281

In the US, these offices are further supplemented by an "Order of Worship for the Evening", a prelude to or an abbreviated form of Evensong, partly derived from Orthodox prayers. Anglicanism_sentence_282

In the United Kingdom, the publication of Daily Prayer, the third volume of Common Worship, was published in 2005. Anglicanism_sentence_283

It retains the services for Morning and Evening Prayer and Compline and includes a section entitled "Prayer during the Day". Anglicanism_sentence_284

A New Zealand Prayer Book of 1989 provides different outlines for Matins and Evensong on each day of the week, as well as "Midday Prayer", "Night Prayer" and "Family Prayer". Anglicanism_sentence_285

Some Anglicans who pray the office on daily basis use the present Divine Office of the Roman Catholic Church. Anglicanism_sentence_286

In many cities, especially in England, Anglican and Roman Catholic priests and lay people often meet several times a week to pray the office in common. Anglicanism_sentence_287

A small but enthusiastic minority use the Anglican Breviary, or other translations and adaptations of the pre–Vatican II Roman Rite and Sarum Rite, along with supplemental material from cognate western sources, to provide such things as a common of Octaves, a common of Holy Women, and other additional material. Anglicanism_sentence_288

Others may privately use idiosyncratic forms borrowed from a wide range of Christian traditions. Anglicanism_sentence_289

"Quires and Places where they sing" Anglicanism_section_19

Main article: Anglican church music Anglicanism_sentence_290

In the late medieval period, many English cathedrals and monasteries had established small choirs of trained lay clerks and boy choristers to perform polyphonic settings of the Mass in their Lady chapels. Anglicanism_sentence_291

Although these "Lady Masses" were discontinued at the Reformation, the associated musical tradition was maintained in the Elizabethan Settlement through the establishment of choral foundations for daily singing of the Divine Office by expanded choirs of men and boys. Anglicanism_sentence_292

This resulted from an explicit addition by Elizabeth herself to the injunctions accompanying the 1559 Book of Common Prayer (that had itself made no mention of choral worship) by which existing choral foundations and choir schools were instructed to be continued, and their endowments secured. Anglicanism_sentence_293

Consequently, some thirty-four cathedrals, collegiate churches, and royal chapels maintained paid establishments of lay singing men and choristers in the late 16th century. Anglicanism_sentence_294

All save four of these have – with interruptions during the Commonwealth and the COVID-19 pandemic – continued daily choral prayer and praise to this day. Anglicanism_sentence_295

In the Offices of Matins and Evensong in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer, these choral establishments are specified as "Quires and Places where they sing". Anglicanism_sentence_296

For nearly three centuries, this round of daily professional choral worship represented a tradition entirely distinct from that embodied in the intoning of Parish Clerks, and the singing of "west gallery choirs" which commonly accompanied weekly worship in English parish churches. Anglicanism_sentence_297

In 1841, the rebuilt Leeds Parish Church established a surpliced choir to accompany parish services, drawing explicitly on the musical traditions of the ancient choral foundations. Anglicanism_sentence_298

Over the next century, the Leeds example proved immensely popular and influential for choirs in cathedrals, parish churches, and schools throughout the Anglican communion. Anglicanism_sentence_299

More or less extensively adapted, this choral tradition also became the direct inspiration for robed choirs leading congregational worship in a wide range of Christian denominations. Anglicanism_sentence_300

In 1719, the cathedral choirs of Gloucester, Hereford, and Worcester combined to establish the annual Three Choirs Festival, the precursor for the multitude of summer music festivals since. Anglicanism_sentence_301

By the 20th century, the choral tradition had become for many the most accessible face of worldwide Anglicanism – especially as promoted through the regular broadcasting of choral evensong by the BBC; and also in the annual televising of the festival of Nine Lessons and Carols from King's College, Cambridge. Anglicanism_sentence_302

Composers closely concerned with this tradition include Edward Elgar, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Gustav Holst, Charles Villiers Stanford, and Benjamin Britten. Anglicanism_sentence_303

A number of important 20th-century works by non-Anglican composers were originally commissioned for the Anglican choral tradition – for example, the Chichester Psalms of Leonard Bernstein and the Nunc dimittis of Arvo Pärt. Anglicanism_sentence_304

Organisation of the Anglican Communion Anglicanism_section_20

Main article: Anglican Communion Anglicanism_sentence_305

Principles of governance Anglicanism_section_21

Contrary to popular misconception, the British monarch is not the constitutional "head" but in law the "Supreme Governor" of the Church of England, nor does he or she have any role in provinces outside England. Anglicanism_sentence_306

The role of the crown in the Church of England is practically limited to the appointment of bishops, including the Archbishop of Canterbury, and even this role is limited, as the Church presents the government with a short list of candidates from which to choose. Anglicanism_sentence_307

This process is accomplished through collaboration with and consent of ecclesial representatives (see Ecclesiastical Commissioners). Anglicanism_sentence_308

The monarch has no constitutional role in Anglican churches in other parts of the world, although the prayer books of several countries where she is head of state maintain prayers for her as sovereign. Anglicanism_sentence_309

A characteristic of Anglicanism is that it has no international juridical authority. Anglicanism_sentence_310

All 39 provinces of the Anglican Communion are autonomous, each with their own primate and governing structure. Anglicanism_sentence_311

These provinces may take the form of national churches (such as in Canada, Uganda or Japan) or a collection of nations (such as the West Indies, Central Africa or South Asia), or geographical regions (such as Vanuatu and Solomon Islands) etc. Anglicanism_sentence_312

Within these provinces there may exist subdivisions, called ecclesiastical provinces, under the jurisdiction of a metropolitan archbishop. Anglicanism_sentence_313

All provinces of the Anglican Communion consist of dioceses, each under the jurisdiction of a bishop. Anglicanism_sentence_314

In the Anglican tradition, bishops must be consecrated according to the strictures of apostolic succession, which Anglicans consider one of the marks of Catholicity. Anglicanism_sentence_315

Apart from bishops, there are two other orders of ordained ministry: deacon and priest. Anglicanism_sentence_316

No requirement is made for clerical celibacy, though many Anglo-Catholic priests have traditionally been bachelors. Anglicanism_sentence_317

Because of innovations that occurred at various points after the latter half of the 20th century, women may be ordained as deacons in almost all provinces, as priests in most and as bishops in many. Anglicanism_sentence_318

Anglican religious orders and communities, suppressed in England during the Reformation, have re-emerged, especially since the mid-19th century, and now have an international presence and influence. Anglicanism_sentence_319

Government in the Anglican Communion is synodical, consisting of three houses of laity (usually elected parish representatives), clergy and bishops. Anglicanism_sentence_320

National, provincial and diocesan synods maintain different scopes of authority, depending on their canons and constitutions. Anglicanism_sentence_321

Anglicanism is not congregational in its polity: it is the diocese, not the parish church, which is the smallest unit of authority in the church. Anglicanism_sentence_322

(See Episcopal polity). Anglicanism_sentence_323

Archbishop of Canterbury Anglicanism_section_22

The Archbishop of Canterbury has a precedence of honour over the other primates of the Anglican Communion, and for a province to be considered a part of the communion means specifically to be in full communion with the see of Canterbury – though this principle is currently subject to considerable debate, especially among those in the so-called Global South, including American Anglicans. Anglicanism_sentence_324

The archbishop is, therefore, recognised as primus inter pares ("first amongst equals"), even though he does not exercise any direct authority in any province outside England, of which he is chief primate. Anglicanism_sentence_325

Rowan Williams, the Archbishop of Canterbury from 2002 to 2012, was the first archbishop appointed from outside the Church of England since the Reformation: he was formerly the Archbishop of Wales. Anglicanism_sentence_326

As "spiritual head" of the Communion, the Archbishop of Canterbury maintains a certain moral authority, and has the right to determine which churches will be in communion with his see. Anglicanism_sentence_327

He hosts and chairs the Lambeth Conferences of Anglican Communion bishops, and decides who will be invited to them. Anglicanism_sentence_328

He also hosts and chairs the Anglican Communion Primates' Meeting and is responsible for the invitations to it. Anglicanism_sentence_329

He acts as president of the secretariat of the Anglican Communion Office and its deliberative body, the Anglican Consultative Council. Anglicanism_sentence_330

Conferences Anglicanism_section_23

The Anglican Communion has no international juridical organisation. Anglicanism_sentence_331

All international bodies are consultative and collaborative, and their resolutions are not legally binding on the autonomous provinces of the Communion. Anglicanism_sentence_332

There are three international bodies of note. Anglicanism_sentence_333


  • The Lambeth Conference is the oldest international consultation. It was first convened by Archbishop Charles Longley in 1867 as a vehicle for bishops of the Communion to "discuss matters of practical interest, and pronounce what we deem expedient in resolutions which may serve as safe guides to future action". Since then, it has been held roughly every ten years. Invitation is by the Archbishop of Canterbury.Anglicanism_item_1_4
  • The Anglican Consultative Council was created by a 1968 Lambeth Conference resolution, and meets . The council consists of representative bishops, clergy, and laity chosen by the thirty-eight provinces. The body has a permanent secretariat, the Anglican Communion Office, of which the Archbishop of Canterbury is president.Anglicanism_item_1_5
  • The Anglican Communion Primates' Meeting is the most recent manifestation of international consultation and deliberation, having been first convened by Archbishop Donald Coggan in 1978 as a forum for "leisurely thought, prayer and deep consultation".Anglicanism_item_1_6

Ordained ministry Anglicanism_section_24

Further information on the Anglican priesthood: Anglican ministry Anglicanism_sentence_334

Like the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox churches, the Anglican Communion maintains the threefold ministry of deacons, presbyters (usually called "priests"), and bishops. Anglicanism_sentence_335

Episcopate Anglicanism_section_25

Main article: Bishop Anglicanism_sentence_336

Bishops, who possess the fullness of Christian priesthood, are the successors of the Apostles. Anglicanism_sentence_337

Primates, archbishops, and metropolitans are all bishops and members of the historical episcopate who derive their authority through apostolic succession – an unbroken line of bishops that can be traced back to the 12 apostles of Jesus. Anglicanism_sentence_338

Priesthood Anglicanism_section_26

Bishops are assisted by priests and deacons. Anglicanism_sentence_339

Most ordained ministers in the Anglican Communion are priests, who usually work in parishes within a diocese. Anglicanism_sentence_340

Priests are in charge of the spiritual life of parishes and are usually called the rector or vicar. Anglicanism_sentence_341

A curate (or, more correctly, an "assistant curate") is a priest or deacon who assists the parish priest. Anglicanism_sentence_342

Non-parochial priests may earn their living by any vocation, although employment by educational institutions or charitable organisations is most common. Anglicanism_sentence_343

Priests also serve as chaplains of hospitals, schools, prisons, and in the armed forces. Anglicanism_sentence_344

An archdeacon is a priest or deacon responsible for administration of an archdeaconry, which is often the name given to the principal subdivisions of a diocese. Anglicanism_sentence_345

An archdeacon represents the diocesan bishop in his or her archdeaconry. Anglicanism_sentence_346

In the Church of England, the position of archdeacon can only be held by someone in priestly orders who has been ordained for at least six years. Anglicanism_sentence_347

In some other parts of the Anglican Communion, the position can also be held by deacons. Anglicanism_sentence_348

In parts of the Anglican Communion where women cannot be ordained as priests or bishops but can be ordained as deacons, the position of archdeacon is effectively the most senior office to which an ordained woman can be appointed. Anglicanism_sentence_349

A dean is a priest who is the principal cleric of a cathedral or other collegiate church and the head of the chapter of canons. Anglicanism_sentence_350

If the cathedral or collegiate church has its own parish, the dean is usually also rector of the parish. Anglicanism_sentence_351

However, in the Church of Ireland, the roles are often separated, and most cathedrals in the Church of England do not have associated parishes. Anglicanism_sentence_352

In the Church in Wales, however, most cathedrals are parish churches and their deans are now also vicars of their parishes. Anglicanism_sentence_353

The Anglican Communion recognises Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox ordinations as valid. Anglicanism_sentence_354

Outside the Anglican Communion, Anglican ordinations (at least of male priests) are recognised by the Old Catholic Church, Porvoo Communion Lutherans, and various Independent Catholic churches. Anglicanism_sentence_355

Diaconate Anglicanism_section_27

Main article: Deacon Anglicanism_sentence_356

In Anglican churches, deacons often work directly in ministry to the marginalised inside and outside the church: the poor, the sick, the hungry, the imprisoned. Anglicanism_sentence_357

Unlike Orthodox and most Roman Catholic deacons who may be married only before ordination, deacons are permitted to marry freely both before and after ordination, as are priests. Anglicanism_sentence_358

Most deacons are preparing for priesthood and usually only remain as deacons for about a year before being ordained priests. Anglicanism_sentence_359

However, there are some deacons who remain so. Anglicanism_sentence_360

Many provinces of the Anglican Communion ordain both men and women as deacons. Anglicanism_sentence_361

Many of those provinces that ordain women to the priesthood previously allowed them to be ordained only to the diaconate. Anglicanism_sentence_362

The effect of this was the creation of a large and overwhelmingly female diaconate for a time, as most men proceeded to be ordained priest after a short time as a deacon. Anglicanism_sentence_363

Deacons, in some dioceses, can be granted licences to solemnise matrimony, usually under the instruction of their parish priest and bishop. Anglicanism_sentence_364

They sometimes officiate at Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament in churches which have this service. Anglicanism_sentence_365

Deacons are not permitted to preside at the Eucharist (but can lead worship with the distribution of already consecrated communion where this is permitted), absolve sins, or pronounce a blessing. Anglicanism_sentence_366

It is the prohibition against deacons pronouncing blessings that leads some to believe that deacons cannot solemnise matrimony. Anglicanism_sentence_367

Laity Anglicanism_section_28

All baptised members of the church are called Christian faithful, truly equal in dignity and in the work to build the church. Anglicanism_sentence_368

Some non-ordained people also have a formal public ministry, often on a full-time and long-term basis – such as lay readers (also known as readers), churchwardens, vergers, and sextons. Anglicanism_sentence_369

Other lay positions include acolytes (male or female, often children), lay eucharistic ministers (also known as chalice bearers), and lay eucharistic visitors (who deliver consecrated bread and wine to "shut-ins" or members of the parish who are unable to leave home or hospital to attend the Eucharist). Anglicanism_sentence_370

Lay people also serve on the parish altar guild (preparing the altar and caring for its candles, linens, flowers, etc.), in the choir and as cantors, as ushers and greeters, and on the church council (called the "vestry" in some countries), which is the governing body of a parish. Anglicanism_sentence_371

Religious orders Anglicanism_section_29

See also: Anglican religious order and Anglican devotions Anglicanism_sentence_372

A small yet influential aspect of Anglicanism is its religious orders and communities. Anglicanism_sentence_373

Shortly after the beginning of the Catholic Revival in the Church of England, there was a renewal of interest in re-establishing religious and monastic orders and communities. Anglicanism_sentence_374

One of Henry VIII's earliest acts was their dissolution and seizure of their assets. Anglicanism_sentence_375

In 1841, Marian Rebecca Hughes became the first woman to take the vows of religion in communion with the Province of Canterbury since the Reformation. Anglicanism_sentence_376

In 1848, Priscilla Lydia Sellon became the superior of the Society of the Most Holy Trinity at Devonport, Plymouth, the first organised religious order. Anglicanism_sentence_377

Sellon is called "the restorer, after three centuries, of the religious life in the Church of England". Anglicanism_sentence_378

For the next one hundred years, religious orders for both men and women proliferated throughout the world, becoming a numerically small but disproportionately influential feature of global Anglicanism. Anglicanism_sentence_379

Anglican religious life at one time boasted hundreds of orders and communities, and thousands of religious. Anglicanism_sentence_380

An important aspect of Anglican religious life is that most communities of both men and women lived their lives consecrated to God under the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience (or, in Benedictine communities, Stability, Conversion of Life, and Obedience) by practising a mixed life of reciting the full eight services of the Breviary in choir, along with a daily Eucharist, plus service to the poor. Anglicanism_sentence_381

The mixed life, combining aspects of the contemplative orders and the active orders, remains to this day a hallmark of Anglican religious life. Anglicanism_sentence_382

Another distinctive feature of Anglican religious life is the existence of some mixed-gender communities. Anglicanism_sentence_383

Since the 1960s, there has been a sharp decline in the number of professed religious in most parts of the Anglican Communion, especially in North America, Europe, and Australia. Anglicanism_sentence_384

Many once large and international communities have been reduced to a single convent or monastery with memberships of elderly men or women. Anglicanism_sentence_385

In the last few decades of the 20th century, novices have for most communities been few and far between. Anglicanism_sentence_386

Some orders and communities have already become extinct. Anglicanism_sentence_387

There are, however, still thousands of Anglican religious working today in approximately 200 communities around the world, and religious life in many parts of the Communion – especially in developing nations – flourishes. Anglicanism_sentence_388

The most significant growth has been in the Melanesian countries of the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and Papua New Guinea. Anglicanism_sentence_389

The Melanesian Brotherhood, founded at Tabalia, Guadalcanal, in 1925 by Ini Kopuria, is now the largest Anglican Community in the world, with over 450 brothers in the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, and the United Kingdom. Anglicanism_sentence_390

The Sisters of the Church, started by Mother Emily Ayckbowm in England in 1870, has more sisters in the Solomons than all their other communities. Anglicanism_sentence_391

The Community of the Sisters of Melanesia, started in 1980 by Sister Nesta Tiboe, is a growing community of women throughout the Solomon Islands. Anglicanism_sentence_392

The Society of Saint Francis, founded as a union of various Franciscan orders in the 1920s, has experienced great growth in the Solomon Islands. Anglicanism_sentence_393

Other communities of religious have been started by Anglicans in Papua New Guinea and in Vanuatu. Anglicanism_sentence_394

Most Melanesian Anglican religious are in their early to mid-20s – vows may be temporary and it is generally assumed that brothers, at least, will leave and marry in due course – making the average age 40 to 50 years younger than their brothers and sisters in other countries. Anglicanism_sentence_395

Growth of religious orders, especially for women, is marked in certain parts of Africa. Anglicanism_sentence_396

Worldwide distribution Anglicanism_section_30

Anglicanism represents the third largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Churches. Anglicanism_sentence_397

The number of Anglicans in the world is over 85 million as of 2011. Anglicanism_sentence_398

The 11 provinces in Africa saw growth in the last two decades. Anglicanism_sentence_399

They now include 36.7 million members, more Anglicans than there are in England. Anglicanism_sentence_400

England remains the largest single Anglican province, with 26 million members. Anglicanism_sentence_401

In most industrialised countries, church attendance has decreased since the 19th century. Anglicanism_sentence_402

Anglicanism's presence in the rest of the world is due to large-scale emigration, the establishment of expatriate communities, or the work of missionaries. Anglicanism_sentence_403

The Church of England has been a church of missionaries since the 17th century, when the Church first left English shores with colonists who founded what would become the United States, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa, and established Anglican churches. Anglicanism_sentence_404

For example, an Anglican chaplain, Robert Wolfall, with Martin Frobisher's Arctic expedition, celebrated the Eucharist in 1578 in Frobisher Bay. Anglicanism_sentence_405

The first Anglican church in the Americas was built at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607. Anglicanism_sentence_406

By the 18th century, missionaries worked to establish Anglican churches in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Anglicanism_sentence_407

The great Church of England missionary societies were founded; for example, the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (SPCK) in 1698, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG) in 1701, and the Church Mission Society (CMS) in 1799. Anglicanism_sentence_408

The 19th century saw the founding and expansion of social-oriented evangelism with societies such as the Church Pastoral Aid Society (CPAS) in 1836, Mission to Seafarers in 1856, Girls' Friendly Society (GFS) in 1875, Mothers' Union in 1876, and Church Army in 1882, all carrying out a personal form of evangelism. Anglicanism_sentence_409

The 20th century saw the Church of England developing new forms of evangelism such as the Alpha course in 1990, which was developed and propagated from Holy Trinity Brompton Church in London. Anglicanism_sentence_410

In the 21st century, there has been renewed effort to reach children and youth. Anglicanism_sentence_411

Fresh expressions is a Church of England missionary initiative to youth begun in 2005, and has ministries at a skate park through the efforts of St George's Church, Benfleet, Essex – Diocese of Chelmsford – or youth groups with evocative names, like the C.L.A.W (Christ Little Angels – Whatever!) Anglicanism_sentence_412

youth group at Coventry Cathedral. Anglicanism_sentence_413

And for the unchurched who do not actually wish to visit a brick and mortar church, there are Internet ministries such as the Diocese of Oxford's online Anglican i-Church, which appeared on the web in 2005. Anglicanism_sentence_414

Ecumenism Anglicanism_section_31

Further information on the ongoing dialogue between Anglicanism and the wider Church: Anglican communion and ecumenism Anglicanism_sentence_415

Anglican interest in ecumenical dialogue can be traced back to the time of the Reformation and dialogues with both Orthodox and Lutheran churches in the 16th century. Anglicanism_sentence_416

In the 19th century, with the rise of the Oxford Movement, there arose greater concern for reunion of the churches of "Catholic confession". Anglicanism_sentence_417

This desire to work towards full communion with other denominations led to the development of the Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral, approved by the third Lambeth Conference of 1888. Anglicanism_sentence_418

The four points (the sufficiency of scripture, the historic creeds, the two dominical sacraments, and the historic episcopate) were proposed as a basis for discussion, although they have frequently been taken as a non-negotiable bottom-line for any form of reunion. Anglicanism_sentence_419

Theological diversity Anglicanism_section_32

Anglicanism in general has always sought a balance between the emphases of Catholicism and Protestantism, while tolerating a range of expressions of evangelicalism and ceremony. Anglicanism_sentence_420

Clergy and laity from all Anglican churchmanship traditions have been active in the formation of the Continuing movement. Anglicanism_sentence_421

While there are high-church, broad-church and low-church Continuing Anglicans, many Continuing churches are Anglo-Catholic with highly ceremonial liturgical practices. Anglicanism_sentence_422

Others belong to a more evangelical or low-church tradition and tend to support the Thirty-nine Articles and simpler worship services. Anglicanism_sentence_423

Morning Prayer, for instance, is often used instead of the Holy Eucharist for Sunday worship services, although this is not necessarily true of all low-church parishes. Anglicanism_sentence_424

Most Continuing churches in the United States reject the 1979 revision of the Book of Common Prayer by the Episcopal Church and use the 1928 version for their services instead. Anglicanism_sentence_425

In addition, Anglo-Catholic bodies may use the Anglican Missal, Anglican Service Book or English Missal when celebrating Mass. Anglicanism_sentence_426

Conflicts within Anglicanism Anglicanism_section_33

A changing focus on social issues after the Second World War led to Lambeth Conference resolutions countenancing contraception and the remarriage of divorced persons. Anglicanism_sentence_427

Eventually, most provinces approved the ordination of women. Anglicanism_sentence_428

In more recent years, some jurisdictions have permitted the ordination of people in same-sex relationships and authorised rites for the blessing of same-sex unions (see Homosexuality and Anglicanism). Anglicanism_sentence_429

"The more liberal provinces that are open to changing Church doctrine on marriage in order to allow for same-sex unions include Brazil, Canada, New Zealand, Scotland, South India, South Africa, the US and Wales." Anglicanism_sentence_430

The lack of social consensus among and within provinces of diverse cultural traditions has resulted in considerable conflict and even schism concerning some or all of these developments (see Anglican realignment). Anglicanism_sentence_431

More conservative elements within and outside of Anglicanism (primarily African churches and factions within North American Anglicanism) have opposed these changes, while some liberal and moderate Anglicans see this opposition as representing a new fundamentalism within Anglicanism and "believe a split is inevitable and preferable to continued infighting and paralysis." Anglicanism_sentence_432

Some Anglicans opposed to various liberalising changes, in particular the ordination of women, have become Roman Catholics or Orthodox. Anglicanism_sentence_433

Others have, at various times, joined the Continuing Anglican movement. Anglicanism_sentence_434

Continuing Anglican movement Anglicanism_section_34

Main article: Continuing Anglican movement Anglicanism_sentence_435

The term "Continuing Anglicanism" refers to a number of church bodies which have formed outside of the Anglican Communion in the belief that traditional forms of Anglican faith, worship, and order have been unacceptably revised or abandoned within some Anglican Communion churches in recent decades. Anglicanism_sentence_436

They therefore claim that they are "continuing" traditional Anglicanism. Anglicanism_sentence_437

The modern Continuing Anglican movement principally dates to the Congress of St. Louis, held in the United States in 1977, where participants rejected changes that had been made in the Episcopal Church's Book of Common Prayer and also the Episcopal Church's approval of the ordination of women to the priesthood. Anglicanism_sentence_438

More recent changes in the North American churches of the Anglican Communion, such as the introduction of same-sex marriage rites and the ordination of gay and lesbian people to the priesthood and episcopate, have created further separations. Anglicanism_sentence_439

Continuing churches have generally been formed by people who have left the Anglican Communion. Anglicanism_sentence_440

The original Anglican churches are charged by the Continuing Anglicans with being greatly compromised by secular cultural standards and liberal theology. Anglicanism_sentence_441

Many Continuing Anglicans believe that the faith of some churches in communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury has become unorthodox and therefore have not sought to also be in communion with him. Anglicanism_sentence_442

The original continuing parishes in the United States were found mainly in metropolitan areas. Anglicanism_sentence_443

Since the late 1990s, a number have appeared in smaller communities, often as a result of a division in the town's existing Episcopal churches. Anglicanism_sentence_444

The 2007–08 Directory of Traditional Anglican and Episcopal Parishes, published by the Fellowship of Concerned Churchmen, contained information on over 900 parishes affiliated with either the Continuing Anglican churches or the Anglican realignment movement, a more recent wave of Anglicans withdrawing from the Anglican Communion's North American provinces. Anglicanism_sentence_445

Social activism Anglicanism_section_35

A concern for social justice can be traced to very early Anglican beliefs, relating to an intertwined theology of God, nature, and humanity. Anglicanism_sentence_446

The Anglican theologian Richard Hooker wrote in his book The Works of that Learned and Judicious Divine that "God hath created nothing simply for itself, but each thing in all things, and of every thing each part in other have such interest, that in the whole world nothing is found whereunto any thing created can say, 'I need thee not.'" Anglicanism_sentence_447

Such statements demonstrate a theological Anglican interest in social activism, which has historically appeared in movements such as evangelical Anglican William Wilberforce's campaign against slavery in the 18th century, or 19th century issues concerning industrialisation. Anglicanism_sentence_448

Working conditions and Christian socialism Anglicanism_section_36

Lord Shaftesbury, a devout evangelical, campaigned to improve the conditions in factories, in mines, for chimney sweeps, and for the education of the very poor. Anglicanism_sentence_449

For years, he was chairman of the Ragged School Board. Anglicanism_sentence_450

Frederick Denison Maurice was a leading figure advocating reform, founding so-called "producer's co-operatives" and the Working Men's College. Anglicanism_sentence_451

His work was instrumental in the establishment of the Christian socialist movement, although he himself was not in any real sense a socialist but "a Tory paternalist with the unusual desire to theories his acceptance of the traditional obligation to help the poor", influenced Anglo-Catholics such as Charles Gore, who wrote that "the principle of the incarnation is denied unless the Christian spirit can be allowed to concern itself with everything that interests and touches human life." Anglicanism_sentence_452

Anglican focus on labour issues culminated in the work of William Temple in the 1930s and 1940s." Anglicanism_sentence_453

Pacifism Anglicanism_section_37

A question of whether or not Christianity is a pacifist religion has remained a matter of debate for Anglicans. Anglicanism_sentence_454

The leading Anglican spokesman for pacifist ideas, from 1914 to 1945, was Ernest Barnes, bishop of Birmingham from 1924 to 1953. Anglicanism_sentence_455

He opposed both world wars. Anglicanism_sentence_456

In 1937, the Anglican Pacifist Fellowship emerged as a distinct reform organisation, seeking to make pacifism a clearly defined part of Anglican theology. Anglicanism_sentence_457

The group rapidly gained popularity amongst Anglican intellectuals, including Vera Brittain, Evelyn Underhill, and the former British political leader George Lansbury. Anglicanism_sentence_458

Furthermore, Dick Sheppard, who during the 1930s was one of Britain's most famous Anglican priests due to his landmark sermon broadcasts for BBC Radio, founded the Peace Pledge Union, a secular pacifist organisation for the non-religious that gained considerable support throughout the 1930s. Anglicanism_sentence_459

Whilst never actively endorsed by Anglican churches, many Anglicans unofficially have adopted the Augustinian "Just War" doctrine. Anglicanism_sentence_460

The Anglican Pacifist Fellowship remains highly active throughout the Anglican world. Anglicanism_sentence_461

It rejects this doctrine of "just war" and seeks to reform the Church by reintroducing the pacifism inherent in the beliefs of many of the earliest Christians and present in their interpretation of Christ's Sermon on the Mount. Anglicanism_sentence_462

The principles of the Anglican Pacifist Fellowship are often formulated as a statement of belief that "Jesus' teaching is incompatible with the waging of war ... that a Christian church should never support or justify war ... [and] that our Christian witness should include opposing the waging or justifying of war." Anglicanism_sentence_463

Confusing the matter was the fact that the 37th Article of Religion in the Book of Common Prayer states that "it is lawful for Christian men, at the commandment of the Magistrate, to wear weapons, and serve in the wars." Anglicanism_sentence_464

Therefore, the Lambeth Council in the modern era has sought to provide a clearer position by repudiating modern war and developed a statement that has been affirmed at each subsequent meeting of the council. Anglicanism_sentence_465

This statement was strongly reasserted when "the 67th General Convention of the Episcopal Church reaffirms the statement made by the Anglican Bishops assembled at Lambeth in 1978 and adopted by the 66th General Convention of the Episcopal Church in 1979, calling "Christian people everywhere ... to engage themselves in non-violent action for justice and peace and to support others so engaged, recognising that such action will be controversial and may be personally very costly... this General Convention, in obedience to this call, urges all members of this Church to support by prayer and by such other means as they deem appropriate, those who engaged in such non-violent action, and particularly those who suffer for conscience' sake as a result; and be it further Resolved, that this General Convention calls upon all members of this Church seriously to consider the implications for their own lives of this call to resist war and work for peace for their own lives." Anglicanism_sentence_466

After World War II Anglicanism_section_38

The focus on other social issues became increasingly diffuse after the Second World War. Anglicanism_sentence_467

On the one hand, the growing independence and strength of Anglican churches in the Global South brought new emphasis to issues of global poverty, the inequitable distribution of resources, and the lingering effects of colonialism. Anglicanism_sentence_468

In this regard, figures such as Desmond Tutu and Ted Scott were instrumental in mobilising Anglicans worldwide against the apartheid policies of South Africa. Anglicanism_sentence_469

Rapid social change in the industrialised world during the 20th century compelled the church to examine issues of gender, sexuality, and marriage. Anglicanism_sentence_470

Ordinariates within the Roman Catholic Church Anglicanism_section_39

On 4 November 2009, Pope Benedict XVI issued an apostolic constitution, Anglicanorum Coetibus, to allow groups of former Anglicans to enter into full communion with the Roman Catholic Church as members of personal ordinariates. Anglicanism_sentence_471

20 October 2009 announcement of the imminent constitution mentioned: Anglicanism_sentence_472

For each personal ordinariate, the ordinary may be a former Anglican bishop or priest. Anglicanism_sentence_473

It was expected that provision would be made to allow the retention of aspects of Anglican liturgy; cf. Anglicanism_sentence_474

Anglican Use. Anglicanism_sentence_475

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