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This article is about the modern country since 1992. Angola_sentence_0

For the former country from 1975 to 1992, see People's Republic of Angola. Angola_sentence_1

This article is about the country. Angola_sentence_2

For other uses, see Angola (disambiguation). Angola_sentence_3


Republic of Angola

República de Angola  (Portuguese)Angola_header_cell_0_0_0


and largest cityAngola_header_cell_0_1_0

Official languagesAngola_header_cell_0_2_0 PortugueseAngola_cell_0_2_1
National languagesAngola_header_cell_0_3_0 Angola_cell_0_3_1
Ethnic groups (2000)Angola_header_cell_0_4_0 37% Ovimbundu

25% Ambundu 13% Bakongo 21% Other African 2% Mestiço (mixed European and African) 1% Chinese 1% EuropeanAngola_cell_0_4_1

Religion (2015)Angola_header_cell_0_5_0 Angola_cell_0_5_1
Demonym(s)Angola_header_cell_0_6_0 Angola_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentAngola_header_cell_0_7_0 Unitary dominant-party presidential constitutional republicAngola_cell_0_7_1
PresidentAngola_header_cell_0_8_0 João LourençoAngola_cell_0_8_1
Vice PresidentAngola_header_cell_0_9_0 Bornito de SousaAngola_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureAngola_header_cell_0_10_0 National AssemblyAngola_cell_0_10_1
Independence from Portugal, under Communist ruleAngola_header_cell_0_12_0 11 November 1975Angola_cell_0_12_1
United Nations full membershipAngola_header_cell_0_13_0 22 November 1976Angola_cell_0_13_1
Current constitutionAngola_header_cell_0_14_0 21 January 2010Angola_cell_0_14_1
Area Angola_header_cell_0_15_0
TotalAngola_header_cell_0_16_0 1,246,700 km (481,400 sq mi) (22nd)Angola_cell_0_16_1
Water (%)Angola_header_cell_0_17_0 negligibleAngola_cell_0_17_1
2020 estimateAngola_header_cell_0_19_0 31,127,674 (46th)Angola_cell_0_19_1
2014 censusAngola_header_cell_0_20_0 25,789,024Angola_cell_0_20_1
DensityAngola_header_cell_0_21_0 24.97/km (64.7/sq mi) (157th)Angola_cell_0_21_1
GDP (PPP)Angola_header_cell_0_22_0 2019 estimateAngola_cell_0_22_1
TotalAngola_header_cell_0_23_0 $208.034 billion (64th)Angola_cell_0_23_1
Per capitaAngola_header_cell_0_24_0 $6,850 (107th)Angola_cell_0_24_1
GDP (nominal)Angola_header_cell_0_25_0 2019 estimateAngola_cell_0_25_1
TotalAngola_header_cell_0_26_0 $124.600 billion (61st)Angola_cell_0_26_1
Per capitaAngola_header_cell_0_27_0 $4,101 (91st)Angola_cell_0_27_1
Gini (2018)Angola_header_cell_0_28_0 51.3


HDI (2018)Angola_header_cell_0_29_0 0.574

medium · 149thAngola_cell_0_29_1

CurrencyAngola_header_cell_0_30_0 Kwanza (AOA)Angola_cell_0_30_1
Time zoneAngola_header_cell_0_31_0 UTC+1 (WAT)Angola_cell_0_31_1
Driving sideAngola_header_cell_0_32_0 rightAngola_cell_0_32_1
Calling codeAngola_header_cell_0_33_0 +244Angola_cell_0_33_1
ISO 3166 codeAngola_header_cell_0_34_0 AOAngola_cell_0_34_1
Internet TLDAngola_header_cell_0_35_0 .aoAngola_cell_0_35_1

Angola (/ænˈɡoʊlə/ (listen); Portuguese: [ɐ̃ˈɡɔlɐ), officially the Republic of Angola (Portuguese: República de Angola), is a country on the west coast of Southern Africa. Angola_sentence_4

It is the second largest lusophone (Portuguese-speaking) country in both total area and population (behind Brazil), and it is the seventh-largest country in Africa, bordered by Namibia to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Zambia to the east, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Angola_sentence_5

Angola has an exclave province, the province of Cabinda that borders the Republic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Angola_sentence_6

The capital and largest city of Angola is Luanda. Angola_sentence_7

The territory of Angola has been inhabited since the Paleolithic Era, hosting a wide variety of ethnic groups, tribes and kingdoms. Angola_sentence_8

The nation state of Angola originated from Portuguese colonisation, which initially began with coastal settlements and trading posts founded in the 16th century. Angola_sentence_9

In the 19th century, European settlers gradually began to establish themselves in the interior. Angola_sentence_10

The Portuguese colony that became Angola did not have its present borders until the early 20th century because of resistance by groups such as the Cuamato, the Kwanyama and the Mbunda. Angola_sentence_11

After a protracted anti-colonial struggle, independence was achieved in 1975 as the Marxist–Leninist People's Republic of Angola, a one-party state supported by the Soviet Union and Cuba. Angola_sentence_12

The civil war between the ruling People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) and the insurgent anti-communist National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), supported by the United States and South Africa, lasted until 2002. Angola_sentence_13

The sovereign state has since become a relatively stable unitary, presidential constitutional republic. Angola_sentence_14

Angola has vast mineral and petroleum reserves, and its economy is among the fastest-growing in the world, especially since the end of the civil war; however, the standard of living remains low for most of the population, and life expectancy in Angola is among the lowest in the world, while infant mortality is among the highest. Angola_sentence_15

Angola's economic growth is highly uneven, with most of the nation's wealth concentrated in a disproportionately small sector of the population. Angola_sentence_16

Angola is a member state of the United Nations, OPEC, African Union, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, and the Southern African Development Community. Angola_sentence_17

A highly multiethnic country, Angola's 25.8 million people span tribal groups, customs, and traditions. Angola_sentence_18

Angolan culture reflects centuries of Portuguese rule, in the predominance of the Portuguese language and of the Catholic Church. Angola_sentence_19

Etymology Angola_section_0

The name Angola comes from the Portuguese colonial name Reino de Angola ('Kingdom of Angola'), which appeared as early as Paulo Dias de Novais's 1571 charter. Angola_sentence_20

The toponym was derived by the Portuguese from the title ngola held by the kings of Ndongo. Angola_sentence_21

Ndongo in the highlands, between the Kwanza and Lucala Rivers, was nominally a possession of the Kingdom of Kongo, but was seeking greater independence in the 16th century. Angola_sentence_22

History Angola_section_1

Main article: History of Angola Angola_sentence_23

Early migrations and political units Angola_section_2

Modern Angola was populated predominantly by nomadic Khoi and San prior to the first Bantu migrations. Angola_sentence_24

The Khoi and San peoples were neither pastoralists nor cultivators, but rather hunter-gatherers. Angola_sentence_25

They were displaced by Bantu peoples arriving from the north in the first millennium BC, most of whom likely originated in what is today northwestern Nigeria and southern Niger. Angola_sentence_26

Bantu speakers introduced the cultivation of bananas and taro, as well as large cattle herds, to Angola's central highlands and the Luanda plain. Angola_sentence_27

A number of political entities were established; the best-known of these was the Kingdom of the Kongo, based in Angola, which extended northward to what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo and Gabon. Angola_sentence_28

It established trade routes with other city-states and civilisations up and down the coast of southwestern and western Africa and even with Great Zimbabwe and the Mutapa Empire, although it engaged in little or no transoceanic trade. Angola_sentence_29

To its south lay the Kingdom of Ndongo, from which the area of the later Portuguese colony was sometimes known as Dongo. Angola_sentence_30

Portuguese colonization Angola_section_3

Main articles: Colonial history of Angola and Portuguese Angola Angola_sentence_31

Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão reached the area in 1484. Angola_sentence_32

The previous year, the Portuguese had established relations with the Kongo, which stretched at the time from modern Gabon in the north to the Kwanza River in the south. Angola_sentence_33

The Portuguese established their primary early trading post at Soyo, which is now the northernmost city in Angola apart from the Cabinda exclave. Angola_sentence_34

Paulo Dias de Novais founded São Paulo de Loanda (Luanda) in 1575 with a hundred families of settlers and four hundred soldiers. Angola_sentence_35

Benguela was fortified in 1587 and became a township in 1617. Angola_sentence_36

The Portuguese established several other settlements, forts and trading posts along the Angolan coast, principally trading in Angolan slaves for plantations. Angola_sentence_37

Local slave dealers provided a large number of slaves for the Portuguese Empire, usually in exchange for manufactured goods from Europe. Angola_sentence_38

This part of the Atlantic slave trade continued until after Brazil's independence in the 1820s. Angola_sentence_39

Despite Portugal's territorial claims in Angola, its control over much of the country's vast interior was minimal. Angola_sentence_40

In the 16th century Portugal gained control of the coast through a series of treaties and wars. Angola_sentence_41

Life for European colonists was difficult and progress slow. Angola_sentence_42

John Iliffe notes that "Portuguese records of Angola from the 16th century show that a great famine occurred on average every seventy years; accompanied by epidemic disease, it might kill one-third or one-half of the population, destroying the demographic growth of a generation and forcing colonists back into the river valleys". Angola_sentence_43

During the Portuguese Restoration War, the Dutch West India Company occupied the principal settlement of Luanda in 1641, using alliances with local peoples to carry out attacks against Portuguese holdings elsewhere. Angola_sentence_44

A fleet under Salvador de Sá retook Luanda in 1648; reconquest of the rest of the territory was completed by 1650. Angola_sentence_45

New treaties with the Kongo were signed in 1649; others with Njinga's Kingdom of Matamba and Ndongo followed in 1656. Angola_sentence_46

The conquest of Pungo Andongo in 1671 was the last major Portuguese expansion from Luanda, as attempts to invade Kongo in 1670 and Matamba in 1681 failed. Angola_sentence_47

Colonial outposts also expanded inward from Benguela, but until the late 19th century the inroads from Luanda and Benguela were very limited. Angola_sentence_48

Hamstrung by a series of political upheavals in the early 1800s, Portugal was slow to mount a large scale annexation of Angolan territory. Angola_sentence_49

The slave trade was abolished in Angola in 1836, and in 1854 the colonial government freed all its existing slaves. Angola_sentence_50

Four years later, a more progressive administration appointed by Lisbon abolished slavery altogether. Angola_sentence_51

However, these decrees remained largely unenforceable, and the Portuguese depended on assistance from the British Royal Navy to enforce their ban on the slave trade. Angola_sentence_52

This coincided with a series of renewed military expeditions into the bush. Angola_sentence_53

By the mid-nineteenth century Portugal had established its dominion as far east as the Congo River and as far south as Mossâmedes. Angola_sentence_54

Until the late 1880s, Lisbon entertained proposals to link Angola with its colony in Mozambique but was blocked by British and Belgian opposition. Angola_sentence_55

In this period, the Portuguese came up against different forms of armed resistance from various peoples in Angola. Angola_sentence_56

The Berlin Conference in 1884–1885 set the colony's borders, delineating the boundaries of Portuguese claims in Angola, although many details were unresolved until the 1920s. Angola_sentence_57

Trade between Portugal and its African territories rapidly increased as a result of protective tariffs, leading to increased development, and a wave of new Portuguese immigrants. Angola_sentence_58

Angolan independence Angola_section_4

Main articles: Angolan War of Independence and Portuguese Colonial War Angola_sentence_59

Under colonial law, black Angolans were forbidden from forming political parties or labour unions. Angola_sentence_60

The first nationalist movements did not take root until after World War II, spearheaded by a largely Westernised, Portuguese-speaking urban class which included many mestiços. Angola_sentence_61

During the early 1960s they were joined by other associations stemming from ad hoc labour activism in the rural workforce. Angola_sentence_62

Portugal's refusal to address increasing Angolan demands for self-determination provoked an armed conflict which erupted in 1961 with the Baixa de Cassanje revolt and gradually evolved into a protracted war of independence that persisted for the next twelve years. Angola_sentence_63

Throughout the conflict, three militant nationalist movements with their own partisan guerrilla wings emerged from the fighting between the Portuguese government and local forces, supported to varying degrees by the Portuguese Communist Party. Angola_sentence_64

The National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA) recruited from Bakongo refugees in Zaire. Angola_sentence_65

Benefiting from particularly favourable political circumstances in Léopoldville, and especially from a common border with Zaire, Angolan political exiles were able to build up a power base among a large expatriate community from related families, clans, and traditions. Angola_sentence_66

People on both sides of the border spoke mutually intelligible dialects and enjoyed shared ties to the historical Kingdom of Kongo. Angola_sentence_67

Though as foreigners skilled Angolans could not take advantage of Mobutu Sese Seko's state employment programme, some found work as middlemen for the absentee owners of various lucrative private ventures. Angola_sentence_68

The migrants eventually formed the FNLA with the intention of making a bid for political power upon their envisaged return to Angola. Angola_sentence_69

A largely Ovimbundu guerrilla initiative against the Portuguese in central Angola from 1966 was spearheaded by Jonas Savimbi and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). Angola_sentence_70

It remained handicapped by its geographic remoteness from friendly borders, the ethnic fragmentation of the Ovimbundu, and the isolation of peasants on European plantations where they had little opportunity to mobilise. Angola_sentence_71

During the late 1950s, the rise of the Marxist–Leninist Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) in the east and Dembos hills north of Luanda came to hold special significance. Angola_sentence_72

Formed as a coalition resistance movement by the Angolan Communist Party, the organisation's leadership remained predominantly Ambundu and courted public sector workers in Luanda. Angola_sentence_73

Although both the MPLA and its rivals accepted material assistance from the Soviet Union or the People's Republic of China, the former harboured strong anti-imperialist views and was openly critical of the United States and its support for Portugal. Angola_sentence_74

This allowed it to win important ground on the diplomatic front, soliciting support from nonaligned governments in Morocco, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, and the United Arab Republic. Angola_sentence_75

The MPLA attempted to move its headquarters from Conakry to Léopoldville in October 1961, renewing efforts to create a common front with the FNLA, then known as the Union of Angolan Peoples (UPA) and its leader Holden Roberto. Angola_sentence_76

Roberto turned down the offer. Angola_sentence_77

When the MPLA first attempted to insert its own insurgents into Angola, the cadres were ambushed and annihilated by UPA partisans on Roberto's orders—setting a precedent for the bitter factional strife which would later ignite the Angolan Civil War. Angola_sentence_78

Angolan Civil war Angola_section_5

Main article: Angolan Civil War Angola_sentence_79

Throughout the war of independence, the three rival nationalist movements were severely hampered by political and military factionalism, as well as their inability to unite guerrilla efforts against the Portuguese. Angola_sentence_80

Between 1961 and 1975 the MPLA, UNITA, and the FNLA competed for influence in the Angolan population and the international community. Angola_sentence_81

The Soviet Union and Cuba became especially sympathetic towards the MPLA and supplied that party with arms, ammunition, funding, and training. Angola_sentence_82

They also backed UNITA militants until it became clear that the latter was at irreconcilable odds with the MPLA. Angola_sentence_83

The collapse of Portugal's Estado Novo government following the 1974 Carnation Revolution suspended all Portuguese military activity in Africa and the brokering of a ceasefire pending negotiations for Angolan independence. Angola_sentence_84

Encouraged by the Organisation of African Unity, Holden Roberto, Jonas Savimbi, and MPLA chairman Agostinho Neto met in Mombasa in early January 1975 and agreed to form a coalition government. Angola_sentence_85

This was ratified by the Alvor Agreement later that month, which called for general elections and set the country's independence date for 11 November 1975. Angola_sentence_86

All three factions, however, followed up on the ceasefire by taking advantage of the gradual Portuguese withdrawal to seize various strategic positions, acquire more arms, and enlarge their militant forces. Angola_sentence_87

The rapid influx of weapons from numerous external sources, especially the Soviet Union and the United States, as well as the escalation of tensions between the nationalist parties, fueled a new outbreak of hostilities. Angola_sentence_88

With tacit American and Zairean support the FNLA began massing large numbers of troops in northern Angola in an attempt to gain military superiority. Angola_sentence_89

Meanwhile, the MPLA began securing control of Luanda, a traditional Ambundu stronghold. Angola_sentence_90

Sporadic violence broke out in Luanda over the next few months after the FNLA attacked MPLA forces in March 1975. Angola_sentence_91

The fighting intensified with street clashes in April and May, and UNITA became involved after over two hundred of its members were massacred by an MPLA contingent that June. Angola_sentence_92

An upswing in Soviet arms shipments to the MPLA influenced a decision by the Central Intelligence Agency to likewise provide substantial covert aid to the FNLA and UNITA. Angola_sentence_93

In August 1975, the MPLA requested direct assistance from the Soviet Union in the form of ground troops. Angola_sentence_94

The Soviets declined, offering to send advisers but no troops; however, Cuba was more forthcoming and in late September dispatched nearly five hundred combat personnel to Angola, along with sophisticated weaponry and supplies. Angola_sentence_95

By independence there were over a thousand Cuban soldiers in the country. Angola_sentence_96

They were kept supplied by a massive airbridge carried out with Soviet aircraft. Angola_sentence_97

The persistent buildup of Cuban and Soviet military aid allowed the MPLA to drive its opponents from Luanda and blunt an abortive intervention by Zairean and South African troops, which had deployed in a belated attempt to assist the FNLA and UNITA. Angola_sentence_98

The FNLA was largely annihilated, although UNITA managed to withdraw its civil officials and militia from Luanda and seek sanctuary in the southern provinces. Angola_sentence_99

From there, Savimbi continued to mount a determined insurgent campaign against the MPLA. Angola_sentence_100

Between 1975 and 1991, the MPLA implemented an economic and political system based on the principles of scientific socialism, incorporating central planning and a Marxist–Leninist one-party state. Angola_sentence_101

It embarked on an ambitious programme of nationalisation, and the domestic private sector was essentially abolished. Angola_sentence_102

Privately owned enterprises were nationalised and incorporated into a single umbrella of state-owned enterprises known as Unidades Economicas Estatais (UEE). Angola_sentence_103

Under the MPLA, Angola experienced a significant degree of modern industrialisation. Angola_sentence_104

However, corruption and graft also increased and public resources were either allocated inefficiently or simply embezzled by officials for personal enrichment. Angola_sentence_105

The ruling party survived an attempted coup d'état by the Maoist-oriented Communist Organisation of Angola (OCA) in 1977, which was suppressed after a series of bloody political purges left thousands of OCA supporters dead. Angola_sentence_106

The MPLA abandoned its former Marxist ideology at its third party congress in 1990, and declared social democracy to be its new platform. Angola_sentence_107

Angola subsequently became a member of the International Monetary Fund; restrictions on the market economy were also reduced in an attempt to draw foreign investment. Angola_sentence_108

By May 1991 it reached a peace agreement with UNITA, the Bicesse Accords, which scheduled new general elections for September 1992. Angola_sentence_109

When the MPLA secured a major electoral victory, UNITA objected to the results of both the presidential and legislative vote count and returned to war. Angola_sentence_110

Following the election, the Halloween massacre occurred from 30 October to 1 November, where MPLA forces killed thousands of UNITA supporters. Angola_sentence_111

21st century Angola_section_6

Main article: 2000s in Angola Angola_sentence_112

On 22 March 2002, Jonas Savimbi was killed in action against government troops. Angola_sentence_113

UNITA and the MPLA reached a cease-fire shortly afterwards. Angola_sentence_114

UNITA gave up its armed wing and assumed the role of a major opposition party. Angola_sentence_115

Although the political situation of the country began to stabilise, regular democratic processes did not prevail until the elections in Angola in 2008 and 2012 and the adoption of a new constitution in 2010, all of which strengthened the prevailing dominant-party system. Angola_sentence_116

Angola has a serious humanitarian crisis; the result of the prolonged war, of the abundance of minefields, of the continued political (and to a much lesser degree) military activities in favour of the independence of the exclave of Cabinda (carried out in the context of the protracted Cabinda conflict by the FLEC), but most of all, by the depredation of the country's rich mineral resources by the régime. Angola_sentence_117

While most of the internally displaced have now settled around the capital, in the so-called , the general situation for Angolans remains desperate. Angola_sentence_118

Drought in 2016 caused the worst food crisis in Southern Africa in 25 years. Angola_sentence_119

Drought affected 1.4 million people across seven of Angola's 18 provinces. Angola_sentence_120

Food prices rose and acute malnutrition rates doubled, with more than 95,000 children affected. Angola_sentence_121

José Eduardo dos Santos stepped down as President of Angola after 38 years in 2017, being peacefully succeeded by João Lourenço, Santos' chosen successor. Angola_sentence_122

Geography Angola_section_7

Main article: Geography of Angola Angola_sentence_123

At 1,246,620 km (481,321 sq mi), Angola is the world's twenty-third largest country - comparable in size to Mali, or twice the size of France or of Texas. Angola_sentence_124

It lies mostly between latitudes and 18°S, and longitudes 12° and 24°E. Angola_sentence_125

Angola borders Namibia to the south, Zambia to the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north-east and the South Atlantic Ocean to the west. Angola_sentence_126

The coastal exclave of Cabinda in the north has borders with the Republic of the Congo to the north and with the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the south. Angola_sentence_127

Angola's capital, Luanda, lies on the Atlantic coast in the northwest of the country. Angola_sentence_128

Climate Angola_section_8

Main article: Climate of Angola Angola_sentence_129

Angola, although located in a tropical zone, has a climate uncharacteristic of this zone, due to the confluence of three factors: Angola_sentence_130


  • the cold Benguela Current flowing along the southern part of the coastAngola_item_0_0
  • the relief in the interiorAngola_item_0_1
  • the influence of the Namib Desert in the southwestAngola_item_0_2

Angola's climate features two seasons: Angola_sentence_131


  • rainfall from November to AprilAngola_item_1_3
  • drought, known as Cacimbo, from May to October, drier, as the name implies, and with lower temperaturesAngola_item_1_4

While the coastline has high rainfall rates, decreasing from north to south and from 800 millimetres (31 inches) to 50 millimetres (2.0 inches), with average annual temperatures above 23 °C (73 °F), one can divide the interior zone into three areas: Angola_sentence_132


  • North, with high rainfall and high temperaturesAngola_item_2_5
  • Central Plateau, with a dry season and average temperatures of the order of 19 °CAngola_item_2_6
  • South, with very high thermal amplitudes due to the proximity of the Kalahari Desert and the influence of masses of tropical airAngola_item_2_7

Administrative divisions Angola_section_9

Main articles: Provinces of Angola, Municipalities of Angola, and Communes of Angola Angola_sentence_133

As of March 2016, Angola is divided into eighteen provinces (províncias) and 162 municipalities. Angola_sentence_134

The municipalities are further divided into 559 communes (townships). Angola_sentence_135

The provinces are: Angola_sentence_136


NumberAngola_header_cell_1_0_0 ProvinceAngola_header_cell_1_0_1 CapitalAngola_header_cell_1_0_2 Area (km)Angola_header_cell_1_0_3 Population
(2014 Census)Angola_header_cell_1_0_4
1Angola_cell_1_1_0 BengoAngola_cell_1_1_1 CaxitoAngola_cell_1_1_2 31,371Angola_cell_1_1_3 356,641Angola_cell_1_1_4
2Angola_cell_1_2_0 BenguelaAngola_cell_1_2_1 BenguelaAngola_cell_1_2_2 39,826Angola_cell_1_2_3 2,231,385Angola_cell_1_2_4
3Angola_cell_1_3_0 BiéAngola_cell_1_3_1 CuítoAngola_cell_1_3_2 70,314Angola_cell_1_3_3 1,455,255Angola_cell_1_3_4
4Angola_cell_1_4_0 CabindaAngola_cell_1_4_1 CabindaAngola_cell_1_4_2 7,270Angola_cell_1_4_3 716,076Angola_cell_1_4_4
5Angola_cell_1_5_0 Cuando CubangoAngola_cell_1_5_1 MenongueAngola_cell_1_5_2 199,049Angola_cell_1_5_3 534,002Angola_cell_1_5_4
6Angola_cell_1_6_0 Cuanza NorteAngola_cell_1_6_1 N'dalatandoAngola_cell_1_6_2 24,110Angola_cell_1_6_3 443,386Angola_cell_1_6_4
7Angola_cell_1_7_0 Cuanza SulAngola_cell_1_7_1 SumbeAngola_cell_1_7_2 55,600Angola_cell_1_7_3 1,881,873Angola_cell_1_7_4
8Angola_cell_1_8_0 CuneneAngola_cell_1_8_1 OndjivaAngola_cell_1_8_2 87,342Angola_cell_1_8_3 990,087Angola_cell_1_8_4
9Angola_cell_1_9_0 HuamboAngola_cell_1_9_1 HuamboAngola_cell_1_9_2 34,270Angola_cell_1_9_3 2,019,555Angola_cell_1_9_4
10Angola_cell_1_10_0 HuílaAngola_cell_1_10_1 LubangoAngola_cell_1_10_2 79,023Angola_cell_1_10_3 2,497,422Angola_cell_1_10_4
11Angola_cell_1_11_0 LuandaAngola_cell_1_11_1 LuandaAngola_cell_1_11_2 2,417Angola_cell_1_11_3 6,945,386Angola_cell_1_11_4
12Angola_cell_1_12_0 Lunda NorteAngola_cell_1_12_1 DundoAngola_cell_1_12_2 103,760Angola_cell_1_12_3 862,566Angola_cell_1_12_4
13Angola_cell_1_13_0 Lunda SulAngola_cell_1_13_1 SaurimoAngola_cell_1_13_2 77,637Angola_cell_1_13_3 537,587Angola_cell_1_13_4
14Angola_cell_1_14_0 MalanjeAngola_cell_1_14_1 MalanjeAngola_cell_1_14_2 97,602Angola_cell_1_14_3 986,363Angola_cell_1_14_4
15Angola_cell_1_15_0 MoxicoAngola_cell_1_15_1 LuenaAngola_cell_1_15_2 223,023Angola_cell_1_15_3 758,568Angola_cell_1_15_4
16Angola_cell_1_16_0 NamibeAngola_cell_1_16_1 MoçâmedesAngola_cell_1_16_2 57,091Angola_cell_1_16_3 495,326Angola_cell_1_16_4
17Angola_cell_1_17_0 UígeAngola_cell_1_17_1 UígeAngola_cell_1_17_2 58,698Angola_cell_1_17_3 1,483,118Angola_cell_1_17_4
18Angola_cell_1_18_0 ZaireAngola_cell_1_18_1 M'banza-KongoAngola_cell_1_18_2 40,130Angola_cell_1_18_3 594,428Angola_cell_1_18_4

Exclave of Cabinda Angola_section_10

Main article: Cabinda Province Angola_sentence_137

With an area of approximately 7,283 square kilometres (2,812 sq mi), the Northern Angolan province of Cabinda is unusual in being separated from the rest of the country by a strip, some 60 kilometres (37 mi) wide, of the Democratic Republic of Congo along the lower Congo River. Angola_sentence_138

Cabinda borders the Congo Republic to the north and north-northeast and the DRC to the east and south. Angola_sentence_139

The town of Cabinda is the chief population centre. Angola_sentence_140

According to a 1995 census, Cabinda had an estimated population of 600,000, approximately 400,000 of whom live in neighbouring countries. Angola_sentence_141

Population estimates are, however, highly unreliable. Angola_sentence_142

Consisting largely of tropical forest, Cabinda produces hardwoods, coffee, cocoa, crude rubber and palm oil. Angola_sentence_143

The product for which it is best known, however, is its oil, which has given it the nickname, "the Kuwait of Africa". Angola_sentence_144

Cabinda's petroleum production from its considerable offshore reserves now accounts for more than half of Angola's output. Angola_sentence_145

Most of the oil along its coast was discovered under Portuguese rule by the Cabinda Gulf Oil Company (CABGOC) from 1968 onwards. Angola_sentence_146

Ever since Portugal handed over sovereignty of its former overseas province of Angola to the local independence groups (MPLA, UNITA and FNLA), the territory of Cabinda has been a focus of separatist guerrilla actions opposing the Government of Angola (which has employed its armed forces, the FAA—Forças Armadas Angolanas) and Cabindan separatists. Angola_sentence_147

The Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda-Armed Forces of Cabinda (FLEC-FAC) announced a virtual Federal Republic of Cabinda under the Presidency of N'Zita Henriques Tiago. Angola_sentence_148

One of the characteristics of the Cabindan independence movement is its constant fragmentation, into smaller and smaller factions. Angola_sentence_149

Politics Angola_section_11

Economy Angola_section_12

Main article: Economy of Angola Angola_sentence_150

Angola has diamonds, oil, gold, copper and a rich wildlife (dramatically impoverished during the civil war), forest and fossil fuels. Angola_sentence_151

Since independence, oil and diamonds have been the most important economic resource. Angola_sentence_152

Smallholder and plantation agriculture dramatically dropped in the Angolan Civil War, but began to recover after 2002. Angola_sentence_153

Angola's economy has in recent years moved on from the disarray caused by a quarter-century of Angolan civil war to become the fastest-growing economy in Africa and one of the fastest-growing in the world, with an average GDP growth of 20% between 2005 and 2007. Angola_sentence_154

In the period 2001–10, Angola had the world's highest annual average GDP growth, at 11.1%. Angola_sentence_155

In 2004, the Exim Bank of China approved a $2 billion line of credit to Angola, to be used for rebuilding Angola's infrastructure, and to limit the influence of the International Monetary Fund there. Angola_sentence_156

China is Angola's biggest trade partner and export destination as well as the fourth-largest source of imports. Angola_sentence_157

Bilateral trade reached $27.67 billion in 2011, up 11.5% year-on-year. Angola_sentence_158

China's imports, mainly crude oil and diamonds, increased 9.1% to $24.89 billion while China's exports to Angola, including mechanical and electrical products, machinery parts and construction materials, surged 38.8%. Angola_sentence_159

The oil glut led to a local price for unleaded gasoline of £0.37 a gallon. Angola_sentence_160

The Angolan economy grew 18% in 2005, 26% in 2006 and 17.6% in 2007. Angola_sentence_161

Due to the global recession the economy contracted an estimated −0.3% in 2009. Angola_sentence_162

The security brought about by the 2002 peace settlement has allowed the resettlement of 4 million displaced persons and a resulting large-scale increases in agriculture production. Angola_sentence_163

Angola's economy is expected to grow by 3.9 percent in 2014 said the International Monetary Fund (IMF), robust growth in the non-oil economy, mainly driven by a very good performance in the agricultural sector, is expected to offset a temporary drop in oil production. Angola_sentence_164

Angola's financial system is maintained by the National Bank of Angola and managed by governor . Angola_sentence_165

According to a study on the banking sector, carried out by Deloitte, the monetary policy led by Banco Nacional de Angola (BNA), the Angolan national bank, allowed a decrease in the inflation rate put at 7.96% in December 2013, which contributed to the sector's growth trend. Angola_sentence_166

Estimates released by Angola's central bank, said country's economy should grow at an annual average rate of 5 percent over the next four years, boosted by the increasing participation of the private sector. Angola_sentence_167

Although the country's economy has grown significantly since Angola achieved political stability in 2002, mainly due to fast-rising earnings in the oil sector, Angola faces huge social and economic problems. Angola_sentence_168

These are in part a result of almost continual armed conflict from 1961 on, although the highest level of destruction and socio-economic damage took place after the 1975 independence, during the long years of civil war. Angola_sentence_169

However, high poverty rates and blatant social inequality chiefly stem from persistent authoritarianism, "neo-patrimonial" practices at all levels of the political, administrative, military and economic structures, and of a pervasive corruption. Angola_sentence_170

The main beneficiaries are political, administrative, economic and military power holders, who have accumulated (and continue to accumulate) enormous wealth. Angola_sentence_171

"Secondary beneficiaries" are the middle strata which are about to become social classes. Angola_sentence_172

However, almost half the population has to be considered poor, with dramatic differences between the countryside and the cities (where by now slightly more than 50% of the people live). Angola_sentence_173

A study carried out in 2008 by the Angolan Instituto Nacional de Estatística found that in rural areas roughly 58% must be classified as "poor" according to UN norms, but in the urban areas only 19%, and an overall rate of 37%. Angola_sentence_174

In cities, a majority of families, well beyond those officially classified as poor, must adopt a variety of survival strategies. Angola_sentence_175

In urban areas social inequality is most evident and it is extreme in Luanda. Angola_sentence_176

In the Human Development Index Angola constantly ranks in the bottom group. Angola_sentence_177

In January 2020, a leak of government documents known as the Luanda Leaks showed that U.S. consulting companies such as Boston Consulting Group, McKinsey & Company, and PricewaterhouseCoopers had helped members of the family of former President José Eduardo dos Santos (especially his daughter Isabel dos Santos) corruptly run Sonangol for their own personal profit, helping them use the company's revenues to fund vanity projects in France and Switzerland. Angola_sentence_178

The enormous differences between the regions pose a serious structural problem for the Angolan economy, illustrated by the fact that about one third of economic activities are concentrated in Luanda and neighbouring Bengo province, while several areas of the interior suffer economic stagnation and even regression. Angola_sentence_179

One of the economic consequences of the social and regional disparities is a sharp increase in Angolan private investments abroad. Angola_sentence_180

The small fringe of Angolan society where most of the asset accumulation takes place seeks to spread its assets, for reasons of security and profit. Angola_sentence_181

For the time being, the biggest share of these investments is concentrated in Portugal where the Angolan presence (including the family of the state president) in banks as well as in the domains of energy, telecommunications, and mass media has become notable, as has the acquisition of vineyards and orchards as well as of touristic enterprises. Angola_sentence_182

Angola has upgraded critical infrastructure, an investment made possible by funds from the nation's development of oil resources. Angola_sentence_183

According to a report, just slightly more than ten years after the end of the civil war Angola's standard of living has overall greatly improved. Angola_sentence_184

Life expectancy, which was just 46 years in 2002, reached 51 in 2011. Angola_sentence_185

Mortality rates for children fell from 25 percent in 2001 to 19 percent in 2010 and the number of students enrolled in primary school has tripled since 2001. Angola_sentence_186

However, at the same time the social and economic inequality that has characterised the country for so long has not diminished, but on the contrary deepened in all respects. Angola_sentence_187

With a stock of assets corresponding to 70 billion Kz (US$6.8 billion), Angola is now the third-largest financial market in sub-Saharan Africa, surpassed only by Nigeria and South Africa. Angola_sentence_188

According to the Angolan Minister of Economy, Abraão Gourgel, the financial market of the country grew modestly from 2002 and now lies in third place at the level of sub-Saharan Africa. Angola_sentence_189

On 19 December 2014, the Capital Market in Angola started. Angola_sentence_190

BODIVA (Angola Stock Exchange and Derivatives, in English) received the secondary public debt market, and it is expected to start the corporate debt market by 2015, but the stock market should be a reality only in 2016. Angola_sentence_191

Natural resources Angola_section_13

The Economist reported in 2008 that diamonds and oil make up 60% of Angola's economy, almost all of the country's revenue and all of its dominant exports. Angola_sentence_192

Growth is almost entirely driven by rising oil production which surpassed 1.4 million barrels per day (220,000 m/d) in late 2005 and was expected to grow to 2 million barrels per day (320,000 m/d) by 2007. Angola_sentence_193

Control of the oil industry is consolidated in Sonangol Group, a conglomerate owned by the Angolan government. Angola_sentence_194

In December 2006, Angola was admitted as a member of OPEC. Angola_sentence_195

According to the Heritage Foundation, a conservative American think tank, oil production from Angola has increased so significantly that Angola now is China's biggest supplier of oil. Angola_sentence_196

"China has extended three multibillion dollar lines of credit to the Angolan government; two loans of $2 billion from China Exim Bank, one in 2004, the second in 2007, as well as one loan in 2005 of $2.9 billion from China International Fund Ltd." Angola_sentence_197

Growing oil revenues also created opportunities for corruption: according to a recent Human Rights Watch report, 32 billion US dollars disappeared from government accounts in 2007–2010. Angola_sentence_198

Furthermore, Sonangol, the state-run oil company, controls 51% of Cabinda's oil. Angola_sentence_199

Due to this market control the company ends up determining the profit received by the government and the taxes it pays. Angola_sentence_200

The council of foreign affairs states that the World Bank mentioned that Sonangol " is a taxpayer, it carries out quasi-fiscal activities, it invests public funds, and, as concessionaire, it is a sector regulator. Angola_sentence_201

This multifarious work programme creates conflicts of interest and characterises a complex relationship between Sonangol and the government that weakens the formal budgetary process and creates uncertainty as regards the actual fiscal stance of the state." Angola_sentence_202

In 2002 Angola demanded compensation for oil spills allegedly caused by Chevron Corporation, the first time it had fined a multinational corporation operating in its waters. Angola_sentence_203

Operations in its diamond mines include partnerships between state-run Endiama and mining companies such as ALROSA which operate in Angola. Angola_sentence_204

Access to biocapacity in Angola is higher than world average. Angola_sentence_205

In 2016, Angola had 1.9 global hectares of biocapacity per person within its territory, slightly more than world average of 1.6 global hectares per person. Angola_sentence_206

In 2016 Angola used 1.01 global hectares of biocapacity per person - their ecological footprint of consumption. Angola_sentence_207

This means they use about half as much biocapacity as Angola contains. Angola_sentence_208

As a result, Angola is running a biocapacity reserve. Angola_sentence_209

Agriculture Angola_section_14

Main article: Agriculture in Angola Angola_sentence_210

Agriculture and forestry is an area of potential opportunity for the country. Angola_sentence_211

The African Economic Outlook organization states that "Angola requires 4.5 million tonnes a year of grain but grows only about 55% of the maize it needs, 20% of the rice and just 5% of its required wheat". Angola_sentence_212

In addition, the World Bank estimates that "less than 3 percent of Angola's abundant fertile land is cultivated and the economic potential of the forestry sector remains largely unexploited" . Angola_sentence_213

Before independence in 1975, Angola was a breadbasket of southern Africa and a major exporter of bananas, coffee and sisal, but three decades of civil war (1975–2002) destroyed fertile countryside, left it littered with landmines and drove millions into the cities. Angola_sentence_214

The country now depends on expensive food imports, mainly from South Africa and Portugal, while more than 90% of farming is done at the family and subsistence level. Angola_sentence_215

Thousands of Angolan small-scale farmers are trapped in poverty. Angola_sentence_216

Transport Angola_section_15

Main article: Transport in Angola Angola_sentence_217

Transport in Angola consists of: Angola_sentence_218


  • Three separate railway systems totalling 2,761 km (1,716 mi)Angola_item_3_8
  • 76,626 km (47,613 mi) of highway of which 19,156 km (11,903 mi) is pavedAngola_item_3_9
  • 1,295 navigable inland waterwaysAngola_item_3_10
  • Eight major sea portsAngola_item_3_11
  • 243 airports, of which 32 are paved.Angola_item_3_12

Angola centers its port trade in five main ports: Namibe, Lobito, Soyo, Cabinda and Luanda. Angola_sentence_219

The port of Luanda is the largest of the five, as well as being one of the busiest on the African continent. Angola_sentence_220

Major expansion of this port is also taking place. Angola_sentence_221

Travel on highways outside of towns and cities in Angola (and in some cases within) is often not best advised for those without four-by-four vehicles. Angola_sentence_222

While a reasonable road infrastructure has existed within Angola, time and the war have taken their toll on the road surfaces, leaving many severely potholed, littered with broken asphalt. Angola_sentence_223

In many areas drivers have established alternate tracks to avoid the worst parts of the surface, although careful attention must be paid to the presence or absence of landmine warning markers by the side of the road. Angola_sentence_224

The Angolan government has contracted the restoration of many of the country's roads. Angola_sentence_225

The road between Lubango and Namibe, for example, was completed recently with funding from the European Union, and is comparable to many European main routes. Angola_sentence_226

Completing the road infrastructure is likely to take some decades, but substantial efforts are already being made. Angola_sentence_227

Telecommunications Angola_section_16

The telecommunications industry is considered one of the main strategic sectors in Angola. Angola_sentence_228

In October 2014, the building of an optic fiber underwater cable was announced. Angola_sentence_229

This project aims to turn Angola into a continental hub, thus improving Internet connections both nationally and internationally. Angola_sentence_230

On 11 March 2015, the First Angolan Forum of Telecommunications and Information Technology was held in Luanda under the motto "The challenges of telecommunications in the current context of Angola", to promote debate on topical issues on telecommunications in Angola and worldwide. Angola_sentence_231

A study of this sector, presented at the forum, said Angola had the first telecommunications operator in Africa to test LTE – with speeds up to 400 Mbit/s – and mobile penetration of about 75%; there are about 3.5 million smartphones in the Angolan market; There are about 25,000 kilometres (16,000 miles) of optical fibre installed in the country. Angola_sentence_232

The first Angolan satellite, AngoSat-1, was launched into orbit on 26 December 2017. Angola_sentence_233

It was launched from the Baikonur space center in Kazakhstan on board a Zenit 3F rocket. Angola_sentence_234

The satellite was built by Russia's RSC Energia, a subsidiary of the state-run space industry player Roscosmos. Angola_sentence_235

The satellite payload was supplied by Airbus Defence & Space. Angola_sentence_236

Due to an on-board power failure during solar panel deployment, on 27 December, RSC Energia revealed that they lost communications contact with the satellite. Angola_sentence_237

Although, subsequent attempts to restore communications with the satellite were successful, the satellite eventually stopped sending data and RSC Energia confirmed that AngoSat-1 was inoperable. Angola_sentence_238

The launch of AngoSat-1 was aimed at ensuring telecommunications throughout the country. Angola_sentence_239

According to Aristides Safeca, Secretary of State for Telecommunications, the satellite was aimed at providing telecommunications services, TV, internet and e-government and was expected to remain in orbit "at best" for 18 years. Angola_sentence_240

A replacement satellite named AngoSat-2 is in the works and is expected to be in service by 2020. Angola_sentence_241

Technology Angola_section_17

The management of the top-level domain '.ao' passed from Portugal to Angola in 2015, following new legislation. Angola_sentence_242

A joint decree of minister of Telecommunications and Information Technologies José Carvalho da Rocha and the minister of Science and Technology, Maria Cândida Pereira Teixeira, states that "under the massification" of that Angolan domain, "conditions are created for the transfer of the domain root '.ao' of Portugal to Angola". Angola_sentence_243

Demographics Angola_section_18

Main article: Demographics of Angola Angola_sentence_244


Population in AngolaAngola_table_caption_2
YearAngola_header_cell_2_0_0 MillionAngola_header_cell_2_0_1
1950Angola_cell_2_1_0 4.5Angola_cell_2_1_1
2000Angola_cell_2_2_0 16.4Angola_cell_2_2_1
2018Angola_cell_2_3_0 30.8Angola_cell_2_3_1

Angola has a population of 24,383,301 inhabitants according to the preliminary results of its 2014 census, the first one conducted or carried out since 15 December 1970. Angola_sentence_245

It is composed of Ovimbundu (language Umbundu) 37%, Ambundu (language Kimbundu) 23%, Bakongo 13%, and 32% other ethnic groups (including the Chokwe, the Ovambo, the Ganguela and the Xindonga) as well as about 2% mestiços (mixed European and African), 1.6% Chinese and 1% European. Angola_sentence_246

The Ambundu and Ovimbundu ethnic groups combined form a majority of the population, at 62%. Angola_sentence_247

The population is forecast to grow to over 60 million people to 2050, 2.7 times the 2014 population. Angola_sentence_248

However, on 23 March 2016, official data revealed by Angola's National Statistic Institute – Instituto Nacional de Estatística (INE), states that Angola has a population of 25,789,024 inhabitants. Angola_sentence_249

It is estimated that Angola was host to 12,100 refugees and 2,900 asylum seekers by the end of 2007. Angola_sentence_250

11,400 of those refugees were originally from the Democratic Republic of Congo, who arrived in the 1970s. Angola_sentence_251

As of 2008 there were an estimated 400,000 Democratic Republic of the Congo migrant workers, at least 220,000 Portuguese, and about 259,000 Chinese living in Angola. Angola_sentence_252

1 million Angolans are mixed race (black and white). Angola_sentence_253

Since 2003, more than 400,000 Congolese migrants have been expelled from Angola. Angola_sentence_254

Prior to independence in 1975, Angola had a community of approximately 350,000 Portuguese, but the vast majority left after independence and the ensuing civil war. Angola_sentence_255

However, Angola has recovered its Portuguese minority in recent years; currently, there are about 200,000 registered with the consulates, and increasing due to the debt crisis in Portugal and the relative prosperity in Angola. Angola_sentence_256

The Chinese population stands at 258,920, mostly composed of temporary migrants. Angola_sentence_257

Also, there is a small Brazilian community of about 5,000 people. Angola_sentence_258

As of 2007, the total fertility rate of Angola is 5.54 children born per woman (2012 estimates), the 11th highest in the world. Angola_sentence_259

Languages Angola_section_19

Main article: Languages of Angola Angola_sentence_260

The languages in Angola are those originally spoken by the different ethnic groups and Portuguese, introduced during the Portuguese colonial era. Angola_sentence_261

The most widely spoken indigenous languages are Umbundu, Kimbundu and Kikongo, in that order. Angola_sentence_262

Portuguese is the official language of the country. Angola_sentence_263

Although the exact numbers of those fluent in Portuguese or who speak Portuguese as a first language are unknown, a 2012 study mentions that Portuguese is the first language of 39% of the population. Angola_sentence_264

In 2014, a census carried out by the Instituto Nacional de Estatística in Angola mentions that 71.15% of the nearly 25.8 million inhabitants of Angola (meaning around 18.3 million people) use Portuguese as a first or second language. Angola_sentence_265

According to the 2014 census, Portuguese is spoken by 71.1% of Angolans, Umbundu by 23%, Kikongo by 8.2%, Kimbundu by 7.8%, Chokwe by 6.5%, Nyaneka by 3.4%, Ngangela by 3.1%, Fiote by 2.4%, Kwanyama by 2.3%, Muhumbi by 2.1%, Luvale by 1%, and other languages by 4.1%. Angola_sentence_266

Religion Angola_section_20

Main article: Religion in Angola Angola_sentence_267

There are about 1,000 religious communities, mostly Christian, in Angola. Angola_sentence_268

While reliable statistics are nonexistent, estimates have it that more than half of the population are Catholics, while about a quarter adhere to the Protestant churches introduced during the colonial period: the Congregationalists mainly among the Ovimbundu of the Central Highlands and the coastal region to its west, the Methodists concentrating on the Kimbundu speaking strip from Luanda to Malanje, the Baptists almost exclusively among the Bakongo of the north-west (now present in Luanda as well) and dispersed Adventists, Reformed and Lutherans. Angola_sentence_269

In Luanda and region there subsists a nucleus of the "syncretic" Tocoists and in the north-west a sprinkling of Kimbanguism can be found, spreading from the Congo/Zaïre. Angola_sentence_270

Since independence, hundreds of Pentecostal and similar communities have sprung up in the cities, where by now about 50% of the population is living; several of these communities/churches are of Brazilian origin. Angola_sentence_271

As of 2008 the U.S. Angola_sentence_272 Department of State estimates the Muslim population at 80,000–90,000, less than 1% of the population, while the Islamic Community of Angola puts the figure closer to 500,000. Angola_sentence_273

Muslims consist largely of migrants from West Africa and the Middle East (especially Lebanon), although some are local converts. Angola_sentence_274

The Angolan government does not legally recognize any Muslim organizations and often shuts down mosques or prevents their construction. Angola_sentence_275

In a study assessing nations' levels of religious regulation and persecution with scores ranging from 0 to 10 where 0 represented low levels of regulation or persecution, Angola was scored 0.8 on Government Regulation of Religion, 4.0 on Social Regulation of Religion, 0 on Government Favoritism of Religion and 0 on Religious Persecution. Angola_sentence_276

Foreign missionaries were very active prior to independence in 1975, although since the beginning of the anti-colonial fight in 1961 the Portuguese colonial authorities expelled a series of Protestant missionaries and closed mission stations based on the belief that the missionaries were inciting pro-independence sentiments. Angola_sentence_277

Missionaries have been able to return to the country since the early 1990s, although security conditions due to the civil war have prevented them until 2002 from restoring many of their former inland mission stations. Angola_sentence_278

The Catholic Church and some major Protestant denominations mostly keep to themselves in contrast to the "New Churches" which actively proselytize. Angola_sentence_279

Catholics, as well as some major Protestant denominations, provide help for the poor in the form of crop seeds, farm animals, medical care and education. Angola_sentence_280

Urbanization Angola_section_21

Health Angola_section_22

Main article: Health in Angola Angola_sentence_281

Epidemics of cholera, malaria, rabies and African hemorrhagic fevers like Marburg hemorrhagic fever, are common diseases in several parts of the country. Angola_sentence_282

Many regions in this country have high incidence rates of tuberculosis and high HIV prevalence rates. Angola_sentence_283

Dengue, filariasis, leishmaniasis and onchocerciasis (river blindness) are other diseases carried by insects that also occur in the region. Angola_sentence_284

Angola has one of the highest infant mortality rates in the world and one of the world's lowest life expectancies. Angola_sentence_285

A 2007 survey concluded that low and deficient niacin status was common in Angola. Angola_sentence_286

Demographic and Health Surveys is currently conducting several surveys in Angola on malaria, domestic violence and more. Angola_sentence_287

In September 2014, the Angolan Institute for Cancer Control (IACC) was created by presidential decree, and it will integrate the National Health Service in Angola. Angola_sentence_288

The purpose of this new centre is to ensure health and medical care in oncology, policy implementation, programmes and plans for prevention and specialised treatment. Angola_sentence_289

This cancer institute will be assumed as a reference institution in the central and southern regions of Africa. Angola_sentence_290

In 2014, Angola launched a national campaign of vaccination against measles, extended to every child under ten years old and aiming to go to all 18 provinces in the country. Angola_sentence_291

The measure is part of the Strategic Plan for the Elimination of Measles 2014–2020 created by the Angolan Ministry of Health which includes strengthening routine immunisation, a proper dealing with measles cases, national campaigns, introducing a second dose of vaccination in the national routine vaccination calendar and active epidemiological surveillance for measles. Angola_sentence_292

This campaign took place together with the vaccination against polio and vitamin A supplementation. Angola_sentence_293

A yellow fever outbreak, the worst in the country in three decades began in December 2015. Angola_sentence_294

By August 2016, when the outbreak began to subside, nearly 4,000 people were suspected of being infected. Angola_sentence_295

As many as 369 may have died. Angola_sentence_296

The outbreak began in the capital, Luanda, and spread to at least 16 of the 18 provinces. Angola_sentence_297

Education Angola_section_23

Main article: Education in Angola Angola_sentence_298

Although by law education in Angola is compulsory and free for eight years, the government reports that a percentage of pupils are not attending due to a lack of school buildings and teachers. Angola_sentence_299

Pupils are often responsible for paying additional school-related expenses, including fees for books and supplies. Angola_sentence_300

In 1999, the gross primary enrollment rate was 74 percent and in 1998, the most recent year for which data are available, the net primary enrollment rate was 61 percent. Angola_sentence_301

Gross and net enrollment ratios are based on the number of pupils formally registered in primary school and therefore do not necessarily reflect actual school attendance. Angola_sentence_302

There continue to be significant disparities in enrollment between rural and urban areas. Angola_sentence_303

In 1995, 71.2 percent of children ages 7 to 14 years were attending school. Angola_sentence_304

It is reported that higher percentages of boys attend school than girls. Angola_sentence_305

During the Angolan Civil War (1975–2002), nearly half of all schools were reportedly looted and destroyed, leading to current problems with overcrowding. Angola_sentence_306

The Ministry of Education recruited 20,000 new teachers in 2005 and continued to implement teacher trainings. Angola_sentence_307

Teachers tend to be underpaid, inadequately trained and overworked (sometimes teaching two or three shifts a day). Angola_sentence_308

Some teachers may reportedly demand payment or bribes directly from their pupils. Angola_sentence_309

Other factors, such as the presence of landmines, lack of resources and identity papers, and poor health prevent children from regularly attending school. Angola_sentence_310

Although budgetary allocations for education were increased in 2004, the education system in Angola continues to be extremely under-funded. Angola_sentence_311

According to estimates by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, the adult literacy rate in 2011 was 70.4%. Angola_sentence_312

By 2015, this had increased to 71.1%. Angola_sentence_313

82.9% of males and 54.2% of women are literate as of 2001. Angola_sentence_314

Since independence from Portugal in 1975, a number of Angolan students continued to be admitted every year at high schools, polytechnical institutes and universities in Portugal and Brazil through bilateral agreements; in general, these students belong to the elites. Angola_sentence_315

In September 2014, the Angolan Ministry of Education announced an investment of 16 million Euros in the computerisation of over 300 classrooms across the country. Angola_sentence_316

The project also includes training teachers at a national level, "as a way to introduce and use new information technologies in primary schools, thus reflecting an improvement in the quality of teaching". Angola_sentence_317

In 2010, the Angolan government started building the Angolan Media Libraries Network, distributed throughout several provinces in the country to facilitate the people's access to information and knowledge. Angola_sentence_318

Each site has a bibliographic archive, multimedia resources and computers with Internet access, as well as areas for reading, researching and socialising. Angola_sentence_319

The plan envisages the establishment of one media library in each Angolan province by 2017. Angola_sentence_320

The project also includes the implementation of several media libraries, in order to provide the several contents available in the fixed media libraries to the most isolated populations in the country. Angola_sentence_321

At this time, the mobile media libraries are already operating in the provinces of Luanda, Malanje, Uíge, Cabinda and Lunda South. Angola_sentence_322

As for REMA, the provinces of Luanda, Benguela, Lubango and Soyo have currently working media libraries. Angola_sentence_323

Culture Angola_section_24

Main article: Culture of Angola Angola_sentence_324

See also: Music of Angola and Angolan cuisine Angola_sentence_325

Angolan culture has been heavily influenced by Portuguese culture, especially in terms of language and religion, and the culture of the indigenous ethnic groups of Angola, predominantly Bantu culture. Angola_sentence_326

The diverse ethnic communities—the Ovimbundu, Ambundu, Bakongo, Chokwe, Mbunda and other peoples—to varying degrees maintain their own cultural traits, traditions and languages, but in the cities, where slightly more than half of the population now lives, a mixed culture has been emerging since colonial times; in Luanda, since its foundation in the 16th century. Angola_sentence_327

In this urban culture, the Portuguese heritage has become more and more dominant. Angola_sentence_328

African roots are evident in music and dance, and is moulding the way in which Portuguese is spoken. Angola_sentence_329

This process is well reflected in contemporary Angolan literature, especially in the works of Angolan authors. Angola_sentence_330

In 2014, Angola resumed the National Festival of Angolan Culture after a 25-year break. Angola_sentence_331

The festival took place in all the provincial capitals and lasted for 20 days, with the theme ”Culture as a Factor of Peace and Development. Angola_sentence_332

Cinema Angola_section_25

In 1972, one of Angola's first feature films, Sarah Maldoror's internationally co-produced Sambizanga, was released at the Carthage Film Festival to critical acclaim, winning the Tanit d'Or, the festival's highest prize. Angola_sentence_333

Sports Angola_section_26

Basketball is the most popular sport in Angola. Angola_sentence_334

Its national team has won the AfroBasket 11 times and holds the record of most titles. Angola_sentence_335

As a top team in Africa, it is a regular competitor at the Summer Olympic Games and the FIBA World Cup. Angola_sentence_336

In football, Angola hosted the 2010 Africa Cup of Nations. Angola_sentence_337

The Angola national football team qualified for the 2006 FIFA World Cup, their first appearance in the World Cup finals. Angola_sentence_338

They were eliminated after one defeat and two draws in the group stage. Angola_sentence_339

They won three COSAFA Cups and finished runner-up in the 2011 African Nations Championship. Angola_sentence_340

Angola has participated in the World Women's Handball Championship for several years. Angola_sentence_341

The country has also appeared in the Summer Olympics for seven years and both regularly competes in and once has hosted the FIRS Roller Hockey World Cup, where the best finish is sixth. Angola_sentence_342

Angola is also often believed to have historic roots in the martial art "Capoeira Angola" and "Batuque" which were practiced by enslaved African Angolans transported as part of the Atlantic slave trade. Angola_sentence_343

See also Angola_section_27


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