Ankara

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"Ancyra" redirects here. Ankara_sentence_0

For the insect genus, see Ancyra (genus). Ankara_sentence_1

For the archdiocese, see Ancyra (Catholic titular see). Ankara_sentence_2

For other uses, see Ankara (disambiguation). Ankara_sentence_3

Ankara_table_infobox_0

AnkaraAnkara_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryAnkara_header_cell_0_1_0 TurkeyAnkara_cell_0_1_1
RegionAnkara_header_cell_0_2_0 Central AnatoliaAnkara_cell_0_2_1
ProvinceAnkara_header_cell_0_3_0 AnkaraAnkara_cell_0_3_1
GovernmentAnkara_header_cell_0_4_0
MayorAnkara_header_cell_0_5_0 Mansur Yavaş (CHP)Ankara_cell_0_5_1
GovernorAnkara_header_cell_0_6_0 Vasip ŞahinAnkara_cell_0_6_1
AreaAnkara_header_cell_0_7_0
TotalAnkara_header_cell_0_8_0 24,521 km (9,468 sq mi)Ankara_cell_0_8_1
ElevationAnkara_header_cell_0_9_0 938 m (3,077 ft)Ankara_cell_0_9_1
Population (2019)Ankara_header_cell_0_10_0
TotalAnkara_header_cell_0_11_0 5,639,076Ankara_cell_0_11_1
DensityAnkara_header_cell_0_12_0 230/km (600/sq mi)Ankara_cell_0_12_1
Time zoneAnkara_header_cell_0_13_0 UTC+3 (TRT)Ankara_cell_0_13_1
Postal codeAnkara_header_cell_0_14_0 06xxxAnkara_cell_0_14_1
Area code(s)Ankara_header_cell_0_15_0 1Ankara_cell_0_15_1
Licence plateAnkara_header_cell_0_16_0 06Ankara_cell_0_16_1
GDP PPPAnkara_header_cell_0_17_0 US$ 105 billionAnkara_cell_0_17_1
GDP PPP per capitaAnkara_header_cell_0_18_0 US$ 21,000Ankara_cell_0_18_1
HDI (2018)Ankara_header_cell_0_19_0 0.855 – very highAnkara_cell_0_19_1
WebsiteAnkara_header_cell_0_20_0 Ankara_cell_0_20_1

Ankara (/ˈæŋkərə/ ANK-ə-rə, also US: /ˈɑːŋ-/ AHNK-ə-rə, Turkish: [ˈaŋkaɾa (listen)), historically known as Ancyra (/ænˈsaɪrə/ an-SY-rə) and Angora (/æŋˈɡɔːrə/ ang-GOR-ə, also US: /ˈæŋɡərə/ ANG-gə-rə), is the capital of Turkey. Ankara_sentence_4

Located in the central part of Anatolia, the city has a population of 4.5 million in its urban centre and over 5.6 million in Ankara Province, making it Turkey's second-largest city after Istanbul. Ankara_sentence_5

Serving as the capital of the ancient Celtic state of Galatia (280–64 BC), and later of the Roman province with the same name (25 BC–7th century), the city is very old with various Hattian, Hittite, Lydian, Phrygian, Galatian, Greek, Persian, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman archaeological sites. Ankara_sentence_6

The Ottomans made the city the capital first of the Anatolia Eyalet (1393–late 15th century), and then the Angora Vilayet (1867–1922). Ankara_sentence_7

The historical center of Ankara is a rocky hill rising 150 m (500 ft) over the left bank of the Ankara River, a tributary of the Sakarya River. Ankara_sentence_8

The hill remains crowned by the ruins of Ankara Castle. Ankara_sentence_9

Although few of its outworks have survived, there are well-preserved examples of Roman and Ottoman architecture throughout the city, the most remarkable being the 20 BC Temple of Augustus and Rome that boasts the Monumentum Ancyranum, the inscription recording the Res Gestae Divi Augusti. Ankara_sentence_10

On 23 April 1920, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey was established in Ankara, which became the headquarters of the Turkish National Movement during the Turkish War of Independence. Ankara_sentence_11

Ankara became the new Turkish capital upon the establishment of the Republic on 29 October 1923, succeeding in this role the former Turkish capital Istanbul (Constantinople) following the fall of the Ottoman Empire. Ankara_sentence_12

The government is a prominent employer, but Ankara is also an important commercial and industrial city, located at the centre of Turkey's road and railway networks. Ankara_sentence_13

The city gave its name to the Angora wool shorn from Angora rabbits, the long-haired Angora goat (the source of mohair), and the Angora cat. Ankara_sentence_14

The area is also known for its pears, honey and muscat grapes. Ankara_sentence_15

Although situated in one of the driest regions of Turkey and surrounded mostly by steppe vegetation (except for the forested areas on the southern periphery), Ankara can be considered a green city in terms of green areas per inhabitant, at 72 square metres (775 square feet) per head. Ankara_sentence_16

Etymology Ankara_section_0

The orthography of the name Ankara has varied over the ages. Ankara_sentence_17

It has been identified with the Hittite cult center Ankuwaš, although this remains a matter of debate. Ankara_sentence_18

In classical antiquity and during the medieval period, the city was known as Ánkyra (Ἄγκυρα, lit "anchor") in Greek and Ancyra in Latin; the Galatian Celtic name was probably a similar variant. Ankara_sentence_19

Following its annexation by the Seljuk Turks in 1073, the city became known in many European languages as Angora; it was also known in Ottoman Turkish as Engürü. Ankara_sentence_20

The form "Angora" is preserved in the names of breeds of many different kinds of animals, and in the names of several locations in the US (see Angora). Ankara_sentence_21

History Ankara_section_1

Economy and infrastructure Ankara_section_2

The city has exported mohair (from the Angora goat) and Angora wool (from the Angora rabbit) internationally for centuries. Ankara_sentence_22

In the 19th century, the city also exported substantial amounts of goat and cat skins, gum, wax, honey, berries, and madder root. Ankara_sentence_23

It was connected to Istanbul by railway before the First World War, continuing to export mohair, wool, berries, and grain. Ankara_sentence_24

The Central Anatolia Region is one of the primary locations of grape and wine production in Turkey, and Ankara is particularly famous for its Kalecik Karası and Muscat grapes; and its Kavaklıdere wine, which is produced in the Kavaklıdere neighbourhood within the Çankaya district of the city. Ankara_sentence_25

Ankara is also famous for its pears. Ankara_sentence_26

Another renowned natural product of Ankara is its indigenous type of honey (Ankara Balı) which is known for its light color and is mostly produced by the Atatürk Forest Farm and Zoo in the Gazi district, and by other facilities in the Elmadağ, Çubuk and Beypazarı districts. Ankara_sentence_27

Çubuk-1 and Çubuk-2 dams on the Çubuk Brook in Ankara were among the first dams constructed in the Turkish Republic. Ankara_sentence_28

Ankara is the center of the state-owned and private Turkish defence and aerospace companies, where the industrial plants and headquarters of the Turkish Aerospace Industries, MKE, ASELSAN, HAVELSAN, ROKETSAN, FNSS, Nurol Makina, and numerous other firms are located. Ankara_sentence_29

Exports to foreign countries from these defence and aerospace firms have steadily increased in the past decades. Ankara_sentence_30

The IDEF in Ankara is one of the largest international expositions of the global arms industry. Ankara_sentence_31

A number of the global automotive companies also have production facilities in Ankara, such as the German bus and truck manufacturer MAN SE. Ankara_sentence_32

Ankara hosts the OSTIM Industrial Zone, Turkey's largest industrial park. Ankara_sentence_33

A large percentage of the complicated employment in Ankara is provided by the state institutions; such as the ministries, subministries, and other administrative bodies of the Turkish government. Ankara_sentence_34

There are also many foreign citizens working as diplomats or clerks in the embassies of their respective countries. Ankara_sentence_35

Geography Ankara_section_3

Ankara and its province are located in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. Ankara_sentence_36

The Çubuk Brook flows through the city center of Ankara. Ankara_sentence_37

It is connected in the western suburbs of the city to the Ankara River, which is a tributary of the Sakarya River. Ankara_sentence_38

Climate Ankara_section_4

Ankara has a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification: BSk). Ankara_sentence_39

Under the Trewartha climate classification, Ankara has a middle latitude steppe climate (BSk). Ankara_sentence_40

Due to its elevation and inland location, Ankara has cold and snowy winters, and hot and dry summers. Ankara_sentence_41

Rainfall occurs mostly during the spring and autumn. Ankara_sentence_42

The city lies in USDA Hardiness zone 7b, and its annual average precipitation is fairly low at 388 millimeters (15 in), nevertheless precipitation can be observed throughout the year. Ankara_sentence_43

Monthly mean temperatures range from 0.3 °C (32.5 °F) in January to 23.5 °C (74.3 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 12.02 °C (53.6 °F). Ankara_sentence_44

Demographics Ankara_section_5

Ankara had a population of 75,000 in 1927. Ankara_sentence_45

As of 2019, Ankara Province has a population of 5,639,076. Ankara_sentence_46

When Ankara became the capital of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, it was designated as a planned city for 500,000 future inhabitants. Ankara_sentence_47

During the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s, the city grew in a planned and orderly pace. Ankara_sentence_48

However, from the 1950s onward, the city grew much faster than envisioned, because unemployment and poverty forced people to migrate from the countryside into the city in order to seek a better standard of living. Ankara_sentence_49

As a result, many illegal houses called gecekondu were built around the city, causing the unplanned and uncontrolled urban landscape of Ankara, as not enough planned housing could be built fast enough. Ankara_sentence_50

Although precariously built, the vast majority of them have electricity, running water and modern household amenities. Ankara_sentence_51

Nevertheless, many of these gecekondus have been replaced by huge public housing projects in the form of tower blocks such as Elvankent, Eryaman and Güzelkent; and also as mass housing compounds for military and civil service accommodation. Ankara_sentence_52

Although many gecekondus still remain, they too are gradually being replaced by mass housing compounds, as empty land plots in the city of Ankara for new construction projects are becoming impossible to find. Ankara_sentence_53

Çorum and Yozgat, which are located in Central Anatolia and whose population is decreasing, are the provinces with the highest net migration to Ankara. Ankara_sentence_54

About one third of the Central Anatolia population of 15,608,868 people resides in Ankara. Ankara_sentence_55

The population of Ankara has a higher education level than the country average. Ankara_sentence_56

According to 2008 data, 15-years-higher literacy rate creates 88% of the total provincial population (91% in men and 86% in women). Ankara_sentence_57

This ratio was 83% for Turkey (88% males, 79% females). Ankara_sentence_58

This difference is particularly evident in the university educated segment of the population. Ankara_sentence_59

The ratio of university and high school graduates to total population is 10.6% in Ankara, while 5.4% in Turkey. Ankara_sentence_60

Transportation Ankara_section_6

See also: Ankara Metro, Ankara Central Station, and Esenboğa International Airport Ankara_sentence_61

The Electricity, Gas, Bus General Directorate (EGO) operates the Ankara Metro and other forms of public transportation. Ankara_sentence_62

Ankara is served by a suburban rail named Ankaray (A1) and three subway lines (M1, M2, M3) of the Ankara Metro with about 300,000 total daily commuters, while an additional subway line (M4) is under construction. Ankara_sentence_63

A 3.2 km (2.0 mi) long gondola lift with four stations connects the district of Şentepe to the Yenimahalle metro station. Ankara_sentence_64

The Ankara Central Station is a major rail hub in Turkey. Ankara_sentence_65

The Turkish State Railways operates passenger train service from Ankara to other major cities, such as: Istanbul, Eskişehir, Balıkesir, Kütahya, İzmir, Kayseri, Adana, Kars, Elâzığ, Malatya, Diyarbakır, Karabük, Zonguldak and Sivas. Ankara_sentence_66

Commuter rail also runs between the stations of Sincan and Kayaş. Ankara_sentence_67

On 13 March 2009, the new Yüksek Hızlı Tren (YHT) high-speed rail service began operation between Ankara and Eskişehir. Ankara_sentence_68

On 23 August 2011, another YHT high-speed line commercially started its service between Ankara and Konya. Ankara_sentence_69

On 25 July 2014, the Ankara–Istanbul high-speed line of YHT entered service. Ankara_sentence_70

Esenboğa International Airport, located in the north-east of the city, is Ankara's main airport. Ankara_sentence_71

Ankara Public Transportation statistics Ankara_section_7

The average amount of time people spend commuting on public transit in Ankara on a weekday is 71 minutes. Ankara_sentence_72

17% of public transit passengers, ride for more than two hours every day. Ankara_sentence_73

The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is sixteen minutes, while 28% of users wait for over twenty minutes on average every day. Ankara_sentence_74

The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 9.9 km (6.2 mi), while 27% travel for over 12 km (7.5 mi) in a single direction. Ankara_sentence_75

Politics Ankara_section_8

Ankara is politically a triple battleground between the ruling conservative Justice and Development Party (AKP), the opposition Kemalist centre-left Republican People's Party (CHP) and the nationalist far-right Nationalist Movement Party (MHP). Ankara_sentence_76

The province of Ankara is divided into 25 districts. Ankara_sentence_77

The CHP's key and almost only political stronghold in Ankara lies within the central area of Çankaya, which is the city's most populous district. Ankara_sentence_78

While the CHP has always gained between 60 and 70% of the vote in Çankaya since 2002, political support elsewhere throughout Ankara is minimal. Ankara_sentence_79

The high population within Çankaya, as well as Yenimahalle to an extent, has allowed the CHP to take overall second place behind the AKP in both local and general elections, with the MHP a close third, despite the fact that the MHP is politically stronger than the CHP in almost every other district. Ankara_sentence_80

Overall, the AKP enjoys the most support throughout the city. Ankara_sentence_81

The electorate of Ankara thus tend to vote in favour of the political right, far more so than the other main cities of Istanbul and İzmir. Ankara_sentence_82

In retrospect, the 2013–14 protests against the AKP government were particularly strong in Ankara, proving to be fatal on multiple occasions. Ankara_sentence_83

Ankara_table_infobox_1

Ankara district Municipalities

Local elections, 2019Ankara_header_cell_1_0_0

AKPAnkara_header_cell_1_1_0 19 / 25Ankara_cell_1_1_1
CHPAnkara_header_cell_1_2_0 3 / 25Ankara_cell_1_2_1
MHPAnkara_header_cell_1_3_0 3 / 25Ankara_cell_1_3_1

The city suffered from a series of terrorist attacks in 2015 and 2016, most notably on 10 October 2015; 17 February 2016; 13 March 2016; and 15 July 2016. Ankara_sentence_84

Melih Gökçek was the Metropolitan Mayor of Ankara between 1994 and 2017. Ankara_sentence_85

Initially elected in the 1994 local elections, he was re-elected in 1999, 2004 and 2009. Ankara_sentence_86

In the 2014 local elections, Gökçek stood for a fifth term. Ankara_sentence_87

The MHP's metropolitan mayoral candidate for the 2009 local elections, Mansur Yavaş, stood as the CHP's candidate against Gökçek in 2014. Ankara_sentence_88

In a heavily controversial election, Gökçek was declared the winner by just 1% ahead of Yavaş amid allegations of systematic electoral fraud. Ankara_sentence_89

With the Supreme Electoral Council and courts rejecting his appeals, Yavaş declared his intention to take the irregularities to the European Court of Human Rights. Ankara_sentence_90

Although Gökçek was inaugurated for a fifth term, most election observers believe that Yavaş was the winner of the election. Ankara_sentence_91

Gökçek resigned on 28 October 2017 and was replaced by the former mayor of Sincan district, Mustafa Tuna. Ankara_sentence_92

Since 8 April 2019, the Mayor of Ankara is Mansur Yavaş from the Republican People's Party (CHP), who won the mayoral election in 2019. Ankara_sentence_93

Main sights Ankara_section_9

Ancient/archeological sites Ankara_section_10

Ankara Citadel Ankara_section_11

The foundations of the Ankara castle and citadel were laid by the Galatians on a prominent lava outcrop (), and the rest was completed by the Romans. Ankara_sentence_94

The Byzantines and Seljuks further made restorations and additions. Ankara_sentence_95

The area around and inside the citadel, being the oldest part of Ankara, contains many fine examples of traditional architecture. Ankara_sentence_96

There are also recreational areas to relax. Ankara_sentence_97

Many restored traditional Turkish houses inside the citadel area have found new life as restaurants, serving local cuisine. Ankara_sentence_98

The citadel was depicted in various Turkish banknotes during 1927–1952 and 1983–1989. Ankara_sentence_99

Roman Theatre Ankara_section_12

The remains, the stage, and the backstage of the Roman theatre can be seen outside the castle. Ankara_sentence_100

Roman statues that were found here are exhibited in the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations. Ankara_sentence_101

The seating area is still under excavation. Ankara_sentence_102

Temple of Augustus and Rome Ankara_section_13

Main article: Monumentum Ancyranum Ankara_sentence_103

The Augusteum, now known as the Temple of Augustus and Rome, was built 25 x 20 BC following the conquest of Central Anatolia by the Roman Empire. Ankara_sentence_104

Ancyra then formed the capital of the new province of Galatia. Ankara_sentence_105

After the death of Augustus in AD 14, a copy of the text of the Res Gestae Divi Augusti (the Monumentum Ancyranum) was inscribed on the interior of the temple's pronaos in Latin and a Greek translation on an exterior wall of the cella. Ankara_sentence_106

The temple on the ancient acropolis of Ancyra was enlarged in the 2nd century and converted into a church in the 5th century. Ankara_sentence_107

It is located in the Ulus quarter of the city. Ankara_sentence_108

It was subsequently publicized by the Austrian ambassador Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq in the 16th century. Ankara_sentence_109

Roman Baths Ankara_section_14

The Roman Baths of Ankara have all the typical features of a classical Roman bath complex: a frigidarium (cold room), a tepidarium (warm room) and a caldarium (hot room). Ankara_sentence_110

The baths were built during the reign of the Roman emperor Caracalla in the early 3rd century to honor Asclepios, the God of Medicine. Ankara_sentence_111

Today, only the basement and first floors remain. Ankara_sentence_112

It is situated in the Ulus quarter. Ankara_sentence_113

Roman Road Ankara_section_15

The Roman Road of Ankara or Cardo Maximus was found in 1995 by Turkish archaeologist Cevdet Bayburtluoğlu. Ankara_sentence_114

It is 216 metres (709 feet) long and 6.7 metres (22.0 feet) wide. Ankara_sentence_115

Many ancient artifacts were discovered during the excavations along the road and most of them are displayed at the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations. Ankara_sentence_116

Column of Julian Ankara_section_16

The Column of Julian or Julianus, now in the Ulus district, was erected in honor of the Roman emperor Julian the Apostate's visit to Ancyra in 362. Ankara_sentence_117

Mosques Ankara_section_17

Kocatepe Mosque Ankara_section_18

Kocatepe Mosque is the largest mosque in the city. Ankara_sentence_118

Located in the Kocatepe quarter, it was constructed between 1967 and 1987 in classical Ottoman style with four minarets. Ankara_sentence_119

Its size and prominent location have made it a landmark for the city. Ankara_sentence_120

Ahmet Hamdi Akseki Mosque Ankara_section_19

Ahmet Hamdi Akseki Mosque is located near the Presidency of Religious Affairs on the Eskişehir Road. Ankara_sentence_121

Built in the Turkish neoclassical style, it is one of the largest new mosques in the city, completed and opened in 2013. Ankara_sentence_122

It can accommodate 6 thousand people during general prayers, and up to 30 thousand people during funeral prayers. Ankara_sentence_123

The mosque was decorated with Anatolian Seljuk style patterns. Ankara_sentence_124

Yeni (Cenab Ahmet) Mosque Ankara_section_20

It is the largest Ottoman mosque in Ankara and was built by the famous architect Sinan in the 16th century. Ankara_sentence_125

The mimber (pulpit) and mihrap (prayer niche) are of white marble, and the mosque itself is of Ankara stone, an example of very fine workmanship. Ankara_sentence_126

Hacı Bayram Mosque Ankara_section_21

This mosque, in the Ulus quarter next to the Temple of Augustus, was built in the early 15th century in Seljuk style by an unknown architect. Ankara_sentence_127

It was subsequently restored by architect Mimar Sinan in the 16th century, with Kütahya tiles being added in the 18th century. Ankara_sentence_128

The mosque was built in honor of Hacı Bayram-ı Veli, whose tomb is next to the mosque, two years before his death (1427–28). Ankara_sentence_129

The usable space inside this mosque is 437 m (4,704 sq ft) on the first floor and 263 m (2,831 sq ft) on the second floor. Ankara_sentence_130

Ahi Elvan Mosque Ankara_section_22

It was founded in the Ulus quarter near the Ankara Citadel and was constructed by the Ahi fraternity during the late 14th and early 15th centuries. Ankara_sentence_131

The finely carved walnut mimber (pulpit) is of particular interest. Ankara_sentence_132

Alâeddin Mosque Ankara_section_23

The Alâeddin Mosque is the oldest mosque in Ankara. Ankara_sentence_133

It has a carved walnut mimber, the inscription on which records that the mosque was completed in early AH 574 (which corresponds to the summer of 1178 AD) and was built by the Seljuk prince Muhiddin Mesud Şah (d. 1204), the Bey of Ankara, who was the son of the Anatolian Seljuk sultan Kılıç Arslan II (reigned 1156–1192.) Ankara_sentence_134

Modern monuments Ankara_section_24

Victory Monument Ankara_section_25

The Victory Monument (Turkish: ) was crafted by Austrian sculptor Heinrich Krippel in 1925 and was erected in 1927 at Ulus Square. Ankara_sentence_135

The monument is made of marble and bronze and features an equestrian statue of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who wears a Republic era modern military uniform, with the rank Field Marshal. Ankara_sentence_136

Statue of Atatürk Ankara_section_26

Located at Zafer Square (Turkish: Zafer Meydanı), the marble and bronze statue was crafted by the renowned Italian sculptor Pietro Canonica in 1927 and depicts a standing Atatürk who wears a Republic era modern military uniform, with the rank Field Marshal. Ankara_sentence_137

Monument to a Secure, Confident Future Ankara_section_27

This monument, located in Güven Park near Kızılay Square, was erected in 1935 and bears Atatürk's advice to his people: "Turk! Ankara_sentence_138

Be proud, work hard, and believe in yourself." Ankara_sentence_139

The monument was depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 5 lira banknote of 1937–1952 and of the 1000 lira banknotes of 1939–1946. Ankara_sentence_140

Hatti Monument Ankara_section_28

Erected in 1978 at Sıhhiye Square, this impressive monument symbolizes the Hatti Sun Disc (which was later adopted by the Hittites) and commemorates Anatolia's earliest known civilization. Ankara_sentence_141

The Hatti Sun Disc has been used in the previous logo of Ankara Metropolitan Municipality. Ankara_sentence_142

It was also used in the previous logo of the Ministry of Culture & Tourism. Ankara_sentence_143

Inns Ankara_section_29

Suluhan Ankara_section_30

Suluhan is a historical Inn in Ankara. Ankara_sentence_144

It is also called the Hasanpaşa Han. Ankara_sentence_145

It is about 400 meters (1,300 ft) southeast of Ulus Square and situated in the Hacıdoğan neighbourhood. Ankara_sentence_146

According to the vakfiye (inscription) of the building, the Ottoman era han was commissioned by Hasan Pasha, a regional beylerbey, and was constructed between 1508 and 1511, during the final years of the reign of Sultan Bayezid II. Ankara_sentence_147

There are 102 rooms (now shops) which face the two yards. Ankara_sentence_148

In each room there is a window, a niche and a chimney. Ankara_sentence_149

Çengelhan Rahmi Koç Museum Ankara_section_31

Çengelhan Rahmi Koç Museum is a museum of industrial technology situated in , an Ottoman era Inn which was completed in 1523, during the early years of the reign of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. Ankara_sentence_150

The exhibits include industrial/technological artifacts from the 1850s onwards. Ankara_sentence_151

There are also sections about Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of modern Turkey; Vehbi Koç, Rahmi Koç's father and one of the first industrialists of Turkey, and Ankara city. Ankara_sentence_152

Shopping Ankara_section_32

Foreign visitors to Ankara usually like to visit the old shops in Çıkrıkçılar Yokuşu (Weavers' Road) near Ulus, where myriad things ranging from traditional fabrics, hand-woven carpets and leather products can be found at bargain prices. Ankara_sentence_153

Bakırcılar Çarşısı (Bazaar of Coppersmiths) is particularly popular, and many interesting items, not just of copper, can be found here like jewelry, carpets, costumes, antiques and embroidery. Ankara_sentence_154

Up the hill to the castle gate, there are many shops selling a huge and fresh collection of spices, dried fruits, nuts, and other produce. Ankara_sentence_155

Modern shopping areas are mostly found in Kızılay, or on Tunalı Hilmi Avenue, including the modern mall of Karum (named after the ancient Assyrian merchant colonies called Kârum that were established in central Anatolia at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC) which is located towards the end of the Avenue; and in Çankaya, the quarter with the highest elevation in the city. Ankara_sentence_156

Atakule Tower next to Atrium Mall in Çankaya has views over Ankara and also has a revolving restaurant at the top. Ankara_sentence_157

The symbol of the Armada Shopping Mall is an anchor, and there's a large anchor monument at its entrance, as a reference to the ancient Greek name of the city, Ἄγκυρα (Ánkyra), which means anchor. Ankara_sentence_158

Likewise, the anchor monument is also related with the Spanish name of the mall, Armada, which means naval fleet. Ankara_sentence_159

As Ankara started expanding westward in the 1970s, several modern, suburbia-style developments and mini-cities began to rise along the western highway, also known as the Eskişehir Road. Ankara_sentence_160

The Armada, CEPA and Kentpark malls on the highway, the Galleria, Arcadium and Gordion in Ümitköy, and a huge mall, Real in Bilkent Center, offer North American and European style shopping opportunities (these places can be reached through the Eskişehir Highway.) Ankara_sentence_161

There is also the newly expanded ANKAmall at the outskirts, on the Istanbul Highway, which houses most of the well-known international brands. Ankara_sentence_162

This mall is the largest throughout the Ankara region. Ankara_sentence_163

In 2014 a few more shopping malls were open in Ankara. Ankara_sentence_164

They are Next Level and Taurus on the Boulevard of Mevlana (also known as Konya Road). Ankara_sentence_165

Culture Ankara_section_33

The arts Ankara_section_34

Turkish State Opera and Ballet, the national directorate of opera and ballet companies of Turkey, has its headquarters in Ankara, and serves the city with three venues: Ankara_sentence_166

Ankara_unordered_list_0

  • Ankara Opera House (Opera Sahnesi, also known as Büyük Tiyatro) is the largest of the three venues for opera and ballet in Ankara.Ankara_item_0_0

Music Ankara_section_35

Ankara is host to five classical music orchestras: Ankara_sentence_167

Ankara_unordered_list_1

There are four concert halls in the city: Ankara_sentence_168

Ankara_unordered_list_2

The city has been host to several well-established, annual theatre, music, film festivals: Ankara_sentence_169

Ankara_unordered_list_3

Ankara also has a number of concert venues such as Eskiyeni, IF Performance Hall, Jolly Joker, Kite, Nefes Bar, Noxus Pub, Passage Pub and Route, which host the live performances and events of popular musicians. Ankara_sentence_170

Theatre Ankara_section_36

The Turkish State Theatres also has its head office in Ankara and runs the following stages in the city: Ankara_sentence_171

In addition, the city is served by several private theatre companies, among which , who have their own stage in the city center, is a notable example. Ankara_sentence_172

Museums Ankara_section_37

There are about 50 museums in the city. Ankara_sentence_173

Museum of Anatolian Civilizations Ankara_section_38

The Museum of Anatolian Civilizations (Anadolu Medeniyetleri Müzesi) is situated at the entrance of the Ankara Castle. Ankara_sentence_174

It is an old 15th century bedesten (covered bazaar) that has been restored and now houses a collection of Paleolithic, Neolithic, Hatti, Hittite, Phrygian, Urartian and Roman works as well as a major section dedicated to Lydian treasures. Ankara_sentence_175

Anıtkabir Ankara_section_39

Anıtkabir is located on an imposing hill, which forms the Anıttepe quarter of the city, where the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder of the Republic of Turkey, stands. Ankara_sentence_176

Completed in 1953, it is an impressive fusion of ancient and modern architectural styles. Ankara_sentence_177

An adjacent museum houses a wax statue of Atatürk, his writings, letters and personal items, as well as an exhibition of photographs recording important moments in his life and during the establishment of the Republic. Ankara_sentence_178

Anıtkabir is open every day, while the adjacent museum is open every day except Mondays. Ankara_sentence_179

Ankara Ethnography Museum Ankara_section_40

Ankara Ethnography Museum (Etnoğrafya Müzesi) is located opposite to the Ankara Opera House on Talat Paşa Boulevard, in the Ulus district. Ankara_sentence_180

There is a fine collection of folkloric items, as well as artifacts from the Seljuk and Ottoman periods. Ankara_sentence_181

In front of the museum building, there is a marble and bronze equestrian statue of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (who wears a Republic era modern military uniform, with the rank Field Marshal) which was crafted in 1927 by the renowned Italian sculptor Pietro Canonica. Ankara_sentence_182

State Art and Sculpture Museum Ankara_section_41

The State Art and Sculpture Museum (Resim-Heykel Müzesi) which opened to the public in 1980 is close to the Ethnography Museum and houses a rich collection of Turkish art from the late 19th century to the present day. Ankara_sentence_183

There are also galleries which host guest exhibitions. Ankara_sentence_184

Cer Modern Ankara_section_42

Cer Modern is the modern-arts museum of Ankara, inaugurated on 1 April 2010. Ankara_sentence_185

It is situated in the renovated building of the historic TCDD Cer Atölyeleri, formerly a workshop of the Turkish State Railways. Ankara_sentence_186

The museum incorporates the largest exhibition hall in Turkey. Ankara_sentence_187

The museum holds periodic exhibitions of modern and contemporary art as well as hosting other contemporary arts events. Ankara_sentence_188

War of Independence Museum Ankara_section_43

The War of Independence Museum (Kurtuluş Savaşı Müzesi) is located on Ulus Square. Ankara_sentence_189

It was originally the first Parliament building (TBMM) of the Republic of Turkey. Ankara_sentence_190

The War of Independence was planned and directed here as recorded in various photographs and items presently on exhibition. Ankara_sentence_191

In another display, wax figures of former presidents of the Republic of Turkey are on exhibit. Ankara_sentence_192

Mehmet Akif Literature Museum Library Ankara_section_44

The Mehmet Akif Literature Museum Library is an important literary museum and archive opened in 2011 and dedicated to Mehmet Akif Ersoy (1873–1936), the poet of the Turkish National Anthem. Ankara_sentence_193

TCDD Open Air Steam Locomotive Museum Ankara_section_45

The TCDD Open Air Steam Locomotive Museum is an open-air museum which traces the history of steam locomotives. Ankara_sentence_194

Ankara Aviation Museum Ankara_section_46

Ankara Aviation Museum (Hava Kuvvetleri Müzesi Komutanlığı) is located near the Istanbul Road in Etimesgut. Ankara_sentence_195

The museum opened to the public in September 1998. Ankara_sentence_196

It is home to various missiles, avionics, aviation materials and aircraft that have served in the Turkish Air Force (e.g. combat aircraft such as the F-86 Sabre, F-100 Super Sabre, F-102 Delta Dagger, F-104 Starfighter, F-5 Freedom Fighter, F-4 Phantom; and cargo planes such as the Transall C-160.) Ankara_sentence_197

Also a Hungarian MiG-21, a Pakistani MiG-19, and a Bulgarian MiG-17 are on display at the museum. Ankara_sentence_198

METU Science and Technology Museum Ankara_section_47

The METU Science and Technology Museum (ODTÜ Bilim ve Teknoloji Müzesi) is located inside the Middle East Technical University campus. Ankara_sentence_199

Sports Ankara_section_48

As with all other cities of Turkey, football is the most popular sport in Ankara. Ankara_sentence_200

The city has two football clubs competing in the Turkish Süper Lig: Ankaragücü, founded in 1910, is the oldest club in Ankara and is associated with Ankara's military arsenal manufacturing company MKE. Ankara_sentence_201

They were the Turkish Cup winners in 1972 and 1981. Ankara_sentence_202

Gençlerbirliği, founded in 1923, are known as the Ankara Gale or the Poppies because of their colors: red and black. Ankara_sentence_203

They were the Turkish Cup winners in 1987 and 2001. Ankara_sentence_204

Gençlerbirliği's B team, Hacettepe S.K. (formerly known as Gençlerbirliği OFTAŞ) played in the Süper Lig but currently plays in the TFF Second League. Ankara_sentence_205

A fourth team, Büyükşehir Belediye Ankaraspor, played in the Süper Lig until 2010, when they were expelled. Ankara_sentence_206

The club was reconstituted in 2014 as Osmanlıspor but have since returned to their old identity as Ankaraspor. Ankara_sentence_207

Ankaraspor currently play in the TFF First League at the Osmanlı Stadium in the Sincan district of Yenikent, outside the city center. Ankara_sentence_208

Keçiörengücü also currently play in the TFF First League. Ankara_sentence_209

Ankara has a large number of minor teams, playing at regional levels. Ankara_sentence_210

In the TFF Second League: Mamak FK in Mamak, Ankara Demirspor in Çankaya, Etimesgut Belediyespor in Etimesgut; in the TFF Third League: Çankaya FK in Keçiören; Altındağspor in Altındağ; in the Amateur League: Turanspor in Etimesgut, Türk Telekomspor owned by the phone company in Yenimahalle, Çubukspor in Çubuk, and Bağlumspor in Keçiören. Ankara_sentence_211

In the Turkish Basketball League, Ankara is represented by Türk Telekom, whose home is the Ankara Arena, and CASA TED Kolejliler, whose home is the TOBB Sports Hall. Ankara_sentence_212

Halkbank Ankara is the leading domestic powerhouse in men's volleyball, having won many championships and cups in the Turkish Men's Volleyball League and even the CEV Cup in 2013. Ankara_sentence_213

Ankara Buz Pateni Sarayı is where the ice skating and ice hockey competitions take place in the city. Ankara_sentence_214

There are many popular spots for skateboarding which is active in the city since the 1980s. Ankara_sentence_215

Skaters in Ankara usually meet in the park near the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. Ankara_sentence_216

The 2012-built THF Sport Hall hosts the Handball Super League and Women's Handball Super League matches scheduled in Ankara. Ankara_sentence_217

Parks Ankara_section_49

Ankara has many parks and open spaces mainly established in the early years of the Republic and well maintained and expanded thereafter. Ankara_sentence_218

The most important of these parks are: Gençlik Parkı (houses an amusement park with a large pond for rowing), the Botanical garden, Seğmenler Park, Anayasa Park, Kuğulu Park (famous for the swans received as a gift from the Chinese government), Abdi İpekçi Park, Esertepe Parkı, Güven Park (see above for the monument), Kurtuluş Park (has an ice-skating rink), Altınpark (also a prominent exposition/fair area), Harikalar Diyarı (claimed to be Biggest Park of Europe inside city borders) and Göksu Park. Ankara_sentence_219

Dikmen Vadisi (Dikmen Valley) is a 70 hectares (170 acres) park and recreation area situated in Çankaya district. Ankara_sentence_220

Gençlik Park was depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 100 lira banknotes of 1952–1976. Ankara_sentence_221

Atatürk Forest Farm and Zoo (Atatürk Orman Çiftliği) is an expansive recreational farming area which houses a zoo, several small agricultural farms, greenhouses, restaurants, a dairy farm and a brewery. Ankara_sentence_222

It is a pleasant place to spend a day with family, be it for having picnics, hiking, biking or simply enjoying good food and nature. Ankara_sentence_223

There is also an exact replica of the house where Atatürk was born in 1881, in Thessaloniki, Greece. Ankara_sentence_224

Visitors to the "Çiftlik" (farm) as it is affectionately called by Ankarans, can sample such famous products of the farm such as old-fashioned beer and ice cream, fresh dairy products and meat rolls/kebaps made on charcoal, at a traditional restaurant (Merkez Lokantası, Central Restaurant), cafés and other establishments scattered around the farm. Ankara_sentence_225

Education Ankara_section_50

Universities Ankara_section_51

Ankara is noted, within Turkey, for the multitude of universities it is home to. Ankara_sentence_226

These include the following, several of them being among the most reputable in the country: Ankara_sentence_227

Fauna Ankara_section_52

Angora cat Ankara_section_53

Main article: Turkish Angora Ankara_sentence_228

Ankara is home to a world-famous domestic cat breed – the Turkish Angora, called Ankara kedisi (Ankara cat) in Turkish. Ankara_sentence_229

Turkish Angoras are one of the ancient, naturally occurring cat breeds, having originated in Ankara and its surrounding region in central Anatolia. Ankara_sentence_230

They mostly have a white, silky, medium to long length coat, no undercoat and a fine bone structure. Ankara_sentence_231

There seems to be a connection between the Angora Cats and Persians, and the Turkish Angora is also a distant cousin of the Turkish Van. Ankara_sentence_232

Although they are known for their shimmery white coat, there are more than twenty varieties including black, blue and reddish fur. Ankara_sentence_233

They come in tabby and tabby-white, along with smoke varieties, and are in every color other than pointed, lavender, and cinnamon (all of which would indicate breeding to an outcross.) Ankara_sentence_234

Eyes may be blue, green, or amber, or even one blue and one amber or green. Ankara_sentence_235

The W gene which is responsible for the white coat and blue eye is closely related to the hearing ability, and the presence of a blue eye can indicate that the cat is deaf to the side the blue eye is located. Ankara_sentence_236

However, a great many blue and odd-eyed white cats have normal hearing, and even deaf cats lead a very normal life if kept indoors. Ankara_sentence_237

Ears are pointed and large, eyes are almond shaped and the head is massive with a two plane profile. Ankara_sentence_238

Another characteristic is the tail, which is often kept parallel to the back. Ankara_sentence_239

Angora goat Ankara_section_54

Main article: Angora goat Ankara_sentence_240

The Angora goat (Turkish: Ankara keçisi) is a breed of domestic goat that originated in Ankara and its surrounding region in central Anatolia. Ankara_sentence_241

This breed was first mentioned in the time of Moses, roughly in 1500 BC. Ankara_sentence_242

The first Angora goats were brought to Europe by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, about 1554, but, like later imports, were not very successful. Ankara_sentence_243

Angora goats were first introduced in the United States in 1849 by Dr. James P. Davis. Ankara_sentence_244

Seven adult goats were a gift from Sultan Abdülmecid I in appreciation for his services and advice on the raising of cotton. Ankara_sentence_245

The fleece taken from an Angora goat is called mohair. Ankara_sentence_246

A single goat produces between five and eight kilograms (11 and 18 pounds) of hair per year. Ankara_sentence_247

Angoras are shorn twice a year, unlike sheep, which are shorn only once. Ankara_sentence_248

Angoras have high nutritional requirements due to their rapid hair growth. Ankara_sentence_249

A poor quality diet will curtail mohair development. Ankara_sentence_250

The United States, Turkey, and South Africa are the top producers of mohair. Ankara_sentence_251

For a long period of time, Angora goats were bred for their white coat. Ankara_sentence_252

In 1998, the Colored Angora Goat Breeders Association was set up to promote breeding of colored Angoras. Ankara_sentence_253

Today, Angora goats produce white, black (deep black to greys and silver), red (the color fades significantly as the goat gets older), and brownish fiber. Ankara_sentence_254

Angora goats were depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 50 lira banknotes of 1938–1952. Ankara_sentence_255

Angora rabbit Ankara_section_55

Main article: Angora rabbit Ankara_sentence_256

The Angora rabbit (Turkish: Ankara tavşanı) is a variety of domestic rabbit bred for its long, soft hair. Ankara_sentence_257

The Angora is one of the oldest types of domestic rabbit, originating in Ankara and its surrounding region in central Anatolia, along with the Angora cat and Angora goat. Ankara_sentence_258

The rabbits were popular pets with French royalty in the mid-18th century, and spread to other parts of Europe by the end of the century. Ankara_sentence_259

They first appeared in the United States in the early 20th century. Ankara_sentence_260

They are bred largely for their long Angora wool, which may be removed by shearing, combing, or plucking (gently pulling loose wool.) Ankara_sentence_261

Angoras are bred mainly for their wool because it is silky and soft. Ankara_sentence_262

They have a humorous appearance, as they oddly resemble a fur ball. Ankara_sentence_263

Most are calm and docile but should be handled carefully. Ankara_sentence_264

Grooming is necessary to prevent the fiber from matting and felting on the rabbit. Ankara_sentence_265

A condition called "wool block" is common in Angora rabbits and should be treated quickly. Ankara_sentence_266

Sometimes they are shorn in the summer as the long fur can cause the rabbits to overheat. Ankara_sentence_267

International relations Ankara_section_56

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Turkey Ankara_sentence_268

Twin towns and sister cities Ankara_section_57

Ankara is twinned with: Ankara_sentence_269

Partner cities Ankara_section_58

Ankara_unordered_list_4

See also Ankara_section_59

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ankara.