"Ancyra" redirects here.
For the insect genus, see Ancyra (genus).
For the archdiocese, see Ancyra (Catholic titular see).
For other uses, see Ankara (disambiguation).
|Mayor||Mansur Yavaş (CHP)|
|Total||24,521 km (9,468 sq mi)|
|Elevation||938 m (3,077 ft)|
|Density||230/km (600/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (TRT)|
|GDP PPP||US$ 105 billion|
|GDP PPP per capita||US$ 21,000|
|HDI (2018)||0.855 – very high|
Ankara (/ˈæŋkərə/ ANK-ə-rə, also US: /ˈɑːŋ-/ AHNK-ə-rə, Turkish: [ˈaŋkaɾa (listen)), historically known as Ancyra (/ænˈsaɪrə/ an-SY-rə) and Angora (/æŋˈɡɔːrə/ ang-GOR-ə, also US: /ˈæŋɡərə/ ANG-gə-rə), is the capital of Turkey.
Serving as the capital of the ancient Celtic state of Galatia (280–64 BC), and later of the Roman province with the same name (25 BC–7th century), the city is very old with various Hattian, Hittite, Lydian, Phrygian, Galatian, Greek, Persian, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman archaeological sites.
The hill remains crowned by the ruins of Ankara Castle.
Although few of its outworks have survived, there are well-preserved examples of Roman and Ottoman architecture throughout the city, the most remarkable being the 20 BC Temple of Augustus and Rome that boasts the Monumentum Ancyranum, the inscription recording the Res Gestae Divi Augusti.
Ankara became the new Turkish capital upon the establishment of the Republic on 29 October 1923, succeeding in this role the former Turkish capital Istanbul (Constantinople) following the fall of the Ottoman Empire.
The government is a prominent employer, but Ankara is also an important commercial and industrial city, located at the centre of Turkey's road and railway networks.
The area is also known for its pears, honey and muscat grapes.
Although situated in one of the driest regions of Turkey and surrounded mostly by steppe vegetation (except for the forested areas on the southern periphery), Ankara can be considered a green city in terms of green areas per inhabitant, at 72 square metres (775 square feet) per head.
The orthography of the name Ankara has varied over the ages.
It has been identified with the Hittite cult center Ankuwaš, although this remains a matter of debate.
The form "Angora" is preserved in the names of breeds of many different kinds of animals, and in the names of several locations in the US (see Angora).
Economy and infrastructure
The Central Anatolia Region is one of the primary locations of grape and wine production in Turkey, and Ankara is particularly famous for its Kalecik Karası and Muscat grapes; and its Kavaklıdere wine, which is produced in the Kavaklıdere neighbourhood within the Çankaya district of the city.
Ankara is also famous for its pears.
Another renowned natural product of Ankara is its indigenous type of honey (Ankara Balı) which is known for its light color and is mostly produced by the Atatürk Forest Farm and Zoo in the Gazi district, and by other facilities in the Elmadağ, Çubuk and Beypazarı districts.
Ankara is the center of the state-owned and private Turkish defence and aerospace companies, where the industrial plants and headquarters of the Turkish Aerospace Industries, MKE, ASELSAN, HAVELSAN, ROKETSAN, FNSS, Nurol Makina, and numerous other firms are located.
Exports to foreign countries from these defence and aerospace firms have steadily increased in the past decades.
A large percentage of the complicated employment in Ankara is provided by the state institutions; such as the ministries, subministries, and other administrative bodies of the Turkish government.
There are also many foreign citizens working as diplomats or clerks in the embassies of their respective countries.
The Çubuk Brook flows through the city center of Ankara.
Under the Trewartha climate classification, Ankara has a middle latitude steppe climate (BSk).
Due to its elevation and inland location, Ankara has cold and snowy winters, and hot and dry summers.
Rainfall occurs mostly during the spring and autumn.
Monthly mean temperatures range from 0.3 °C (32.5 °F) in January to 23.5 °C (74.3 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 12.02 °C (53.6 °F).
Ankara had a population of 75,000 in 1927.
As of 2019, Ankara Province has a population of 5,639,076.
When Ankara became the capital of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, it was designated as a planned city for 500,000 future inhabitants.
During the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s, the city grew in a planned and orderly pace.
However, from the 1950s onward, the city grew much faster than envisioned, because unemployment and poverty forced people to migrate from the countryside into the city in order to seek a better standard of living.
As a result, many illegal houses called gecekondu were built around the city, causing the unplanned and uncontrolled urban landscape of Ankara, as not enough planned housing could be built fast enough.
Although precariously built, the vast majority of them have electricity, running water and modern household amenities.
Nevertheless, many of these gecekondus have been replaced by huge public housing projects in the form of tower blocks such as Elvankent, Eryaman and Güzelkent; and also as mass housing compounds for military and civil service accommodation.
Although many gecekondus still remain, they too are gradually being replaced by mass housing compounds, as empty land plots in the city of Ankara for new construction projects are becoming impossible to find.
Çorum and Yozgat, which are located in Central Anatolia and whose population is decreasing, are the provinces with the highest net migration to Ankara.
About one third of the Central Anatolia population of 15,608,868 people resides in Ankara.
The population of Ankara has a higher education level than the country average.
According to 2008 data, 15-years-higher literacy rate creates 88% of the total provincial population (91% in men and 86% in women).
This ratio was 83% for Turkey (88% males, 79% females).
This difference is particularly evident in the university educated segment of the population.
The ratio of university and high school graduates to total population is 10.6% in Ankara, while 5.4% in Turkey.
The Electricity, Gas, Bus General Directorate (EGO) operates the Ankara Metro and other forms of public transportation.
Ankara is served by a suburban rail named Ankaray (A1) and three subway lines (M1, M2, M3) of the Ankara Metro with about 300,000 total daily commuters, while an additional subway line (M4) is under construction.
The Ankara Central Station is a major rail hub in Turkey.
The Turkish State Railways operates passenger train service from Ankara to other major cities, such as: Istanbul, Eskişehir, Balıkesir, Kütahya, İzmir, Kayseri, Adana, Kars, Elâzığ, Malatya, Diyarbakır, Karabük, Zonguldak and Sivas.
Commuter rail also runs between the stations of Sincan and Kayaş.
On 23 August 2011, another YHT high-speed line commercially started its service between Ankara and Konya.
On 25 July 2014, the Ankara–Istanbul high-speed line of YHT entered service.
Esenboğa International Airport, located in the north-east of the city, is Ankara's main airport.
Ankara Public Transportation statistics
The average amount of time people spend commuting on public transit in Ankara on a weekday is 71 minutes.
17% of public transit passengers, ride for more than two hours every day.
The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is sixteen minutes, while 28% of users wait for over twenty minutes on average every day.
The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 9.9 km (6.2 mi), while 27% travel for over 12 km (7.5 mi) in a single direction.
Ankara is politically a triple battleground between the ruling conservative Justice and Development Party (AKP), the opposition Kemalist centre-left Republican People's Party (CHP) and the nationalist far-right Nationalist Movement Party (MHP).
The province of Ankara is divided into 25 districts.
The CHP's key and almost only political stronghold in Ankara lies within the central area of Çankaya, which is the city's most populous district.
While the CHP has always gained between 60 and 70% of the vote in Çankaya since 2002, political support elsewhere throughout Ankara is minimal.
The high population within Çankaya, as well as Yenimahalle to an extent, has allowed the CHP to take overall second place behind the AKP in both local and general elections, with the MHP a close third, despite the fact that the MHP is politically stronger than the CHP in almost every other district.
Overall, the AKP enjoys the most support throughout the city.
In retrospect, the 2013–14 protests against the AKP government were particularly strong in Ankara, proving to be fatal on multiple occasions.
|Ankara district Municipalities|
|AKP||19 / 25|
|CHP||3 / 25|
|MHP||3 / 25|
Melih Gökçek was the Metropolitan Mayor of Ankara between 1994 and 2017.
In the 2014 local elections, Gökçek stood for a fifth term.
The MHP's metropolitan mayoral candidate for the 2009 local elections, Mansur Yavaş, stood as the CHP's candidate against Gökçek in 2014.
In a heavily controversial election, Gökçek was declared the winner by just 1% ahead of Yavaş amid allegations of systematic electoral fraud.
Although Gökçek was inaugurated for a fifth term, most election observers believe that Yavaş was the winner of the election.
The Byzantines and Seljuks further made restorations and additions.
The area around and inside the citadel, being the oldest part of Ankara, contains many fine examples of traditional architecture.
There are also recreational areas to relax.
Many restored traditional Turkish houses inside the citadel area have found new life as restaurants, serving local cuisine.
The citadel was depicted in various Turkish banknotes during 1927–1952 and 1983–1989.
The remains, the stage, and the backstage of the Roman theatre can be seen outside the castle.
Roman statues that were found here are exhibited in the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations.
The seating area is still under excavation.
Temple of Augustus and Rome
Main article: Monumentum Ancyranum
The Augusteum, now known as the Temple of Augustus and Rome, was built 25 x 20 BC following the conquest of Central Anatolia by the Roman Empire.
After the death of Augustus in AD 14, a copy of the text of the Res Gestae Divi Augusti (the Monumentum Ancyranum) was inscribed on the interior of the temple's pronaos in Latin and a Greek translation on an exterior wall of the cella.
The temple on the ancient acropolis of Ancyra was enlarged in the 2nd century and converted into a church in the 5th century.
It is located in the Ulus quarter of the city.
Today, only the basement and first floors remain.
It is situated in the Ulus quarter.
The Roman Road of Ankara or Cardo Maximus was found in 1995 by Turkish archaeologist Cevdet Bayburtluoğlu.
It is 216 metres (709 feet) long and 6.7 metres (22.0 feet) wide.
Many ancient artifacts were discovered during the excavations along the road and most of them are displayed at the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations.
Column of Julian
The Column of Julian or Julianus, now in the Ulus district, was erected in honor of the Roman emperor Julian the Apostate's visit to Ancyra in 362.
Kocatepe Mosque is the largest mosque in the city.
Located in the Kocatepe quarter, it was constructed between 1967 and 1987 in classical Ottoman style with four minarets.
Its size and prominent location have made it a landmark for the city.
Ahmet Hamdi Akseki Mosque
Ahmet Hamdi Akseki Mosque is located near the Presidency of Religious Affairs on the Eskişehir Road.
Built in the Turkish neoclassical style, it is one of the largest new mosques in the city, completed and opened in 2013.
It can accommodate 6 thousand people during general prayers, and up to 30 thousand people during funeral prayers.
Yeni (Cenab Ahmet) Mosque
It is the largest Ottoman mosque in Ankara and was built by the famous architect Sinan in the 16th century.
The mimber (pulpit) and mihrap (prayer niche) are of white marble, and the mosque itself is of Ankara stone, an example of very fine workmanship.
Hacı Bayram Mosque
The mosque was built in honor of Hacı Bayram-ı Veli, whose tomb is next to the mosque, two years before his death (1427–28).
The usable space inside this mosque is 437 m (4,704 sq ft) on the first floor and 263 m (2,831 sq ft) on the second floor.
Ahi Elvan Mosque
It was founded in the Ulus quarter near the Ankara Citadel and was constructed by the Ahi fraternity during the late 14th and early 15th centuries.
The finely carved walnut mimber (pulpit) is of particular interest.
The Alâeddin Mosque is the oldest mosque in Ankara.
It has a carved walnut mimber, the inscription on which records that the mosque was completed in early AH 574 (which corresponds to the summer of 1178 AD) and was built by the Seljuk prince Muhiddin Mesud Şah (d. 1204), the Bey of Ankara, who was the son of the Anatolian Seljuk sultan Kılıç Arslan II (reigned 1156–1192.)
Statue of Atatürk
Located at Zafer Square (Turkish: Zafer Meydanı), the marble and bronze statue was crafted by the renowned Italian sculptor Pietro Canonica in 1927 and depicts a standing Atatürk who wears a Republic era modern military uniform, with the rank Field Marshal.
Monument to a Secure, Confident Future
This monument, located in Güven Park near Kızılay Square, was erected in 1935 and bears Atatürk's advice to his people: "Turk!
Be proud, work hard, and believe in yourself."
The Hatti Sun Disc has been used in the previous logo of Ankara Metropolitan Municipality.
It was also used in the previous logo of the Ministry of Culture & Tourism.
Suluhan is a historical Inn in Ankara.
It is also called the Hasanpaşa Han.
It is about 400 meters (1,300 ft) southeast of Ulus Square and situated in the Hacıdoğan neighbourhood.
According to the vakfiye (inscription) of the building, the Ottoman era han was commissioned by Hasan Pasha, a regional beylerbey, and was constructed between 1508 and 1511, during the final years of the reign of Sultan Bayezid II.
There are 102 rooms (now shops) which face the two yards.
In each room there is a window, a niche and a chimney.
Çengelhan Rahmi Koç Museum
The exhibits include industrial/technological artifacts from the 1850s onwards.
There are also sections about Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of modern Turkey; Vehbi Koç, Rahmi Koç's father and one of the first industrialists of Turkey, and Ankara city.
Foreign visitors to Ankara usually like to visit the old shops in Çıkrıkçılar Yokuşu (Weavers' Road) near Ulus, where myriad things ranging from traditional fabrics, hand-woven carpets and leather products can be found at bargain prices.
Bakırcılar Çarşısı (Bazaar of Coppersmiths) is particularly popular, and many interesting items, not just of copper, can be found here like jewelry, carpets, costumes, antiques and embroidery.
Up the hill to the castle gate, there are many shops selling a huge and fresh collection of spices, dried fruits, nuts, and other produce.
Modern shopping areas are mostly found in Kızılay, or on Tunalı Hilmi Avenue, including the modern mall of Karum (named after the ancient Assyrian merchant colonies called Kârum that were established in central Anatolia at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC) which is located towards the end of the Avenue; and in Çankaya, the quarter with the highest elevation in the city.
Likewise, the anchor monument is also related with the Spanish name of the mall, Armada, which means naval fleet.
As Ankara started expanding westward in the 1970s, several modern, suburbia-style developments and mini-cities began to rise along the western highway, also known as the Eskişehir Road.
The Armada, CEPA and Kentpark malls on the highway, the Galleria, Arcadium and Gordion in Ümitköy, and a huge mall, Real in Bilkent Center, offer North American and European style shopping opportunities (these places can be reached through the Eskişehir Highway.)
There is also the newly expanded ANKAmall at the outskirts, on the Istanbul Highway, which houses most of the well-known international brands.
This mall is the largest throughout the Ankara region.
In 2014 a few more shopping malls were open in Ankara.
Turkish State Opera and Ballet, the national directorate of opera and ballet companies of Turkey, has its headquarters in Ankara, and serves the city with three venues:
- Ankara Opera House (Opera Sahnesi, also known as Büyük Tiyatro) is the largest of the three venues for opera and ballet in Ankara.
Ankara is host to five classical music orchestras:
- Presidential Symphony Orchestra (Turkish Presidential Symphony Orchestra)
- Bilkent Symphony Orchestra (BSO) is a major symphony orchestra of Turkey.
- Hacettepe Symphony Orchestra was founded in 2003 and is conducted by Erol Erdinç.
- Başkent Oda Orkestrası (Chamber Orchestra of the Capital)
There are four concert halls in the city:
- CSO Concert Hall
- Bilkent Concert Hall is a performing arts center in Ankara. It is located in the Bilkent University campus.
- MEB Şura Salonu (also known as the Festival Hall), It is noted for its tango performances.
- Çankaya Çağdaş Sanatlar Merkezi Concert Hall was founded in 1994.
The city has been host to several well-established, annual theatre, music, film festivals:
- Ankara International Music Festival, a music festival organized in the Turkish capital presenting classical music and ballet programmes.
Ankara also has a number of concert venues such as Eskiyeni, IF Performance Hall, Jolly Joker, Kite, Nefes Bar, Noxus Pub, Passage Pub and Route, which host the live performances and events of popular musicians.
The Turkish State Theatres also has its head office in Ankara and runs the following stages in the city:
In addition, the city is served by several private theatre companies, among which , who have their own stage in the city center, is a notable example.
There are about 50 museums in the city.
Museum of Anatolian Civilizations
It is an old 15th century bedesten (covered bazaar) that has been restored and now houses a collection of Paleolithic, Neolithic, Hatti, Hittite, Phrygian, Urartian and Roman works as well as a major section dedicated to Lydian treasures.
Completed in 1953, it is an impressive fusion of ancient and modern architectural styles.
An adjacent museum houses a wax statue of Atatürk, his writings, letters and personal items, as well as an exhibition of photographs recording important moments in his life and during the establishment of the Republic.
Anıtkabir is open every day, while the adjacent museum is open every day except Mondays.
Ankara Ethnography Museum
There is a fine collection of folkloric items, as well as artifacts from the Seljuk and Ottoman periods.
In front of the museum building, there is a marble and bronze equestrian statue of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (who wears a Republic era modern military uniform, with the rank Field Marshal) which was crafted in 1927 by the renowned Italian sculptor Pietro Canonica.
State Art and Sculpture Museum
The State Art and Sculpture Museum (Resim-Heykel Müzesi) which opened to the public in 1980 is close to the Ethnography Museum and houses a rich collection of Turkish art from the late 19th century to the present day.
There are also galleries which host guest exhibitions.
Cer Modern is the modern-arts museum of Ankara, inaugurated on 1 April 2010.
The museum incorporates the largest exhibition hall in Turkey.
The museum holds periodic exhibitions of modern and contemporary art as well as hosting other contemporary arts events.
War of Independence Museum
It was originally the first Parliament building (TBMM) of the Republic of Turkey.
The War of Independence was planned and directed here as recorded in various photographs and items presently on exhibition.
In another display, wax figures of former presidents of the Republic of Turkey are on exhibit.
Mehmet Akif Literature Museum Library
TCDD Open Air Steam Locomotive Museum
Ankara Aviation Museum
Ankara Aviation Museum (Hava Kuvvetleri Müzesi Komutanlığı) is located near the Istanbul Road in Etimesgut.
The museum opened to the public in September 1998.
It is home to various missiles, avionics, aviation materials and aircraft that have served in the Turkish Air Force (e.g. combat aircraft such as the F-86 Sabre, F-100 Super Sabre, F-102 Delta Dagger, F-104 Starfighter, F-5 Freedom Fighter, F-4 Phantom; and cargo planes such as the Transall C-160.)
METU Science and Technology Museum
As with all other cities of Turkey, football is the most popular sport in Ankara.
The city has two football clubs competing in the Turkish Süper Lig: Ankaragücü, founded in 1910, is the oldest club in Ankara and is associated with Ankara's military arsenal manufacturing company MKE.
They were the Turkish Cup winners in 1972 and 1981.
Gençlerbirliği, founded in 1923, are known as the Ankara Gale or the Poppies because of their colors: red and black.
They were the Turkish Cup winners in 1987 and 2001.
A fourth team, Büyükşehir Belediye Ankaraspor, played in the Süper Lig until 2010, when they were expelled.
Ankara has a large number of minor teams, playing at regional levels.
In the TFF Second League: Mamak FK in Mamak, Ankara Demirspor in Çankaya, Etimesgut Belediyespor in Etimesgut; in the TFF Third League: Çankaya FK in Keçiören; Altındağspor in Altındağ; in the Amateur League: Turanspor in Etimesgut, Türk Telekomspor owned by the phone company in Yenimahalle, Çubukspor in Çubuk, and Bağlumspor in Keçiören.
There are many popular spots for skateboarding which is active in the city since the 1980s.
Skaters in Ankara usually meet in the park near the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.
Ankara has many parks and open spaces mainly established in the early years of the Republic and well maintained and expanded thereafter.
The most important of these parks are: Gençlik Parkı (houses an amusement park with a large pond for rowing), the Botanical garden, Seğmenler Park, Anayasa Park, Kuğulu Park (famous for the swans received as a gift from the Chinese government), Abdi İpekçi Park, Esertepe Parkı, Güven Park (see above for the monument), Kurtuluş Park (has an ice-skating rink), Altınpark (also a prominent exposition/fair area), Harikalar Diyarı (claimed to be Biggest Park of Europe inside city borders) and Göksu Park.
Dikmen Vadisi (Dikmen Valley) is a 70 hectares (170 acres) park and recreation area situated in Çankaya district.
Atatürk Forest Farm and Zoo (Atatürk Orman Çiftliği) is an expansive recreational farming area which houses a zoo, several small agricultural farms, greenhouses, restaurants, a dairy farm and a brewery.
It is a pleasant place to spend a day with family, be it for having picnics, hiking, biking or simply enjoying good food and nature.
There is also an exact replica of the house where Atatürk was born in 1881, in Thessaloniki, Greece.
Visitors to the "Çiftlik" (farm) as it is affectionately called by Ankarans, can sample such famous products of the farm such as old-fashioned beer and ice cream, fresh dairy products and meat rolls/kebaps made on charcoal, at a traditional restaurant (Merkez Lokantası, Central Restaurant), cafés and other establishments scattered around the farm.
Ankara is noted, within Turkey, for the multitude of universities it is home to.
These include the following, several of them being among the most reputable in the country:
Main article: Turkish Angora
Turkish Angoras are one of the ancient, naturally occurring cat breeds, having originated in Ankara and its surrounding region in central Anatolia.
They mostly have a white, silky, medium to long length coat, no undercoat and a fine bone structure.
Although they are known for their shimmery white coat, there are more than twenty varieties including black, blue and reddish fur.
They come in tabby and tabby-white, along with smoke varieties, and are in every color other than pointed, lavender, and cinnamon (all of which would indicate breeding to an outcross.)
Eyes may be blue, green, or amber, or even one blue and one amber or green.
The W gene which is responsible for the white coat and blue eye is closely related to the hearing ability, and the presence of a blue eye can indicate that the cat is deaf to the side the blue eye is located.
However, a great many blue and odd-eyed white cats have normal hearing, and even deaf cats lead a very normal life if kept indoors.
Ears are pointed and large, eyes are almond shaped and the head is massive with a two plane profile.
Another characteristic is the tail, which is often kept parallel to the back.
Main article: Angora goat
This breed was first mentioned in the time of Moses, roughly in 1500 BC.
The first Angora goats were brought to Europe by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, about 1554, but, like later imports, were not very successful.
Angora goats were first introduced in the United States in 1849 by Dr. James P. Davis.
Seven adult goats were a gift from Sultan Abdülmecid I in appreciation for his services and advice on the raising of cotton.
A single goat produces between five and eight kilograms (11 and 18 pounds) of hair per year.
Angoras are shorn twice a year, unlike sheep, which are shorn only once.
Angoras have high nutritional requirements due to their rapid hair growth.
A poor quality diet will curtail mohair development.
The United States, Turkey, and South Africa are the top producers of mohair.
For a long period of time, Angora goats were bred for their white coat.
In 1998, the Colored Angora Goat Breeders Association was set up to promote breeding of colored Angoras.
Today, Angora goats produce white, black (deep black to greys and silver), red (the color fades significantly as the goat gets older), and brownish fiber.
Main article: Angora rabbit
The rabbits were popular pets with French royalty in the mid-18th century, and spread to other parts of Europe by the end of the century.
They first appeared in the United States in the early 20th century.
Angoras are bred mainly for their wool because it is silky and soft.
They have a humorous appearance, as they oddly resemble a fur ball.
Most are calm and docile but should be handled carefully.
Grooming is necessary to prevent the fiber from matting and felting on the rabbit.
A condition called "wool block" is common in Angora rabbits and should be treated quickly.
Sometimes they are shorn in the summer as the long fur can cause the rabbits to overheat.
Twin towns and sister cities
Ankara is twinned with:
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ankara.