Anne Brontë

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Anne Brontë_table_infobox_0

Anne BrontëAnne Brontë_header_cell_0_0_0
BornAnne Brontë_header_cell_0_1_0 (1820-01-17)17 January 1820

Thornton, West Riding of Yorkshire, EnglandAnne Brontë_cell_0_1_1

DiedAnne Brontë_header_cell_0_2_0 28 May 1849(1849-05-28) (aged 29)

Scarborough, North Riding of Yorkshire, EnglandAnne Brontë_cell_0_2_1

Resting placeAnne Brontë_header_cell_0_3_0 St. Mary's Churchyard, ScarboroughAnne Brontë_cell_0_3_1
Pen nameAnne Brontë_header_cell_0_4_0 Acton BellAnne Brontë_cell_0_4_1
OccupationAnne Brontë_header_cell_0_5_0 Poet, novelist, governessAnne Brontë_cell_0_5_1
LanguageAnne Brontë_header_cell_0_6_0 EnglishAnne Brontë_cell_0_6_1
NationalityAnne Brontë_header_cell_0_7_0 EnglishAnne Brontë_cell_0_7_1
PeriodAnne Brontë_header_cell_0_8_0 1836–1849Anne Brontë_cell_0_8_1
GenreAnne Brontë_header_cell_0_9_0 Fiction, poetryAnne Brontë_cell_0_9_1
Literary movementAnne Brontë_header_cell_0_10_0 RealismAnne Brontë_cell_0_10_1
Notable worksAnne Brontë_header_cell_0_11_0 The Tenant of Wildfell HallAnne Brontë_cell_0_11_1
RelativesAnne Brontë_header_cell_0_12_0 Brontë familyAnne Brontë_cell_0_12_1
SignatureAnne Brontë_header_cell_0_13_0 Anne Brontë_cell_0_13_1

Anne Brontë (/ˈbrɒnti/, commonly /-teɪ/; 17 January 1820 – 28 May 1849) was an English novelist and poet, the youngest member of the Brontë literary family. Anne Brontë_sentence_0

The daughter of Patrick Brontë, a poor Irish clergyman in the Church of England, Anne Brontë lived most of her life with her family at the parish of Haworth on the Yorkshire moors. Anne Brontë_sentence_1

She attended a boarding school in Mirfield between 1836 and 1837. Anne Brontë_sentence_2

At 19 she left Haworth and worked as a governess between 1839 and 1845. Anne Brontë_sentence_3

After leaving her teaching position, she fulfilled her literary ambitions. Anne Brontë_sentence_4

She published a volume of poetry with her sisters (Poems by Currer, Ellis, and Acton Bell, 1846) and two novels. Anne Brontë_sentence_5

Agnes Grey, based upon her experiences as a governess, was published in 1847. Anne Brontë_sentence_6

Her second and last novel, The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, which is considered to be one of the first sustained feminist novels, appeared in 1848. Anne Brontë_sentence_7

Like her poems, both her novels were first published under the masculine pen name of Acton Bell. Anne Brontë_sentence_8

Anne's life was cut short when she died of what is now suspected to be pulmonary tuberculosis at the age of 29. Anne Brontë_sentence_9

Partly because the re-publication of The Tenant of Wildfell Hall was prevented by Charlotte Brontë after Anne's death, she is not as well known as her sisters. Anne Brontë_sentence_10

However, her novels, like those of her sisters, have become classics of English literature. Anne Brontë_sentence_11

Family background Anne Brontë_section_0

Anne's father, Patrick Brontë (1777–1861), was born in a two-room cottage in Emdale, Loughbrickland, County Down, Ireland. Anne Brontë_sentence_12

He was the oldest of ten children born to Hugh Brunty and Eleanor McCrory, poor Irish peasant farmers. Anne Brontë_sentence_13

The family surname mac Aedh Ó Proinntigh was Anglicised as Prunty or Brunty. Anne Brontë_sentence_14

Struggling against poverty, Patrick learned to read and write and from 1798 taught others. Anne Brontë_sentence_15

In 1802, at 25, he won a place to study theology at St. Anne Brontë_sentence_16 John's College, Cambridge where he changed his name, Brunty, to the more distinguished sounding Brontë. Anne Brontë_sentence_17

In 1807 he was ordained in the priesthood in the Church of England. Anne Brontë_sentence_18

He served as a curate first in Essex and latterly in Wellington, Shropshire. Anne Brontë_sentence_19

In 1810, he published his first poem Winter Evening Thoughts in a local newspaper, followed in 1811 by a collection of moral verse, Cottage Poems. Anne Brontë_sentence_20

In 1811, he became vicar of St. Peter's Church in Hartshead in Yorkshire. Anne Brontë_sentence_21

The following year he was appointed an examiner in Classics at Woodhouse Grove School, near Bradford a Wesleyan academy where, aged 35, he met his future wife, Maria Branwell, the headmaster's niece. Anne Brontë_sentence_22

Anne's mother, Maria Branwell (1783–1821), was the daughter of Thomas Branwell, a successful, property-owning grocer and tea merchant in Penzance and Anne Carne, the daughter of a silversmith. Anne Brontë_sentence_23

The eleventh of twelve children, Maria enjoyed the benefits of belonging to a prosperous family in a small town. Anne Brontë_sentence_24

After the death of her parents within a year of each other, Maria went to help her aunt administer the housekeeping functions of the school. Anne Brontë_sentence_25

A tiny, neat woman aged 30, she was well read and intelligent. Anne Brontë_sentence_26

Her strong Methodist faith attracted Patrick Brontë because his own leanings were similar. Anne Brontë_sentence_27

Though from considerably different backgrounds, within three months Patrick Brontë and Maria Branwell were married on 29 December 1812. Anne Brontë_sentence_28

Their first child, Maria (1814–1825), was born after they moved to Hartshead. Anne Brontë_sentence_29

In 1815, Patrick was appointed curate of the chapel in Market Street Thornton, near Bradford; a second daughter, Elizabeth (1815–1825), was born shortly after. Anne Brontë_sentence_30

Four more children followed: Charlotte, (1816–1855), Patrick Branwell (1817–1848), Emily, (1818–1848) and Anne (1820–1849). Anne Brontë_sentence_31

Early life Anne Brontë_section_1

Anne, the youngest of the Brontë children, was born on 17 January 1820, on the outskirts of Bradford where her father was curate and she was baptised there on 25 March 1820. Anne Brontë_sentence_32

Anne's father was appointed to the perpetual curacy in Haworth, a small town seven miles (11 km) away. Anne Brontë_sentence_33

In April 1820, the Brontës moved into the five-roomed Haworth Parsonage which became their home for the rest of their lives. Anne Brontë_sentence_34

Anne was barely a year old when her mother became ill of what is believed to have been uterine cancer. Anne Brontë_sentence_35

Maria Branwell died on 15 September 1821. Anne Brontë_sentence_36

In order to provide a mother for his children, Patrick tried to remarry, but without success. Anne Brontë_sentence_37

Maria's sister, Elizabeth Branwell (1776–1842), moved to the parsonage, initially to nurse her dying sister, but she spent the rest of her life there raising the children. Anne Brontë_sentence_38

She did it from a sense of duty, but she was a stern woman who expected respect, rather than love. Anne Brontë_sentence_39

There was little affection between her and the older children, but Anne, according to tradition, was her favourite. Anne Brontë_sentence_40

In Elizabeth Gaskell's biography of Charlotte, Anne's father remembered her as precocious, reporting that once, when she was four years old, in reply to his question about what a child most wanted, she answered: "age and experience". Anne Brontë_sentence_41

In summer 1824, Patrick sent Maria, Elizabeth, Charlotte and Emily to Crofton Hall in Crofton, West Yorkshire, and subsequently to the Clergy Daughter's School at Cowan Bridge in Lancashire. Anne Brontë_sentence_42

When his eldest daughters died of consumption in 1825, Maria on 6 May and Elizabeth on 15 June, Charlotte and Emily were immediately brought home. Anne Brontë_sentence_43

The unexpected deaths distressed the family so much that Patrick could not face sending them away again. Anne Brontë_sentence_44

For the next five years, they were educated at home, largely by their father and aunt. Anne Brontë_sentence_45

The children made little attempt to mix with others outside the parsonage, but relied on each other for friendship and companionship. Anne Brontë_sentence_46

The bleak moors surrounding Haworth became their playground. Anne Brontë_sentence_47

Anne shared a room with her aunt; they were close, which may have influenced Anne's personality and religious beliefs. Anne Brontë_sentence_48

Education Anne Brontë_section_2

Anne's studies at home included music and drawing. Anne Brontë_sentence_49

Anne, Emily and Branwell had piano lessons from the Keighley church organist. Anne Brontë_sentence_50

They had art lessons from John Bradley of Keighley and all drew with some skill. Anne Brontë_sentence_51

Their aunt tried to teach the girls how to run a household, but their minds were more inclined to literature. Anne Brontë_sentence_52

Their father's well-stocked library was a source of knowledge. Anne Brontë_sentence_53

They read the Bible, Homer, Virgil, Shakespeare, Milton, Byron, Scott, and many others; they examined articles from Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, Fraser's Magazine, and The Edinburgh Review and read history, geography and biographies. Anne Brontë_sentence_54

Reading fed the children's imagination. Anne Brontë_sentence_55

Their creativity soared after their father presented Branwell with a set of toy soldiers in June 1826. Anne Brontë_sentence_56

They gave the soldiers names and developed their characters, which they called the "Twelves". Anne Brontë_sentence_57

This led to the creation of an imaginary world: the African kingdom of "Angria" which was illustrated with maps and watercolour renderings. Anne Brontë_sentence_58

The children devised plots about the inhabitants of Angria and its capital city, "Glass Town", later called Verreopolis or Verdopolis. Anne Brontë_sentence_59

The fantasy worlds and kingdoms gradually acquired the characteristics of the real world—sovereigns, armies, heroes, outlaws, fugitives, inns, schools and publishers. Anne Brontë_sentence_60

The characters and lands created by the children had newspapers, magazines and chronicles which were written in extremely tiny books, with writing so small it was difficult to read without a magnifying glass. Anne Brontë_sentence_61

These creations and writings were an apprenticeship for their later, literary talents. Anne Brontë_sentence_62

Juvenilia Anne Brontë_section_3

Around 1831, when Anne was eleven, she and Emily broke away from Charlotte and Branwell to create and develop their own fantasy world, "Gondal". Anne Brontë_sentence_63

Anne was particularly close to Emily especially after Charlotte's departure for Roe Head School, in January 1831. Anne Brontë_sentence_64

When Charlotte's friend Ellen Nussey visited Haworth in 1833, she reported that Emily and Anne were "like twins", "inseparable companions". Anne Brontë_sentence_65

She described Anne: "Anne, dear gentle Anne was quite different in appearance from the others, and she was her aunt's favourite. Anne Brontë_sentence_66

Her hair was a very pretty light brown and fell on her neck in graceful curls. Anne Brontë_sentence_67

She had lovely violet-blue eyes; fine pencilled eyebrows and a clear almost transparent complexion. Anne Brontë_sentence_68

She still pursued her studies and especially her sewing, under the surveillance of her aunt." Anne Brontë_sentence_69

Anne took lessons from Charlotte, after she returned from Roe Head. Anne Brontë_sentence_70

Charlotte returned to Roe Head as a teacher on 29 July 1835 accompanied by Emily as a pupil; Emily's tuition was largely financed by Charlotte's teaching. Anne Brontë_sentence_71

Within a few months, Emily unable to adapt to life at school was physically ill from homesickness. Anne Brontë_sentence_72

She was withdrawn from school by October and replaced by Anne. Anne Brontë_sentence_73

Aged 15, it was Anne's first time away from home, and she made few friends at Roe Head. Anne Brontë_sentence_74

She was quiet and hard working and determined to stay and get the education she needed to support herself. Anne Brontë_sentence_75

She stayed for two years, winning a good-conduct medal in December 1836, and returning home only during Christmas and summer holidays. Anne Brontë_sentence_76

Anne and Charlotte do not appear to have been close while at Roe Head (Charlotte's letters almost never mention her) but Charlotte was concerned about her sister's health. Anne Brontë_sentence_77

Sometime before December 1837, Anne became seriously ill with gastritis and underwent a religious crisis. Anne Brontë_sentence_78

A Moravian minister was called to see her several times during her illness, suggesting her distress was caused, in part, by conflict with the local Anglican clergy. Anne Brontë_sentence_79

Charlotte wrote to her father who took Anne home where she remained while she recovered. Anne Brontë_sentence_80

Employment at Blake Hall Anne Brontë_section_4

In 1839, a year after leaving the school and aged 19, she was seeking a teaching position. Anne Brontë_sentence_81

As the daughter of a poor clergyman, she needed to earn a living. Anne Brontë_sentence_82

Her father had no private income and the parsonage would revert to the church on his death. Anne Brontë_sentence_83

Teaching or working as governess for a family were among the few options available to poor but educated women. Anne Brontë_sentence_84

In April 1839, Anne started work as a governess for the Ingham family at Blake Hall, near Mirfield. Anne Brontë_sentence_85

The children in her charge were spoilt and often disobedient. Anne Brontë_sentence_86

She had great difficulty controlling them and had little success in instilling any education. Anne Brontë_sentence_87

She was not empowered to inflict punishment, and when she complained about their behaviour she received no support, but was instead criticised for not being capable. Anne Brontë_sentence_88

The Inghams, dissatisfied with their children's progress, dismissed Anne. Anne Brontë_sentence_89

She returned home at Christmas, 1839, joining Charlotte and Emily, who had left their positions, and Branwell. Anne Brontë_sentence_90

The episode at Blake Hall was so traumatic that she reproduced it in almost perfect detail in her novel Agnes Grey. Anne Brontë_sentence_91

William Weightman Anne Brontë_section_5

On her return to Haworth, she met William Weightman (1814–1842), her father's new curate, who started work in the parish in August 1839. Anne Brontë_sentence_92

Aged 25, he had obtained a two-year licentiate in theology from the University of Durham. Anne Brontë_sentence_93

He was welcome at the parsonage. Anne Brontë_sentence_94

Her acquaintance with him parallels her writing a number of poems, which may suggest she fell in love with him although there is disagreement over this possibility. Anne Brontë_sentence_95

Little evidence exists beyond a teasing anecdote of Charlotte's to Ellen Nussey in January 1842. Anne Brontë_sentence_96

The source of Agnes Grey's renewed interest in poetry is, however, the curate to whom she is attracted. Anne Brontë_sentence_97

William Weightman aroused much curiosity. Anne Brontë_sentence_98

It seems clear he was a good-looking, engaging young man, whose easy humour and kindness towards the sisters made a considerable impression. Anne Brontë_sentence_99

It is such a character that she portrays in Edward Weston, and that her heroine Agnes Grey finds deeply appealing. Anne Brontë_sentence_100

If Anne formed an attachment to Weightman it does not imply that he was attracted to her. Anne Brontë_sentence_101

It is possible that Weightman was no more aware of her, her sisters or their friend Ellen Nussey. Anne Brontë_sentence_102

Nor does it imply that Anne believed him to be interested in her. Anne Brontë_sentence_103

If anything, her poems suggest the opposite–they speak of quietly experienced but intensely felt emotions, hidden from others, without any indication of being requited. Anne Brontë_sentence_104

It is possible that an initially mild attraction to Weightman assumed increasing importance to Anne over time, in the absence of other opportunities for love, marriage and children. Anne Brontë_sentence_105

Anne would have seen Weightman on her holidays at home, particularly during the summer of 1842 when her sisters were away. Anne Brontë_sentence_106

Weightman died of cholera in the same year. Anne Brontë_sentence_107

Anne expressed her grief for his death in her poem "I will not mourn thee, lovely one", in which she called him "our darling". Anne Brontë_sentence_108

Governess Anne Brontë_section_6

Anne obtained a second post as governess to the children of the Reverend Edmund Robinson and his wife Lydia, at Thorp Green Hall, a comfortable country house near York. Anne Brontë_sentence_109

Anne was employed at Thorp Green Hall from 1840 to 1845. Anne Brontë_sentence_110

The house appeared as Horton Lodge in her novel Agnes Grey. Anne Brontë_sentence_111

Anne had four pupils: Lydia, aged 15, Elizabeth, aged 13, Mary, aged 12, and Edmund, aged 8. Anne Brontë_sentence_112

Initially, she encountered similar problems as she had experienced at Blake Hall. Anne Brontë_sentence_113

Anne missed her home and family, commenting in a diary paper in 1841 that she did not like her situation and wished to leave it. Anne Brontë_sentence_114

Her quiet, gentle disposition did not help. Anne Brontë_sentence_115

However, despite her outwardly placid appearance, Anne was determined and with experience, made a success of her position, becoming well-liked by her employers. Anne Brontë_sentence_116

Her charges, the Robinson girls, became lifelong friends. Anne Brontë_sentence_117

For the next five years, Anne spent no more than five or six weeks a year with her family, during holidays at Christmas and in June. Anne Brontë_sentence_118

The rest of her time was spent with the Robinsons at Thorp Green. Anne Brontë_sentence_119

She was obliged to accompany them on annual holidays to Scarborough. Anne Brontë_sentence_120

Between 1840 and 1844, Anne spent around five weeks each summer at the coastal town and loved the place. Anne Brontë_sentence_121

A number of locations in Scarborough were the setting for Agnes Grey's final scenes and for Linden-Car village in The Tenant of Wildfell Hall. Anne Brontë_sentence_122

Whilst working for the Robinsons, Anne and her sisters considered the possibility of setting up a school. Anne Brontë_sentence_123

Various locations including the parsonage were considered. Anne Brontë_sentence_124

The project never materialised and Anne chose to return to Thorp Green. Anne Brontë_sentence_125

She came home on the death of her aunt in early November 1842 while her sisters were in Brussels. Anne Brontë_sentence_126

Elizabeth Branwell left a £350 legacy (equivalent to £30,000 in 2019) for each of her nieces. Anne Brontë_sentence_127

It was at the Long Plantation at Thorp Green in 1842 that Anne wrote her three-verse poem Lines Composed in a Wood on a Windy Day, which was published in 1846 under her pen-name of Acton Bell. Anne Brontë_sentence_128

Anne returned to Thorp Green in January 1843 where she secured a position for Branwell. Anne Brontë_sentence_129

He was to take over as tutor to the Robinsons' son, Edmund, who was growing too old to be in Anne's care. Anne Brontë_sentence_130

Branwell did not live in the house as Anne did. Anne Brontë_sentence_131

Anne's vaunted calm appears to have been the result of hard-fought battles, balancing deeply felt emotions with careful thought, a sense of responsibility and resolute determination. Anne Brontë_sentence_132

All three Brontë sisters worked as governesses or teachers, and all experienced problems controlling their charges, gaining support from their employers, and coping with homesickness—but Anne was the only one who persevered and made a success of her work. Anne Brontë_sentence_133

Back at the parsonage Anne Brontë_section_7

Anne and Branwell taught at Thorp Green for the next three years. Anne Brontë_sentence_134

Branwell entered into a secret relationship with his employer's wife, Lydia Robinson. Anne Brontë_sentence_135

When Anne and her brother returned home for the holidays in June 1846, she resigned her position. Anne Brontë_sentence_136

While Anne gave no reason for leaving Thorp Green, it is thought she wanted to leave on becoming aware of the relationship between her brother and Mrs Robinson. Anne Brontë_sentence_137

Branwell was dismissed when his employer found out about the relationship. Anne Brontë_sentence_138

Anne retained close ties to Elizabeth and Mary Robinson, exchanging letters even after Branwell's disgrace. Anne Brontë_sentence_139

The Robinson sisters came to visit Anne in December 1848. Anne Brontë_sentence_140

Anne took Emily to visit some of the places she had come to know and love in the five years spent with the Robinsons. Anne Brontë_sentence_141

A plan to visit Scarborough fell through and instead the sisters went to York where Anne showed her sister York Minster. Anne Brontë_sentence_142

A book of poems Anne Brontë_section_8

During the summer of 1845, the Brontës were at home with their father. Anne Brontë_sentence_143

None had any immediate prospect of employment. Anne Brontë_sentence_144

Charlotte came across Emily's poems which had been shared only with Anne, her partner in the world of Gondal. Anne Brontë_sentence_145

Charlotte proposed that they be published. Anne Brontë_sentence_146

Anne revealed her own poems but Charlotte's reaction was characteristically patronising: "I thought that these verses too had a sweet sincere pathos of their own". Anne Brontë_sentence_147

Eventually the sisters reached an agreement. Anne Brontë_sentence_148

They told neither Branwell, nor their father, nor their friends about what they were doing. Anne Brontë_sentence_149

Anne and Emily each contributed 21 poems and Charlotte contributed 19 and with Aunt Branwell's money, they paid to have the collection published. Anne Brontë_sentence_150

Afraid their work would be judged differently if they revealed they were women, the book appeared using androgynous pen names, the initials of which were the same as their own. Anne Brontë_sentence_151

Charlotte, Emily, and Anne respectively became Currer, Ellis, and Acton Bell. Anne Brontë_sentence_152

Poems by Currer, Ellis, and Acton Bell was available for sale in May 1846. Anne Brontë_sentence_153

The cost of publication was about three-quarters of Anne's salary at Thorp Green. Anne Brontë_sentence_154

On 7 May 1846, the first three copies were delivered to Haworth Parsonage. Anne Brontë_sentence_155

It achieved three somewhat favourable reviews, but was a dismal failure, with only two copies being sold in the first year. Anne Brontë_sentence_156

Anne, however, found a market for her more recent poetry. Anne Brontë_sentence_157

The Leeds Intelligencer and Fraser's Magazine published her poem "The Narrow Way" under her pseudonym, Acton Bell in December 1848. Anne Brontë_sentence_158

Four months earlier, in August, Fraser's Magazine had published her poem "The Three Guides". Anne Brontë_sentence_159

Novels Anne Brontë_section_9

Agnes Grey Anne Brontë_section_10

Main article: Agnes Grey Anne Brontë_sentence_160

Even before the fate of the book of poems became apparent, the sisters began work on their first novels. Anne Brontë_sentence_161

Charlotte wrote The Professor, Emily Wuthering Heights, and Anne Agnes Grey. Anne Brontë_sentence_162

By July 1846, a package with the three manuscripts was making the rounds of London publishers. Anne Brontë_sentence_163

After a number of rejections, Emily's Wuthering Heights and Anne's Agnes Grey were accepted by the publisher Thomas Cautley Newby, but Charlotte's novel was rejected by every publisher to whom it was sent. Anne Brontë_sentence_164

Charlotte was not long in completing her second novel, Jane Eyre, which was immediately accepted by Smith, Elder & Co. and became the first of the sisters' novels to appear in print. Anne Brontë_sentence_165

While Anne and Emily's novels 'lingered in the press', Jane Eyre was an immediate and resounding success. Anne Brontë_sentence_166

Anne and Emily were obliged to pay fifty pounds to help meet their publishing costs. Anne Brontë_sentence_167

Their publisher, urged on by the success of Jane Eyre, published Wuthering Heights and Agnes Grey in December 1847. Anne Brontë_sentence_168

They sold well, but Agnes Grey was outshone by Emily's more dramatic Wuthering Heights. Anne Brontë_sentence_169

The Tenant of Wildfell Hall Anne Brontë_section_11

Main article: The Tenant of Wildfell Hall Anne Brontë_sentence_170

Anne's second novel, The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, was published in the last week of June 1848. Anne Brontë_sentence_171

It was an instant, phenomenal success; within six weeks it was sold out. Anne Brontë_sentence_172

The Tenant of Wildfell Hall is perhaps amongst the most shocking of contemporary Victorian novels. Anne Brontë_sentence_173

In seeking to present the truth in literature, Anne's depiction of alcoholism and debauchery was profoundly disturbing to 19th-century sensibilities. Anne Brontë_sentence_174

Helen Graham, the tenant of the title, intrigues Gilbert Markham and gradually she reveals her past as an artist and wife of the dissipated Arthur Huntingdon. Anne Brontë_sentence_175

The book's brilliance lies in its revelation of the position of women at the time, and its multi-layered plot. Anne Brontë_sentence_176

It is easy today to underestimate the extent to which the novel challenged existing social and legal structures. Anne Brontë_sentence_177

May Sinclair, in 1913, said that the slamming of Helen Huntingdon's bedroom door against her husband reverberated throughout Victorian England. Anne Brontë_sentence_178

Anne's heroine eventually left her husband to protect their young son from his influence. Anne Brontë_sentence_179

She supported herself and her son by painting while living in hiding, fearful of discovery. Anne Brontë_sentence_180

In doing so, she violated not only social conventions, but English law. Anne Brontë_sentence_181

Until 1870, when the Married Women's Property Act was passed, a married woman had no independent legal existence apart from her husband; could not own property, sue for divorce, or control custody of her children. Anne Brontë_sentence_182

If she attempted to live apart, her husband had the right to reclaim her. Anne Brontë_sentence_183

If she took their child, she was liable for kidnapping. Anne Brontë_sentence_184

By living on her own income she was held to be stealing her husband's property, since any property she held or income she made was legally his. Anne Brontë_sentence_185

In the second edition of The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, which appeared in August 1848, Anne clearly stated her intentions in writing it. Anne Brontë_sentence_186

She presented a forceful rebuttal to critics (Charlotte was among them) who considered her portrayal of Huntingdon overly graphic and disturbing. Anne Brontë_sentence_187

Anne sharply castigated reviewers who speculated on the sex of the authors, and the appropriateness of their writing, in words that do little to reinforce the stereotype of Anne as meek and gentle. Anne Brontë_sentence_188

London visit Anne Brontë_section_12

In July 1848, to dispel the rumour that the "Bell brothers" were all the same person, Charlotte and Anne went to London to reveal their identities to Charlotte's publisher George Smith. Anne Brontë_sentence_189

Emily refused to go with them. Anne Brontë_sentence_190

The women spent several days in his company. Anne Brontë_sentence_191

Many years after Anne's death, he wrote in the Cornhill Magazine his impressions of her, describing her as: "a gentle, quiet, rather subdued person, by no means pretty, yet of a pleasing appearance. Anne Brontë_sentence_192

Her manner was curiously expressive of a wish for protection and encouragement, a kind of constant appeal which invited sympathy." Anne Brontë_sentence_193

The increasing popularity of the Bells' work led to renewed interest in the Poems by Currer, Ellis, and Acton Bell, originally published by Aylott and Jones. Anne Brontë_sentence_194

The remaining print run was bought by Smith and Elder, and reissued under new covers in November 1848. Anne Brontë_sentence_195

It still sold poorly. Anne Brontë_sentence_196

Family tragedies Anne Brontë_section_13

Although Anne and her sisters were only in their late twenties, a highly successful literary career appeared a certainty for them. Anne Brontë_sentence_197

However, an impending tragedy was to engulf the family. Anne Brontë_sentence_198

Within the next ten months, three of the siblings, including Anne, would be dead. Anne Brontë_sentence_199

Branwell's health had deteriorated over two years, but its seriousness was disguised by his persistent drunkenness. Anne Brontë_sentence_200

He died on the morning of 24 September 1848. Anne Brontë_sentence_201

His sudden death came as a shock to the family. Anne Brontë_sentence_202

He was aged 31. Anne Brontë_sentence_203

The cause was recorded as chronic bronchitis – marasmus; though it is now believed he was suffering from tuberculosis. Anne Brontë_sentence_204

The family had suffered from coughs and colds during the winter of 1848, and Emily next became severely ill. She deteriorated rapidly over two months, persistently refusing all medical aid until the morning of 19 December, when, being very weak, she declared: "if you will send for a doctor, I will see him now". Anne Brontë_sentence_205

It was, however, far too late. Anne Brontë_sentence_206

At about two o'clock that afternoon, after a hard, short conflict in which she struggled desperately to hang on to life, she died, aged 30. Anne Brontë_sentence_207

Emily's death deeply affected Anne, and her grief undermined her physical health. Anne Brontë_sentence_208

Over Christmas, Anne caught influenza. Anne Brontë_sentence_209

Her symptoms intensified, and her father sent for a Leeds physician in early January. Anne Brontë_sentence_210

The doctor diagnosed her condition as consumption (tuberculosis) and intimated that it was quite advanced, leaving little hope of recovery. Anne Brontë_sentence_211

Anne met the news with characteristic determination and self-control. Anne Brontë_sentence_212

However, she expressed her frustration over unfulfilled ambitions in her letter to Ellen Nussey: Anne Brontë_sentence_213

Unlike Emily, Anne took all the recommended medicines and followed the advice she was given. Anne Brontë_sentence_214

That same month she wrote her last poem, "A dreadful darkness closes in", in which she deals with being terminally ill. Anne Brontë_sentence_215

Her health fluctuated as the months passed, but she progressively grew thinner and weaker. Anne Brontë_sentence_216

Death Anne Brontë_section_14

In February 1849, Anne seemed somewhat better. Anne Brontë_sentence_217

She decided to make a return visit to Scarborough in the hope that the change of location and fresh sea air might initiate a recovery. Anne Brontë_sentence_218

Charlotte was initially against that journey, fearing that it would be too stressful for her sister, but the doctor's approval of this plan and Anne's assurance that it was the last hope, changed her mind. Anne Brontë_sentence_219

On 24 May 1849, Anne said her goodbyes to her father and the servants at Haworth, and set off for Scarborough with Charlotte and Ellen Nussey. Anne Brontë_sentence_220

En route, they spent a day and a night in York, where, escorting Anne around in a wheelchair, they did some shopping, and at Anne's request, visited York Minster. Anne Brontë_sentence_221

However, it was clear that Anne had little strength left. Anne Brontë_sentence_222

On Sunday, 27 May, Anne asked Charlotte whether it would be easier if she returned home to die instead of remaining in Scarborough. Anne Brontë_sentence_223

A doctor, consulted the next day, indicated that death was close. Anne Brontë_sentence_224

Anne received the news quietly. Anne Brontë_sentence_225

She expressed her love and concern for Ellen and Charlotte, and seeing Charlotte's distress, whispered to her to "take courage". Anne Brontë_sentence_226

Conscious and calm, Anne died at about two o'clock in the afternoon, Monday, 28 May 1849 at age 29. Anne Brontë_sentence_227

Over the following days, Charlotte made the decision to "lay the flower where it had fallen". Anne Brontë_sentence_228

Anne was buried, not in Haworth with the rest of her family, but in Scarborough. Anne Brontë_sentence_229

The funeral was held on Wednesday 30 May which did not allow time for Patrick Brontë to make the 70-mile (110 km) journey, had he wished to do so. Anne Brontë_sentence_230

The former schoolmistress at Roe Head, Miss Wooler, was in Scarborough and she was the only other mourner at Anne's funeral. Anne Brontë_sentence_231

She was buried in St Mary's churchyard, beneath the castle walls, overlooking the bay. Anne Brontë_sentence_232

Charlotte commissioned a stone to be placed over her grave, with the simple inscription "Here lie the remains of Anne Brontë, daughter of the Revd P. Brontë, Incumbent of Haworth, Yorkshire. Anne Brontë_sentence_233

She died Aged 28 May 28th 1849". Anne Brontë_sentence_234

When Charlotte visited the grave three years later, she discovered multiple errors on the headstone, and thus it was refaced. Anne Brontë_sentence_235

However, Anne's age at death was still written as 28 when, in fact, she was 29 when she died. Anne Brontë_sentence_236

In 2011, the Brontë Society installed a new plaque at Anne Brontë's grave. Anne Brontë_sentence_237

Due to weathering and erosion, the original gravestone had become illegible at places and could not be restored. Anne Brontë_sentence_238

The original stone was left undisturbed, while the new plaque, laid horizontally, interpreted the fading words of the original, and also added a correction to the remaining error on the headstone (Anne's age at death). Anne Brontë_sentence_239

In April 2013, the Brontë Society held a dedication and blessing service at the gravesite to mark the installation of the new plaque. Anne Brontë_sentence_240

Reputation Anne Brontë_section_15

A year after Anne's death, further editions of her novels were reprinted but Charlotte prevented re-publication of The Tenant of Wildfell Hall. Anne Brontë_sentence_241

In 1850, Charlotte wrote "Wildfell Hall it hardly appears to me desirable to preserve. Anne Brontë_sentence_242

The choice of subject in that work is a mistake, it was too little consonant with the character, tastes and ideas of the gentle, retiring inexperienced writer." Anne Brontë_sentence_243

Subsequent critics paid less attention to Anne's work, and those such as Lane dismissed her as "a Brontë without genius" and gave her output little consideration. Anne Brontë_sentence_244

However, since the mid-20th century, with increasing critical interest in female authors, her life has been re-examined and her work re-evaluated. Anne Brontë_sentence_245

Her interest in the topic of education has also been explored in publications such as The Brontës and Education, a Bronte Society Conference publication. Anne Brontë_sentence_246

Biographies by Winifred Gérin (1959), Elizabeth Langland (1989) and Edward Chitham (1991) as well as Juliet Barker's group biography, The Brontës (1994; revised edition 2000) and work by critics such as Inga-Stina Ewbank, Marianne Thormählen, Laura C Berry, Jan B Gordon, Mary Summers and Juliet McMaster, has led to her acceptance, not as a minor Brontë, but as a major literary figure in her own right. Anne Brontë_sentence_247

Sally McDonald of the Brontë Society said in 2013, "In some ways though she is now viewed as the most radical of the sisters, writing about tough subjects such as women's need to maintain independence and how alcoholism can tear a family apart." Anne Brontë_sentence_248

In 2016, Lucy Mangan championed Anne Brontë in the BBC's Being the Brontës, declaring that "her time has come". Anne Brontë_sentence_249

See also Anne Brontë_section_16

Anne Brontë_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Brontë.