Apple Inc.

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"Apple (company)" redirects here. Apple Inc._sentence_0

For other companies, see Apple (disambiguation) § Businesses and organisations. Apple Inc._sentence_1

Apple Inc._table_infobox_0

Apple Inc.Apple Inc._table_caption_0
FormerlyApple Inc._header_cell_0_0_0 Apple Inc._cell_0_0_1
TypeApple Inc._header_cell_0_1_0 PublicApple Inc._cell_0_1_1
Traded asApple Inc._header_cell_0_2_0 Apple Inc._cell_0_2_1
ISINApple Inc._header_cell_0_3_0 Apple Inc._cell_0_3_1
IndustryApple Inc._header_cell_0_4_0 Apple Inc._cell_0_4_1
FoundedApple Inc._header_cell_0_5_0 April 1, 1976; 44 years ago (1976-04-01)Apple Inc._cell_0_5_1
FoundersApple Inc._header_cell_0_6_0 Apple Inc._cell_0_6_1
HeadquartersApple Inc._header_cell_0_7_0 1 Apple Park Way

Cupertino, California, U.S.Apple Inc._cell_0_7_1

Number of locationsApple Inc._header_cell_0_8_0 510 retail stores (2020)Apple Inc._cell_0_8_1
Area servedApple Inc._header_cell_0_9_0 WorldwideApple Inc._cell_0_9_1
Key peopleApple Inc._header_cell_0_10_0 Apple Inc._cell_0_10_1
ProductsApple Inc._header_cell_0_11_0 ListApple Inc._cell_0_11_1
ServicesApple Inc._header_cell_0_12_0 ListApple Inc._cell_0_12_1
RevenueApple Inc._header_cell_0_13_0 US$274.515 billion (2020)Apple Inc._cell_0_13_1
Operating incomeApple Inc._header_cell_0_14_0 US$66.288 billion (2020)Apple Inc._cell_0_14_1
Net incomeApple Inc._header_cell_0_15_0 US$57.411 billion (2020)Apple Inc._cell_0_15_1
Total assetsApple Inc._header_cell_0_16_0 US$323.888 billion (2020)Apple Inc._cell_0_16_1
Total equityApple Inc._header_cell_0_17_0 US$65.339 billion (2020)Apple Inc._cell_0_17_1
Number of employeesApple Inc._header_cell_0_18_0 137,000 (2019)Apple Inc._cell_0_18_1
SubsidiariesApple Inc._header_cell_0_19_0 Apple Inc._cell_0_19_1
WebsiteApple Inc._header_cell_0_20_0 Apple Inc._cell_0_20_1

Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services. Apple Inc._sentence_2

It is considered one of the Big Five companies in the U.S. information technology industry, along with Amazon, Google, Microsoft, and Facebook. Apple Inc._sentence_3

The company's hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the AirPods wireless earbuds and the HomePod smart speaker. Apple Inc._sentence_4

Apple's software includes macOS, iOS, iPadOS, watchOS, and tvOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the Shazam music identifier and the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, and Xcode. Apple Inc._sentence_5

Its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Arcade, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, and iCloud. Apple Inc._sentence_6

Other services include Apple Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, and Apple Card. Apple Inc._sentence_7

Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days. Apple Inc._sentence_8

It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc., in January 1977, and sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Apple Inc._sentence_9

Within a few years, Jobs and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line. Apple Inc._sentence_10

Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Apple Inc._sentence_11

Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, and Apple's marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. Apple Inc._sentence_12

However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. Apple Inc._sentence_13

In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT. Apple Inc._sentence_14

As the market for personal computers expanded and evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. Apple Inc._sentence_15

The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company—reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, and product focus. Apple Inc._sentence_16

In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the desperately failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Apple Inc._sentence_17

Jobs regained leadership status, becoming CEO in 2000. Apple Inc._sentence_18

Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apple's status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, and acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. Apple Inc._sentence_19

In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc., reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, and launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. Apple Inc._sentence_20

In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, and Tim Cook became the new CEO. Apple Inc._sentence_21

Two months later, Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. Apple Inc._sentence_22

In June 2019, Jony Ive, Apple's CDO, left the company to start his own firm, but stated he would work with Apple as its primary client. Apple Inc._sentence_23

Apple's worldwide annual revenue totaled $274.5 billion for the 2020 fiscal year. Apple Inc._sentence_24

Apple is the world's largest technology company by revenue and one of the world's most valuable companies. Apple Inc._sentence_25

It is also the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei. Apple Inc._sentence_26

In August 2018, Apple became the first publicly traded U.S. company to be valued at over $1 trillion and just two years later in August 2020 became the first $2 trillion U.S. company. Apple Inc._sentence_27

The company employs 137,000 full-time employees and maintains 510 retail stores in 25 countries as of 2020. Apple Inc._sentence_28

It operates the iTunes Store, which is the world's largest music retailer. Apple Inc._sentence_29

As of January 2020, more than 1.5 billion Apple products are actively in use worldwide. Apple Inc._sentence_30

The company also has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the world's most valuable brand. Apple Inc._sentence_31

However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials. Apple Inc._sentence_32

History Apple Inc._section_0

Main article: History of Apple Inc. Apple Inc._sentence_33

1976–1984: Founding and incorporation Apple Inc._section_1

See also: History of Apple § 1975–1985: Jobs and Wozniak Apple Inc._sentence_34

Apple Computer Company was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne as a business partnership. Apple Inc._sentence_35

The company's first product is the Apple I, a computer designed and hand-built entirely by Wozniak. Apple Inc._sentence_36

To finance its creation, Jobs sold his only motorized means of transportation, a VW Microbus, for a few hundred dollars, and Wozniak sold his HP-65 calculator for US$500 (equivalent to $2,246 in 2019). Apple Inc._sentence_37

Wozniak debuted the first prototype at the Homebrew Computer Club in July 1976. Apple Inc._sentence_38

The Apple I was sold as a motherboard with CPU, RAM, and basic textual-video chips—a base kit concept which would not yet be marketed as a complete personal computer. Apple Inc._sentence_39

It went on sale soon after debut for US$666.66 (equivalent to $2,995 in 2019). Apple Inc._sentence_40

Wozniak later said he was unaware of the coincidental mark of the beast in the number 666, and that he came up with the price because he liked "repeating digits". Apple Inc._sentence_41

Apple Computer, Inc. was incorporated on January 3, 1977, without Wayne, who had left and sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800 only twelve days after having co-founded Apple. Apple Inc._sentence_42

Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of US$250,000 (equivalent to $1,054,778 in 2019) to Jobs and Wozniak during the incorporation of Apple. Apple Inc._sentence_43

During the first five years of operations, revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Apple Inc._sentence_44

Between September 1977 and September 1980, yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118 million, an average annual growth rate of 533%. Apple Inc._sentence_45

The Apple II, also invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. Apple Inc._sentence_46

It differs from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture. Apple Inc._sentence_47

While early Apple II models use ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a ​5 ⁄4-inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II in 1978. Apple Inc._sentence_48

The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer application" of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program released in 1979. Apple Inc._sentence_49

VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office. Apple Inc._sentence_50

Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place competitor to Commodore and Tandy. Apple Inc._sentence_51

By the end of the 1970s, Apple had a staff of computer designers and a production line. Apple Inc._sentence_52

The company introduced the Apple III in May 1980 in an attempt to compete with IBM in the business and corporate computing market. Apple Inc._sentence_53

Jobs and several Apple employees, including human–computer interface expert Jef Raskin, visited Xerox PARC in December 1979 to see a demonstration of the Xerox Alto. Apple Inc._sentence_54

Xerox granted Apple engineers three days of access to the PARC facilities in return for the option to buy 100,000 shares (5.6 million split-adjusted shares as of March 30, 2019) of Apple at the pre-IPO price of $10 a share. Apple Inc._sentence_55

Jobs was immediately convinced that all future computers would use a graphical user interface (GUI), and development of a GUI began for the Apple Lisa. Apple Inc._sentence_56

In 1982, however, he was pushed from the Lisa team due to infighting. Apple Inc._sentence_57

Jobs then took over Wozniak's and Raskin's low-cost-computer project, the Macintosh, and redefined it as a graphical system cheaper and faster than Lisa. Apple Inc._sentence_58

In 1983, Lisa became the first personal computer sold to the public with a GUI, but was a commercial failure due to its high price and limited software titles, so in 1985 it would be repurposed as the high end Macintosh and discontinued in its second year. Apple Inc._sentence_59

On December 12, 1980, Apple (ticker symbol "AAPL") went public selling 4.6 million shares at $22 per share ($.39 per share when adjusting for stock splits as of March 30, 2019), generating over $100 million, which was more capital than any IPO since Ford Motor Company in 1956. Apple Inc._sentence_60

By the end of the day, 300 millionaires were created, from a stock price of $29 per share and a market cap of $1.778 billion. Apple Inc._sentence_61

1984–1991: Success with Macintosh Apple Inc._section_2

See also: Timeline of Macintosh models and Timeline of the Apple II family Apple Inc._sentence_62

In 1984, Apple launched the Macintosh, the first personal computer to be sold without a programming language. Apple Inc._sentence_63

Its debut was signified by "1984", a $1.5 million television advertisement directed by Ridley Scott that aired during the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIII on January 22, 1984. Apple Inc._sentence_64

This is now hailed as a watershed event for Apple's success and was called a "masterpiece" by CNN and one of the greatest TV advertisements of all time by TV Guide. Apple Inc._sentence_65

Macintosh sales were initially good, but began to taper off dramatically after the first three months due to its high price, slow speed, and limited range of available software. Apple Inc._sentence_66

In early 1985, this sales slump triggered a power struggle between Steve Jobs and CEO John Sculley, who had been hired two years earlier by Jobs using the famous line, "Do you want to sell sugar water for the rest of your life or come with me and change the world?" Apple Inc._sentence_67

Sculley decided to remove Jobs as the general manager of the Macintosh division, and gained unanimous support from the Apple board of directors. Apple Inc._sentence_68

The board of directors instructed Sculley to contain Jobs and his ability to launch expensive forays into untested products. Apple Inc._sentence_69

Rather than submit to Sculley's direction, Jobs attempted to oust him from his leadership role at Apple. Apple Inc._sentence_70

Informed by Jean-Louis Gassée, Sculley found out that Jobs had been attempting to organize a coup and called an emergency executive meeting at which Apple's executive staff sided with Sculley and stripped Jobs of all operational duties. Apple Inc._sentence_71

Jobs resigned from Apple in September 1985 and took a number of Apple employees with him to found NeXT Inc. Wozniak had also quit his active employment at Apple earlier in 1985 to pursue other ventures, expressing his frustration with Apple's treatment of the Apple II division and stating that the company had "been going in the wrong direction for the last five years". Apple Inc._sentence_72

Despite Wozniak's grievances, he left the company amicably and both Jobs and Wozniak remained Apple shareholders. Apple Inc._sentence_73

Wozniak continues to represent the company at events or in interviews, receiving a stipend estimated to be $120,000 per year for this role. Apple Inc._sentence_74

The outlook on Macintosh improved with the introduction of the LaserWriter, the first reasonably priced PostScript laser printer, and PageMaker, an early desktop publishing application released in July 1985. Apple Inc._sentence_75

It has been suggested that the combination of Macintosh, LaserWriter, and PageMaker was responsible for the creation of the desktop publishing market. Apple Inc._sentence_76

After the departures of Jobs and Wozniak, the Macintosh product line underwent a steady change of focus to higher price points, the so-called "high-right policy" named for the position on a chart of price vs. profits. Apple Inc._sentence_77

Jobs had argued the company should produce products aimed at the consumer market and aimed for a $1,000 price for the Macintosh, which they were unable to meet. Apple Inc._sentence_78

Newer models selling at higher price points offered higher profit margin, and appeared to have no effect on total sales as power users snapped up every increase in power. Apple Inc._sentence_79

Although some worried about pricing themselves out of the market, the high-right policy was in full force by the mid-1980s, notably due to Jean-Louis Gassée's mantra of "fifty-five or die", referring to the 55% profit margins of the Macintosh II. Apple Inc._sentence_80

Selling Macintosh at such high profit margins was only possible because of its dominant position in the desktop publishing market. Apple Inc._sentence_81

This policy began to backfire in the last years of the decade as new desktop publishing programs appeared on PC clones that offered some or much of the same functionality of the Macintosh but at far lower price points. Apple Inc._sentence_82

The company lost its monopoly in this market and had already estranged many of its original consumer customer base who could no longer afford their high-priced products. Apple Inc._sentence_83

The Christmas season of 1989 is the first in the company's history to have declining sales, which led to a 20% drop in Apple's stock price. Apple Inc._sentence_84

During this period, the relationship between Sculley and Gassée deteriorated, leading Sculley to effectively demote Gassée in January 1990 by appointing Michael Spindler as the chief operating officer. Apple Inc._sentence_85

Gassée left the company later that year. Apple Inc._sentence_86

In October 1990, Apple introduced three lower-cost models, the Macintosh Classic, Macintosh LC, and Macintosh IIsi, all of which saw significant sales due to pent-up demand. Apple Inc._sentence_87

In 1991, Apple introduced the PowerBook, replacing the "luggable" Macintosh Portable with a design that set the current shape for almost all modern laptops. Apple Inc._sentence_88

The same year, Apple introduced System 7, a major upgrade to the operating system which added color to the interface and introduced new networking capabilities. Apple Inc._sentence_89

It remained the architectural basis for the Classic Mac OS. Apple Inc._sentence_90

The success of the PowerBook and other products brought increasing revenue. Apple Inc._sentence_91

For some time, Apple was doing incredibly well, introducing fresh new products and generating increasing profits in the process. Apple Inc._sentence_92

The magazine MacAddict named the period between 1989 and 1991 as the "first golden age" of the Macintosh. Apple Inc._sentence_93

Apple believed the Apple II series was too expensive to produce and took away sales from the low-end Macintosh. Apple Inc._sentence_94

In October 1990, Apple released the Macintosh LC, and began efforts to promote that computer by advising developer technical support staff to recommend developing applications for Macintosh rather than Apple II, and authorizing salespersons to direct consumers towards Macintosh and away from Apple II. Apple Inc._sentence_95

The Apple IIe was discontinued in 1993. Apple Inc._sentence_96

1991–1997: Decline and restructuring Apple Inc._section_3

See also: Timeline of the Apple II family Apple Inc._sentence_97

The success of Apple's lower-cost consumer models, especially the LC, also led to the cannibalization of their higher-priced machines. Apple Inc._sentence_98

To address this, management introduced several new brands, selling largely identical machines at different price points aimed at different markets. Apple Inc._sentence_99

These were the high-end Quadra, the mid-range Centris line, and the consumer-marketed Performa series. Apple Inc._sentence_100

This led to significant market confusion, as customers did not understand the difference between models. Apple Inc._sentence_101

Apple also experimented with a number of other unsuccessful consumer targeted products during the 1990s, including digital cameras, portable CD audio players, speakers, video consoles, the eWorld online service, and TV appliances. Apple Inc._sentence_102

Enormous resources were also invested in the problem-plagued Newton division based on John Sculley's unrealistic market forecasts. Apple Inc._sentence_103

Ultimately, none of these products helped and Apple's market share and stock prices continued to slide. Apple Inc._sentence_104

Throughout this period, Microsoft continued to gain market share with Windows by focusing on delivering software to inexpensive personal computers, while Apple was delivering a richly engineered but expensive experience. Apple Inc._sentence_105

Apple relied on high profit margins and never developed a clear response; instead, they sued Microsoft for using a GUI similar to the Apple Lisa in Apple Computer, Inc. v. Microsoft Corp. The lawsuit dragged on for years before it was finally dismissed. Apple Inc._sentence_106

At this time, a series of major product flops and missed deadlines sullied Apple's reputation, and Sculley was replaced as CEO by Michael Spindler. Apple Inc._sentence_107

By the late 1980s, Apple was developing alternative platforms to System 6, such as A/UX and Pink. Apple Inc._sentence_108

The System 6 platform itself was outdated because it was not originally built for multitasking. Apple Inc._sentence_109

By the 1990s, Apple was facing competition from OS/2 and UNIX vendors such as Sun Microsystems. Apple Inc._sentence_110

System 6 and 7 would need to be replaced by a new platform or reworked to run on modern hardware. Apple Inc._sentence_111

In 1994, Apple, IBM, and Motorola formed the AIM alliance with the goal of creating a new computing platform (the PowerPC Reference Platform), which would use IBM and Motorola hardware coupled with Apple software. Apple Inc._sentence_112

The AIM alliance hoped that PReP's performance and Apple's software would leave the PC far behind and thus counter Microsoft's monopoly. Apple Inc._sentence_113

The same year, Apple introduced the Power Macintosh, the first of many Apple computers to use Motorola's PowerPC processor. Apple Inc._sentence_114

In 1996, Spindler was replaced by Gil Amelio as CEO. Apple Inc._sentence_115

Hired for his reputation as a corporate rehabilitator, Amelio made deep changes, including extensive layoffs and cost-cutting. Apple Inc._sentence_116

After numerous failed attempts to modernize Mac OS, first with the Pink project from 1988 and later with Copland from 1994, Apple in 1997 purchased NeXT for its NeXTSTEP operating system and to bring Steve Jobs back. Apple Inc._sentence_117

Apple was only weeks away from bankruptcy when Jobs returned. Apple Inc._sentence_118

1997–2007: Return to profitability Apple Inc._section_4

The NeXT acquisition was finalized on February 9, 1997, bringing Jobs back to Apple as an advisor. Apple Inc._sentence_119

On July 9, 1997, Amelio was ousted by the board of directors after overseeing a three-year record-low stock price and crippling financial losses. Apple Inc._sentence_120

Jobs acted as the interim CEO and began restructuring the company's product line; it was during this period that he identified the design talent of Jonathan Ive, and the pair worked collaboratively to rebuild Apple's status. Apple Inc._sentence_121

At the August 1997 Macworld Expo in Boston, Jobs announced that Apple would join Microsoft to release new versions of Microsoft Office for the Macintosh, and that Microsoft had made a $150 million investment in non-voting Apple stock. Apple Inc._sentence_122

On November 10, 1997, Apple introduced the Apple Store website, which was tied to a new build-to-order manufacturing strategy. Apple Inc._sentence_123

On August 15, 1998, Apple introduced a new all-in-one computer reminiscent of the Macintosh 128K: the iMac. Apple Inc._sentence_124

The iMac design team was led by Ive, who would later design the iPod and the iPhone. Apple Inc._sentence_125

The iMac featured modern technology and a unique design, and sold almost 800,000 units in its first five months. Apple Inc._sentence_126

Around 1998 Apple completed numerous acquisitions to create a portfolio of digital production software for both professionals and consumers. Apple Inc._sentence_127

Of these, one notable transaction was Apple's acquisition of Macromedia's Key Grip software project, signaling an expansion into the digital video editing market. Apple Inc._sentence_128

The sale was an outcome of Macromedia's decision to solely focus on web development software. Apple Inc._sentence_129

The product, still unfinished at the time of the sale, was renamed "Final Cut Pro" when it was launched on the retail market in April 1999. Apple Inc._sentence_130

The development of Key Grip also led to Apple's release of the consumer video-editing product iMovie in October 1999. Apple Inc._sentence_131

Next, Apple successfully acquired the German company Astarte, which had developed DVD authoring technology, as well as Astarte's corresponding products and engineering team in April 2000. Apple Inc._sentence_132

Astarte's digital tool DVDirector was subsequently transformed into the professional-oriented DVD Studio Pro software product. Apple Inc._sentence_133

Apple then employed the same technology to create iDVD for the consumer market. Apple Inc._sentence_134

In July 2001, Apple acquired Spruce Technologies, a PC DVD authoring platform, to incorporate their technology into Apple's expanding portfolio of digital video projects. Apple Inc._sentence_135

SoundJam MP, released by Casady & Greene in 1998, was renamed "iTunes" when Apple purchased it in 2000. Apple Inc._sentence_136

The primary developers of the MP3 player and music library software moved to Apple as part of the acquisition, and simplified SoundJam's user interface, added the ability to burn CDs, and removed its recording feature and skin support. Apple Inc._sentence_137

SoundJam was Apple's second choice for the core of Apple's music software project, originally code-named iMusic, behind Panic's Audion. Apple Inc._sentence_138

Apple was not able to set up a meeting with Panic in time to be fully considered as the latter was in the middle of similar negotiations with AOL. Apple Inc._sentence_139

In 2002, Apple purchased Nothing Real for their advanced digital compositing application Shake, as well as Emagic for the music productivity application Logic. Apple Inc._sentence_140

The purchase of Emagic made Apple the first computer manufacturer to own a music software company. Apple Inc._sentence_141

The acquisition was followed by the development of Apple's consumer-level GarageBand application. Apple Inc._sentence_142

The release of iPhoto in the same year completed the iLife suite. Apple Inc._sentence_143

Mac OS X, based on NeXT's NeXTSTEP, OPENSTEP, and BSD Unix, was released on March 24, 2001, after several years of development. Apple Inc._sentence_144

Aimed at consumers and professionals alike, Mac OS X aimed to combine the stability, reliability, and security of Unix with the ease of use afforded by an overhauled user interface. Apple Inc._sentence_145

To aid users in migrating from Mac OS 9, the new operating system allowed the use of OS 9 applications within Mac OS X via the Classic Environment. Apple Inc._sentence_146

On May 19, 2001, Apple opened its first official eponymous retail stores in Virginia and California. Apple Inc._sentence_147

On October 23 of the same year, Apple debuted the iPod portable digital audio player. Apple Inc._sentence_148

The product, which was first sold on November 10, 2001, was phenomenally successful with over 100 million units sold within six years. Apple Inc._sentence_149

In 2003, Apple's iTunes Store was introduced. Apple Inc._sentence_150

The service offered online music downloads for $0.99 a song and integration with the iPod. Apple Inc._sentence_151

The iTunes Store quickly became the market leader in online music services, with over five billion downloads by June 19, 2008. Apple Inc._sentence_152

Two years later, the iTunes Store was the world's largest music retailer. Apple Inc._sentence_153

Intel transition and financial stability Apple Inc._section_5

Main article: Mac transition to Intel processors Apple Inc._sentence_154

At the Worldwide Developers Conference keynote address on June 6, 2005, Jobs announced that Apple would begin producing Intel-based Mac computers in 2006. Apple Inc._sentence_155

On January 10, 2006, the new MacBook Pro and iMac became the first Apple computers to use Intel's Core Duo CPU. Apple Inc._sentence_156

By August 7, 2006, Apple made the transition to Intel chips for the entire Mac product line—over one year sooner than announced. Apple Inc._sentence_157

The Power Mac, iBook, and PowerBook brands were retired during the transition; the Mac Pro, MacBook, and MacBook Pro became their respective successors. Apple Inc._sentence_158

On April 29, 2009, The Wall Street Journal reported that Apple was building its own team of engineers to design microchips. Apple Inc._sentence_159

Apple also introduced Boot Camp in 2006 to help users install Windows XP or Windows Vista on their Intel Macs alongside Mac OS X. Apple Inc._sentence_160

Apple's success during this period was evident in its stock price. Apple Inc._sentence_161

Between early 2003 and 2006, the price of Apple's stock increased more than tenfold, from around $6 per share (split-adjusted) to over $80. Apple Inc._sentence_162

When Apple surpassed Dell's market cap in January 2006, Jobs sent an email to Apple employees saying Dell's CEO Michael Dell should eat his words. Apple Inc._sentence_163

Nine years prior, Dell had said that if he ran Apple he would "shut it down and give the money back to the shareholders". Apple Inc._sentence_164

Although Apple's market share in computers had grown, it remained far behind its competitor Microsoft Windows, accounting for about 8% of desktops and laptops in the US. Apple Inc._sentence_165

Since 2001, Apple's design team has progressively abandoned the use of translucent colored plastics first used in the iMac G3. Apple Inc._sentence_166

This design change began with the titanium-made PowerBook and was followed by the iBook's white polycarbonate structure and the flat-panel iMac. Apple Inc._sentence_167

2007–2011: Success with mobile devices Apple Inc._section_6

During his keynote speech at the Macworld Expo on January 9, 2007, Jobs announced that Apple Computer, Inc. would thereafter be known as "Apple Inc.", because the company had shifted its emphasis from computers to consumer electronics. Apple Inc._sentence_168

This event also saw the announcement of the iPhone and the Apple TV. Apple Inc._sentence_169

The company sold 270,000 iPhone units during the first 30 hours of sales, and the device was called "a game changer for the industry". Apple Inc._sentence_170

Apple would achieve widespread success with its iPhone, iPod Touch, and iPad products, which introduced innovations in mobile phones, portable music players, and personal computers respectively. Apple Inc._sentence_171

Furthermore, by early 2007, 800,000 Final Cut Pro users were registered. Apple Inc._sentence_172

In an article posted on Apple's website on February 6, 2007, Jobs wrote that Apple would be willing to sell music on the iTunes Store without digital rights management (DRM), thereby allowing tracks to be played on third-party players, if record labels would agree to drop the technology. Apple Inc._sentence_173

On April 2, 2007, Apple and EMI jointly announced the removal of DRM technology from EMI's catalog in the iTunes Store, effective in May 2007. Apple Inc._sentence_174

Other record labels eventually followed suit and Apple published a press release in January 2009 to announce that all songs on the iTunes Store are available without their FairPlay DRM. Apple Inc._sentence_175

In July 2008, Apple launched the App Store to sell third-party applications for the iPhone and iPod Touch. Apple Inc._sentence_176

Within a month, the store sold 60 million applications and registered an average daily revenue of $1 million, with Jobs speculating in August 2008 that the App Store could become a billion-dollar business for Apple. Apple Inc._sentence_177

By October 2008, Apple was the third-largest mobile handset supplier in the world due to the popularity of the iPhone. Apple Inc._sentence_178

On December 16, 2008, Apple announced that 2009 would be the last year the corporation would attend the Macworld Expo, after more than 20 years of attendance, and that senior vice president of Worldwide Product Marketing Phil Schiller would deliver the 2009 keynote address in lieu of the expected Jobs. Apple Inc._sentence_179

The official press release explained that Apple was "scaling back" on trade shows in general, including Macworld Tokyo and the Apple Expo in Paris, France, primarily because the enormous successes of the Apple Retail Stores and website had rendered trade shows a minor promotional channel. Apple Inc._sentence_180

On January 14, 2009, Jobs announced in an internal memo that he would be taking a six-month medical leave of absence from Apple until the end of June 2009 and would spend the time focusing on his health. Apple Inc._sentence_181

In the email, Jobs stated that "the curiosity over my personal health continues to be a distraction not only for me and my family, but everyone else at Apple as well", and explained that the break would allow the company "to focus on delivering extraordinary products". Apple Inc._sentence_182

Though Jobs was absent, Apple recorded its best non-holiday quarter (Q1 FY 2009) during the recession with revenue of $8.16 billion and profit of $1.21 billion. Apple Inc._sentence_183

After years of speculation and multiple rumored "leaks", Apple unveiled a large screen, tablet-like media device known as the iPad on January 27, 2010. Apple Inc._sentence_184

The iPad ran the same touch-based operating system as the iPhone, and all iPhone apps were compatible with the iPad. Apple Inc._sentence_185

This gave the iPad a large app catalog on launch, though having very little development time before the release. Apple Inc._sentence_186

Later that year on April 3, 2010, the iPad was launched in the US. Apple Inc._sentence_187

It sold more than 300,000 units on its first day, and 500,000 by the end of the first week. Apple Inc._sentence_188

In May of the same year, Apple's market cap exceeded that of competitor Microsoft for the first time since 1989. Apple Inc._sentence_189

In June 2010, Apple released the iPhone 4, which introduced video calling, multitasking, and a new uninsulated stainless steel design that acted as the phone's antenna. Apple Inc._sentence_190

Later that year, Apple again refreshed its iPod line of MP3 players by introducing a multi-touch iPod Nano, an iPod Touch with FaceTime, and an iPod Shuffle that brought back the clickwheel buttons of earlier generations. Apple Inc._sentence_191

It also introduced the smaller, cheaper second generation Apple TV which allowed renting of movies and shows. Apple Inc._sentence_192

In October 2010, Apple shares hit an all-time high, eclipsing $300 (~$43 split adjusted). Apple Inc._sentence_193

Later that month, Apple updated the MacBook Air laptop, iLife suite of applications, and unveiled Mac OS X Lion, the last version with the name Mac OS X. Apple Inc._sentence_194

On January 6, 2011, the company opened its Mac App Store, a digital software distribution platform similar to the iOS App Store. Apple Inc._sentence_195

On January 17, 2011, Jobs announced in an internal Apple memo that he would take another medical leave of absence for an indefinite period to allow him to focus on his health. Apple Inc._sentence_196

Chief Operating Officer Tim Cook assumed Jobs's day-to-day operations at Apple, although Jobs would still remain "involved in major strategic decisions". Apple Inc._sentence_197

Apple became the most valuable consumer-facing brand in the world. Apple Inc._sentence_198

In June 2011, Jobs surprisingly took the stage and unveiled iCloud, an online storage and syncing service for music, photos, files, and software which replaced MobileMe, Apple's previous attempt at content syncing. Apple Inc._sentence_199

This would be the last product launch Jobs would attend before his death. Apple Inc._sentence_200

Alongside peer entities such as Atari and Cisco Systems, Apple was featured in the documentary Something Ventured, which premiered in 2011 and explored the three-decade era that led to the establishment and dominance of Silicon Valley. Apple Inc._sentence_201

It has been argued that Apple has achieved such efficiency in its supply chain that the company operates as a monopsony (one buyer with many sellers) and can dictate terms to its suppliers. Apple Inc._sentence_202

In July 2011, due to the American debt-ceiling crisis, Apple's financial reserves were briefly larger than those of the U.S. Apple Inc._sentence_203 Government. Apple Inc._sentence_204

On August 24, 2011, Jobs resigned his position as CEO of Apple. Apple Inc._sentence_205

He was replaced by Cook and Jobs became Apple's chairman. Apple Inc._sentence_206

Apple did not have a chairman at the time and instead had two co-lead directors, Andrea Jung and Arthur D. Levinson, who continued with those titles until Levinson replaced Jobs as chairman of the board in November after Jobs' death. Apple Inc._sentence_207

2011–present: Post–Steve Jobs era; Tim Cook leadership Apple Inc._section_7

On October 5, 2011, Steve Jobs died, marking the end of an era for Apple. Apple Inc._sentence_208

The first major product announcement by Apple following Jobs's passing occurred on January 19, 2012, when Apple's Phil Schiller introduced iBooks Textbooks for iOS and iBook Author for Mac OS X in New York City. Apple Inc._sentence_209

Jobs had stated in his biography that he wanted to reinvent the textbook industry and education. Apple Inc._sentence_210

From 2011 to 2012, Apple released the iPhone 4S and iPhone 5, which featured improved cameras, an intelligent software assistant named Siri, and cloud-synced data with iCloud; the third and fourth generation iPads, which featured Retina displays; and the iPad Mini, which featured a 7.9-inch screen in contrast to the iPad's 9.7-inch screen. Apple Inc._sentence_211

These launches were successful, with the iPhone 5 (released September 21, 2012) becoming Apple's biggest iPhone launch with over two million pre-orders and sales of three million iPads in three days following the launch of the iPad Mini and fourth generation iPad (released November 3, 2012). Apple Inc._sentence_212

Apple also released a third-generation 13-inch MacBook Pro with a Retina display and new iMac and Mac Mini computers. Apple Inc._sentence_213

On August 20, 2012, Apple's rising stock price increased the company's market capitalization to a world-record $624 billion. Apple Inc._sentence_214

This beat the non-inflation-adjusted record for market capitalization set by Microsoft in 1999. Apple Inc._sentence_215

On August 24, 2012, a US jury ruled that Samsung should pay Apple $1.05 billion (£665m) in damages in an intellectual property lawsuit. Apple Inc._sentence_216

Samsung appealed the damages award, which the Court reduced by $450 million. Apple Inc._sentence_217

The Court further granted Samsung's request for a new trial. Apple Inc._sentence_218

On November 10, 2012, Apple confirmed a global settlement that would dismiss all lawsuits between Apple and HTC up to that date, in favor of a ten-year license agreement for current and future patents between the two companies. Apple Inc._sentence_219

It is predicted that Apple will make $280 million a year from this deal with HTC. Apple Inc._sentence_220

A previously confidential email written by Jobs a year before his death was presented during the proceedings of the Apple Inc. v. Samsung Electronics Co. lawsuits and became publicly available in early April 2014. Apple Inc._sentence_221

With a subject line that reads "Top 100 – A," the email was sent only to the company's 100 most senior employees and outlines Jobs's vision of Apple Inc.'s future under 10 subheadings. Apple Inc._sentence_222

Notably, Jobs declares a "Holy War with Google" for 2011 and schedules a "new campus" for 2015. Apple Inc._sentence_223

In March 2013, Apple filed a patent for an augmented reality (AR) system that can identify objects in a live video stream and present information corresponding to these objects through a computer-generated information layer overlaid on top of the real-world image. Apple Inc._sentence_224

The company also made several high-profile hiring decisions in 2013. Apple Inc._sentence_225

On July 2, 2013, Apple recruited Paul Deneve, Belgian President and CEO of Yves Saint Laurent as a vice president reporting directly to Tim Cook. Apple Inc._sentence_226

A mid-October 2013 announcement revealed that Burberry CEO Angela Ahrendts will commence as a senior vice president at Apple in mid-2014. Apple Inc._sentence_227

Ahrendts oversaw Burberry's digital strategy for almost eight years and, during her tenure, sales increased to about $3.2 billion and shares gained more than threefold. Apple Inc._sentence_228

She resigned from Apple in 2019. Apple Inc._sentence_229

Alongside Google vice-president Vint Cerf and AT&T CEO Randall Stephenson, Cook attended a closed-door summit held by President Obama on August 8, 2013, in regard to government surveillance and the Internet in the wake of the Edward Snowden NSA incident. Apple Inc._sentence_230

On February 4, 2014, Cook met with Abdullah Gül, the President of Turkey, in Ankara to discuss the company's involvement in the Fatih project. Apple Inc._sentence_231

In the first quarter of 2014, Apple reported sales of 51 million iPhones and 26 million iPads, becoming all-time quarterly sales records. Apple Inc._sentence_232

It also experienced a significant year-over-year increase in Mac sales. Apple Inc._sentence_233

This was contrasted with a significant drop in iPod sales. Apple Inc._sentence_234

In May 2014, the company confirmed its intent to acquire Dr. Apple Inc._sentence_235 Dre and Jimmy Iovine's audio company Beats Electronics—producer of the "Beats by Dr. Dre" line of headphones and speaker products, and operator of the music streaming service Beats Music—for $3 billion, and to sell their products through Apple's retail outlets and resellers. Apple Inc._sentence_236

Iovine believed that Beats had always "belonged" with Apple, as the company modeled itself after Apple's "unmatched ability to marry culture and technology." Apple Inc._sentence_237

The acquisition was the largest purchase in Apple's history. Apple Inc._sentence_238

Apple was at the top of Interbrand's annual Best Global Brands report for six consecutive years; 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, and 2018 with a valuation of $214.48 billion. Apple Inc._sentence_239

In January 2016, it was announced that one billion Apple devices were in active use worldwide. Apple Inc._sentence_240

On May 12, 2016, Apple invested $1 billion in DiDi, the largest vehicle for hire company in China. Apple Inc._sentence_241

The Information reported in October 2016 that Apple had taken a board seat in Didi Chuxing, a move that James Vincent of The Verge speculated could be a strategic company decision by Apple to get closer to the automobile industry, particularly Didi Chuxing's reported interest in self-driving cars. Apple Inc._sentence_242

On June 6, 2016, Fortune released Fortune 500, their list of companies ranked on revenue generation. Apple Inc._sentence_243

In the trailing fiscal year (2015), Apple appeared on the list as the top tech company. Apple Inc._sentence_244

It ranked third, overall, with $233 billion in revenue. Apple Inc._sentence_245

This represents a movement upward of two spots from the previous year's list. Apple Inc._sentence_246

On April 6, 2017, Apple launched Clips, an app that allows iPad and iPhone users to make and edit short videos with text, graphics, and effects. Apple Inc._sentence_247

The app provides a way to produce short videos to share with other users on the Messages app, Instagram, Facebook, and other social networks. Apple Inc._sentence_248

Apple also introduced Live Titles for Clips that allows users to add live animated captions and titles using their voice. Apple Inc._sentence_249

In May 2017, Apple refreshed two of its website designs. Apple Inc._sentence_250

Their public relations "Apple Press Info" website was changed to an "Apple Newsroom" site, featuring a greater emphasis on imagery and therefore lower information density, and combines press releases, news items, and photos. Apple Inc._sentence_251

Its "Apple Leadership" overview of company executives was also refreshed, adding a simpler layout with a prominent header image and two-column text fields. Apple Inc._sentence_252

9to5Mac noted the design similarities to several of Apple's redesigned apps in iOS 10, particularly its Apple Music and News software. Apple Inc._sentence_253

In June 2017, Apple announced the HomePod, its smart speaker aimed to compete against Sonos, Google Home, and Amazon Echo. Apple Inc._sentence_254

Towards the end of the year, TechCrunch reported that Apple was acquiring Shazam, a company specializing in music, TV, film and advertising recognition. Apple Inc._sentence_255

The acquisition was confirmed a few days later, reportedly costing Apple $400 million, with media reports noting that the purchase looked like a move by Apple to get data and tools to bolster its Apple Music streaming service. Apple Inc._sentence_256

The purchase was approved by EU later in September 2018. Apple Inc._sentence_257

Also in June 2017, Apple appointed Jamie Erlicht and Zack Van Amburg to head the newly formed worldwide video unit. Apple Inc._sentence_258

In November 2017, Apple announced it was branching out into original scripted programming: a drama series starring Jennifer Aniston and Reese Witherspoon, and a reboot of the anthology series Amazing Stories with Steven Spielberg. Apple Inc._sentence_259

In June 2018, Apple signed the Writer's Guild of America's minimum basic agreement and Oprah Winfrey to a multi-year content partnership. Apple Inc._sentence_260

Additional partnerships for original series include Sesame Workshop and DHX Media and its subsidiary Peanuts Worldwide, as well as a partnership with A24 to create original films. Apple Inc._sentence_261

As of January 2019, Apple has ordered twenty-one television series and one film. Apple Inc._sentence_262

There are five series in development at Apple. Apple Inc._sentence_263

In February 2018 Apple was reported to be in talks with miners to buy Cobalt directly from them. Apple Inc._sentence_264

On June 5, 2018, Apple deprecated OpenGL and OpenGL ES across all operating systems and urged developers to use Metal instead. Apple Inc._sentence_265

In August 2018, Apple purchased Akonia Holographics for its augmented reality goggle lens. Apple Inc._sentence_266

On February 14, 2019, Apple acquired DataTiger for its digital marketing technology. Apple Inc._sentence_267

On January 29, 2019, Apple reported its first decline in revenues and profits in a decade. Apple Inc._sentence_268

In February 2019 they bought Conversational computing company PullString (formerly ToyTalk) On July 25, 2019, Apple and Intel announced an agreement for Apple to acquire the smartphone modem business of Intel Mobile Communications for US$1 billion. Apple Inc._sentence_269

On March 30, 2020 Apple acquired local weather app maker Dark Sky, for an undisclosed sum, with the intent to discontinue its original app at the end of 2021. Apple Inc._sentence_270

On April 3, 2020, Apple acquired Voysis, a Dublin based company focused on AI digital voice technology for an undisclosed sum. Apple Inc._sentence_271

On May 14, 2020, Apple acquired NextVR, a virtual reality company, based in Newport Beach, California. Apple Inc._sentence_272

On August 4, 2020 it was reported by Axios that Apple had "serious interest" in buying TikTok, although this was later denied by Apple. Apple Inc._sentence_273

On August 19, 2020, Apple's share price briefly topped $467.77, making Apple the first US company with a market capitalization of $2 trillion. Apple Inc._sentence_274

On September 2, 2020, Apple announced upcoming features of iOS to be introduced later this year, allowing developers to offer customers with free or discounted subscription codes called “offer codes”. Apple Inc._sentence_275

Users operating iOS 14, iPadOS 14 and later were declared eligible for redeeming the offer codes on the App Store. Apple Inc._sentence_276

The offer was said to be redeemable via two methods, using a one-time code redemption URL or presentCodeRedemptionSheet API, if implemented within the application. Apple Inc._sentence_277

To speed up deliveries of devices to consumers, Apple started shipping devices directly from its stores as of October 2020. Apple Inc._sentence_278

The company announced using its network of Apple Stores as the de facto fulfillment centers for shipping products directly from the stores to the customers. Apple Inc._sentence_279

On November 10, 2020, Apple developers confirmed the launch of stickers wearing masks on iOS devices, which was previously rejected by Apple claiming the sticker to be “inappropriate references to the COVID-19 pandemic.” Apple Inc._sentence_280

Mac transition from Intel Apple Inc._section_8

Main article: Mac transition to Apple Silicon Apple Inc._sentence_281

During its annual WWDC keynote speech on June 22, 2020, Apple announced it will transition the Mac away from Intel processors to processors developed in-house. Apple Inc._sentence_282

The announcement was expected by industry analysts, and it has been noted that Macs featuring Apple's processors would allow for big increases in performance over current Intel-based models. Apple Inc._sentence_283

On 2 November 2020, Apple announced its exclusive event called ‘One More Thing’ for November 10. Apple Inc._sentence_284

In this event Apple announced the launch its first ARM-based Apple Silicon Macs, powered by the Apple M1 SoC. Apple Inc._sentence_285

In June WWDC, Apple revealed its plan to switch over from Intel processors to its own Apple Silicon CPUs, promising that the first computers to be using the ARM-based chips would be out later in 2020. Apple Inc._sentence_286

Products Apple Inc._section_9

See also: Timeline of Apple Inc. products Apple Inc._sentence_287

Macintosh Apple Inc._section_10

Main article: Macintosh Apple Inc._sentence_288

See also: Timeline of Macintosh models, List of Macintosh models grouped by CPU type, and List of Macintosh models by case type Apple Inc._sentence_289

Macintoshes currently in production: Apple Inc._sentence_290

Apple Inc._unordered_list_0

  • iMac: Consumer all-in-one desktop computer, introduced in 1998.Apple Inc._item_0_0
  • Mac Mini: Consumer sub-desktop computer, introduced in 2005.Apple Inc._item_0_1
  • MacBook Pro: Professional notebook, introduced in 2006.Apple Inc._item_0_2
  • Mac Pro: Workstation desktop computer, introduced in 2006.Apple Inc._item_0_3
  • MacBook Air: Consumer ultra-thin, ultra-portable notebook, introduced in 2008.Apple Inc._item_0_4

Apple sells a variety of computer accessories for Macs, including Thunderbolt Display, Magic Mouse, Magic Trackpad, Magic Keyboard, the AirPort wireless networking products, and Time Capsule. Apple Inc._sentence_291

iPod Apple Inc._section_11

Main article: iPod Apple Inc._sentence_292

On October 23, 2001, Apple introduced the iPod digital music player. Apple Inc._sentence_293

Several updated models have since been introduced, and the iPod brand is now the market leader in portable music players by a significant margin. Apple Inc._sentence_294

More than 390 million units have shipped as of September 2015. Apple Inc._sentence_295

Apple has partnered with Nike to offer the Nike+iPod Sports Kit, enabling runners to synchronize and monitor their runs with iTunes and the Nike+ website. Apple Inc._sentence_296

In late July 2017, Apple discontinued its iPod Nano and iPod Shuffle models, leaving only the iPod Touch available for purchase. Apple Inc._sentence_297

iPhone Apple Inc._section_12

Main article: iPhone Apple Inc._sentence_298

At the Macworld Conference & Expo in January 2007, Steve Jobs introduced the long-anticipated iPhone, a convergence of an Internet-enabled smartphone and iPod. Apple Inc._sentence_299

The first-generation iPhone was released on June 29, 2007, for $499 (4 GB) and $599 (8 GB) with an AT&T contract. Apple Inc._sentence_300

On February 5, 2008, it was updated to have 16 GB of memory, in addition to the 8 GB and 4 GB models. Apple Inc._sentence_301

It combined a 2.5G quad band GSM and EDGE cellular phone with features found in handheld devices, running a scaled-down version of OS X (dubbed iPhone OS after the launch and later renamed to iOS), with various Mac OS X applications such as Safari and Mail. Apple Inc._sentence_302

It also includes web-based and Dashboard apps such as Google Maps and Weather. Apple Inc._sentence_303

The iPhone features a 3.5-inch (89 mm) touchscreen display, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi (both "b" and "g"). Apple Inc._sentence_304

A second version, the iPhone 3G, was released on July 11, 2008, with a reduced price of $199 for the 8 GB model and $299 for the 16 GB model. Apple Inc._sentence_305

This version added support for 3G networking and assisted GPS navigation. Apple Inc._sentence_306

The flat silver back and large antenna square of the original model were eliminated in favor of a glossy, curved black or white back. Apple Inc._sentence_307

Software capabilities were improved with the release of the App Store, which provided iPhone-compatible applications to download. Apple Inc._sentence_308

On April 24, 2009, the App Store surpassed one billion downloads. Apple Inc._sentence_309

On June 8, 2009, Apple announced the iPhone 3GS. Apple Inc._sentence_310

It provided an incremental update to the device, including faster internal components, support for faster 3G speeds, video recording capability, and voice control. Apple Inc._sentence_311

At the Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC) on June 7, 2010, Apple announced the redesigned iPhone 4. Apple Inc._sentence_312

It featured a 960 × 640 display, the Apple A4 processor, a gyroscope for enhanced gaming, a 5MP camera with LED flash, front-facing VGA camera and FaceTime video calling. Apple Inc._sentence_313

Shortly after its release, reception issues were discovered by consumers, due to the stainless steel band around the edge of the device, which also serves as the phone's cellular signal and Wi-Fi antenna. Apple Inc._sentence_314

The issue was corrected by a "Bumper Case" distributed by Apple for free to all owners for a few months. Apple Inc._sentence_315

In June 2011, Apple overtook Nokia to become the world's biggest smartphone maker by volume. Apple Inc._sentence_316

On October 4, 2011, Apple unveiled the iPhone 4S, which was first released on October 14, 2011. Apple Inc._sentence_317

It features the Apple A5 processor and Siri voice assistant technology, the latter of which Apple had acquired in 2010 from SRI International Artificial Intelligence Center. Apple Inc._sentence_318

It also features an updated 8MP camera with new optics. Apple Inc._sentence_319

Apple began a new accessibility feature, Made for iPhone Hearing Aids with the iPhone 4S. Apple Inc._sentence_320

Made for iPhone Hearing Aids feature Live Listen, it can help the user hear a conversation in a noisy room or hear someone speaking across the room. Apple Inc._sentence_321

Apple sold 4 million iPhone 4S phones in the first three days of availability. Apple Inc._sentence_322

On September 12, 2012, Apple introduced the iPhone 5. Apple Inc._sentence_323

It has a 4-inch display, 4G LTE connectivity, and the upgraded Apple A6 chip, among several other improvements. Apple Inc._sentence_324

Two million iPhones were sold in the first twenty-four hours of pre-ordering and over five million handsets were sold in the first three days of its launch. Apple Inc._sentence_325

Upon the launch of the iPhone 5S and iPhone 5C, Apple set a new record for first-weekend smartphone sales by selling over nine million devices in the first three days of its launch. Apple Inc._sentence_326

The release of the iPhone 5S and 5C is the first time that Apple simultaneously launched two models. Apple Inc._sentence_327

A patent filed in July 2013 revealed the development of a new iPhone battery system that uses location data in combination with data on the user's habits to moderate the handsets' power settings accordingly. Apple Inc._sentence_328

Apple is working towards a power management system that will provide features such as the ability of the iPhone to estimate the length of time a user will be away from a power source to modify energy usage and a detection function that adjusts the charging rate to best suit the type of power source that is being used. Apple Inc._sentence_329

In a March 2014 interview, Apple designer Jonathan Ive used the iPhone as an example of Apple's ethos of creating high-quality, life-changing products. Apple Inc._sentence_330

He explained that the phones are comparatively expensive due to the intensive effort that is used to make them: Apple Inc._sentence_331

On September 9, 2014, Apple introduced the iPhone 6, alongside the iPhone 6 Plus that both have screen sizes over 4-inches. Apple Inc._sentence_332

One year later, Apple introduced the iPhone 6S, and iPhone 6S Plus, which introduced a new technology called 3D Touch, including an increase of the rear camera to 12 MP, and the FaceTime camera to 5 MP. Apple Inc._sentence_333

On March 21, 2016, Apple introduced the first-generation iPhone SE that has a 4-inch screen size last used with the 5S and has nearly the same internal hardware as the 6S. Apple Inc._sentence_334

In July 2016, Apple announced that one billion iPhones had been sold. Apple Inc._sentence_335

On September 7, 2016, Apple introduced the iPhone 7 and the iPhone 7 Plus, which feature improved system and graphics performance, add water resistance, a new rear dual-camera system on the 7 Plus model, and, controversially, remove the 3.5 mm headphone jack. Apple Inc._sentence_336

On September 12, 2017, Apple introduced the iPhone 8 and iPhone 8 Plus, standing as evolutionary updates to its previous phones with a faster processor, improved display technology, upgraded camera systems and wireless charging. Apple Inc._sentence_337

The company also announced iPhone X, which radically changes the hardware of the iPhone lineup, removing the home button in favor of facial recognition technology and featuring a near bezel-less design along with wireless charging. Apple Inc._sentence_338

On September 12, 2018, Apple introduced the iPhone XS, iPhone XS Max and iPhone XR. Apple Inc._sentence_339

The iPhone XS and iPhone XS Max features Super Retina displays, a faster and improved dual camera system that offers breakthrough photo and video features, the first 7-nanometer chip in a smartphone — the A12 Bionic chip with next-generation Neural Engine — faster Face ID, wider stereo sound and introduces Dual SIM to iPhone. Apple Inc._sentence_340

The iPhone XR comes in an all-screen glass and aluminium design with the most advanced LCD in a smartphone featuring a 6.1-inch Liquid Retina display, A12 Bionic chip with next-generation Neural Engine, the TrueDepth camera system, Face ID and an advanced camera system that creates dramatic portraits using a single camera lens. Apple Inc._sentence_341

On September 10, 2019, Apple introduced the iPhone 11, iPhone 11 Pro, and the iPhone 11 Pro Max. Apple Inc._sentence_342

The iPhone 11 features the same Liquid Retina LCD display used in 2018's iPhone XR. Apple Inc._sentence_343

Overall, the iPhone 11 retains the same glass and aluminum design as the iPhone XR while adding in new features such as the addition of an Ultra-Wide 12mp camera, a battery that lasts 1 hour longer than the iPhone XR and an IP68 rating for water and dust resistance. Apple Inc._sentence_344

The iPhone 11 Pro and iPhone 11 Pro Max feature an all-new textured matte glass and stainless steel design and a triple camera setup that included an Ultra Wide, Wide and Telephoto camera. Apple Inc._sentence_345

The iPhone 11 Pro series' battery life is capable of lasting up to 5 hours more than the iPhone XS and XS Max. Apple Inc._sentence_346

The iPhone 11 Pro and Pro Max also features a new Super Retina XDR OLED display that is capable of a screen brightness of 800 nits. Apple Inc._sentence_347

All new iPhones announced at Apple's September 2019 feature an A13 Bionic chip with a third-generation Neural Engine, an Apple U1 chip, spatial audio playback, a low light photo mode and an improved Face ID system. Apple Inc._sentence_348

On April 15, 2020, Apple announced a new second-generation iPhone SE. Apple Inc._sentence_349

It replicates the iPhone 8 design - has a 4.7-inch screen, sizable bezels on the top and bottom, and a home button with Touch ID. Apple Inc._sentence_350

Yet, the 2020 iPhone SE features A13 Bionic chip and a 12 MP rear wide camera, similarly to the iPhone 11 lineup. Apple Inc._sentence_351

On October 13, 2020, Apple introduced the iPhone 12, iPhone 12 Mini, iPhone 12 Pro and the iPhone 12 Pro Max. Apple Inc._sentence_352

The iPhone 12 and 12 Mini feature flat sides, a design element seen with the iPhone 4 through the iPhone 5S, and is the first major major redesign since the iPhone X. Apple Inc._sentence_353

The iPhone 12 Mini features a 5.4-inch display and a smaller design than the previous 4.7-inch iPhones. Apple Inc._sentence_354

The new design also comes with a ceramic-hardened front glass, marketed as Ceramic Shield, while the back retains the previous generation Dual-Ion Exchange strengthened glass. Apple Inc._sentence_355

The iPhone 12 Pro and iPhone 12 Pro Max retains most of the design features found on iPhone 12 and iPhone 12 Mini. Apple Inc._sentence_356

On the back are the same three cameras used in iPhone 11 Pro, but with an added LiDAR scanner. Apple Inc._sentence_357

The iPhone 12 Pro Max features the largest display on any iPhone to date, featuring a 6.7-inch screen. Apple Inc._sentence_358

iPad Apple Inc._section_13

Main article: iPad Apple Inc._sentence_359

On January 27, 2010, Apple introduced their much-anticipated media tablet, the iPad. Apple Inc._sentence_360

It offers multi-touch interaction with multimedia formats including newspapers, e-books, photos, videos, music, word processing documents, video games, and most existing iPhone apps using a 9.7-inch screen. Apple Inc._sentence_361

It also includes a mobile version of Safari for web browsing, as well as access to the App Store, iTunes Library, iBookstore, Contacts, and Notes. Apple Inc._sentence_362

Content is downloadable via Wi-Fi and optional 3G service or synced through the user's computer. Apple Inc._sentence_363

AT&T was initially the sole U.S. provider of 3G wireless access for the iPad. Apple Inc._sentence_364

On March 2, 2011, Apple introduced the iPad 2 with a faster processor and a camera on the front and back. Apple Inc._sentence_365

It also added support for optional 3G service provided by Verizon in addition to AT&T. Apple Inc._sentence_366

The availability of the iPad 2 was initially limited as a result of a devastating earthquake and tsunami in Japan in March 2011. Apple Inc._sentence_367

The third-generation iPad was released on March 7, 2012, and marketed as "the new iPad". Apple Inc._sentence_368

It added LTE service from AT&T or Verizon, an upgraded A5X processor, and Retina display. Apple Inc._sentence_369

The dimensions and form factor remained relatively unchanged, with the new iPad being a fraction thicker and heavier than the previous version and featuring minor positioning changes. Apple Inc._sentence_370

On October 23, 2012, Apple's fourth-generation iPad came out, marketed as the "iPad with Retina display". Apple Inc._sentence_371

It added the upgraded A6X processor and replaced the traditional 30-pin dock connector with the all-digital Lightning connector. Apple Inc._sentence_372

The iPad Mini was also introduced. Apple Inc._sentence_373

It featured a reduced 7.9-inch display and much of the same internal specifications as the iPad 2. Apple Inc._sentence_374

On October 22, 2013, Apple introduced the iPad Air and the iPad Mini with Retina Display, both featuring a new 64-bit Apple A7 processor. Apple Inc._sentence_375

The iPad Air 2 was unveiled on October 16, 2014. Apple Inc._sentence_376

It added better graphics and central processing and a camera burst mode as well as minor updates. Apple Inc._sentence_377

The iPad Mini 3 was unveiled at the same time. Apple Inc._sentence_378

Since its launch, iPad users have downloaded over three billion apps. Apple Inc._sentence_379

The total number of App Store downloads, as of June 2015, is over 100 billion. Apple Inc._sentence_380

On September 9, 2015, Apple announced the iPad Pro, an iPad with a 12.9-inch display that supports two new accessories, the Smart Keyboard and Apple Pencil. Apple Inc._sentence_381

An updated IPad Mini 4 was announced at the same time. Apple Inc._sentence_382

A 9.7-inch iPad Pro was announced on March 21, 2016. Apple Inc._sentence_383

On June 5, 2017, Apple announced a new iPad Pro with a 10.5-inch display to replace the 9.7 inch model and an updated 12.9-inch model. Apple Inc._sentence_384

Apple Watch Apple Inc._section_14

Main article: Apple Watch Apple Inc._sentence_385

The original Apple Watch smartwatch was announced by Tim Cook on September 9, 2014, being introduced as a product with health and fitness-tracking. Apple Inc._sentence_386

It was released on April 24, 2015. Apple Inc._sentence_387

The second generation of Apple Watch, Apple Watch Series 2, was released in September 2016, featuring greater water resistance, a faster processor, and brighter display. Apple Inc._sentence_388

It was also released alongside a cheaper Series 1. Apple Inc._sentence_389

On September 12, 2017, Apple introduced the Apple Watch Series 3 featuring LTE cellular connectivity, giving the wearable independence from an iPhone except for the setup process. Apple Inc._sentence_390

On September 12, 2018, Apple introduced the Apple Watch Series 4, featuring new display, electrocardiogram, and fall detection. Apple Inc._sentence_391

On September 10, 2019, Apple introduced the Apple Watch Series 5, featuring a new magnetometer, a faster processor, and a new always-on display. Apple Inc._sentence_392

The Series 4 was discontinued. Apple Inc._sentence_393

On September 16, 2020, Apple introduced the Apple Watch Series 6, with an emphasis on fitness, featuring blood oxygen measurement and ECGs, among other fitness features. Apple Inc._sentence_394

They also introduced the Apple Watch SE on the 18th of the same month. Apple Inc._sentence_395

Apple TV Apple Inc._section_15

Main article: Apple TV Apple Inc._sentence_396

At the 2007 Macworld conference, Jobs demonstrated the Apple TV (Jobs accidentally referred to the device as "iTV", its codename, while on stage), a set-top video device intended to bridge the sale of content from iTunes with high-definition televisions. Apple Inc._sentence_397

The device, running a variant of Mac OS X, links up to a user's TV and syncs over the wireless or wired network with one computer's iTunes library and can stream content from an additional four. Apple Inc._sentence_398

The Apple TV originally incorporated a 40 GB hard drive for storage, included outputs for HDMI and component video, and played video at a maximum resolution of 720p. Apple Inc._sentence_399

On May 30, 2007, a 160 GB hard disk drive was released alongside the existing 40 GB model. Apple Inc._sentence_400

A software update released on January 15, 2008, allowed media to be purchased directly from the Apple TV. Apple Inc._sentence_401

In September 2009, Apple discontinued the original 40 GB Apple TV but continued to produce and sell the 160 GB Apple TV. Apple Inc._sentence_402

On September 1, 2010, Apple released a completely redesigned Apple TV running on an iOS variant and discontinued the older model, which ran on a Mac OS X variant. Apple Inc._sentence_403

The new device is one-fourth the size, runs quieter, and replaces the need for a hard drive with media streaming from any iTunes library on the network along with 8 GB of flash memory to cache downloaded media. Apple Inc._sentence_404

Like the iPad and the iPhone, Apple TV runs on an A4 processor. Apple Inc._sentence_405

The memory included in the device is half of that in the iPhone 4 at 256 MB; the same as the iPad, iPhone 3GS, third and fourth-generation iPod Touch. Apple Inc._sentence_406

It has HDMI out as the only video output source. Apple Inc._sentence_407

Features include access to the iTunes Store to rent movies and TV shows (purchasing has been discontinued), streaming from internet video sources, including YouTube and Netflix, and media streaming from an iTunes library. Apple Inc._sentence_408

Apple also reduced the price of the device to $99. Apple Inc._sentence_409

A third generation of the device was introduced at an Apple event on March 7, 2012, with new features such as higher resolution (1080p) and a new user interface. Apple Inc._sentence_410

At the September 9, 2015, event, Apple unveiled an overhauled Apple TV, which now runs a subsequent variant of iOS called tvOS, and contains 32 GB or 64 GB of NAND Flash to store games, programs, and to cache the current media playing. Apple Inc._sentence_411

The release also coincided with the opening of a separate Apple TV App Store and a new Siri Remote with a glass touchpad, gyroscope, and microphone. Apple Inc._sentence_412

On December 12, 2016, Apple released a new iOS and tvOS media player app called TV to replace the existing "Videos" iOS application. Apple Inc._sentence_413

At the September 12, 2017, event, Apple released a new 4K Apple TV with the same form factor as the 4th Generation model. Apple Inc._sentence_414

The 4K model is powered by the A10X SoC designed in-house that also powers their second-generation iPad Pro. Apple Inc._sentence_415

The 4K model also has support for high dynamic range. Apple Inc._sentence_416

On March 25, 2019, Apple announced Apple TV+, their upcoming over-the-top subscription video on-demand web television service, will arrive Fall 2019. Apple Inc._sentence_417

TV+ features exclusive original shows, movies, and documentaries. Apple Inc._sentence_418

They also announced an update to the TV app with a new "Channels" feature and that the TV app will expand to macOS, numerous smart television models, Roku devices, and Amazon Fire TV devices later in 2019. Apple Inc._sentence_419

HomePod Apple Inc._section_16

Main article: HomePod Apple Inc._sentence_420

Apple's first smart speaker, the HomePod was released on February 9, 2018, after being delayed from its initial December 2017 release. Apple Inc._sentence_421

It features seven tweeters in the base, a four-inch woofer in the top, and six microphones for voice control and acoustic optimization On September 12, 2018, Apple announced that HomePod is adding new features—search by lyrics, set multiple timers, make and receive phone calls, Find My iPhone, Siri Shortcuts—and Siri languages. Apple Inc._sentence_422

In 2019, Apple, Google, Amazon, and Zigbee Alliance announced a partnership to make smart home products work together. Apple Inc._sentence_423

Software Apple Inc._section_17

Main articles: macOS, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS Apple Inc._sentence_424

Apple develops its own operating systems to run on its devices, including macOS for Mac personal computers, iOS for its iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch smartphones and tablets, watchOS for its Apple Watch smartwatches, and tvOS for its Apple TV digital media player. Apple Inc._sentence_425

For iOS and macOS, Apple also develops its own software titles, including Pages for writing, Numbers for spreadsheets, and Keynote for presentations, as part of its iWork productivity suite. Apple Inc._sentence_426

For macOS, it also offers iMovie and Final Cut Pro X for video editing, and GarageBand and Logic Pro X for music creation. Apple Inc._sentence_427

Apple's range of server software includes the operating system macOS Server; Apple Remote Desktop, a remote systems management application; and Xsan, a storage area network file system. Apple Inc._sentence_428

Apple also offers online services with iCloud, which provides and synchronization for a wide range of user data, including documents, photos, music, device backups, and application data, and Apple Music, its music and video streaming service. Apple Inc._sentence_429

Electric vehicles Apple Inc._section_18

Main article: Apple electric car project Apple Inc._sentence_430

According to the Sydney Morning Herald, Apple wants to start producing an electric car with autonomous driving as soon as 2020. Apple Inc._sentence_431

Apple has made efforts to recruit battery development engineers and other electric automobile engineers from A123 Systems, LG Chem, Samsung Electronics, Panasonic, Toshiba, Johnson Controls and Tesla Motors. Apple Inc._sentence_432

Corporate identity Apple Inc._section_19

Logo Apple Inc._section_20

See also: Typography of Apple Inc. Apple Inc._sentence_433

"Apple logo" redirects here. Apple Inc._sentence_434

For the programming language, see Apple Logo. Apple Inc._sentence_435

According to Steve Jobs, the company's name was inspired by his visit to an apple farm while on a fruitarian diet. Apple Inc._sentence_436

Jobs thought the name "Apple" was "fun, spirited and not intimidating". Apple Inc._sentence_437

Apple's first logo, designed by Ron Wayne, depicts Sir Isaac Newton sitting under an apple tree. Apple Inc._sentence_438

It was almost immediately replaced by Rob Janoff's "rainbow Apple", the now-familiar rainbow-colored silhouette of an apple with a bite taken out of it. Apple Inc._sentence_439

Janoff presented Jobs with several different monochromatic themes for the "bitten" logo, and Jobs immediately took a liking to it. Apple Inc._sentence_440

However, Jobs insisted that the logo be colorized to humanize the company. Apple Inc._sentence_441

The logo was designed with a bite so that it would not be confused with a cherry. Apple Inc._sentence_442

The colored stripes were conceived to make the logo more accessible, and to represent the fact the Apple II could generate graphics in color. Apple Inc._sentence_443

This logo is often erroneously referred to as a tribute to Alan Turing, with the bite mark a reference to his method of suicide. Apple Inc._sentence_444

Both Janoff and Apple deny any homage to Turing in the design of the logo. Apple Inc._sentence_445

On August 27, 1999 (the year following the introduction of the iMac G3), Apple officially dropped the rainbow scheme and began to use monochromatic logos nearly identical in shape to the previous rainbow incarnation. Apple Inc._sentence_446

An Aqua-themed version of the monochrome logo was used from 1998 to 2003, and a glass-themed version was used from 2007 to 2013. Apple Inc._sentence_447

Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak were Beatles fans, but Apple Inc. had name and logo trademark issues with Apple Corps Ltd., a multimedia company started by the Beatles in 1968. Apple Inc._sentence_448

This resulted in a series of lawsuits and tension between the two companies. Apple Inc._sentence_449

These issues ended with the settling of their lawsuit in 2007. Apple Inc._sentence_450

Advertising Apple Inc._section_21

Main article: Apple Inc. advertising Apple Inc._sentence_451

Apple's first slogan, "Byte into an Apple", was coined in the late 1970s. Apple Inc._sentence_452

From 1997 to 2002, the slogan "Think Different" was used in advertising campaigns, and is still closely associated with Apple. Apple Inc._sentence_453

Apple also has slogans for specific product lines — for example, "iThink, therefore iMac" was used in 1998 to promote the iMac, and "Say hello to iPhone" has been used in iPhone advertisements. Apple Inc._sentence_454

"Hello" was also used to introduce the original Macintosh, Newton, iMac ("hello (again)"), and iPod. Apple Inc._sentence_455

From the introduction of the Macintosh in 1984, with the 1984 Super Bowl advertisement to the more modern Get a Mac adverts, Apple has been recognized for its efforts towards effective advertising and marketing for its products. Apple Inc._sentence_456

However, claims made by later campaigns were criticized, particularly the 2005 Power Mac ads. Apple Inc._sentence_457

Apple's product advertisements gained a lot of attention as a result of their eye-popping graphics and catchy tunes. Apple Inc._sentence_458

Musicians who benefited from an improved profile as a result of their songs being included on Apple advertisements include Canadian singer Feist with the song "1234" and Yael Naïm with the song "New Soul". Apple Inc._sentence_459

Apple owns a YouTube channel where they release advertisements, tips, and introductions for their devices. Apple Inc._sentence_460

Brand Semiotics Apple Inc._section_22

Semiotics is the study of how meaning is derived from symbols and signs and provides major insight for understanding brand management and brand loyalty. Apple Inc._sentence_461

Ferdinand de Saussure, a Swiss linguist and semiotician, created a semiotic model that identifies two parts of a sign: the signified and signifier. Apple Inc._sentence_462

The signifier is the perceptual component that we physically see, and the signified is then the concept which the sign refers to. Apple Inc._sentence_463

In Saussure’s model, the sign results from the recognition of a sound or object with a concept. Apple Inc._sentence_464

In his model, the signified and signifier are “as inseparable as two sides of a piece of paper". Apple Inc._sentence_465

The second popular semiotic model that exists is the Peircean Model. Apple Inc._sentence_466

Charles Sanders Pierce was a logician. Apple Inc._sentence_467

His model, like Saussure’s model, involved the relationship between the elements of signs and objects. Apple Inc._sentence_468

However, the Peircean model added that whoever is decoding the sign must have some previous understanding or knowledge about the transmitted message. Apple Inc._sentence_469

Peirce’s model can be represented using the three sides of triangle: the representamen (the sign), an object (what the sign represents), and the interpretant (the produced effect by the sign). Apple Inc._sentence_470

The symbolic representation that a brand carries can affect how a consumer “recalls, internalizes, and relates” to the performance of a company. Apple Inc._sentence_471

There is plenty of evidence to show that a company can easily fail if they do not keep track of how the brand changes with the media culture. Apple Inc._sentence_472

Semiotic research can be used to help a company relate to their customer’s culture over time and help their brand to stand out in competitive markets. Apple Inc._sentence_473

The first two Apple logos are drastically different from each other. Apple Inc._sentence_474

However, they both share the sign of an apple. Apple Inc._sentence_475

In the original logo designed by Ronald Wayne, Sir Isaac Newton is seen sitting under the infamous apple tree about to bear fruit above, just before his discovery of gravity. Apple Inc._sentence_476

Analysis of the semiotics with Saussure's model yields the signified, or sign, of the apple. Apple Inc._sentence_477

The signifier represents discovery, innovation, and the notion of thought. Apple Inc._sentence_478

It was quickly realized that the original logo was too complicated and intellectual for the needed purpose. Apple Inc._sentence_479

The company’s mission was, and still is, to simplify technology for everyday life. Apple Inc._sentence_480

A fun and clever logo that spoke to computer-savvy people was needed. Apple Inc._sentence_481

In 1977, Rob Janoff created the iconic rainbow apple symbol that is still recognized today. Apple Inc._sentence_482

The logo has double meaning and differs from the many serious corporate logos in existence at the time. Apple Inc._sentence_483

Apple Inc. is well known for being an innovative company who challenge the status quo and established standards. Apple Inc._sentence_484

Again, using Saussure’s semiotic model, the signified, is an apple, but with a bite taken out of it. Apple Inc._sentence_485

Because Apple is seen as a challenger in the industry, the most common signifier is the forbidden fruit from the Biblical reference, the Garden of Eden. Apple Inc._sentence_486

The signified is the bite from the apple, and the represented signifier is the tree of knowledge, thus symbolizing Apple as a rebellious young company ready to challenge the world and the promise of knowledge that an entire culture of Apple users may gain from the product. Apple Inc._sentence_487

The semiotics of the bite and the color of the logo can also be looked at from a technological viewpoint. Apple Inc._sentence_488

The bite is the signified and the computer storage unit, byte, is the signifier. Apple Inc._sentence_489

The rainbow color of the logo portrays the message that its computer monitor could be producing color images. Apple Inc._sentence_490

Steve Jobs argued that color was crucial for "humanizing the company" at that time. Apple Inc._sentence_491

The only thing to change with the logo since 1977 has been the color. Apple Inc._sentence_492

In 1998, a monochromatic logo was implemented with the release of the first iMac. Apple Inc._sentence_493

This is the first Mac to not have the iconic rainbow-colored apple since its creation 20 years prior. Apple Inc._sentence_494

The new look represents a new era of Apple Inc. Apple Inc._sentence_495

The logo's shape had become untouchable and Apple's message is that it is better to be different. Apple Inc._sentence_496

Brand loyalty Apple Inc._section_23

Apple customers gained a reputation for devotion and loyalty early in the company's history. Apple Inc._sentence_497

In 1984, BYTE stated that: Apple Inc._sentence_498

Apple evangelists were actively engaged by the company at one time, but this was after the phenomenon had already been firmly established. Apple Inc._sentence_499

Apple evangelist Guy Kawasaki has called the brand fanaticism "something that was stumbled upon," while Ive explained in 2014 that "People have an incredibly personal relationship" with Apple's products. Apple Inc._sentence_500

Apple Store openings and new product releases can draw crowds of hundreds, with some waiting in line as much as a day before the opening. Apple Inc._sentence_501

The opening of New York City's Fifth Avenue "Cube" store in 2006 became the setting of a marriage proposal, and had visitors from Europe who flew in for the event. Apple Inc._sentence_502

In June 2017, a newlywed couple took their wedding photos inside the then-recently opened Orchard Road Apple Store in Singapore. Apple Inc._sentence_503

The high level of brand loyalty has been criticized and ridiculed, applying the epithet "Apple fanboy" and mocking the lengthy lines before a product launch. Apple Inc._sentence_504

An internal memo leaked in 2015 suggested the company planned to discourage long lines and direct customers to purchase its products on its website. Apple Inc._sentence_505

Fortune magazine named Apple the most admired company in the United States in 2008, and in the world from 2008 to 2012. Apple Inc._sentence_506

On September 30, 2013, Apple surpassed Coca-Cola to become the world's most valuable brand in the Omnicom Group's "Best Global Brands" report. Apple Inc._sentence_507

Boston Consulting Group has ranked Apple as the world's most innovative brand every year since 2005. Apple Inc._sentence_508

The New York Times in 1985 stated that "Apple above all else is a marketing company". Apple Inc._sentence_509

John Sculley agreed, telling The Guardian newspaper in 1997 that "People talk about technology, but Apple was a marketing company. Apple Inc._sentence_510

It was the marketing company of the decade." Apple Inc._sentence_511

Research in 2002 by NetRatings indicate that the average Apple consumer was usually more affluent and better educated than other PC company consumers. Apple Inc._sentence_512

The research indicated that this correlation could stem from the fact that on average Apple Inc. products were more expensive than other PC products. Apple Inc._sentence_513

In response to a query about the devotion of loyal Apple consumers, Jonathan Ive responded: Apple Inc._sentence_514

Home page Apple Inc._section_24

The Apple website home page has been used to commemorate, or pay tribute to, milestones and events outside of Apple's product offerings, including: Apple Inc._sentence_515

Apple Inc._unordered_list_1

Headquarters Apple Inc._section_25

Main articles: Apple Park and Apple Campus Apple Inc._sentence_516

Apple Inc.'s world corporate headquarters are located in the middle of Silicon Valley, at 1–6 Infinite Loop, Cupertino, California. Apple Inc._sentence_517

This Apple campus has six buildings that total 850,000 square feet (79,000 m) and was built in 1993 by Sobrato Development Cos. Apple Inc._sentence_518

Apple has a satellite campus in neighboring Sunnyvale, California, where it houses a testing and research laboratory. Apple Inc._sentence_519

AppleInsider claimed in March 2014 that Apple has a top-secret facility for development of the SG5 electric vehicle project codenamed "Titan" under the shell company name SixtyEight Research. Apple Inc._sentence_520

In 2006, Apple announced its intention to build a second campus in Cupertino about 1 mile (1.6 km) east of the current campus and next to Interstate 280. Apple Inc._sentence_521

The new campus building has been designed by Norman Foster. Apple Inc._sentence_522

The Cupertino City Council approved the proposed "spaceship" design campus on October 15, 2013, after a 2011 presentation by Jobs detailing the architectural design of the new building and its environs. Apple Inc._sentence_523

The new campus is planned to house up to 13,000 employees in one central, four-storied, circular building surrounded by extensive landscape. Apple Inc._sentence_524

It will feature a café with room for 3,000 sitting people and parking underground as well as in a parking structure. Apple Inc._sentence_525

The 2.8 million square foot facility will also include Jobs's original designs for a fitness center and a corporate auditorium. Apple Inc._sentence_526

Apple has expanded its campuses in Austin, Texas, concurrently with building Apple Park in Cupertino. Apple Inc._sentence_527

The expansion consists of two locations, with one having 1.1 million square feet (100,000 m) of workspace, and the other 216,000 square feet (20,100 m). Apple Inc._sentence_528

Apple will invest $1 billion to build the North Austin campus. Apple Inc._sentence_529

At the biggest location, 6,000 employees work on technical support, manage Apple's network of suppliers to fulfill product shipments, aid in maintaining iTunes Store and App Store, handle economy, and continuously update Apple Maps with new data. Apple Inc._sentence_530

At its smaller campus, 500 engineers work on next-generation processor chips to run in future Apple products. Apple Inc._sentence_531

Apple's headquarters for Europe, the Middle East and Africa (EMEA) are located in Cork in the south of Ireland. Apple Inc._sentence_532

The facility, which opened in 1980, is Apple's first location outside of the United States. Apple Inc._sentence_533

Apple Sales International, which deals with all of Apple's international sales outside of the US, is located at Apple's campus in Cork along with Apple Distribution International, which similarly deals with Apple's international distribution network. Apple Inc._sentence_534

On April 20, 2012, Apple added 500 new jobs at its European headquarters, increasing the total workforce from around 2,800 to 3,300 employees. Apple Inc._sentence_535

The company will build a new office block on its Hollyhill Campus to accommodate the additional staff. Apple Inc._sentence_536

Its United Kingdom headquarters is at Stockley Park on the outskirts of London. Apple Inc._sentence_537

In February 2015, Apple opened its new 180,000-square-foot headquarters in Herzliya, Israel, designed to accommodate approximately 800 employees. Apple Inc._sentence_538

This is Apple's third office located within Israel; the first, also in Herzliya, was obtained as part of the Anobit acquisition, and the other is a research center in Haifa. Apple Inc._sentence_539

In December 2015, Apple bought a 70,000-square-foot manufacturing facility in North San Jose, California previously used by Maxim Integrated in an $18.2 million deal. Apple Inc._sentence_540

Stores Apple Inc._section_26

Main article: Apple Store Apple Inc._sentence_541

The first Apple Stores were originally opened as two locations in May 2001 by then-CEO Steve Jobs, after years of attempting but failing store-within-a-store concepts. Apple Inc._sentence_542

Seeing a need for improved retail presentation of the company's products, he began an effort in 1997 to revamp the retail program to get an improved relationship to consumers, and hired Ron Johnson in 2000. Apple Inc._sentence_543

Jobs relaunched Apple's online store in 1997, and opened the first two physical stores in 2001. Apple Inc._sentence_544

The media initially speculated that Apple would fail, but its stores were highly successful, bypassing the sales numbers of competing nearby stores and within three years reached US$1 billion in annual sales, becoming the fastest retailer in history to do so. Apple Inc._sentence_545

Over the years, Apple has expanded the number of retail locations and its geographical coverage, with 499 stores across 22 countries worldwide as of December 2017. Apple Inc._sentence_546

Strong product sales have placed Apple among the top-tier retail stores, with sales over $16 billion globally in 2011. Apple Inc._sentence_547

In May 2016, Angela Ahrendts, Apple's then Senior Vice President of Retail, unveiled a significantly redesigned Apple Store in Union Square, San Francisco, featuring large glass doors for the entry, open spaces, and re-branded rooms. Apple Inc._sentence_548

In addition to purchasing products, consumers can get advice and help from "Creative Pros" – individuals with specialized knowledge of creative arts; get product support in a tree-lined Genius Grove; and attend sessions, conferences and community events, with Ahrendts commenting that the goal is to make Apple Stores into "town squares", a place where people naturally meet up and spend time. Apple Inc._sentence_549

The new design will be applied to all Apple Stores worldwide, a process that has seen stores temporarily relocate or close. Apple Inc._sentence_550

Many Apple Stores are located inside shopping malls, but Apple has built several stand-alone "flagship" stores in high-profile locations. Apple Inc._sentence_551

It has been granted design patents and received architectural awards for its stores' designs and construction, specifically for its use of glass staircases and cubes. Apple Inc._sentence_552

The success of Apple Stores have had significant influence over other consumer electronics retailers, who have lost traffic, control and profits due to a perceived higher quality of service and products at Apple Stores. Apple Inc._sentence_553

Apple's notable brand loyalty among consumers causes long lines of hundreds of people at new Apple Store openings or product releases. Apple Inc._sentence_554

Due to the popularity of the brand, Apple receives a large number of job applications, many of which come from young workers. Apple Inc._sentence_555

Although Apple Store employees receive above-average pay, are offered money toward education and health care, and receive product discounts, there are limited or no paths of career advancement. Apple Inc._sentence_556

A May 2016 report with an anonymous retail employee highlighted a hostile work environment with harassment from customers, intense internal criticism, and a lack of significant bonuses for securing major business contracts. Apple Inc._sentence_557

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Apple closed its stores outside China until March 27, 2020. Apple Inc._sentence_558

Despite the stores being closed, hourly workers continue to be paid. Apple Inc._sentence_559

Workers across the company are allowed to work remotely if their jobs permit it. Apple Inc._sentence_560

On March 24, 2020, in a memo, Senior Vice President of People and Retail Deirdre O’Brien announced that some of its retail stores are expected to reopen at the beginning of April. Apple Inc._sentence_561

Corporate affairs Apple Inc._section_27

See also: List of mergers and acquisitions by Apple, Braeburn Capital, and Apple Inc._sentence_562

Corporate culture Apple Inc._section_28

Apple is one of several highly successful companies founded in the 1970s that bucked the traditional notions of corporate culture. Apple Inc._sentence_563

Jobs often walked around the office barefoot even after Apple became a Fortune 500 company. Apple Inc._sentence_564

By the time of the "1984" television advertisement, Apple's informal culture had become a key trait that differentiated it from its competitors. Apple Inc._sentence_565

According to a 2011 report in Fortune, this has resulted in a corporate culture more akin to a startup rather than a multinational corporation. Apple Inc._sentence_566

As the company has grown and been led by a series of differently opinionated chief executives, it has arguably lost some of its original character. Apple Inc._sentence_567

Nonetheless, it has maintained a reputation for fostering individuality and excellence that reliably attracts talented workers, particularly after Jobs returned to the company. Apple Inc._sentence_568

Numerous Apple employees have stated that projects without Jobs's involvement often took longer than projects with it. Apple Inc._sentence_569

To recognize the best of its employees, Apple created the Apple Fellows program which awards individuals who make extraordinary technical or leadership contributions to personal computing while at the company. Apple Inc._sentence_570

The Apple Fellowship has so far been awarded to individuals including Bill Atkinson, Steve Capps, Rod Holt, Alan Kay, Guy Kawasaki, Al Alcorn, Don Norman, Rich Page, Steve Wozniak, and Phil Schiller. Apple Inc._sentence_571

At Apple, employees are intended to be specialists who are not exposed to functions outside their area of expertise. Apple Inc._sentence_572

Jobs saw this as a means of having "best-in-class" employees in every role. Apple Inc._sentence_573

For instance, Ron Johnson—Senior Vice President of Retail Operations until November 1, 2011—was responsible for site selection, in-store service, and store layout, yet had no control of the inventory in his stores. Apple Inc._sentence_574

This was done by Tim Cook, who had a background in supply-chain management. Apple Inc._sentence_575

Apple is known for strictly enforcing accountability. Apple Inc._sentence_576

Each project has a "directly responsible individual" or "DRI" in Apple jargon. Apple Inc._sentence_577

As an example, when iOS senior vice president Scott Forstall refused to sign Apple's official apology for numerous errors in the redesigned Maps app, he was forced to resign. Apple Inc._sentence_578

Unlike other major U.S. companies, Apple provides a relatively simple compensation policy for executives that does not include perks enjoyed by other CEOs like country club fees or private use of company aircraft. Apple Inc._sentence_579

The company typically grants stock options to executives every other year. Apple Inc._sentence_580

In 2015, Apple had 110,000 full-time employees. Apple Inc._sentence_581

This increased to 116,000 full-time employees the next year, a notable hiring decrease, largely due to its first revenue decline. Apple Inc._sentence_582

Apple does not specify how many of its employees work in retail, though its 2014 SEC filing put the number at approximately half of its employee base. Apple Inc._sentence_583

In September 2017, Apple announced that it had over 123,000 full-time employees. Apple Inc._sentence_584

Apple has a strong culture of corporate secrecy, and has an anti-leak Global Security team that recruits from the National Security Agency, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the United States Secret Service. Apple Inc._sentence_585

In December 2017, Glassdoor said Apple was the 48th best place to work, having originally entered at rank 19 in 2009, peaking at rank 10 in 2012, and falling down the ranks in subsequent years. Apple Inc._sentence_586

Lack of innovation Apple Inc._section_29

An editorial article in The Verge in September 2016 by technology journalist Thomas Ricker explored some of the public's perceived lack of innovation at Apple in recent years, specifically stating that Samsung has "matched and even surpassed Apple in terms of smartphone industrial design" and citing the belief that Apple is incapable of producing another breakthrough moment in technology with its products. Apple Inc._sentence_587

He goes on to write that the criticism focuses on individual pieces of hardware rather than the ecosystem as a whole, stating "Yes, iteration is boring. Apple Inc._sentence_588

But it's also how Apple does business. Apple Inc._sentence_589

[...] It enters a new market and then refines and refines and continues refining until it yields a success". Apple Inc._sentence_590

He acknowledges that people are wishing for the "excitement of revolution", but argues that people want "the comfort that comes with harmony". Apple Inc._sentence_591

Furthermore, he writes that "a device is only the starting point of an experience that will ultimately be ruled by the ecosystem in which it was spawned", referring to how decent hardware products can still fail without a proper ecosystem (specifically mentioning that Walkman did not have an ecosystem to keep users from leaving once something better came along), but how Apple devices in different hardware segments are able to communicate and cooperate through the iCloud cloud service with features including Universal Clipboard (in which text copied on one device can be pasted on a different device) as well as inter-connected device functionality including Auto Unlock (in which an Apple Watch can unlock a Mac in close proximity). Apple Inc._sentence_592

He argues that Apple's ecosystem is its greatest innovation. Apple Inc._sentence_593

The Wall Street Journal reported in June 2017 that Apple's increased reliance on Siri, its virtual personal assistant, has raised questions about how much Apple can actually accomplish in terms of functionality. Apple Inc._sentence_594

Whereas Google and Amazon make use of big data and analyze customer information to personalize results, Apple has a strong pro-privacy stance, intentionally not retaining user data. Apple Inc._sentence_595

"Siri is a textbook of leading on something in tech and then losing an edge despite having all the money and the talent and sitting in Silicon Valley", Holger Mueller, a technology analyst, told the Journal. Apple Inc._sentence_596

The report further claims that development on Siri has suffered due to team members and executives leaving the company for competitors, a lack of ambitious goals, and shifting strategies. Apple Inc._sentence_597

Though switching Siri's functions to machine learning and algorithms, which dramatically cut its error rate, the company reportedly still failed to anticipate the popularity of Amazon's Echo, which features the Alexa personal assistant. Apple Inc._sentence_598

Improvements to Siri stalled, executives clashed, and there were disagreements over the restrictions imposed on third-party app interactions. Apple Inc._sentence_599

While Apple acquired an England-based startup specializing in conversational assistants, Google's Assistant had already become capable of helping users select Wi-Fi networks by voice, and Siri was lagging in functionality. Apple Inc._sentence_600

In December 2017, two articles from The Verge and ZDNet debated what had been a particularly devastating week for Apple's macOS and iOS software platforms. Apple Inc._sentence_601

The former had experienced a severe security vulnerability, in which Macs running the then-latest macOS High Sierra software were vulnerable to a bug that let anyone gain administrator privileges by entering "root" as the username in system prompts, leaving the password field empty and twice clicking "unlock", gaining full access. Apple Inc._sentence_602

The bug was publicly disclosed on Twitter, rather than through proper bug bounty programs. Apple Inc._sentence_603

Apple released a security fix within a day and issued an apology, stating that "regrettably we stumbled" in regards to the security of the latest updates. Apple Inc._sentence_604

After installing the security patch, however, file sharing was broken for users, with Apple releasing a support document with instructions to separately fix that issue. Apple Inc._sentence_605

Though Apple publicly stated the promise of "auditing our development processes to help prevent this from happening again", users who installed the security update while running the older 10.13.0 version of the High Sierra operating system rather than the then-newest 10.13.1 release experienced that the "root" security vulnerability was re-introduced, and persisted even after fully updating their systems. Apple Inc._sentence_606

On iOS, a date bug caused iOS devices that received local app notifications at 12:15am on December 2, 2017 to repeatedly restart. Apple Inc._sentence_607

Users were recommended to turn off notifications for their apps. Apple Inc._sentence_608

Apple quickly released an update, done during the nighttime in Cupertino, California time and outside of their usual software release window, with one of the headlining features of the update needing to be delayed for a few days. Apple Inc._sentence_609

The combined problems of the week on both macOS and iOS caused The Verge's Tom Warren to call it a "nightmare" for Apple's software engineers and described it as a significant lapse in Apple's ability to protect its more than 1 billion devices. Apple Inc._sentence_610

ZDNet's Adrian Kingsley-Hughes wrote that "it's hard to not come away from the last week with the feeling that Apple is slipping". Apple Inc._sentence_611

Kingsley-Hughes also concluded his piece by referencing an earlier article, in which he wrote that "As much as I don't want to bring up the tired old 'Apple wouldn't have done this under Steve Jobs's watch' trope, a lot of what's happening at Apple lately is different from what they came to expect under Jobs. Apple Inc._sentence_612

Not to say that things didn't go wrong under his watch, but product announcements and launches felt a lot tighter for sure, as did the overall quality of what Apple was releasing." Apple Inc._sentence_613

He did, however, also acknowledge that such failures "may indeed have happened" with Jobs in charge, though returning to the previous praise for his demands of quality, stating "it's almost guaranteed that given his personality that heads would have rolled, which limits future failures". Apple Inc._sentence_614

Manufacturing Apple Inc._section_30

The company's manufacturing, procurement, and logistics enable it to execute massive product launches without having to maintain large, profit-sapping inventories. Apple Inc._sentence_615

In 2011, Apple's profit margins were 40 percent, compared with between 10 and 20 percent for most other hardware companies. Apple Inc._sentence_616

Cook's catchphrase to describe his focus on the company's operational arm is: "Nobody wants to buy sour milk". Apple Inc._sentence_617

During the Mac's early history Apple generally refused to adopt prevailing industry standards for hardware, instead creating their own. Apple Inc._sentence_618

This trend was largely reversed in the late 1990s, beginning with Apple's adoption of the PCI bus in the 7500/8500/9500 Power Macs. Apple Inc._sentence_619

Apple has since joined the industry standards groups to influence the future direction of technology standards such as USB, AGP, HyperTransport, Wi-Fi, NVMe, PCIe and others in its products. Apple Inc._sentence_620

FireWire is an Apple-originated standard that was widely adopted across the industry after it was standardized as IEEE 1394 and is a legally mandated port in all Cable TV boxes in the United States. Apple Inc._sentence_621

Apple has gradually expanded its efforts in getting its products into the Indian market. Apple Inc._sentence_622

In July 2012, during a conference call with investors, CEO Tim Cook said that he "[loves] India", but that Apple saw larger opportunities outside the region. Apple Inc._sentence_623

India's requirement that 30% of products sold be manufactured in the country was described as "really adds cost to getting product to market". Apple Inc._sentence_624

In October 2013, Indian Apple executives unveiled a plan for selling devices through instalment plans and store-within-a-store concepts, in an effort to expand further into the market. Apple Inc._sentence_625

The news followed Cook's acknowledgment of the country in July when sales results showed that iPhone sales in India grew 400% during the second quarter of 2013. Apple Inc._sentence_626

In March 2016, The Times of India reported that Apple had sought permission from the Indian government to sell refurbished iPhones in the country. Apple Inc._sentence_627

However, two months later, the application was rejected, citing official country policy. Apple Inc._sentence_628

In May 2016, Apple opened an iOS app development center in Bangalore and a maps development office for 4,000 staff in Hyderabad. Apple Inc._sentence_629

In February 2017, Apple once again requested permission to sell used iPhones in the country. Apple Inc._sentence_630

The same month, Bloomberg reported that Apple was close to receiving permission to open its first retail store in the country. Apple Inc._sentence_631

In March, The Wall Street Journal reported that Apple would begin manufacturing iPhone models in India "over the next two months", and in May, the Journal wrote that an Apple manufacturer had begun production of iPhone SE in the country, while Apple told CNBC that the manufacturing was for a "small number" of units. Apple Inc._sentence_632

Reuters reported in December 2017, that Apple and the Indian government were clashing over planned increases to import taxes for components used in mobile phone production, with Apple having engaged in talks with government officials to try to delay the plans, but the Indian government sticking to its policies of no exemptions to its "Make in India" initiative. Apple Inc._sentence_633

The import tax increases went into effect a few days later, with Apple being hurt the most out of all phone manufacturers, having nine of out ten phones imported into the country, whereas main smartphone competitor Samsung produces almost all of its devices locally. Apple Inc._sentence_634

In April 2019, Apple initiated manufacturing of iPhone 7 at its Bengaluru facility, keeping in mind demand from local customers even as they seek more incentives from the government of India. Apple Inc._sentence_635

At the beginning of 2020, Tim Cook announced that Apple schedules the opening of its first physical outlet in India for 2021, while an online store is to be launched by the end of the year. Apple Inc._sentence_636

In 2020, the purchasing price for an iPhone 7 or se (2nd generation) was approximately ₹ 20,499 - ₹ 37,900 (about 250-520 USD). Apple Inc._sentence_637

In May 2017, the company announced a $1 billion funding project for "advanced manufacturing" in the United States, and subsequently invested $200 million in Corning Inc., a manufacturer of toughened Gorilla Glass technology used in its iPhone devices. Apple Inc._sentence_638

The following December, Apple's chief operating officer, Jeff Williams, told CNBC that the "$1 billion" amount was "absolutely not" the final limit on its spending, elaborating that "We're not thinking in terms of a fund limit. Apple Inc._sentence_639

... We're thinking about, where are the opportunities across the U.S. to help nurture companies that are making the advanced technology — and the advanced manufacturing that goes with that — that quite frankly is essential to our innovation". Apple Inc._sentence_640

Labor practices Apple Inc._section_31

Further information: Criticism of Apple Inc. § Labor practices Apple Inc._sentence_641

The company advertised its products as being made in America until the late 1990s; however, as a result of outsourcing initiatives in the 2000s, almost all of its manufacturing is now handled abroad. Apple Inc._sentence_642

According to a report by The New York Times, Apple insiders "believe the vast scale of overseas factories, as well as the flexibility, diligence and industrial skills of foreign workers, have so outpaced their American counterparts that "Made in the U.S.A." is no longer a viable option for most Apple products". Apple Inc._sentence_643

In 2006, one complex of factories that assembled the iPod and other items had over 200,000 workers living and working within it. Apple Inc._sentence_644

Employees regularly worked more than 60 hours per week and made around $100 per month. Apple Inc._sentence_645

A little over half of the workers' earnings was required to pay for rent and food from the company. Apple Inc._sentence_646

Apple immediately launched an investigation after the 2006 media report, and worked with their manufacturers to ensure acceptable working conditions. Apple Inc._sentence_647

In 2007, Apple started yearly audits of all its suppliers regarding worker's rights, slowly raising standards and pruning suppliers that did not comply. Apple Inc._sentence_648

Yearly progress reports have been published since 2008. Apple Inc._sentence_649

In 2011, Apple admitted that its suppliers' child labor practices in China had worsened. Apple Inc._sentence_650

The Foxconn suicides occurred between January and November 2010, when 18 Foxconn (Chinese: 富士康) employees attempted suicide, resulting in 14 deaths—the company was the world's largest contract electronics manufacturer, for clients including Apple, at the time. Apple Inc._sentence_651

The suicides drew media attention, and employment practices at Foxconn were investigated by Apple. Apple Inc._sentence_652

Apple issued a public statement about the suicides, and company spokesperson Steven Dowling said: Apple Inc._sentence_653

The statement was released after the results from the company's probe into its suppliers' labor practices were published in early 2010. Apple Inc._sentence_654

Foxconn was not specifically named in the report, but Apple identified a series of serious labor violations of labor laws, including Apple's own rules, and some child labor existed in a number of factories. Apple Inc._sentence_655

Apple committed to the implementation of changes following the suicides. Apple Inc._sentence_656

Also in 2010, workers in China planned to sue iPhone contractors over poisoning by a cleaner used to clean LCD screens. Apple Inc._sentence_657

One worker claimed that he and his coworkers had not been informed of possible occupational illnesses. Apple Inc._sentence_658

After a high suicide rate in a Foxconn facility in China making iPads and iPhones, albeit a lower rate than that of China as a whole, workers were forced to sign a legally binding document guaranteeing that they would not kill themselves. Apple Inc._sentence_659

Workers in factories producing Apple products have also been exposed to n-hexane, a neurotoxin that is a cheaper alternative than alcohol for cleaning the products. Apple Inc._sentence_660

A 2014 BBC investigation found excessive hours and other problems persisted, despite Apple's promise to reform factory practice after the 2010 Foxconn suicides. Apple Inc._sentence_661

The Pegatron factory was once again the subject of review, as reporters gained access to the working conditions inside through recruitment as employees. Apple Inc._sentence_662

While the BBC maintained that the experiences of its reporters showed that labor violations were continuing since 2010, Apple publicly disagreed with the BBC and stated: "We are aware of no other company doing as much as Apple to ensure fair and safe working conditions". Apple Inc._sentence_663

In December 2014, the Institute for Global Labour and Human Rights published a report which documented inhumane conditions for the 15,000 workers at a Zhen Ding Technology factory in Shenzhen, China, which serves as a major supplier of circuit boards for Apple's iPhone and iPad. Apple Inc._sentence_664

According to the report, workers are pressured into 65-hour work weeks which leaves them so exhausted that they often sleep during lunch breaks. Apple Inc._sentence_665

They are also made to reside in "primitive, dark and filthy dorms" where they sleep "on plywood, with six to ten workers in each crowded room." Apple Inc._sentence_666

Omnipresent security personnel also routinely harass and beat the workers. Apple Inc._sentence_667

In 2019, there were reports stating that some of Foxconn's managers had used rejected parts to build iPhones, and that Apple was investigating the issue. Apple Inc._sentence_668

Environmental practices and initiatives Apple Inc._section_32

Apple Energy Apple Inc._section_33

Apple Energy, LLC is a wholly owned subsidiary of Apple Inc. that sells solar energy. Apple Inc._sentence_669

As of June 6, 2016, Apple's solar farms in California and Nevada have been declared to provide 217.9 megawatts of solar generation capacity. Apple Inc._sentence_670

In addition to the company's solar energy production, Apple has received regulatory approval to construct a landfill gas energy plant in North Carolina. Apple Inc._sentence_671

Apple will use the methane emissions to generate electricity. Apple Inc._sentence_672

Apple's North Carolina data center is already powered entirely with energy from renewable sources. Apple Inc._sentence_673

Energy and resources Apple Inc._section_34

Following a Greenpeace protest, Apple released a statement on April 17, 2012, committing to ending its use of coal and shifting to 100% renewable clean energy. Apple Inc._sentence_674

By 2013, Apple was using 100% renewable energy to power their data centers. Apple Inc._sentence_675

Overall, 75% of the company's power came from clean renewable sources. Apple Inc._sentence_676

In 2010, Climate Counts, a nonprofit organization dedicated to directing consumers toward the greenest companies, gave Apple a score of 52 points out of a possible 100, which puts Apple in their top category "Striding". Apple Inc._sentence_677

This was an increase from May 2008, when Climate Counts only gave Apple 11 points out of 100, which placed the company last among electronics companies, at which time Climate Counts also labeled Apple with a "stuck icon", adding that Apple at the time was "a choice to avoid for the climate-conscious consumer". Apple Inc._sentence_678

In May 2015, Greenpeace evaluated the state of the Green Internet and commended Apple on their environmental practices saying, "Apple's commitment to renewable energy has helped set a new bar for the industry, illustrating in very concrete terms that a 100% renewable Internet is within its reach, and providing several models of intervention for other companies that want to build a sustainable Internet." Apple Inc._sentence_679

As of 2016, Apple states that 100% of its U.S. operations run on renewable energy, 100% of Apple's data centers run on renewable energy and 93% of Apple's global operations run on renewable energy. Apple Inc._sentence_680

However, the facilities are connected to the local grid which usually contains a mix of fossil and renewable sources, so Apple carbon offsets its electricity use. Apple Inc._sentence_681

The Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT) allows consumers to see the effect a product has on the environment. Apple Inc._sentence_682

Each product receives a Gold, Silver, or Bronze rank depending on its efficiency and sustainability. Apple Inc._sentence_683

Every Apple tablet, notebook, desktop computer, and display that EPEAT ranks achieves a Gold rating, the highest possible. Apple Inc._sentence_684

Although Apple's data centers recycle water 35 times, the increased activity in retail, corporate and data centers also increase the amount of water use to 573 million US gal (2.2 million m) in 2015. Apple Inc._sentence_685

During an event on March 21, 2016, Apple provided a status update on its environmental initiative to be 100% renewable in all of its worldwide operations. Apple Inc._sentence_686

Lisa P. Jackson, Apple's vice president of Environment, Policy and Social Initiatives who reports directly to CEO, Tim Cook, announced that as of March 2016, 93% of Apple's worldwide operations are powered with renewable energy. Apple Inc._sentence_687

Also featured was the company's efforts to use sustainable paper in their product packaging; 99% of all paper used by Apple in the product packaging comes from post-consumer recycled paper or sustainably managed forests, as the company continues its move to all paper packaging for all of its products. Apple Inc._sentence_688

Apple working in partnership with Conservation Fund, have preserved 36,000 acres of working forests in Maine and North Carolina. Apple Inc._sentence_689

Another partnership announced is with the World Wildlife Fund to preserve up to 1,000,000 acres (4,000 km) of forests in China. Apple Inc._sentence_690

Featured was the company's installation of a 40 MW solar power plant in the Sichuan province of China that was tailor-made to coexist with the indigenous yaks that eat hay produced on the land, by raising the panels to be several feet off of the ground so the yaks and their feed would be unharmed grazing beneath the array. Apple Inc._sentence_691

This installation alone compensates for more than all of the energy used in Apple's Stores and Offices in the whole of China, negating the company's energy carbon footprint in the country. Apple Inc._sentence_692

In Singapore, Apple has worked with the Singaporean government to cover the rooftops of 800 buildings in the city-state with solar panels allowing Apple's Singapore operations to be run on 100% renewable energy. Apple Inc._sentence_693

Liam was introduced to the world, an advanced robotic disassembler and sorter designed by Apple Engineers in California specifically for recycling outdated or broken iPhones. Apple Inc._sentence_694

Reuses and recycles parts from traded in products. Apple Inc._sentence_695

Apple announced on August 16, 2016, that Lens Technology, one of its major suppliers in China, has committed to power all its glass production for Apple with 100 percent renewable energy by 2018. Apple Inc._sentence_696

The commitment is a large step in Apple's efforts to help manufacturers lower their carbon footprint in China. Apple Inc._sentence_697

Apple also announced that all 14 of its final assembly sites in China are now compliant with UL's Zero Waste to Landfill validation. Apple Inc._sentence_698

The standard, which started in January 2015, certifies that all manufacturing waste is reused, recycled, composted, or converted into energy (when necessary). Apple Inc._sentence_699

Since the program began, nearly, 140,000 metric tons of waste have been diverted from landfills. Apple Inc._sentence_700

On July 21, 2020, Apple announced its plan to become carbon neutral across its entire business, manufacturing supply chain, and product life cycle by 2030. Apple Inc._sentence_701

In the next 10 years, Apple will try to lower emissions with a series of innovative actions, including: low carbon product design, expanding energy efficiency, renewable energy, process and material innovations, and carbon removal. Apple Inc._sentence_702

Toxins Apple Inc._section_35

Green bonds Apple Inc._section_36

In February 2016, Apple issued a US$1.5 billion green bond (climate bond), the first ever of its kind by a U.S. tech company. Apple Inc._sentence_703

The green bond proceeds are dedicated to the financing of environmental projects. Apple Inc._sentence_704

Finance Apple Inc._section_37

See also: List of mergers and acquisitions by Apple Apple Inc._sentence_705

Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue, the world's largest technology company by total assets, and the world's second-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung. Apple Inc._sentence_706

In its fiscal year ending in September 2011, Apple Inc. reported a total of $108 billion in annual revenues—a significant increase from its 2010 revenues of $65 billion—and nearly $82 billion in cash reserves. Apple Inc._sentence_707

On March 19, 2012, Apple announced plans for a $2.65-per-share dividend beginning in fourth quarter of 2012, per approval by their board of directors. Apple Inc._sentence_708

The company's worldwide annual revenue in 2013 totaled $170 billion. Apple Inc._sentence_709

In May 2013, Apple entered the top ten of the Fortune 500 list of companies for the first time, rising 11 places above its 2012 ranking to take the sixth position. Apple Inc._sentence_710

As of 2016, Apple has around US$234 billion of cash and marketable securities, of which 90% is located outside the United States for tax purposes. Apple Inc._sentence_711

Apple amassed 65% of all profits made by the eight largest worldwide smartphone manufacturers in quarter one of 2014, according to a report by Canaccord Genuity. Apple Inc._sentence_712

In the first quarter of 2015, the company garnered 92% of all earnings. Apple Inc._sentence_713

On April 30, 2017, The Wall Street Journal reported that Apple had cash reserves of $250 billion, officially confirmed by Apple as specifically $256.8 billion a few days later. Apple Inc._sentence_714

As of August 3, 2018, Apple was the largest publicly traded corporation in the world by market capitalization. Apple Inc._sentence_715

On August 2, 2018, Apple became the first publicly traded U.S. company to reach a $1 trillion market value. Apple Inc._sentence_716

Apple was ranked No. Apple Inc._sentence_717

4 on the 2018 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Apple Inc._sentence_718

Apple Inc._table_general_1

YearApple Inc._header_cell_1_0_0 Revenue

in mil. USDApple Inc._header_cell_1_0_1

Net income

in mil. USDApple Inc._header_cell_1_0_2

Total assets

in mil. USDApple Inc._header_cell_1_0_3

EmployeesApple Inc._header_cell_1_0_4
2000Apple Inc._cell_1_1_0 7,983Apple Inc._cell_1_1_1 786Apple Inc._cell_1_1_2 6,803Apple Inc._cell_1_1_3 Apple Inc._cell_1_1_4
2001Apple Inc._cell_1_2_0 5,363Apple Inc._cell_1_2_1 −25Apple Inc._cell_1_2_2 6,021Apple Inc._cell_1_2_3 Apple Inc._cell_1_2_4
2002Apple Inc._cell_1_3_0 5,742Apple Inc._cell_1_3_1 65Apple Inc._cell_1_3_2 6,298Apple Inc._cell_1_3_3 Apple Inc._cell_1_3_4
2003Apple Inc._cell_1_4_0 6,207Apple Inc._cell_1_4_1 69Apple Inc._cell_1_4_2 6,815Apple Inc._cell_1_4_3 Apple Inc._cell_1_4_4
2004Apple Inc._cell_1_5_0 8,279Apple Inc._cell_1_5_1 274Apple Inc._cell_1_5_2 8,050Apple Inc._cell_1_5_3 Apple Inc._cell_1_5_4
2005Apple Inc._cell_1_6_0 13,931Apple Inc._cell_1_6_1 1,328Apple Inc._cell_1_6_2 11,516Apple Inc._cell_1_6_3 14,800Apple Inc._cell_1_6_4
2006Apple Inc._cell_1_7_0 19,315Apple Inc._cell_1_7_1 1,989Apple Inc._cell_1_7_2 17,205Apple Inc._cell_1_7_3 17,800Apple Inc._cell_1_7_4
2007Apple Inc._cell_1_8_0 24,578Apple Inc._cell_1_8_1 3,495Apple Inc._cell_1_8_2 25,347Apple Inc._cell_1_8_3 21,600Apple Inc._cell_1_8_4
2008Apple Inc._cell_1_9_0 37,491Apple Inc._cell_1_9_1 6,119Apple Inc._cell_1_9_2 36,171Apple Inc._cell_1_9_3 32,000Apple Inc._cell_1_9_4
2009Apple Inc._cell_1_10_0 42,905Apple Inc._cell_1_10_1 8,235Apple Inc._cell_1_10_2 47,501Apple Inc._cell_1_10_3 34,300Apple Inc._cell_1_10_4
2010Apple Inc._cell_1_11_0 65,225Apple Inc._cell_1_11_1 14,013Apple Inc._cell_1_11_2 75,183Apple Inc._cell_1_11_3 46,600Apple Inc._cell_1_11_4
2011Apple Inc._cell_1_12_0 108,249Apple Inc._cell_1_12_1 25,922Apple Inc._cell_1_12_2 116,371Apple Inc._cell_1_12_3 60,400Apple Inc._cell_1_12_4
2012Apple Inc._cell_1_13_0 156,508Apple Inc._cell_1_13_1 41,733Apple Inc._cell_1_13_2 176,064Apple Inc._cell_1_13_3 72,800Apple Inc._cell_1_13_4
2013Apple Inc._cell_1_14_0 170,910Apple Inc._cell_1_14_1 37,037Apple Inc._cell_1_14_2 207,000Apple Inc._cell_1_14_3 80,300Apple Inc._cell_1_14_4
2014Apple Inc._cell_1_15_0 182,795Apple Inc._cell_1_15_1 39,510Apple Inc._cell_1_15_2 231,839Apple Inc._cell_1_15_3 92,600Apple Inc._cell_1_15_4
2015Apple Inc._cell_1_16_0 233,715Apple Inc._cell_1_16_1 53,394Apple Inc._cell_1_16_2 290,345Apple Inc._cell_1_16_3 110,000Apple Inc._cell_1_16_4
2016Apple Inc._cell_1_17_0 215,639Apple Inc._cell_1_17_1 45,687Apple Inc._cell_1_17_2 321,686Apple Inc._cell_1_17_3 116,000Apple Inc._cell_1_17_4
2017Apple Inc._cell_1_18_0 229,234Apple Inc._cell_1_18_1 48,351Apple Inc._cell_1_18_2 375,319Apple Inc._cell_1_18_3 123,000Apple Inc._cell_1_18_4
2018Apple Inc._cell_1_19_0 265,595Apple Inc._cell_1_19_1 59,531Apple Inc._cell_1_19_2 365,725Apple Inc._cell_1_19_3 132,000Apple Inc._cell_1_19_4
2019Apple Inc._cell_1_20_0 260,174Apple Inc._cell_1_20_1 55,256Apple Inc._cell_1_20_2 338,516Apple Inc._cell_1_20_3 137,000Apple Inc._cell_1_20_4

Tax practices Apple Inc._section_38

Further information: Criticism of Apple Inc. § Tax practices, EU illegal State aid case against Apple in Ireland, and Leprechaun economics Apple Inc._sentence_719

Apple has created subsidiaries in low-tax places such as Ireland, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and the British Virgin Islands to cut the taxes it pays around the world. Apple Inc._sentence_720

According to The New York Times, in the 1980s Apple was among the first tech companies to designate overseas salespeople in high-tax countries in a manner that allowed the company to sell on behalf of low-tax subsidiaries on other continents, sidestepping income taxes. Apple Inc._sentence_721

In the late 1980s, Apple was a pioneer of an accounting technique known as the "Double Irish with a Dutch sandwich," which reduces taxes by routing profits through Irish subsidiaries and the Netherlands and then to the Caribbean. Apple Inc._sentence_722

British Conservative Party Member of Parliament Charlie Elphicke published research on October 30, 2012, which showed that some multinational companies, including Apple Inc., were making billions of pounds of profit in the UK, but were paying an effective tax rate to the UK Treasury of only 3 percent, well below standard corporation tax. Apple Inc._sentence_723

He followed this research by calling on the Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne to force these multinationals, which also included Google and The Coca-Cola Company, to state the effective rate of tax they pay on their UK revenues. Apple Inc._sentence_724

Elphicke also said that government contracts should be withheld from multinationals who do not pay their fair share of UK tax. Apple Inc._sentence_725

Apple Inc. claims to be the single largest taxpayer to the Department of the Treasury of the United States of America with an effective tax rate of approximately of 26% as of the second quarter of the Apple fiscal year 2016. Apple Inc._sentence_726

In an interview with the German newspaper FAZ in October 2017, Tim Cook stated, that Apple is the biggest taxpayer worldwide. Apple Inc._sentence_727

In 2015, Reuters reported that Apple had earnings abroad of $54.4 billion which were untaxed by the IRS of the United States. Apple Inc._sentence_728

Under U.S. tax law governed by the IRC, corporations don't pay income tax on overseas profits unless the profits are repatriated into the United States and as such Apple argues that to benefit its shareholders it will leave it overseas until a repatriation holiday or comprehensive tax reform takes place in the United States. Apple Inc._sentence_729

On July 12, 2016 the Central Statistics Office of Ireland announced that 2015 Irish GDP had grown by 26.3%, and 2015 Irish GNP had grown by 18.7%. Apple Inc._sentence_730

The figures attracted international scorn, and were labelled by Nobel-prize winning economist, Paul Krugman, as leprechaun economics. Apple Inc._sentence_731

It was not until 2018 that Irish economists could definitively prove that the 2015 growth was due to Apple restructuring its controversial double Irish subsidiaries (Apple Sales International), which Apple converted into a new Irish capital allowances for intangible assets tax scheme (expires in January 2020). Apple Inc._sentence_732

The affair required the Central Bank of Ireland to create a new measure of Irish economic growth, Modified GNI* to replace Irish GDP, given the distortion of Apple's tax schemes. Apple Inc._sentence_733

Irish GDP is 143% of Irish Modified GNI*. Apple Inc._sentence_734

On August 30, 2016, after a two-year investigation, the EU Competition Commissioner concluded Apple received "illegal State aid" from Ireland. Apple Inc._sentence_735

The EU ordered Apple to pay 13 billion euros ($14.5 billion), plus interest, in unpaid Irish taxes for 2004–2014. Apple Inc._sentence_736

It is the largest tax fine in history. Apple Inc._sentence_737

The Commission found that Apple had benefited from a private Irish Revenue Commissioners tax ruling regarding its double Irish tax structure, Apple Sales International (ASI). Apple Inc._sentence_738

Instead of using two companies for its double Irish structure, Apple was given a ruling to split ASI into two internal "branches". Apple Inc._sentence_739

The Chancellor of Austria, Christian Kern, put this decision into perspective by stating that "every Viennese cafe, every sausage stand pays more tax in Austria than a multinational corporation". Apple Inc._sentence_740

As of April 24, 2018, Apple agreed to start paying €13 billion in back taxes to the Irish government, the repayments will be held in an escrow account while Apple and the Irish government continue their appeals in EU courts. Apple Inc._sentence_741

On July 15, 2020, the EU General Court annuls the European Commission’s decision in Apple State aid case: Apple will not have to repay €13 billion to Ireland. Apple Inc._sentence_742

Board of directors Apple Inc._section_39

As of October 26, 2019 the following individuals sit on the board of Apple Inc. Apple Inc._sentence_743

Apple Inc._unordered_list_2

Executive management Apple Inc._section_40

As of August 1, 2020 the management of Apple Inc. includes: Apple Inc._sentence_744

Apple Inc._unordered_list_3

  • Tim Cook (chief executive officer)Apple Inc._item_3_31
  • Jeff Williams (chief operating officer)Apple Inc._item_3_32
  • Luca Maestri (senior vice president and chief financial officer)Apple Inc._item_3_33
  • Katherine L. Adams (senior vice president and general counsel)Apple Inc._item_3_34
  • Eddy Cue (senior vice president – Internet Software and Services)Apple Inc._item_3_35
  • Craig Federighi (senior vice president – Software Engineering)Apple Inc._item_3_36
  • John Giannandrea (senior vice president – Machine Learning and AI Strategy)Apple Inc._item_3_37
  • Deirdre O'Brien (senior vice president – Retail + People)Apple Inc._item_3_38
  • Dan Riccio (senior vice president – Hardware Engineering)Apple Inc._item_3_39
  • Phil Schiller (senior vice president – Worldwide Marketing)Apple Inc._item_3_40
  • Johny Srouji (senior vice president – Hardware Technologies)Apple Inc._item_3_41
  • Sabih Khan (senior vice president – Operations)Apple Inc._item_3_42
  • Lisa P. Jackson (vice president – Environment, Policy, and Social Initiatives)Apple Inc._item_3_43
  • Isabel Ge Mahe (vice president and managing director – Greater China)Apple Inc._item_3_44
  • Tor Myhren (vice president – Marketing Communications)Apple Inc._item_3_45
  • Adrian Perica (vice president – Corporate Development)Apple Inc._item_3_46

List of chief executives Apple Inc._section_41

Apple Inc._ordered_list_4

  1. Michael Scott (1977–1981)Apple Inc._item_4_47
  2. Mike Markkula (1981–1983)Apple Inc._item_4_48
  3. John Sculley (1983–1993)Apple Inc._item_4_49
  4. Michael Spindler (1993–1996)Apple Inc._item_4_50
  5. Gil Amelio (1996–1997)Apple Inc._item_4_51
  6. Steve Jobs (1997–2011)Apple Inc._item_4_52
  7. Tim Cook (2011– present)Apple Inc._item_4_53

Litigation Apple Inc._section_42

Main article: Apple Inc. litigation Apple Inc._sentence_745

Apple has been a participant in various legal proceedings and claims since it began operation. Apple Inc._sentence_746

In particular, Apple is known for and promotes itself as actively and aggressively enforcing its intellectual property interests. Apple Inc._sentence_747

Some litigation examples include Apple v. Samsung, Apple v. Microsoft, Motorola Mobility v. Apple Inc., and Apple Corps v. Apple Computer. Apple Inc._sentence_748

Apple has also had to defend itself against charges on numerous occasions of violating intellectual property rights. Apple Inc._sentence_749

Most have been dismissed in the courts as shell companies known as patent trolls, with no evidence of actual use of patents in question. Apple Inc._sentence_750

On December 21, 2016, Nokia announced that in the U.S. and Germany, it has filed a suit against Apple, claiming that the latter's products infringe on Nokia's patents. Apple Inc._sentence_751

Most recently, in November 2017, the United States International Trade Commission announced an investigation into allegations of patent infringement in regards to Apple's remote desktop technology; Aqua Connect, a company that builds remote desktop software, has claimed that Apple infringed on two of its patents. Apple Inc._sentence_752

Privacy stance Apple Inc._section_43

Apple has a notable pro-privacy stance, actively making privacy-conscious features and settings part of its conferences, promotional campaigns, and public image. Apple Inc._sentence_753

With its iOS 8 mobile operating system in 2014, the company started encryption all contents of iOS devices through users' passcodes, making it impossible at the time for the company to provide customer data to law enforcement requests seeking such information. Apple Inc._sentence_754

With the popularity rise of cloud storage solutions, Apple began a technique in 2016 to do deep learning scans for facial data in photos on the user's local device and encrypting the content before uploading it to Apple's iCloud storage system. Apple Inc._sentence_755

It also introduced "differential privacy", a way to collect crowdsourced data from many users, while keeping individual users anonymous, in a system that Wired described as "trying to learn as much as possible about a group while learning as little as possible about any individual in it". Apple Inc._sentence_756

Users are explicitly asked if they want to participate, and can actively opt-in or opt-out. Apple Inc._sentence_757

However, Apple aids law enforcement in criminal investigations by providing iCloud backups of users' devices, and the company's commitment to privacy has been questioned by its efforts to promote biometric authentication technology in its newer iPhone models, which don't have the same level of constitutional privacy as a passcode in the United States. Apple Inc._sentence_758

Charitable causes Apple Inc._section_44

Apple is a partner of (PRODUCT)RED, a fundraising campaign for AIDS charity. Apple Inc._sentence_759

In November 2014, Apple arranged for all App Store revenue in a two-week period to go to the fundraiser, generating more than US$20 million, and in March 2017, it released an iPhone 7 with a red color finish. Apple Inc._sentence_760

Apple contributes financially to fundraisers in times of natural disasters. Apple Inc._sentence_761

In November 2012, it donated $2.5 million to the American Red Cross to aid relief efforts after Hurricane Sandy, and in 2017 it donated $5 million to relief efforts for both Hurricane Irma and Hurricane Harvey, as well as for the 2017 Central Mexico earthquake. Apple Inc._sentence_762

The company has also used its iTunes platform to encourage donations, including, but not limited to, help the American Red Cross in the aftermath of the 2010 Haiti earthquake, followed by similar procedure in the aftermath of the 2011 Japan earthquake, Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines in November 2013, and European migrant crisis in September 2015. Apple Inc._sentence_763

Apple emphasizes that it does not incur any processing or other fees for iTunes donations, sending 100% of the payments directly to relief efforts, though it also acknowledges that the Red Cross does not receive any personal information on the users donating and that the payments may not be tax deductible. Apple Inc._sentence_764

On April 14, 2016, Apple and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) announced that they have engaged in a partnership to, "help protect life on our planet." Apple Inc._sentence_765

Apple released a special page in the iTunes App Store, Apps for Earth. Apple Inc._sentence_766

In the arrangement, Apple has committed that through April 24, WWF will receive 100% of the proceeds from the applications participating in the App Store via both the purchases of any paid apps and the In-App Purchases. Apple Inc._sentence_767

Apple and WWF's Apps for Earth campaign raised more than $8 million in total proceeds to support WWF's conservation work. Apple Inc._sentence_768

WWF announced the results at WWDC 2016 in San Francisco. Apple Inc._sentence_769

During the COVID-19 pandemic, Apple's CEO Cook announced that the company will be donating "millions" of masks to health workers in the United States and Europe. Apple Inc._sentence_770

Criticism and controversies Apple Inc._section_45

Main article: Criticism of Apple Inc. Apple Inc._sentence_771

Apple has been criticized for alleged unethical business practices such as anti-competitive behavior, rash litigation, dubious tax tactics, production methods involving the use of sweatshop labor, customer service issues involving allegedly misleading warranties and insufficient data security, and its products' environmental footprint. Apple Inc._sentence_772

Critics have claimed that Apple products combine stolen and/or purchased designs that Apple claims are its original creations. Apple Inc._sentence_773

It has been criticized for its alleged collaboration with the U.S. surveillance program PRISM. Apple Inc._sentence_774

Apple's issues regarding music over the years include those with the European Union regarding iTunes, trouble over updating the Spotify app on Apple devices and collusion with record labels. Apple Inc._sentence_775

Apple has faced scrutiny for its tax practices; this includes engaging in a Double Irish Arrangement with Ireland's government, in order to reduce the amount of taxes that the company paid between the years of 2004-2014. Apple Inc._sentence_776

A probe into Apple's tax-reduction methods in offshore havens, conducted in 2013, resulted in a 40-page memorandum, in which the U.S. Apple Inc._sentence_777 Senate claimed that Apple had not paid corporate taxes for five years due to its deals with the Irish government and its subsidiaries. Apple Inc._sentence_778

Since then, all Double Irish activities were force-closed by the European Union (in 2014); additionally, in late August 2016, the EU ruled that Ireland was required to claw back $14.5b in Apple-owned funds, thus becoming the largest tax battle in history. Apple Inc._sentence_779

In 2018–19, Apple faced criticism for its failure to approve NVIDIA web drivers for GPUs installed on legacy Mac Pro machines (up to mid 2012 5,1 running macOS Mojave 10.14). Apple Inc._sentence_780

Without access to Apple-approved NVIDIA web drivers, Apple users faced replacing their NVIDIA cards with graphic cards produced by supported brands (such as the AMD Radeon), from a list of recommendations provided by Apple to its consumers. Apple Inc._sentence_781

In June 2019, Apple issued a recall for its 2015 MacBook Pro Retina 15" following reports of batteries catching fire. Apple Inc._sentence_782

The recall affected 432,000 units, and Apple was criticized for the long waiting periods consumers experienced, sometimes extending up to 3 weeks for replacements to arrive; the company also did not provide alternative replacements or repair options. Apple Inc._sentence_783

Ireland's Data Protection Commission also launched a privacy investigation to examine whether Apple complied with the EU's GDPR law following an investigation into how the company processes personal data with targeted ads on its platform. Apple Inc._sentence_784

In July 2019, following a campaign by the "right to repair" movement, challenging Apple's tech repair restrictions on devices, the FTC held a workshop to establish the framework of a future nationwide Right to Repair rule. Apple Inc._sentence_785

The movement argues Apple is preventing consumers from legitimately fixing their devices at local repair shops which is having a negative impact on consumers. Apple Inc._sentence_786

The United States Department of Justice also began a review of Big Tech firms to establish whether they could be unlawfully stifling competition in a broad antitrust probe in 2019. Apple Inc._sentence_787

In December 2019, a report found that the iPhone 11 Pro continues tracking location and collecting user data even after users have disabled location services. Apple Inc._sentence_788

In response, an Apple engineer said the Location Services icon "appears for system services that do not have a switch in settings." Apple Inc._sentence_789

In January 2020, US President Donald Trump slammed Apple for refusing to unlock two iPhones of a Saudi national, Mohammed Saeed Alshamrani, who shot and killed three American sailors and injured eight others in the Naval Air Station Pensacola. Apple Inc._sentence_790

The shooting was declared an "act of terrorism" by the FBI, but Apple denied to crack the phones citing its data privacy policy. Apple Inc._sentence_791

On March 16, 2020, France fined Apple €1.1bn for colluding with two wholesalers to stifle competition and keep prices high by handicapping independent resellers. Apple Inc._sentence_792

The arrangement created aligned prices for Apple products such as iPads and personal computers for about half the French retail market. Apple Inc._sentence_793

According to the French regulators, the abuses occurred between 2005 and 2017, but were first discovered after a complaint by an independent reseller, eBizcuss, in 2012. Apple Inc._sentence_794

On August 13, 2020, Epic Games, the maker of the popular game Fortnite, sued Apple and Google after its hugely popular video game was removed from Apple and Google’s App Store. Apple Inc._sentence_795

The suits come after both Apple and Google blocked the game after it introduced a direct payment system, effectively shutting out the tech titans from collecting fees. Apple Inc._sentence_796

In September 2020 Epic Games founded the Coalition for App Fairness together with other thirteen companies, which aims for better conditions for the inclusion of apps in the app stores. Apple Inc._sentence_797

Apple Inc., shareholders increased pressure on the company to publicly commit “to respect freedom of expression as a human right”, upon which Apple committed to freedom of expression and information in its human rights policy document. Apple Inc._sentence_798

It said that the policy is based on the guidelines of the United Nations on business and human rights, in early September 2020. Apple Inc._sentence_799

On November 19, 2020, it was announced that Apple will be paying out $113 Million related to lawsuits stemming from their iPhone's battery problems and subsequent performance slow downs. Apple Inc._sentence_800

On November 30, 2020, the Italian antitrust authority AGCM fined Apple $12 Million for misleading trade practices. Apple Inc._sentence_801

AGCM stated that Apple's claims of iPhone's water resistance weren't true as the phones could only resist water up to 4 meters deep in ideal laboratory conditions and not in regular circumstances. Apple Inc._sentence_802

The authority added that Apple provided no assistance to customers with water-damaged phones, which it constituted an aggressive trade practice. Apple Inc._sentence_803

See also Apple Inc._section_46

Apple Inc._unordered_list_5

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