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"Arab" and "Arabians" redirect here. Arabs_sentence_0

For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation) and Arabian (disambiguation). Arabs_sentence_1


عَرَبٌ ('arab) (in Arabic)Arabs_header_cell_0_0_0
Total populationArabs_header_cell_0_1_0
Regions with significant populationsArabs_header_cell_0_2_0
BrazilArabs_header_cell_0_3_0 15 to 20 million Arabs and descendants of ArabsArabs_cell_0_3_1
FranceArabs_header_cell_0_4_0 3.3 to 5.5 million people of North African (Arab or Berber) descentArabs_cell_0_4_1
IndonesiaArabs_header_cell_0_5_0 Arabs_cell_0_5_1
TurkeyArabs_header_cell_0_6_0 At least 5,830,000 (2020)Arabs_cell_0_6_1
ArgentinaArabs_header_cell_0_7_0 4,500,000 of Arab and partial Arab ancestryArabs_cell_0_7_1
United StatesArabs_header_cell_0_8_0 3,700,000Arabs_cell_0_8_1
IsraelArabs_header_cell_0_9_0 1,700,000Arabs_cell_0_9_1
VenezuelaArabs_header_cell_0_10_0 1,600,000Arabs_cell_0_10_1
ColombiaArabs_header_cell_0_11_0 1,500,000Arabs_cell_0_11_1
IranArabs_header_cell_0_12_0 1,500,000Arabs_cell_0_12_1
MexicoArabs_header_cell_0_13_0 1,500,000Arabs_cell_0_13_1
ChadArabs_header_cell_0_14_0 1,536,000 (est.)Arabs_cell_0_14_1
SpainArabs_header_cell_0_15_0 1,350,000Arabs_cell_0_15_1
GermanyArabs_header_cell_0_16_0 1,155,390Arabs_cell_0_16_1
ChileArabs_header_cell_0_17_0 800,000Arabs_cell_0_17_1
CanadaArabs_header_cell_0_18_0 750,925Arabs_cell_0_18_1
ItalyArabs_header_cell_0_19_0 680,000Arabs_cell_0_19_1
United KingdomArabs_header_cell_0_20_0 500,000Arabs_cell_0_20_1
AustraliaArabs_header_cell_0_21_0 500,000Arabs_cell_0_21_1
EcuadorArabs_header_cell_0_22_0 250,000Arabs_cell_0_22_1
HondurasArabs_header_cell_0_23_0 275,000Arabs_cell_0_23_1
BelgiumArabs_header_cell_0_24_0 800,000Arabs_cell_0_24_1
NetherlandsArabs_header_cell_0_25_0 480,000–613,800Arabs_cell_0_25_1
SwedenArabs_header_cell_0_26_0 425,000Arabs_cell_0_26_1
Ivory CoastArabs_header_cell_0_27_0 300,000Arabs_cell_0_27_1
DenmarkArabs_header_cell_0_28_0 121,000Arabs_cell_0_28_1
El SalvadorArabs_header_cell_0_29_0 More than 100,000Arabs_cell_0_29_1
Related ethnic groupsArabs_header_cell_0_32_0

The Arabs (singular Arab /ˈær.əb/; singular Arabic: عَرَبِيٌّ‎, ISO 233: ‘arabī, Arabic pronunciation: [ˈʕarabi, plural Arabic: عَرَبٌ‎, ISO 233: ‘arab, Arabic pronunciation: [ˈʕarab (listen)) are a multi-racial and multi-ethnic supra-ethnicity. Arabs_sentence_2

In a meta-ethnic sense, it may be defined narrowly as a person descended from certain ancient tribes then inhabiting the Arabian Peninsula and surrounding areas or, more broadly, in a pan-ethnic sense, to include anyone who is Arabized or identifies as Arab, originates from an Arab country (or in some cases an Arab League member country), participates in Arab culture, and speaks the Arabic language. Arabs_sentence_3

Arabs primarily live among the Arab states in Western Asia, Northern Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western Indian Ocean islands (including the Comoros), and Southern Europe (like Malta, and formerly in Al-Andalus / Iberian Peninsula). Arabs_sentence_4

They also live, in significant numbers, in the Americas, Western Europe, Indonesia, Israel, Turkey and Iran. Arabs_sentence_5

The Arab diaspora is established around the world. Arabs_sentence_6

Though Islam started in Arabia, uses the Arabic language natively and most Arabs are Muslims, only about 20% of Muslims are Arabs. Arabs_sentence_7

The first mention of Arabs appeared in the mid-9th century BCE as a tribal people in Eastern and Southern Syria and the north of the Arabian Peninsula. Arabs_sentence_8

The Arabs appear to have been under the vassalage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–612 BCE), as well as the succeeding Neo-Babylonian (626–539 BCE), Achaemenid (539–332 BCE), Seleucid and Parthian empires. Arabs_sentence_9

The Nabataeans, an Arab people, formed their Kingdom near Petra in the 3rd century BC. Arabs_sentence_10

Arab tribes, most notably the Ghassanids and Lakhmids, begin to appear in the Southern Syrian Desert from the mid 3rd century CE onward, during the mid to later stages of the Roman and Sasanian empires. Arabs_sentence_11

Before the expansion of the Rashidun Caliphate (632–661 C.E.), "Arab" referred to any of the largely nomadic and settled Semitic people from the Arabian Peninsula, Syrian Desert and North and Lower Mesopotamia. Arabs_sentence_12

Today, "Arab" refers to a large number of people whose native regions form the Arab world due to the spread of Arabs and the Arabic language throughout the region during the early Muslim conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries and the subsequent Arabisation of indigenous populations. Arabs_sentence_13

The Arabs forged the Rashidun (632–661), Umayyad (661–750), Abbasid (750–1517) and the Fatimid (901–1071) caliphates, whose borders reached Southern France in the west, China in the east, Anatolia in the north and the Sudan in the south. Arabs_sentence_14

This was one of the largest land empires in history. Arabs_sentence_15

In the early 20th century, the First World War signalled the end of the Ottoman Empire, which had ruled much of the Arab world since conquering the Mamluk Sultanate in 1517. Arabs_sentence_16

The end culminated in the 1922 defeat and dissolution of the empire and the partition of its territories, forming the modern Arab states. Arabs_sentence_17

Following the adoption of the Alexandria Protocol in 1944, the Arab League was founded on 22 March 1945. Arabs_sentence_18

The Charter of the Arab League endorsed the principle of an Arab homeland whilst respecting the individual sovereignty of its member states. Arabs_sentence_19

Today, Arabs primarily inhabit the 22 member states of the Arab League. Arabs_sentence_20

The Arab world stretches around 13 million km, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Horn of Africa and the Indian Ocean in the southeast. Arabs_sentence_21

People of non-Arab ethnicities associated with non-Arabic languages also live in these countries, sometimes as a majority. Arabs_sentence_22

These include Somalis, Kurds, Berbers, the Afar people, Nubians and others. Arabs_sentence_23

Beyond the boundaries of the League of Arab States, Arabs can also be found in the global diaspora. Arabs_sentence_24

The ties that bind Arabs are ethnic, linguistic, cultural, historical, identical, nationalist, geographical and political. Arabs_sentence_25

The Arabs have their own customs, language, architecture, art, literature, music, dance, media, cuisine, dress, society, sports and mythology. Arabs_sentence_26

Arabs are a diverse group in terms of religious affiliations and practices. Arabs_sentence_27

In the pre-Islamic era, most Arabs followed polytheistic religions. Arabs_sentence_28

Some tribes had adopted Christianity or Judaism and a few individuals, the hanifs, apparently observed another form of monotheism. Arabs_sentence_29

Today, about 93% of Arabs are adherents of Islam and there are sizable Christian minorities. Arabs_sentence_30

Arab Muslims primarily belong to the Sunni, Shiite, Ibadi and Alawite denominations. Arabs_sentence_31

Arab Christians generally follow one of the Eastern Christian Churches, such as the Oriental Orthodox or Eastern Catholic churches. Arabs_sentence_32

There also exist small amounts of Arab Jews still living in Arab countries and a much larger population of Jews descended from Arab Jewish communities living in Israel and various Western countries, who may or may not consider themselves Arab today. Arabs_sentence_33

Many Christians in Arab countries may also not consider themselves Arab, especially Copts and Assyrians. Arabs_sentence_34

Other smaller minority religions are also followed, such as the Baháʼí Faith and Druze. Arabs_sentence_35

Arabs have greatly influenced and contributed to diverse fields, notably the arts and architecture, language, philosophy, mythology, ethics, literature, politics, business, music, dance, cinema, medicine, science and technology in the ancient and modern history. Arabs_sentence_36

Etymology Arabs_section_0

Further information: Arab (etymology) Arabs_sentence_37

The earliest documented use of the word Arab in reference to a people appears in the Kurkh Monoliths, an Akkadian-language record of the Assyrian conquest of Aram (9th century BCE). Arabs_sentence_38

The Monoliths used the term to refer to Bedouins of the Arabian Peninsula under King Gindibu, who fought as part of a coalition opposed to Assyria. Arabs_sentence_39

Listed among the booty captured by the army of the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III in the Battle of Qarqar (853 BCE) are 1000 camels of "Gi-in-di-bu'u the ar-ba-a-a" or "[the man] Gindibu belonging to the Arabs" (ar-ba-a-a being an adjectival nisba of the noun ʿarab). Arabs_sentence_40

The related word ʾaʿrāb is used to refer to Bedouins today, in contrast to ʿarab which refers to Arabs in general. Arabs_sentence_41

Both terms are mentioned around 40 times in pre-Islamic Sabaean inscriptions. Arabs_sentence_42

The term ʿarab ('Arab') occurs also in the titles of the Himyarite kings from the time of 'Abu Karab Asad until MadiKarib Ya'fur. Arabs_sentence_43

According to Sabaean grammar, the term ʾaʿrāb is derived from the term ʿarab. Arabs_sentence_44

The term is also mentioned in Quranic verses, referring to people who were living in Madina and it might be a south Arabian loanword into Quranic language. Arabs_sentence_45

The oldest surviving indication of an Arab national identity is an inscription made in an archaic form of Arabic in 328 CE using the Nabataean alphabet, which refers to Imru' al-Qays ibn 'Amr as 'King of all the Arabs'. Arabs_sentence_46

Herodotus refers to the Arabs in the Sinai, southern Palestine, and the frankincense region (Southern Arabia). Arabs_sentence_47

Other Ancient-Greek historians like Agatharchides, Diodorus Siculus and Strabo mention Arabs living in Mesopotamia (along the Euphrates), in Egypt (the Sinai and the Red Sea), southern Jordan (the Nabataeans), the Syrian steppe and in eastern Arabia (the people of Gerrha). Arabs_sentence_48

Inscriptions dating to the 6th century BCE in Yemen include the term 'Arab'. Arabs_sentence_49

The most popular Arab account holds that the word Arab came from an eponymous father named Ya'rub, who was supposedly the first to speak Arabic. Arabs_sentence_50

Abu Muhammad al-Hasan al-Hamdani had another view; he states that Arabs were called gharab ('westerners') by Mesopotamians because Bedouins originally resided to the west of Mesopotamia; the term was then corrupted into arab. Arabs_sentence_51

Yet another view is held by al-Masudi that the word Arab was initially applied to the Ishmaelites of the Arabah valley. Arabs_sentence_52

In Biblical etymology, Arab (Hebrew: arvi) comes both from the desert origin of the Bedouins it originally described (arava means 'wilderness'). Arabs_sentence_53

The root ʿ-r-b has several additional meanings in Semitic languages—including 'west, sunset', 'desert', 'mingle', 'mixed', 'merchant' and 'raven'—and are "comprehensible" with all of these having varying degrees of relevance to the emergence of the name. Arabs_sentence_54

It is also possible that some forms were metathetical from ʿ-B-R, 'moving around' (Arabic: ʿ-B-R, 'traverse') and hence, it is alleged, 'nomadic'. Arabs_sentence_55

History Arabs_section_1

Main article: History of the Arabs Arabs_sentence_56

Antiquity Arabs_section_2

Main article: Pre-Islamic Arabia Arabs_sentence_57

Pre-Islamic Arabia refers to the Arabian Peninsula prior to the rise of Islam in the 630s. Arabs_sentence_58

The study of Pre-Islamic Arabia is important to Islamic studies as it provides the context for the development of Islam. Arabs_sentence_59

Some of the settled communities in the Arabian Peninsula developed into distinctive civilizations. Arabs_sentence_60

Sources for these civilizations are not extensive, and are limited to archaeological evidence, accounts written outside of Arabia, and Arab oral traditions later recorded by Islamic scholars. Arabs_sentence_61

Among the most prominent civilizations was Dilmun, which arose around the 4th millennium BCE and lasted to 538 BCE, and Thamud, which arose around the 1st millennium BCE and lasted to about 300 CE. Arabs_sentence_62

Additionally, from the beginning of the first millennium BCE, Southern Arabia was the home to a number of kingdoms, such as the Sabaean kingdom (Arabic: سَـبَـأ‎, romanized: Saba', possibly Sheba), and the coastal areas of Eastern Arabia were controlled by the Parthian and Sassanians from 300 BCE. Arabs_sentence_63

Origins and early history Arabs_section_3

Further information: Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples and Proto-Arabic Arabs_sentence_64

According to Arab-Islamic-Jewish traditions, Ishmael was father of the Arabs, to be the ancestor of the Ishmaelites. Arabs_sentence_65

The first written attestation of the ethnonym Arab occurs in an Assyrian inscription of 853 BCE, where Shalmaneser III lists a King Gindibu of mâtu arbâi (Arab land) as among the people he defeated at the Battle of Qarqar. Arabs_sentence_66

Some of the names given in these texts are Aramaic, while others are the first attestations of Ancient North Arabian dialects. Arabs_sentence_67

In fact several different ethnonyms are found in Assyrian texts that are conventionally translated "Arab": Arabi, Arubu, Aribi and Urbi. Arabs_sentence_68

Many of the Qedarite queens were also described as queens of the aribi. Arabs_sentence_69

The Hebrew Bible occasionally refers to Aravi peoples (or variants thereof), translated as "Arab" or "Arabian." Arabs_sentence_70

The scope of the term at that early stage is unclear, but it seems to have referred to various desert-dwelling Semitic tribes in the Syrian Desert and Arabia. Arabs_sentence_71

Arab tribes came into conflict with the Assyrians during the reign of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal, and he records military victories against the powerful Qedar tribe among others. Arabs_sentence_72

Old Arabic diverges from Central Semitic by the beginning of the 1st millennium BCE. Arabs_sentence_73

Medieval Arab genealogists divided Arabs into three groups: Arabs_sentence_74


  1. "Ancient Arabs", tribes that had vanished or been destroyed, such as ʿĀd and Thamud, often mentioned in the Qur'an as examples of God's power to vanquish those who fought his prophets.Arabs_item_0_0
  2. "Pure Arabs" of South Arabia, descending from Qahtan. The Qahtanites (Qahtanis) are said to have migrated from the land of Yemen following the destruction of the Ma'rib Dam (sadd Ma'rib).Arabs_item_0_1
  3. The "Arabized Arabs" (mustaʿribah) of Central Arabia (Najd) and North Arabia, descending from Ishmael the elder son of Abraham, through Adnan (hence, Adnanites). The Book of Genesis narrates that God promised Hagar to beget from Ishmael twelve princes and turn him to a great nation. The Book of Jubilees claims that the sons of Ishmael intermingled with the 6 sons of Keturah, from Abraham, and their descendants were called Arabs and Ishmaelites:Arabs_item_0_2

Assyrian and Babylonian Royal Inscriptions and North Arabian inscriptions from 9th to 6th century BCE, mention the king of Qedar as king of the Arabs and King of the Ishmaelites. Arabs_sentence_75

Of the names of the sons of Ishmael the names "Nabat, Kedar, Abdeel, Dumah, Massa, and Teman" were mentioned in the Assyrian Royal Inscriptions as tribes of the Ishmaelites. Arabs_sentence_76

Jesur was mentioned in Greek inscriptions in the 1st century BCE. Arabs_sentence_77

Ibn Khaldun's Muqaddima distinguishes between sedentary Arab Muslims who used to be nomadic, and Bedouin nomadic Arabs of the desert. Arabs_sentence_78

He used the term "formerly nomadic" Arabs and refers to sedentary Muslims by the region or city they lived in, as in Yemenis. Arabs_sentence_79

The Christians of Italy and the Crusaders preferred the term Saracens for all the Arabs and Muslims of that time. Arabs_sentence_80

The Christians of Iberia used the term Moor to describe all the Arabs and Muslims of that time. Arabs_sentence_81

Muslims of Medina referred to the nomadic tribes of the deserts as the A'raab, and considered themselves sedentary, but were aware of their close racial bonds. Arabs_sentence_82

The term "A'raab" mirrors the term Assyrians used to describe the closely related nomads they defeated in Syria. Arabs_sentence_83

The Qur'an does not use the word ʿarab, only the nisba adjective ʿarabiy. Arabs_sentence_84

The Qur'an calls itself ʿarabiy, "Arabic", and Mubin, "clear". Arabs_sentence_85

The two qualities are connected for example in ayat 43.2–3, "By the clear Book: We have made it an Arabic recitation in order that you may understand". Arabs_sentence_86

The Qur'an became regarded as the prime example of the al-ʿarabiyya, the language of the Arabs. Arabs_sentence_87

The term ʾiʿrāb has the same root and refers to a particularly clear and correct mode of speech. Arabs_sentence_88

The plural noun ʾaʿrāb refers to the Bedouin tribes of the desert who resisted Muhammad, for example in at-Tawba 97, Arabs_sentence_89

al-ʾaʿrābu ʾašaddu kufrān wanifāqān "the Bedouin are the worst in disbelief and hypocrisy". Arabs_sentence_90

Based on this, in early Islamic terminology, ʿarabiy referred to the language, and ʾaʿrāb to the Arab Bedouins, carrying a negative connotation due to the Qur'anic verdict just cited. Arabs_sentence_91

But after the Islamic conquest of the eighth century, the language of the nomadic Arabs became regarded as the most pure by the grammarians following Abi Ishaq, and the term kalam al-ʿArab, "language of the Arabs", denoted the uncontaminated language of the Bedouins. Arabs_sentence_92

Classical kingdoms Arabs_section_4

Main articles: Palmyra, Nabateans, Qedarite, Osroene, and Kingdom of Hatra Arabs_sentence_93

Proto-Arabic, or Ancient North Arabian, texts give a clearer picture of the Arabs' emergence. Arabs_sentence_94

The earliest are written in variants of epigraphic south Arabian musnad script, including the 8th century BCE Hasaean inscriptions of eastern Saudi Arabia, the 6th century BCE Lihyanite texts of southeastern Saudi Arabia and the Thamudic texts found throughout the Arabian Peninsula and Sinai (not in reality connected with Thamud). Arabs_sentence_95

The Nabataeans were nomadic Arabs who moved into territory vacated by the Edomites – Semites who settled the region centuries before them. Arabs_sentence_96

Their early inscriptions were in Aramaic, but gradually switched to Arabic, and since they had writing, it was they who made the first inscriptions in Arabic. Arabs_sentence_97

The Nabataean alphabet was adopted by Arabs to the south, and evolved into modern Arabic script around the 4th century. Arabs_sentence_98

This is attested by Safaitic inscriptions (beginning in the 1st century BCE) and the many Arabic personal names in Nabataean inscriptions. Arabs_sentence_99

From about the 2nd century BCE, a few inscriptions from Qaryat al-Faw reveal a dialect no longer considered proto-Arabic, but pre-classical Arabic. Arabs_sentence_100

Five Syriac inscriptions mentioning Arabs have been found at Sumatar Harabesi, one of which dates to the 2nd century CE. Arabs_sentence_101

Arabs arrived in the Palmyra in the late first millennium BCE. Arabs_sentence_102

The soldiers of the sheikh Zabdibel, who aided the Seleucids in the battle of Raphia (217 BCE), were described as Arabs; Zabdibel and his men were not actually identified as Palmyrenes in the texts, but the name "Zabdibel" is a Palmyrene name leading to the conclusion that the sheikh hailed from Palmyra. Arabs_sentence_103

Palmyra was conquered by the Rashidun Caliphate after its 634 capture by the Arab general Khalid ibn al-Walid, who took the city on his way to Damascus; an 18-day march by his army through the Syrian Desert from Mesopotamia. Arabs_sentence_104

By then Palmyra was limited to the Diocletian camp. Arabs_sentence_105

After the conquest, the city became part of Homs Province. Arabs_sentence_106

Palmyra prospered as part of the Umayyad Caliphate, and its population grew. Arabs_sentence_107

It was a key stop on the East-West trade route, with a large souq (Arabic: سُـوق‎, market), built by the Umayyads, who also commissioned part of the Temple of Bel as a mosque. Arabs_sentence_108

During this period, Palmyra was a stronghold of the Banu Kalb tribe. Arabs_sentence_109

After being defeated by Marwan II during a civil war in the caliphate, Umayyad contender Sulayman ibn Hisham fled to the Banu Kalb in Palmyra, but eventually pledged allegiance to Marwan in 744; Palmyra continued to oppose Marwan until the surrender of the Banu Kalb leader al-Abrash al-Kalbi in 745. Arabs_sentence_110

That year, Marwan ordered the city's walls demolished. Arabs_sentence_111

In 750 a revolt, led by Majza'a ibn al-Kawthar and Umayyad pretender Abu Muhammad al-Sufyani, against the new Abbasid Caliphate swept across Syria; the tribes in Palmyra supported the rebels. Arabs_sentence_112

After his defeat Abu Muhammad took refuge in the city, which withstood an Abbasid assault long enough to allow him to escape. Arabs_sentence_113

Late kingdoms Arabs_section_5

Further information: Lakhmids, Ghassanids, and Kindites Arabs_sentence_114

The Ghassanids, Lakhmids and Kindites were the last major migration of pre-Islamic Arabs out of Yemen to the north. Arabs_sentence_115

The Ghassanids increased the Semitic presence in the then Hellenized Syria, the majority of Semites were Aramaic peoples. Arabs_sentence_116

They mainly settled in the Hauran region and spread to modern Lebanon, Palestine and Jordan. Arabs_sentence_117

Greeks and Romans referred to all the nomadic population of the desert in the Near East as Arabi. Arabs_sentence_118

The Romans called Yemen "Arabia Felix". Arabs_sentence_119

The Romans called the vassal nomadic states within the Roman Empire Arabia Petraea, after the city of Petra, and called unconquered deserts bordering the empire to the south and east Arabia Magna. Arabs_sentence_120

The Lakhmids as a dynasty inherited their power from the Tanukhids, the mid Tigris region around their capital Al-Hira. Arabs_sentence_121

They ended up allying with the Sassanids against the Ghassanids and the Byzantine Empire. Arabs_sentence_122

The Lakhmids contested control of the Central Arabian tribes with the Kindites with the Lakhmids eventually destroying Kinda in 540 after the fall of their main ally Himyar. Arabs_sentence_123

The Persian Sassanids dissolved the Lakhmid dynasty in 602, being under puppet kings, then under their direct control. Arabs_sentence_124

The Kindites migrated from Yemen along with the Ghassanids and Lakhmids, but were turned back in Bahrain by the Abdul Qais Rabi'a tribe. Arabs_sentence_125

They returned to Yemen and allied themselves with the Himyarites who installed them as a vassal kingdom that ruled Central Arabia from "Qaryah Dhat Kahl" (the present-day called Qaryat al-Faw). Arabs_sentence_126

They ruled much of the Northern/Central Arabian peninsula, until they were destroyed by the Lakhmid king Al-Mundhir, and his son 'Amr. Arabs_sentence_127

Medieval period Arabs_section_6

Arab caliphates Arabs_section_7

Rashidun era (632–661) Arabs_section_8

Main article: Rashidun Caliphate Arabs_sentence_128

After the death of Muhammad in 632, Rashidun armies launched campaigns of conquest, establishing the Caliphate, or Islamic Empire, one of the largest empires in history. Arabs_sentence_129

It was larger and lasted longer than the previous Arab empire of Queen Mawia or the Aramean-Arab Palmyrene Empire. Arabs_sentence_130

The Rashidun state was a completely new state and unlike the Arab kingdoms of its century such as the Himyarite, Lakhmids or Ghassanids. Arabs_sentence_131

Umayyad era (661–750 & 756–1031) Arabs_section_9

Main article: Umayyad Caliphate Arabs_sentence_132

See also: Caliphate of Córdoba and Al-Andalus Arabs_sentence_133

See also: Abbadid, Taifa, Nasrid dynasty (Sistan), Zengid dynasty, and Ikhshidid dynasty Arabs_sentence_134

In 661, the Rashidun Caliphate fell into the hands of the Umayyad dynasty and Damascus was established as the empire's capital. Arabs_sentence_135

The Umayyads were proud of their Arab identity and sponsored the poetry and culture of pre-Islamic Arabia. Arabs_sentence_136

They established garrison towns at Ramla, Raqqa, Basra, Kufa, Mosul and Samarra, all of which developed into major cities. Arabs_sentence_137

Caliph Abd al-Malik established Arabic as the Caliphate's official language in 686. Arabs_sentence_138

This reform greatly influenced the conquered non-Arab peoples and fueled the Arabization of the region. Arabs_sentence_139

However, the Arabs' higher status among non-Arab Muslim converts and the latter's obligation to pay heavy taxes caused resentment. Arabs_sentence_140

Caliph Umar II strove to resolve the conflict when he came to power in 717. Arabs_sentence_141

He rectified the disparity, demanding that all Muslims be treated as equals, but his intended reforms did not take effect, as he died after only three years of rule. Arabs_sentence_142

By now, discontent with the Umayyads swept the region and an uprising occurred in which the Abbasids came to power and moved the capital to Baghdad. Arabs_sentence_143

Umayyads expanded their Empire westwards capturing North Africa from the Byzantines. Arabs_sentence_144

Before the Arab conquest, North Africa was conquered or settled by various people including Punics, Vandals and Romans. Arabs_sentence_145

After the Abbasid Revolution, the Umayyads lost most of their territories with the exception of Iberia. Arabs_sentence_146

Their last holding became known as the Emirate of Córdoba. Arabs_sentence_147

It wasn't until the rule of the grandson of the founder of this new emirate that the state entered a new phase as the Caliphate of Córdoba. Arabs_sentence_148

This new state was characterized by an expansion of trade, culture and knowledge, and saw the construction of masterpieces of al-Andalus architecture and the library of Al-Ḥakam II which housed over 400,000 volumes. Arabs_sentence_149

With the collapse of the Umayyad state in 1031 CE, Islamic Spain was divided into small kingdoms. Arabs_sentence_150

Abbasid era (750–1258 & 1261–1517) Arabs_section_10

Main article: Abbasid Caliphate Arabs_sentence_151

The Abbasids were the descendants of Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, one of the youngest uncles of Muhammad and of the same Banu Hashim clan. Arabs_sentence_152

The Abbasids led a revolt against the Umayyads and defeated them in the Battle of the Zab effectively ending their rule in all parts of the Empire with the exception of al-Andalus. Arabs_sentence_153

In 762, the second Abbasid Caliph al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad and declared it the capital of the Caliphate. Arabs_sentence_154

Unlike the Umayyads, the Abbasids had the support of non-Arab subjects. Arabs_sentence_155

The Islamic Golden Age was inaugurated by the middle of the 8th century by the ascension of the Abbasid Caliphate and the transfer of the capital from Damascus to the newly founded city of Baghdad. Arabs_sentence_156

The Abbassids were influenced by the Qur'anic injunctions and hadith such as "The ink of the scholar is more holy than the blood of martyrs" stressing the value of knowledge. Arabs_sentence_157

During this period the Muslim world became an intellectual centre for science, philosophy, medicine and education as the Abbasids championed the cause of knowledge and established the "House of Wisdom" (Arabic: بيت الحكمة‎) in Baghdad. Arabs_sentence_158

Rival dynasties such as the Fatimids of Egypt and the Umayyads of al-Andalus were also major intellectual centres with cities such as Cairo and Córdoba rivaling Baghdad. Arabs_sentence_159

The Abbasids ruled for 200 years before they lost their central control when Wilayas began to fracture in the 10th century; afterwards, in the 1190s, there was a revival of their power, which was ended by the Mongols, who conquered Baghdad in 1258 and killed the Caliph Al-Musta'sim. Arabs_sentence_160

Members of the Abbasid royal family escaped the massacre and resorted to Cairo, which had broken from the Abbasid rule two years earlier; the Mamluk generals taking the political side of the kingdom while Abbasid Caliphs were engaged in civil activities and continued patronizing science, arts and literature. Arabs_sentence_161

Fatimid Caliphate (909–1171) Arabs_section_11

Main article: Fatimid Caliphate Arabs_sentence_162

The Fatimid caliphate was founded by al-Mahdi Billah, a descendant of Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad, in the early 10th century. Arabs_sentence_163

Egypt was the political, cultural, and religious centre of the Fatimid empire. Arabs_sentence_164

The Fatimid state took shape among the Kutama Berbers, in the West of the North African littoral, in Algeria, in 909 conquering Raqqada, the Aghlabid capital. Arabs_sentence_165

In 921 the Fatimids established the Tunisian city of Mahdia as their new capital. Arabs_sentence_166

In 948 they shifted their capital to Al-Mansuriya, near Kairouan in Tunisia, and in 969 they conquered Egypt and established Cairo as the capital of their caliphate. Arabs_sentence_167

Intellectual life in Egypt during the Fatimid period achieved great progress and activity, due to many scholars who lived in or came to Egypt, as well as the number of books available. Arabs_sentence_168

Fatimid Caliphs gave prominent positions to scholars in their courts, encouraged students, and established libraries in their palaces, so that scholars might expand their knowledge and reap benefits from the work of their predecessors. Arabs_sentence_169

The Fatimids were also known for their exquisite arts. Arabs_sentence_170

Many traces of Fatimid architecture exist in Cairo today; the most defining examples include Al-Hakim Mosque and the Al-Azhar University. Arabs_sentence_171

It was not until the 11th century that the Maghreb saw a large influx of ethnic Arabs. Arabs_sentence_172

Starting with the 11th century, the Arab bedouin Banu Hilal tribes migrated to the West. Arabs_sentence_173

Having been sent by the Fatimids to punish the Berber Zirids for abandoning Shias, they travelled westwards. Arabs_sentence_174

The Banu Hilal quickly defeated the Zirids and deeply weakened the neighboring Hammadids. Arabs_sentence_175

According to some modern historians. Arabs_sentence_176

their influx was a major factor in the arabization of the Maghreb. Arabs_sentence_177

Although Berbers ruled the region until the 16th century (under such powerful dynasties as the Almoravids, the Almohads, Hafsids, etc.), the arrival of these tribes eventually helped Arabize much of it ethnically, in addition to the linguistic and political impact on local non-Arabs. Arabs_sentence_178

Ottoman Empire Arabs_section_12

Main articles: Ottoman Empire and Ottoman Caliphate Arabs_sentence_179

From 1517 to 1918, much of the Arab world was under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire. Arabs_sentence_180

The Ottomans defeated the Mamluk Sultanate in Cairo, and ended the Abbasid Caliphate. Arabs_sentence_181

Arabs did not feel the change of administration because the Ottomans modeled their rule after the previous Arab administration systems. Arabs_sentence_182

In 1911, Arab intellectuals and politicians from throughout the Levant formed al-Fatat ("the Young Arab Society"), a small Arab nationalist club, in Paris. Arabs_sentence_183

Its stated aim was "raising the level of the Arab nation to the level of modern nations." Arabs_sentence_184

In the first few years of its existence, al-Fatat called for greater autonomy within a unified Ottoman state rather than Arab independence from the empire. Arabs_sentence_185

Al-Fatat hosted the Arab Congress of 1913 in Paris, the purpose of which was to discuss desired reforms with other dissenting individuals from the Arab world. Arabs_sentence_186

However, as the Ottoman authorities cracked down on the organization's activities and members, al-Fatat went underground and demanded the complete independence and unity of the Arab provinces. Arabs_sentence_187

After World War I, when the Ottoman Empire was overthrown by the British Empire, former Ottoman colonies were divided up between the British and French as League of Nations mandates. Arabs_sentence_188

Modern period Arabs_section_13

Arabs in modern times live in the Arab world, which comprises 22 countries in Western Asia, North Africa, and parts of the Horn of Africa. Arabs_sentence_189

They are all modern states and became significant as distinct political entities after the fall and defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1922). Arabs_sentence_190

Identity Arabs_section_14

Further information: Arab identity Arabs_sentence_191

Arab identity is defined independently of religious identity, and pre-dates the spread of Islam, with historically attested Arab Christian kingdoms and Arab Jewish tribes. Arabs_sentence_192

Today, however, most Arabs are Muslim, with a minority adhering to other faiths, largely Christianity, but also Druze and Baháʼí. Arabs_sentence_193

Paternal descent has traditionally been considered the main source of affiliation in the Arab world when it comes to membership into an ethnic group or clan. Arabs_sentence_194

Today, the main unifying characteristic among Arabs is Arabic, a Central Semitic language from the Afroasiatic language family. Arabs_sentence_195

Modern Standard Arabic serves as the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing. Arabs_sentence_196

The Arabs are first mentioned in the mid-ninth century BCE as a tribal people dwelling in the central Arabian Peninsula subjugated by Upper Mesopotamia-based state of Assyria. Arabs_sentence_197

The Arabs appear to have remained largely under the vassalage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–605 BCE), and then the succeeding Neo-Babylonian Empire (605–539 BCE), Persian Achaemenid Empire (539–332 BCE), Greek Macedonian/Seleucid Empire and Parthian Empire. Arabs_sentence_198

Arab tribes, most notably the Ghassanids and Lakhmids begin to appear in the south Syrian deserts and southern Jordan from the mid 3rd century CE onwards, during the mid to later stages of the Roman Empire and Sasanian Empire. Arabs_sentence_199

Also, before them the Nabataeans of Jordan and arguably the Emessans, Edessans, and Hatrans all appear to have been an Aramaic speaking ethnic Arabs who came to rule much of the pre-Islamic fertile crescent often as vassals of the two rival empires, the Sasanian (Persian) and the Byzantine (Eastern Roman). Arabs_sentence_200

Thus, although a more limited diffusion of Arab culture and language was felt in some areas by these migrant minority Arabs in pre-Islamic times through Arabic-speaking Christian kingdoms and Jewish tribes, it was only after the rise of Islam in the mid-7th century that Arab culture, people and language began their wholesale spread from the central Arabian Peninsula (including the south Syrian desert) through conquest and trade. Arabs_sentence_201

Subgroups Arabs_section_15

Further information: Tribes of Arabia Arabs_sentence_202

Arabs in the narrow sense are the indigenous Arabians who trace their roots back to the tribes of Arabia and their immediate descendant groups in the Levant and North Africa. Arabs_sentence_203

Within the people of the Arabian Peninsula, distinction is made between: Arabs_sentence_204


  • "Perishing Arabs" (Arabic: الـعـرب الـبـائـدة‎), which are ancient tribes about whose history little is known. They include ʿĀd (Arabic: عَـاد‎), Thamûd (Arabic: ثَـمُـود‎), Tasm, Jadis, Imlaq and others. Jadis and Tasm perished because of genocide. 'Aad and Thamud perished because of their decadence, as recorded in the Qur'an. Archaeologists have recently uncovered inscriptions that contain references to Iram dhāṫ al-'Imād (Arabic: إِرَم ذَات الـعِـمَـاد‎, Iram of the Pillars), which was a major city of the 'Aad. Imlaq is the singular form of 'Amaleeq and is probably synonymous to the biblical Amalek.Arabs_item_1_3
  • "Pure Arabs" (Arabic: الـعـرب الـعـاربـة‎) or Qahtanites from Yemen, taken to be descended from Ya'rub ibn Yashjub ibn Qahtan and further from Hud.Arabs_item_1_4
  • "Arabized Arabs" (Arabic: الـعـرب الـمـسـتـعـربـة‎) or Adnanites, taken to be the descendants of Ishmael son of Abraham.Arabs_item_1_5

Arabians are most prevalent in the Arabian Peninsula, but are also found in large numbers in Mesopotamia (Arab tribes in Iraq), the Levant and Sinai (Negev Bedouin, Tarabin bedouin), as well as the Maghreb (Eastern Libya, South Tunisia and South Algeria) and the Sudan region. Arabs_sentence_205

This traditional division of the Arabs of Arabia may have arisen at the time of the First Fitna. Arabs_sentence_206

Of the Arabian tribes that interacted with Muhammad, the most prominent was the Quraysh. Arabs_sentence_207

The Quraysh subclan, the Banu Hashim, was the clan of Muhammad. Arabs_sentence_208

During the early Muslim conquests and the Islamic Golden Age, the political rulers of Islam were exclusively members of the Quraysh. Arabs_sentence_209

The Arab presence in Iran did not begin with the Arab conquest of Persia in 633 CE. Arabs_sentence_210

For centuries, Iranian rulers had maintained contacts with Arabs outside their borders, dealt with Arab subjects and client states (such as those of Iraq and Yemen), and settled Arab tribesmen in various parts of the Iranian plateau. Arabs_sentence_211

It follows that the "Arab" conquests and settlements were by no means the exclusive work of Arabs from the Hejaz and the tribesmen of inner Arabia. Arabs_sentence_212

The Arab infiltration into Iran began before the Muslim conquests and continued as a result of the joint exertions of the civilized Arabs (ahl al-madar) as well as the desert Arabs (ahl al-wabar). Arabs_sentence_213

The largest group of Iranian Arabs are the Ahwazi Arabs, including Banu Ka'b, Bani Turuf and the Musha'sha'iyyah sect. Arabs_sentence_214

Smaller groups are the Khamseh nomads in Fars Province and the Arabs in Khorasan. Arabs_sentence_215

The Arabs of the Levant are traditionally divided into Qays and Yaman tribes. Arabs_sentence_216

This tribal division is likewise taken to date to the Umayyad period. Arabs_sentence_217

The Yemen trace their origin to South Arabia or Yemen; they include Banu Kalb, Kindah, Ghassanids, and Lakhmids. Arabs_sentence_218

Since the 1834 Peasants' revolt in Palestine, the Arabic-speaking population of Palestine has shed its formerly tribal structure and emerged as the Palestinians. Arabs_sentence_219

Native Jordanians are either descended from Bedouins (of which, 6% live a nomadic lifestyle), or from the many deeply rooted non bedouin communities across the country, most notably Al-Salt city west of Amman which was at the time of Emirate the largest urban settlement east of the Jordan River. Arabs_sentence_220

Along with indigenous communities in Al Husn, Aqaba, Irbid, Al Karak, Madaba, Jerash, Ajloun, Fuheis and Pella. Arabs_sentence_221

In Jordan, there is no official census data for how many inhabitants have Palestinian roots but they are estimated to constitute half of the population, which in 2008 amounted to about 3 million. Arabs_sentence_222

Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics put their number at 3.24 million in 2009. Arabs_sentence_223

The Bedouins of western Egypt and eastern Libya are traditionally divided into Saʿada and Murabtin, the Saʿada having higher social status. Arabs_sentence_224

This may derive from a historical feudal system in which the Murabtin were vassals to the Saʿada. Arabs_sentence_225

In Sudan, there are numerous Arabic-speaking tribes, including the Shaigya, Ja'alin and Shukria, who are ancestrally related to the Nubians. Arabs_sentence_226

These groups are collectively known as Sudanese Arabs. Arabs_sentence_227

In addition, there are other Afroasiatic-speaking populations, such as Copts and Beja. Arabs_sentence_228

The medieval Arab slave trade in the Sudan drove a wedge between the Arabized Sudanese and the non-Arabized Nilotic Sudanese populations. Arabs_sentence_229

Slavery substantially persists today along these lines. Arabs_sentence_230

It has contributed to ethnic conflict in the region, such as the Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile, Northern Mali conflict, or the Boko Haram insurgency. Arabs_sentence_231

The Arabs of the Maghreb are descendants of Arabian tribes of Banu Hilal, the Banu Sulaym and the Maqil native of Middle East and of other tribes native to Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Iraq. Arabs_sentence_232

Arabs and Arabic-speakers inhabit plains and cities. Arabs_sentence_233

The Banu Hilal spent almost a century in Egypt before moving to Libya, Tunisia and Algeria, and another century later some moved to Morocco, it is logical to think that they are mixed with inhabitants of Egypt and with Libya. Arabs_sentence_234

Demographics Arabs_section_16

The total number of Arabic speakers living in the Arab nations is estimated at 366 million by the CIA Factbook (as of 2014). Arabs_sentence_235

The estimated number of Arabs in countries outside the Arab League is estimated at 17.5 million, yielding a total of close to 384 million. Arabs_sentence_236

Arab world Arabs_section_17

According to the Charter of the Arab League (also known as the Pact of the League of Arab States), the League of Arab States is composed of independent Arab states that are signatories to the Charter. Arabs_sentence_237

Although all Arab states have Arabic as an official language, there are many non-Arabic-speaking populations native to the Arab world. Arabs_sentence_238

Among these are Berbers, Toubou, Nubians, Jews, Kurds, Armenians. Arabs_sentence_239

Additionally, many Arab countries in the Persian Gulf have sizable non-Arab immigrant populations (10–30%). Arabs_sentence_240

Iraq, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Oman have a Persian speaking minority. Arabs_sentence_241

The same countries also have Hindi-Urdu speakers and Filipinos as sizable minority. Arabs_sentence_242

Balochi speakers are a good size minority in Oman. Arabs_sentence_243

Additionally, countries like Bahrain, UAE, Oman and Kuwait have significant non-Arab and non-Muslim minorities (10–20%) like Hindus and Christians from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and the Philippines. Arabs_sentence_244

The table below shows the distribution of populations in the Arab world, as well as the official language(s) within the various Arab states. Arabs_sentence_245

Arab diaspora Arabs_section_18

Main articles: Arab diaspora and List of Arabic neighborhoods Arabs_sentence_246

Arab diaspora refers to descendants of the Arab immigrants who, voluntarily or as refugees, emigrated from their native lands in non-Arab countries, primarily in East Africa, South America, Europe, North America, Australia and parts of South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, and West Africa. Arabs_sentence_247

According to the International Organization for Migration, there are 13 million first-generation Arab migrants in the world, of which 5.8 million reside in Arab countries. Arabs_sentence_248

Arab expatriates contribute to the circulation of financial and human capital in the region and thus significantly promote regional development. Arabs_sentence_249

In 2009, Arab countries received a total of 35.1 billion USD in remittance in-flows and remittances sent to Jordan, Egypt and Lebanon from other Arab countries are 40 to 190 per cent higher than trade revenues between these and other Arab countries. Arabs_sentence_250

The 250,000 strong Lebanese community in West Africa is the largest non-African group in the region. Arabs_sentence_251

Arab traders have long operated in Southeast Asia and along the East Africa's Swahili coast. Arabs_sentence_252

Zanzibar was once ruled by Omani Arabs. Arabs_sentence_253

Most of the prominent Indonesians, Malaysians, and Singaporeans of Arab descent are Hadhrami people with origins in southern Arabia in the Hadramawt coastal region. Arabs_sentence_254

There are millions of Arabs living in Europe, mostly concentrated in France (about 6,000,000 in 2005). Arabs_sentence_255

Most Arabs in France are from the Maghreb but some also come from the Mashreq areas of the Arab world. Arabs_sentence_256

Arabs in France form the second largest ethnic group after ethnically French people. Arabs_sentence_257

The modern Arab population of Spain numbers 1,800,000, and there have been Arabs in Spain since the early 8th century when the Umayyad conquest of Hispania created the state of Al-Andalus. Arabs_sentence_258

In Germany the Arab population numbers over 1,000,000, in Italy about 680,000, in the United Kingdom between 366,769 and 500,000, and in Greece between 250,000 and 750,000). Arabs_sentence_259

In addition, Greece is home to people from Arab countries who have the status of refugees (e.g. refugees of the Syrian civil war). Arabs_sentence_260

In the Netherlands 180,000, and in Denmark 121,000. Arabs_sentence_261

Other European countries are also home to Arab populations, including Norway, Austria, Bulgaria, Switzerland, North Macedonia, Romania and Serbia. Arabs_sentence_262

As of late 2015, Turkey had a total population of 78.7 million, with Syrian refugees accounting for 3.1% of that figure based on conservative estimates. Arabs_sentence_263

Demographics indicated that the country previously had 1,500,000 to 2,000,000 Arab residents, so Turkey's Arab population is now 4.5 to 5.1% of the total population, or approximately 4–5 million people. Arabs_sentence_264

Arab immigration to the United States began in sizable numbers during the 1880s. Arabs_sentence_265

Today, it is estimated that nearly 3.7 million Americans trace their roots to an Arab country. Arabs_sentence_266

Arab Americans are found in every state, but more than two thirds of them live in just ten states: California, Michigan, New York, Florida, Texas, New Jersey, Illinois, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. Arabs_sentence_267

Metropolitan Los Angeles, Detroit, and New York City are home to one-third of the population. Arabs_sentence_268

Contrary to popular assumptions or stereotypes, the majority of Arab Americans are native-born, and nearly 82% of Arabs in the U.S. are citizens. Arabs_sentence_269

Arabs immigrants began to arrive in Canada in small numbers in 1882. Arabs_sentence_270

Their immigration was relatively limited until 1945, after which time it increased progressively, particularly in the 1960s and thereafter. Arabs_sentence_271

According to the website "Who are Arab Canadians," Montreal, the Canadian city with the largest Arab population, has approximately 267,000 Arab inhabitants. Arabs_sentence_272

Latin America has the largest Arab population outside of the Arab World. Arabs_sentence_273

Latin America is home to anywhere from 17–25 to 30 million people of Arab descent, which is more than any other diaspora region in the world. Arabs_sentence_274

The Brazilian and Lebanese governments claim there are 7 million Brazilians of Lebanese descent. Arabs_sentence_275

Also, the Brazilian government claims there are 4 million Brazilians of Syrian descent. Arabs_sentence_276

According to research conducted by IBGE in 2008, covering only the states of Amazonas, Paraíba, São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso and Distrito Federal, 0.9% of white Brazilian respondents said they had family origins in the Middle East. Arabs_sentence_277

Other large Arab communities includes Argentina (about 4,500,000) The interethnic marriage in the Arab community, regardless of religious affiliation, is very high; most community members have only one parent who has Arab ethnicity. Arabs_sentence_278

Venezuela (over 1,600,000), Colombia (over 1,600,000 to 3,200,000), Mexico (over 1,100,000), Chile (over 800,000), and Central America, particularly El Salvador, and Honduras (between 150,000 and 200,000). Arabs_sentence_279

is the fourth largest in the world after those in Israel, Lebanon, and Jordan. Arabs_sentence_280

Arab Haitians (a large number of whom live in the capital) are more often than not, concentrated in financial areas where the majority of them establish businesses. Arabs_sentence_281

In 1728, a Russian officer described a group of Arab nomads who populated the Caspian shores of Mughan (in present-day Azerbaijan) and spoke a mixed Turkic-Arabic language. Arabs_sentence_282

It is believed that these groups migrated to the South Caucasus in the 16th century. Arabs_sentence_283

The 1888 edition of Encyclopædia Britannica also mentioned a certain number of Arabs populating the Baku Governorate of the Russian Empire. Arabs_sentence_284

They retained an Arabic dialect at least into the mid-19th century, there are nearly 30 settlements still holding the name Arab (for example, Arabgadim, Arabojaghy, Arab-Yengija, etc.). Arabs_sentence_285

From the time of the Arab conquest of the South Caucasus, continuous small-scale Arab migration from various parts of the Arab world occurred in Dagestan. Arabs_sentence_286

The majority of these lived in the village of Darvag, to the north-west of Derbent. Arabs_sentence_287

The latest of these accounts dates to the 1930s. Arabs_sentence_288

Most Arab communities in southern Dagestan underwent linguistic Turkicisation, thus nowadays Darvag is a majority-Azeri village. Arabs_sentence_289

According to the History of Ibn Khaldun, the Arabs that were once in Central Asia have been either killed or have fled the Tatar invasion of the region, leaving only the locals. Arabs_sentence_290

However, today many people in Central Asia identify as Arabs. Arabs_sentence_291

Most Arabs of Central Asia are fully integrated into local populations, and sometimes call themselves the same as locals (for example, Tajiks, Uzbeks) but they use special titles to show their Arab origin such as Sayyid, Khoja or Siddiqui. Arabs_sentence_292

There are only two communities in India which self-identify as Arabs, the Chaush of the Deccan region and the Chavuse of Gujarat. Arabs_sentence_293

These groups are largely descended from Hadhrami migrants who settled in these two regions in the 18th century. Arabs_sentence_294

However, neither community still speaks Arabic, although the Chaush have seen re-immigration to the Arab States of the Persian Gulf and thus a re-adoption of Arabic. Arabs_sentence_295

In South Asia, where Arab ancestry is considered prestigious, many communities have origin myths that claim Arab ancestry. Arabs_sentence_296

These include the Mappilla of Kerala and the Labbai of Tamil Nadu. Arabs_sentence_297

Among North Indian and Pakistani Arabs, there are groups who claim the status of Sayyid and have origin myths that allege descent from Muhammad. Arabs_sentence_298

The South Asian Iraqi biradri may be considered Arabs because records of their ancestors who migrated from Iraq exist in historical documents. Arabs_sentence_299

There are about 5,000,000 Native Indonesians with Arab ancestry. Arabs_sentence_300

Arab Indonesians are mainly of Hadrami descent. Arabs_sentence_301

The Sri Lankan Moors are the third largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, comprising 9.23% of the country's total population. Arabs_sentence_302

Some sources trace the ancestry of the Sri Lankan Moors to Arab traders who settled in Sri Lanka at some time between the 8th and 15th centuries. Arabs_sentence_303

Afro-Arabs are individuals and groups from Africa who are of partial Arab descent. Arabs_sentence_304

Most Afro-Arabs inhabit the Swahili Coast in the African Great Lakes region, although some can also be found in parts of the Arab world. Arabs_sentence_305

Large numbers of Arabs migrated to West Africa, particularly Côte d'Ivoire (home to over 100,000 Lebanese), Senegal (roughly 30,000 Lebanese), Sierra Leone (roughly 10,000 Lebanese today; about 30,000 prior to the outbreak of civil war in 1991), Liberia, and Nigeria. Arabs_sentence_306

Since the end of the civil war in 2002, Lebanese traders have become re-established in Sierra Leone. Arabs_sentence_307

The Arabs of Chad occupy northern Cameroon and Nigeria (where they are sometimes known as Shuwa), and extend as a belt across Chad and into Sudan, where they are called the Baggara grouping of Arab ethnic groups inhabiting the portion of Africa's Sahel. Arabs_sentence_308

There are 171,000 in Cameroon, 150,000 in Niger), and 107,000 in the Central African Republic. Arabs_sentence_309

Religion Arabs_section_19

Main articles: Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia, Arab Muslims, Arab Christians, Druze, and Baháʼí Faith Arabs_sentence_310

Arabs are mostly Muslims with a Sunni majority and a Shia minority, one exception being the Ibadis, who predominate in Oman. Arabs_sentence_311

Arab Christians generally follow Eastern Churches such as the Greek Orthodox and Greek Catholic churches, though a minority of Protestant Church followers also exists. Arabs_sentence_312

There are also Arab communities consisting of Druze and Baháʼís. Arabs_sentence_313

Before the coming of Islam, most Arabs followed a pagan religion with a number of deities, including Hubal, Wadd, Allāt, Manat, and Uzza. Arabs_sentence_314

A few individuals, the hanifs, had apparently rejected polytheism in favor of monotheism unaffiliated with any particular religion. Arabs_sentence_315

Some tribes had converted to Christianity or Judaism. Arabs_sentence_316

The most prominent Arab Christian kingdoms were the Ghassanid and Lakhmid kingdoms. Arabs_sentence_317

When the Himyarite king converted to Judaism in the late 4th century, the elites of the other prominent Arab kingdom, the Kindites, being Himyirite vassals, apparently also converted (at least partly). Arabs_sentence_318

With the expansion of Islam, polytheistic Arabs were rapidly Islamized, and polytheistic traditions gradually disappeared. Arabs_sentence_319

Today, Sunni Islam dominates in most areas, overwhelmingly so in North Africa and the Horn of Africa. Arabs_sentence_320

Shia Islam is dominant among the Arab population in Bahrain and southern Iraq while northern Iraq is mostly Sunni. Arabs_sentence_321

Substantial Shia populations exist in Lebanon, Yemen, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, northern Syria and Al-Batinah Region in Oman. Arabs_sentence_322

There are small numbers of Ibadi and non-denominational Muslims too. Arabs_sentence_323

The Druze community is concentrated in Lebanon, Syria, Israel and Jordan. Arabs_sentence_324

Many Druze claim independence from other major religions in the area and consider their religion more of a philosophy. Arabs_sentence_325

Their books of worship are called Kitab Al Hikma (Epistles of Wisdom). Arabs_sentence_326

They believe in reincarnation and pray to five messengers from God. Arabs_sentence_327

In Israel, the Druze have a status aparte from the general Arab population, treated as a separate ethno-religious community. Arabs_sentence_328

Christianity had a prominent presence In pre-Islamic Arabia among several Arab communities, including the Bahrani people of Eastern Arabia, the Christian community of Najran, in parts of Yemen, and among certain northern Arabian tribes such as the Ghassanids, Lakhmids, Taghlib, Banu Amela, Banu Judham, Tanukhids and Tayy. Arabs_sentence_329

In the early Christian centuries, Arabia was sometimes known as Arabia heretica, due to its being "well known as a breeding-ground for heterodox interpretations of Christianity." Arabs_sentence_330

Christians make up 5.5% of the population of Western Asia and North Africa. Arabs_sentence_331

A sizeable share of those are Arab Christians proper, and affiliated Arabic-speaking populations of Copts and Maronites. Arabs_sentence_332

In Lebanon, Christians number about 40.5% of the population. Arabs_sentence_333

In Syria, Christians make up 10% of the population. Arabs_sentence_334

In West Bank and in Gaza Strip, Christians make up 8% and 0.7% of the populations, respectively. Arabs_sentence_335

In Egypt, Coptic Christians number about 10% of the population. Arabs_sentence_336

In Iraq, Christians constitute 0.1% of the population. Arabs_sentence_337

In Israel, Arab Christians constitute 2.1% (roughly 9% of the Arab population). Arabs_sentence_338

Arab Christians make up 8% of the population of Jordan. Arabs_sentence_339

Most North and South American Arabs are Christian, so are about half of the Arabs in Australia who come particularly from Lebanon, Syria and Palestine. Arabs_sentence_340

One well known member of this religious and ethnic community is Saint Abo, martyr and the patron saint of Tbilisi, Georgia. Arabs_sentence_341

Arab Christians also live in holy Christian cities such as Nazareth, Bethlehem and the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem and many other villages with holy Christian sites. Arabs_sentence_342

Culture Arabs_section_20

Main article: Arab culture Arabs_sentence_343

Arabic culture is the culture of Arab people, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea. Arabs_sentence_344

Language, literature, gastronomy, art, architecture, music, spirituality, philosophy, mysticism (etc.) are all part of the cultural heritage of the Arabs. Arabs_sentence_345

Arabs share basic beliefs and values that cross national and social class boundaries. Arabs_sentence_346

Social attitudes have remained constant because Arab society is more conservative and demands conformity from its members. Arabs_sentence_347

Language Arabs_section_21

Main article: Arabic Arabs_sentence_348

Another important and unifying characteristic of Arabs is a common language. Arabs_sentence_349

Arabic is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic Family. Arabs_sentence_350

Evidence of its first use appears in accounts of wars in 853 BCE. Arabs_sentence_351

It also became widely used in trade and commerce. Arabs_sentence_352

Arabic also is a liturgical language of 1.7 billion Muslims. Arabs_sentence_353

Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. Arabs_sentence_354

It is revered as the language that God chose to reveal the Quran. Arabs_sentence_355

Arabic has developed into at least two distinct forms. Arabs_sentence_356

Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in literary texts from Umayyad and Abbasid times (7th to 9th centuries). Arabs_sentence_357

It is based on the medieval dialects of Arab tribes. Arabs_sentence_358

Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) is the direct descendant used today throughout the Arab world in writing and in formal speaking, for example, prepared speeches, some radio broadcasts, and non-entertainment content, while the lexis and stylistics of Modern Standard Arabic are different from Classical Arabic. Arabs_sentence_359

Colloquial Arabic, an informal spoken language, varies by dialect from region to region; various forms of the language are in use today and provide an important force for Arab cohesion. Arabs_sentence_360

Mythology Arabs_section_22

Main article: Arabian mythology Arabs_sentence_361

Arabic mythology comprises the ancient beliefs of the Arabs. Arabs_sentence_362

Prior to Islam the Kaaba of Mecca was covered in symbols representing the myriad demons, djinn, demigods, or simply tribal gods and other assorted deities which represented the polytheistic culture of pre-Islamic. Arabs_sentence_363

It has been inferred from this plurality an exceptionally broad context in which mythology could flourish. Arabs_sentence_364

The most popular beasts and demons of Arabian mythology are Bahamut, Dandan, Falak, Ghoul, Hinn, Jinn, Karkadann, Marid, Nasnas, Qareen, Roc, Shadhavar, Werehyena and other assorted creatures which represented the profoundly polytheistic environment of pre-Islamic. Arabs_sentence_365

The most obvious symbol of Arabian mythology is the Jinn or genie. Arabs_sentence_366

Jinns are supernatural beings of varying degrees of power. Arabs_sentence_367

They possess free will (that is, they can choose to be good or evil) and come in two flavors. Arabs_sentence_368

There are the Marids, usually described as the most powerful type of Jinn. Arabs_sentence_369

These are the type of genie with the ability to grant wishes to humans. Arabs_sentence_370

However, granting these wishes is not free. Arabs_sentence_371

The Quran says that the jinn were created from "mārijin min nar" (smokeless fire or a mixture of fire; scholars explained, this is the part of the flame, which mixed with the blackness of fire). Arabs_sentence_372

They are not purely spiritual, but are also physical in nature, being able to interact in a tactile manner with people and objects and likewise be acted upon. Arabs_sentence_373

The jinn, humans, and angels make up the known sapient creations of God. Arabs_sentence_374

A ghoul is a monster or evil spirit in Arabic mythology, associated with graveyards and consuming human flesh, demonic being believed to inhabit burial grounds and other deserted places. Arabs_sentence_375

In ancient Arabic folklore, ghūls belonged to a diabolic class of jinn (spirits) and were said to be the offspring of Iblīs, the prince of darkness in Islam. Arabs_sentence_376

They were capable of constantly changing form, but their presence was always recognizable by their unalterable sign—ass's hooves. Arabs_sentence_377

which describes the ghūl of Arabic folklore. Arabs_sentence_378

The ghul is a devilish type of jinn believed to be sired by Iblis. Arabs_sentence_379

Literature Arabs_section_23

Main article: Arabic literature Arabs_sentence_380

Al-Jahiz (born 776, in Basra – December 868/January 869) was an Arab prose writer and author of works of literature, Mu'tazili theology, and politico-religious polemics. Arabs_sentence_381

A leading scholar in the Abassid Caliphate, his canon includes two hundred books on various subjects, including Arabic grammar, zoology, poetry, lexicography, and rhetoric. Arabs_sentence_382

Of his writings, only thirty books survive. Arabs_sentence_383

Al-Jāḥiẓ was also one of the first Arabian writers to suggest a complete overhaul of the language's grammatical system, though this would not be undertaken until his fellow linguist Ibn Maḍāʾ took up the matter two hundred years later. Arabs_sentence_384

There is a small remnant of pre-Islamic poetry, but Arabic literature predominantly emerges in the Middle Ages, during the Golden Age of Islam. Arabs_sentence_385

Literary Arabic is derived from Classical Arabic, based on the language of the Quran as it was analyzed by Arabic grammarians beginning in the 8th century. Arabs_sentence_386

A large portion of Arabic literature before the 20th century is in the form of poetry, and even prose from this period is either filled with snippets of poetry or is in the form of saj or rhymed prose. Arabs_sentence_387

The ghazal or love poem had a long history being at times tender and chaste and at other times rather explicit. Arabs_sentence_388

In the Sufi tradition the love poem would take on a wider, mystical and religious importance. Arabs_sentence_389

Arabic epic literature was much less common than poetry, and presumably originates in oral tradition, written down from the 14th century or so. Arabs_sentence_390

Maqama or rhymed prose is intermediate between poetry and prose, and also between fiction and non-fiction. Arabs_sentence_391

Maqama was an incredibly popular form of Arabic literature, being one of the few forms which continued to be written during the decline of Arabic in the 17th and 18th centuries. Arabs_sentence_392

Arabic literature and culture declined significantly after the 13th century, to the benefit of Turkish and Persian. Arabs_sentence_393

A modern revival took place beginning in the 19th century, alongside resistance against Ottoman rule. Arabs_sentence_394

The literary revival is known as al-Nahda in Arabic, and was centered in Egypt and Lebanon. Arabs_sentence_395

Two distinct trends can be found in the nahda period of revival. Arabs_sentence_396

The first was a neo-classical movement which sought to rediscover the literary traditions of the past, and was influenced by traditional literary genres—such as the maqama—and works like One Thousand and One Nights. Arabs_sentence_397

In contrast, a modernist movement began by translating Western modernist works—primarily novels—into Arabic. Arabs_sentence_398

A tradition of modern Arabic poetry was established by writers such as Francis Marrash, Ahmad Shawqi and Hafiz Ibrahim. Arabs_sentence_399

Iraqi poet Badr Shakir al-Sayyab is considered to be the originator of free verse in Arabic poetry. Arabs_sentence_400

Gastronomy Arabs_section_24

Main article: Arabic cuisine Arabs_sentence_401

Arabic cuisine is the cuisine of the Arab people. Arabs_sentence_402

The cuisines are often centuries old and reflect the culture of great trading in spices, herbs, and foods. Arabs_sentence_403

The three main regions, also known as the Maghreb, the Mashriq, and the Khaleej have many similarities, but also many unique traditions. Arabs_sentence_404

These kitchens have been influenced by the climate, cultivating possibilities, as well as trading possibilities. Arabs_sentence_405

The kitchens of the Maghreb and Levant are relatively young kitchens which were developed over the past centuries. Arabs_sentence_406

The kitchen from the Khaleej region is a very old kitchen. Arabs_sentence_407

The kitchens can be divided into the urban and rural kitchens. Arabs_sentence_408

Arab cuisine mostly follows one of three culinary traditions – from the Maghreb, the Levant or the Persian Gulf states. Arabs_sentence_409

In the Maghreb countries (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya) traditional main meals are tajines or dishes using couscous. Arabs_sentence_410

In the Levant (Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria) main meals usually start with mezze – small dishes of dips and other items which are eaten with bread. Arabs_sentence_411

This is typically followed by skewers of grilled lamb or chicken. Arabs_sentence_412

Gulf cuisine, tends to be more highly spiced with more use of rice. Arabs_sentence_413

Sometimes a lamb is roasted and served whole. Arabs_sentence_414

One will find the following items in most dishes; cinnamon, fish (in coastal areas), garlic, lamb (or veal), mild to hot sauces, mint, onion, rice, saffron, sesame, yogurt, spices due to heavy trading between the two regions. Arabs_sentence_415

Tea, thyme (or oregano), turmeric, a variety of fruits (primarily citrus) and vegetables such as cucumbers, eggplants, lettuce, tomato, green pepper, green beans, zucchini and parsley. Arabs_sentence_416

Art Arabs_section_25

Main articles: Arabic art, Nabataean art, Arabic miniature, and Arabesque Arabs_sentence_417

Arabic art takes on many forms, though it is jewelry, textiles and architecture that are the most well-known. Arabs_sentence_418

It is generally split up by different eras, among them being early Arabic, early medieval, late medieval, late Arabic, and finally, current Arabic. Arabs_sentence_419

One thing to remember is that many times a particular style from one era may continue into the next with few changes, while some have a drastic transformation. Arabs_sentence_420

This may seem like a strange grouping of art mediums, but they are all closely related. Arabs_sentence_421

Arabic writing is done from right to left, and was generally written in dark inks, with certain things embellished with special colored inks (red, green, gold). Arabs_sentence_422

In early Arabic and early Medieval, writing was typically done on parchment made of animal skin. Arabs_sentence_423

The ink showed up very well on it, and occasionally the parchment was dyed a separate color and brighter ink was used (this was only for special projects). Arabs_sentence_424

The name given to the form of writing in early times was called Kufic script. Arabs_sentence_425

Arabic miniatures are small paintings on paper, whether book illustrations or separate works of art. Arabs_sentence_426

Arabic miniature art dates to the late 7th century. Arabs_sentence_427

Arabs depended on such art not only to satisfy their artistic taste, but also for scientific explanations. Arabs_sentence_428

Arabesque is a form of artistic decoration consisting of "surface decorations based on rhythmic linear patterns of scrolling and interlacing foliage, tendrils" or plain lines, often combined with other elements. Arabs_sentence_429

Another definition is "Foliate ornament, typically using leaves, derived from stylised half-palmettes, which were combined with spiralling stems". Arabs_sentence_430

It usually consists of a single design which can be 'tiled' or seamlessly repeated as many times as desired. Arabs_sentence_431

Architecture Arabs_section_26

Main article: Arabic architecture Arabs_sentence_432

Arabic Architecture has a deep diverse history, it dates to the dawn of the history in pre-Islamic Arabia and includes various styles from the Nabataean architecture to the old yet still used architecture in various regions of the Arab world. Arabs_sentence_433

Each of it phases largely an extension of the earlier phase, it left also heavy impact on the architecture of other nations. Arabs_sentence_434

Arab Architecture also encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day. Arabs_sentence_435

Some parts of its religious architectures raised by Muslim Arabs were influenced by cultures of Roman, Byzantine and cultures of other lands which the Arab conquered in the 7th and 8th centuries. Arabs_sentence_436

In Sicily, Arab-Norman architecture combined Occidental features, such as the Classical pillars and friezes, with typical Arabic decorations and calligraphy. Arabs_sentence_437

The principal Islamic architectural types are: the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace and the Fort. Arabs_sentence_438

From these four types, the vocabulary of Islamic architecture is derived and used for other buildings such as public baths, fountains and domestic architecture. Arabs_sentence_439

Music Arabs_section_27

Main article: Arabic music Arabs_sentence_440

Arabic music, while independent and flourishing in the 2010s, has a long history of interaction with many other regional musical styles and genres. Arabs_sentence_441

It is an amalgam of the music of the Arab people in the Arabian Peninsula and the music of all the peoples that make up the Arab world today. Arabs_sentence_442

Pre-Islamic Arab music was similar to that of Ancient Middle Eastern music. Arabs_sentence_443

Most historians agree that there existed distinct forms of music in the Arabian peninsula in the pre-Islamic period between the 5th and 7th century CE. Arabs_sentence_444

Arab poets of that "Jahili poets", meaning "the poets of the period of ignorance"—used to recite poems with a high notes. Arabs_sentence_445

It was believed that Jinns revealed poems to poets and music to musicians. Arabs_sentence_446

By the 11th century, Islamic Iberia had become a center for the manufacture of instruments. Arabs_sentence_447

These goods spread gradually throughout France, influencing French troubadours, and eventually reaching the rest of Europe. Arabs_sentence_448

The English words lute, rebec, and naker are derived from Arabic oud, rabab, and naqareh. Arabs_sentence_449

A number of musical instruments used in classical music are believed to have been derived from Arabic musical instruments: the lute was derived from the Oud, the rebec (ancestor of violin) from the rebab, the guitar from qitara, which in turn was derived from the Persian Tar, naker from naqareh, adufe from al-duff, alboka from al-buq, anafil from al-nafir, exabeba from al-shabbaba (flute), atabal (bass drum) from al-tabl, atambal from al-tinbal, the balaban, the castanet from kasatan, sonajas de azófar from sunuj al-sufr, the conical bore wind instruments, the xelami from the sulami or fistula (flute or musical pipe), the shawm and dulzaina from the reed instruments zamr and al-zurna, the gaita from the ghaita, rackett from iraqya or iraqiyya, geige (violin) from ghichak, and the theorbo from the tarab. Arabs_sentence_450

During the 1950s and the 1960s, Arabic music began to take on a more Western tone – artists Umm Kulthum, Abdel Halim Hafez, and Shadia along with composers Mohamed Abd al-Wahab and Baligh Hamdi pioneered the use of western instruments in Egyptian music. Arabs_sentence_451

By the 1970s several other singers had followed suit and a strand of Arabic pop was born. Arabs_sentence_452

Arabic pop usually consists of Western styled songs with Arabic instruments and lyrics. Arabs_sentence_453

Melodies are often a mix between Eastern and Western. Arabs_sentence_454

Beginning in the mid-1980s, Lydia Canaan, musical pioneer widely regarded as the first rock star of the Middle East Arabs_sentence_455

Spirituality Arabs_section_28

Arab polytheism was the dominant religion in pre-Islamic Arabia. Arabs_sentence_456

Gods and goddesses, including Hubal and the goddesses al-Lāt, Al-'Uzzá and Manāt, were worshipped at local shrines, such as the Kaaba in Mecca, whilst Arabs in the south, in what is today's Yemen, worshipped various gods, some of which represented the Sun or Moon. Arabs_sentence_457

Different theories have been proposed regarding the role of Allah in Meccan religion. Arabs_sentence_458

Many of the physical descriptions of the pre-Islamic gods are traced to idols, especially near the Kaaba, which is said to have contained up to 360 of them. Arabs_sentence_459

Until about the fourth century, almost all Arabs practised polytheistic religions. Arabs_sentence_460

Although significant Jewish and Christian minorities developed, polytheism remained the dominant belief system in pre-Islamic Arabia. Arabs_sentence_461

The religious beliefs and practices of the nomadic bedouin were distinct from those of the settled tribes of towns such as Mecca. Arabs_sentence_462

Nomadic religious belief systems and practices are believed to have included fetishism, totemism and veneration of the dead but were connected principally with immediate concerns and problems and did not consider larger philosophical questions such as the afterlife. Arabs_sentence_463

Settled urban Arabs, on the other hand, are thought to have believed in a more complex pantheon of deities. Arabs_sentence_464

While the Meccans and the other settled inhabitants of the Hejaz worshipped their gods at permanent shrines in towns and oases, the bedouin practised their religion on the move. Arabs_sentence_465

Philosophy Arabs_section_29

Main article: Arabic philosophy Arabs_sentence_466

Arabic philosophy refers to philosophical thought in the Arab world. Arabs_sentence_467

Schools of Arabic thought include Avicennism and Averroism. Arabs_sentence_468

The first great Arab thinker is widely regarded to be al-Kindi (801–873 A.D.), a Neo-Platonic philosopher, mathematician and scientist who lived in Kufa and Baghdad (modern day Iraq). Arabs_sentence_469

After being appointed by the Abbasid Caliphs to translate Greek scientific and philosophical texts into Arabic, he wrote a number of original treatises of his own on a range of subjects, from metaphysics and ethics to mathematics and pharmacology. Arabs_sentence_470

Much of his philosophical output focuses on theological subjects such as the nature of God, the soul and prophetic knowledge. Arabs_sentence_471

Doctrines of the Arabic philosophers of the 9th–12th century who influenced medieval Scholasticism in Europe. Arabs_sentence_472

The Arabic tradition combines Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism with other ideas introduced through Islam. Arabs_sentence_473

Influential thinkers include the Persians al-Farabi and Avicenna. Arabs_sentence_474

The Arabic philosophic literature was translated into Hebrew and Latin, this contributed to the development of modern European philosophy. Arabs_sentence_475

The Arabic tradition was developed by Moses Maimonides and Ibn Khaldun. Arabs_sentence_476

Science Arabs_section_30

Main article: Arabic science Arabs_sentence_477

Arabic science underwent considerable development during the 8th to 13th centuries CE, a source of knowledge that later spread throughout Europe and greatly influenced both medical practice and education. Arabs_sentence_478

These scientific accomplishments occurred after Muhammad united the Arab tribes. Arabs_sentence_479

Within a century after Muhammed's death (632 CE), an empire ruled by Arabs was established. Arabs_sentence_480

It encompassed a large part of the planet, stretching from southern Europe to North Africa to Central Asia and on to India. Arabs_sentence_481

In 711 CE, Arab Muslims invaded southern Spain; al-Andalus was a center of Arabic scientific accomplishment. Arabs_sentence_482

Another center emerged in Baghdad from the Abbasids, who ruled part of the Islamic world during a historic period later characterized as the "Golden Age" (∼750 to 1258 CE). Arabs_sentence_483

This era can be identified as the years between 692 and 945, and ended when the caliphate was marginalized by local Muslim rulers in Baghdad – its traditional seat of power. Arabs_sentence_484

From 945 onward until the sacking of Baghdad by the Mongols in 1258, the Caliph continued on as a figurehead, with power devolving more to local amirs. Arabs_sentence_485

The pious scholars of Islam, men and women collectively known as the ulama, were the most influential element of society in the fields of Sharia law, speculative thought and theology. Arabs_sentence_486

Arabic scientific achievement is not as yet fully understood, but is very large. Arabs_sentence_487

These achievements encompass a wide range of subject areas, especially mathematics, astronomy, and medicine. Arabs_sentence_488

Other subjects of scientific inquiry included physics, alchemy and chemistry, cosmology, ophthalmology, geography and cartography, sociology, and psychology. Arabs_sentence_489

Al-Battani (c. 858 – 929; born Harran, Bilad al-Sham) was an Arab astronomer, astrologer and mathematician of the Islamic Golden Age. Arabs_sentence_490

His work is considered instrumental in the development of science and astronomy. Arabs_sentence_491

One of Al-Battani's best-known achievements in astronomy was the determination of the solar year as being 365 days, 5 hours, 46 minutes and 24 seconds which is only 2 minutes and 22 seconds off. Arabs_sentence_492

Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) used experimentation to obtain the results in his Book of Optics (1021), an important development in the history of the scientific method. Arabs_sentence_493

He combined observations, experiments and rational arguments to support his intromission theory of vision, in which rays of light are emitted from objects rather than from the eyes. Arabs_sentence_494

He used similar arguments to show that the ancient emission theory of vision supported by Ptolemy and Euclid (in which the eyes emit the rays of light used for seeing), and the ancient intromission theory supported by Aristotle (where objects emit physical particles to the eyes), were both wrong. Arabs_sentence_495

Al-Zahrawi, regarded by many as the greatest surgeon of the middle ages. Arabs_sentence_496

His surgical treatise "De chirurgia" is the first illustrated surgical guide ever written. Arabs_sentence_497

It remained the primary source for surgical procedures and instruments in Europe for the next 500 years. Arabs_sentence_498

The book helped lay the foundation to establish surgery as a scientific discipline independent from medicine, earning al-Zahrawi his name as one of the founders of this field. Arabs_sentence_499

Other notable Arab contributions include among other things: establishing the science of chemistry by Jābir ibn Hayyān, establishing the science of cryptology and cryptanalysis by al-Kindi, the development of analytic geometry by Ibn al-Haytham, the discovery of the pulmonary circulation by Ibn al-Nafis, the discovery of the itch mite parasite by Ibn Zuhr, the first use of irrational numbers as an algebraic objects by Abū Kāmil, the first use of the positional decimal fractions by al-Uqlidisi, the development of the Arabic numerals and an early algebraic symbolism in the Maghreb, the Thabit number and Thābit theorem by Thābit ibn Qurra, the discovery of several new trigonometric identities by Ibn Yunus and al-Battani, the mathematical proof for Ceva's theorem by Ibn Hűd, the first accurate lunar model by Ibn al-Shatir, the invention of the torquetum by Jabir ibn Aflah, the invention of the universal astrolabe and the equatorium by al-Zarqali, the first description of the crankshaft by al-Jazari, the anticipation of the inertia concept by Averroes, the discovery of the physical reaction by Avempace, the identification of more than 200 new plants by Ibn al-Baitar the Arab Agricultural Revolution, and the Tabula Rogeriana, which was the most accurate world map in pre-modern times by al-Idrisi. Arabs_sentence_500

The birth of the University institution can be traced to this development, as several universities and educational institutions of the Arab world such as the University of Al Quaraouiyine, Al Azhar University, and Al Zaytuna University are considered to be the oldest in the world. Arabs_sentence_501

Founded by Fatima al Fihri in 859 as a mosque, the University of Al Quaraouiyine in Fez is the oldest existing, continually operating and the first degree awarding educational institution in the world according to UNESCO and Guinness World Records and is sometimes referred to as the oldest university. Arabs_sentence_502

There are many scientific Arabic loanwords in Western European languages, including , mostly via Old French. Arabs_sentence_503

This includes traditional star names such as Aldebaran, scientific terms like (whence also ), , , , , , , etc. Arabs_sentence_504

Under Ottoman rule, cultural life and science in the Arab world declined. Arabs_sentence_505

In the 20th and 21st centuries, Arabs who have won important science prizes include Ahmed Zewail and Elias Corey (Nobel Prize), Michael DeBakey and Alim Benabid (Lasker Award), Omar M. Yaghi (Wolf Prize), Huda Zoghbi (Shaw Prize), Zaha Hadid (Pritzker Prize), and Michael Atiyah (both Fields Medal and Abel Prize). Arabs_sentence_506

Rachid Yazami was one of the co-inventors of the lithium-ion battery, and Tony Fadell was important in the development of the iPod and the iPhone. Arabs_sentence_507

Wedding and marriage Arabs_section_31

Main article: Arabic wedding Arabs_sentence_508

Arabic weddings have changed greatly in the past 100 years. Arabs_sentence_509

Original traditional Arabic weddings are supposed to be very similar to modern-day Bedouin weddings and rural weddings, and they are in some cases unique from one region to another, even within the same country. Arabs_sentence_510

The practice of marrying of relatives is a common feature of Arab culture. Arabs_sentence_511

In the Arab world today between 40% and 50% of all marriages are consanguineous or between close family members, though these figures may vary among Arab nations. Arabs_sentence_512

In Egypt, around 40% of the population marry a cousin. Arabs_sentence_513

A 1992 survey in Jordan found that 32% were married to a first cousin; a further 17.3% were married to more distant relatives. Arabs_sentence_514

67% of marriages in Saudi Arabia are between close relatives as are 54% of all marriages in Kuwait, whereas 18% of all Lebanese were between blood relatives. Arabs_sentence_515

Due to the actions of Muhammad and the Rightly Guided Caliphs, marriage between cousins is explicitly allowed in Islam and the Qur'an itself does not discourage or forbid the practice. Arabs_sentence_516

Nevertheless, opinions vary on whether the phenomenon should be seen as exclusively based on Islamic practices as a 1992 study among Arabs in Jordan did not show significant differences between Christian Arabs or Muslim Arabs when comparing the occurrence of consanguinity. Arabs_sentence_517

Genetics Arabs_section_32

Main articles: Genetic studies on Arabs, Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of the Near East, and Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of North Africa Arabs_sentence_518

E1b1b is the most frequent paternal clade among the populations in the western part of the Arab world (Maghreb, Nile Valley, and the Horn of Africa), whereas haplogroup J is the most frequent paternal clade toward the east (Arabian peninsula and Near East). Arabs_sentence_519

Other less common haplogroups are R1a, R1b, G, I, L and T. Arabs_sentence_520

Listed here are the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups in the Arabian Peninsula, Levant, Maghreb and Nile Valley. Arabs_sentence_521

Yemeni Arabs: J (82.3%), E1b1b (12.9%) and E1b1a1-M2 (3.2%). Arabs_sentence_522

Saudi Arabs: J-M267 (Y-DNA) (71.02%), J-M172 (2.68%), A (0.83%), B (1.67%), E1b1a (1.50%), E1b1b (11.05%), G (1.34%), H (0.33%), L (1.00%), Q (1.34%), R1a (2.34%), R1b (0.83%), T (2.51%), UP (1.50%). Arabs_sentence_523

Emirati Arabs: J (45.1%), E1b1b (11.6%), R1a (7.3%), E1b1a1-M2 (5.5%), T (4.9%), R1b (4.3%) and L (3%). Arabs_sentence_524

Omani Arabs: J (47.9%), E1b1b (15.7%), R1a (9.1%), T (8.3%), E1b1a (7.4%), R1b (1.7%), G (1.7%) and L (0.8%). Arabs_sentence_525

Qatari Arabs: J (66.7%), R1a (6.9%), E1b1b (5.6%), E1b1a (2.8%), G (2.8%) and L (2.8%). Arabs_sentence_526

Lebanese Arabs: J (45.2%), E1b1b (25.8%), R1a (9.7%), R1b (6.4%), G, I and I (3.2%), (3.2%), (3.2%). Arabs_sentence_527

Syrian Arabs: J (58.3%), E1b1b (12.0%), I (5.0%), R1a (10.0%) and R1b 15.0%. Arabs_sentence_528

Palestinian Arabs: J (55.2%), E1b1b (20.3%), R1b (8.4%), I (6.3%), G (7%), R1a and T (1.4%), (1.4%). Arabs_sentence_529

Jordanian Arabs: J (43.8%), E1b1b (26%), R1b (17.8%), G (4.1%), I (3.4%) and R1a (1.4%). Arabs_sentence_530

Iraqi Arabs: J (50.6%), E1b1b (10.8%), R1b (10.8%), R1a (6.9%) and T (5.9%). Arabs_sentence_531

Egyptian Arabs: E1b1b (36.7%) and J (32%), G (8.8%), T (8.2% R1b (4.1%), E1b1a (2.8%) and I (0.7%). Arabs_sentence_532

Sudanese Arabs: J (47.1%), E1b1b (16.3%), R1b (15.7%) and I (3.13%). Arabs_sentence_533

Moroccan Arabs: E1b1b (75.5%) and J1 (20.4%). Arabs_sentence_534

Tunisian Arabs: E1b1b (49.3%), J1 (35.8%), R1b (6.8%) and E1b1a1-M2 (1.4%). Arabs_sentence_535

Algerian Arabs: E1b1b (54%), J1 (35%), R1b (13%). Arabs_sentence_536

Libyan Arabs: E1b1b (35.88%), J (30.53%), E1b1a (8.78%), G (4.20%), R1a/R1b (3.43%) and E (1.53%). Arabs_sentence_537

The mtDNA haplogroup J has been observed at notable frequencies among overall populations in the Arab world. Arabs_sentence_538

The maternal clade R0 reaches its highest frequency in the Arabian peninsula, while K and T(specifically subclade T2) is more common in the Levant. Arabs_sentence_539

In the Nile Valley and Horn of Africa, haplogroups N1 and M1; in the Maghreb, haplogroups H1 and U6 are more significant. Arabs_sentence_540

There are four principal West Eurasian autosomal DNA components that characterize the populations in the Arab world: the Arabian, Levantine, Coptic and Maghrebi components. Arabs_sentence_541

The Arabian component is the main autosomal element in the Persian Gulf region. Arabs_sentence_542

It is most closely associated with local Arabic-speaking populations. Arabs_sentence_543

The Arabian component is also found at significant frequencies in parts of the Levant and Northeast Africa. Arabs_sentence_544

The geographical distribution pattern of this component correlates with the pattern of the Islamic expansion, but its presence in Lebanese Christians, Sephardi and Ashkenazi Jews, Cypriots and Armenians might suggest that its spread to the Levant could also represent an earlier event. Arabs_sentence_545

The Levantine component is the main autosomal element in the Near East and Caucasus. Arabs_sentence_546

It peaks among Druze populations in the Levant. Arabs_sentence_547

The Levantine component diverged from the Arabian component about 15,500–23,700 ypb. Arabs_sentence_548

The Coptic component is the main autosomal element in Northeast Africa. Arabs_sentence_549

It peaks among Egyptian Copts in Sudan, and is also found at high frequencies among other Afro-Asiatic-speaking populations in the Nile Valley and the Horn of Africa. Arabs_sentence_550

The Coptic component is roughly equivalent with the Ethio-Somali component. Arabs_sentence_551

The Maghrebi component is the main autosomal element in the Maghreb. Arabs_sentence_552

It peaks among the non-Arabized Berber populations in the region. Arabs_sentence_553

The Maghrebi component diverged from the Coptic/Ethio-Somali, Arabian and Levantine components prior to the Holocene. Arabs_sentence_554

A recent genetic study published in the "European Journal of Human Genetics" in Nature (2019) showed that West Asians (Arabs) are closely related to Europeans, Northern Africans and South Asians. Arabs_sentence_555

See also Arabs_section_33


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