Arabian Peninsula

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"Arabia" and "Arabian" redirect here. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_0

For other uses, see Arabia (disambiguation) and Arabian (disambiguation). Arabian Peninsula_sentence_1

Not to be confused with Arabian Plate. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_2

Arabian Peninsula_table_infobox_0

Arabian Peninsula ٱلْجَزِيرَة ٱلْعَرَبِيَّة  (Arabic) شِبْه ٱلْجَزِيرَة ٱلْعَرَبِيَّة  (Arabic)Arabian Peninsula_table_caption_0
AreaArabian Peninsula_header_cell_0_0_0 3,237,500 km (1,250,000 sq mi)Arabian Peninsula_cell_0_0_1
PopulationArabian Peninsula_header_cell_0_1_0 86,221,765Arabian Peninsula_cell_0_1_1
HDIArabian Peninsula_header_cell_0_2_0 0.788 (2018)

highArabian Peninsula_cell_0_2_1

DemonymArabian Peninsula_header_cell_0_3_0 ArabianArabian Peninsula_cell_0_3_1
CountriesArabian Peninsula_header_cell_0_4_0 Bahrain

Iraq Jordan Kuwait Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates YemenArabian Peninsula_cell_0_4_1

The Arabian Peninsula (/əˈreɪbiən ... /; Arabic: شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة‎, shibhu l-jazīrati l-ʿarabiyyah, "Arabian Peninsula" or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, jazīratu l-ʿarab, "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_3

At 3,237,500 km (1,250,000 sq mi), the Arabian Peninsula is the largest peninsula in the world. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_4

Geographically, the Arabian Peninsula includes Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen, as well as the southern portions of Iraq and Jordan. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_5

The Peninsula, plus Bahrain, the Socotra Archipelago, and other nearby islands form a geopolitical region called Arabia, which is the largest region in the world without any river. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_6

The Arabian Peninsula formed as a result of the rifting of the Red Sea between 56 and 23 million years ago, and is bordered by the Red Sea to the west and southwest, the Persian Gulf to the northeast, the Levant to the north and the Indian Ocean to the southeast. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_7

The peninsula plays a critical geopolitical role in the Arab world due to its vast reserves of oil and natural gas. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_8

Before the modern era, the region was divided into four distinct regions: the Central Plateau (Najd or Al-Yamama), the Indian Ocean Coast (South Arabia or Hadhramaut), the Persian Gulf Coast (Eastern Arabia or Al-Bahrain), and the Red Sea Coast (Hejaz or Tihamah). Arabian Peninsula_sentence_9

Eastern Arabia consists of the entire coastal strip of the Persian Gulf. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_10

Hejaz and Najd make up most of Saudi Arabia. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_11

South Arabia consists of Yemen plus parts of Oman (Dhofar) and Saudi Arabia ('Asir, Jizan, and Najran). Arabian Peninsula_sentence_12

Geography Arabian Peninsula_section_0

See also: Geography of Saudi Arabia Arabian Peninsula_sentence_13

The Arabian Peninsula is located in the continent of Asia and bounded by (clockwise) the Persian Gulf on the northeast, the Strait of Hormuz and the Gulf of Oman on the east, the Arabian Sea on the southeast, the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and Somali Sea on the south, the Bab-el-Mandeb Strait on the southwest and the Red Sea, which is located on the southwest and west. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_14

The northern portion of the peninsula merges with the Syrian Desert with no clear borderline, although the northern boundary of the peninsula is generally considered to be the northern borders of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_15

The most prominent feature of the peninsula is desert, but in the southwest, there are mountain ranges, which receive greater rainfall than the rest of the peninsula. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_16

Harrat ash Shaam is a large volcanic field that extends from northwestern Arabia into Jordan and southern Syria. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_17

Political boundaries Arabian Peninsula_section_1

The Peninsula's constituent countries are (clockwise from north to south) Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) on the east, Oman on the southeast, Yemen on the south, and Saudi Arabia at the center. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_18

The island country of Bahrain lies just off the east coast of the Peninsula. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_19

Due to Yemen's jurisdiction over the Socotra Archipelago, the Peninsula's geopolitical outline faces the Guardafui Channel and the Somali Sea to the south. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_20

Six countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) form the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Arabian Peninsula_sentence_21

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia covers the greater part of the Peninsula. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_22

The majority of the population of the Peninsula live in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_23

The Peninsula contains the world's largest reserves of oil. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_24

Saudi Arabia and the UAE are economically the wealthiest in the region. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_25

Qatar, a small peninsula in the Persian Gulf on the larger peninsula, is home to the Arabic-language television station Al Jazeera and its English-language subsidiary Al Jazeera English. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_26

Kuwait, on the border with Iraq, is an important country strategically, forming one of the main staging grounds for coalition forces mounting the United States-led 2003 invasion of Iraq. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_27

Population Arabian Peninsula_section_2

Though historically lightly populated, political Arabia is noted for a high population growth rate – as the result of both very strong inflows of migrant labor as well as sustained high birth rates. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_28

The population tends to be relatively young and heavily skewed gender ratio dominated by males. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_29

In many states, the number of South Asians exceeds that of the local citizenry. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_30

The four smallest states (by area), which have their entire coastlines on the Persian Gulf, exhibit the world's most extreme population growth, roughly tripling every 20 years. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_31

In 2014, the estimated population of the Arabian Peninsula was 77,983,936 (including expatriates). Arabian Peninsula_sentence_32

The Arabian Peninsula is known for having one of the most uneven adult sex ratios in the world with females in some regions (especially the east) constituting only a quarter of vicenarians and tricenarians. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_33

Cities Arabian Peninsula_section_3

The ten most populous cities on the Arabian Peninsula are: Arabian Peninsula_sentence_34

Landscape Arabian Peninsula_section_4

Geologically, this region is perhaps more appropriately called the Arabian subcontinent because it lies on a tectonic plate of its own, the Arabian Plate, which has been moving incrementally away from the rest of Africa (forming the Red Sea) and north, toward Asia, into the Eurasian Plate (forming the Zagros Mountains). Arabian Peninsula_sentence_35

The rocks exposed vary systematically across Arabia, with the oldest rocks exposed in the Arabian-Nubian Shield near the Red Sea, overlain by earlier sediments that become younger towards the Persian Gulf. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_36

Perhaps the best-preserved ophiolite on Earth, the Semail Ophiolite, lies exposed in the mountains of the UAE and northern Oman. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_37

The peninsula consists of: Arabian Peninsula_sentence_38

Arabian Peninsula_ordered_list_0

  1. A central plateau, the Najd, with fertile valleys and pastures used for the grazing of sheep and other livestockArabian Peninsula_item_0_0
  2. A range of deserts: the Nefud in the north, which is stony; the Rub' al Khali or Great Arabian Desert in the south, with sand estimated to extend 600 ft (180 m) below the surface; between them, the DahnaArabian Peninsula_item_0_1
  3. MountainsArabian Peninsula_item_0_2
  4. Stretches of dry or marshy coastland with coral reefs on the Red Sea side (Tihamah)Arabian Peninsula_item_0_3
  5. Oases and marshy coast-land in Eastern Arabia on the Persian Gulf side, the most important of which are those of Al Ain (in the UAE, on the border with Oman) and Al-Hasa (in Saudi Arabia), according to one authorArabian Peninsula_item_0_4

Arabia has few lakes or permanent rivers. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_39

Most areas are drained by ephemeral watercourses called wadis, which are dry except during the rainy season. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_40

Plentiful ancient aquifers exist beneath much of the peninsula, however, and where this water surfaces, oases form (e.g. Al-Hasa and Qatif, two of the world's largest oases) and permit agriculture, especially palm trees, which allowed the peninsula to produce more dates than any other region in the world. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_41

In general, the climate is extremely hot and arid, although there are exceptions. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_42

Higher elevations are made temperate by their altitude, and the Arabian Sea coastline can receive surprisingly cool, humid breezes in summer due to cold upwelling offshore. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_43

The peninsula has no thick forests. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_44

Desert-adapted wildlife is present throughout the region. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_45

According to NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite data (2003–2013) analysed in a University of California, Irvine (UCI)-led study published in Water Resources Research on 16 June 2015, the most over-stressed aquifer system in the world is the Arabian Aquifer System, upon which more than 60 million people depend for water. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_46

Twenty-one of the thirty seven largest aquifers "have exceeded sustainability tipping points and are being depleted" and thirteen of them are "considered significantly distressed". Arabian Peninsula_sentence_47

A plateau more than 2,500 feet (760 m) high extends across much of the Arabian Peninsula. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_48

The plateau slopes eastwards from the massive, rifted escarpment along the coast of the Red Sea, to the shallow waters of the Persian Gulf. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_49

The interior is characterised by cuestas and valleys, drained by a system of wadis. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_50

A crescent of sand and gravel deserts lies to the east. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_51

Mountains Arabian Peninsula_section_5

There are mountains at the eastern, southern and northwestern borders of the peninsula. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_52

Broadly, the ranges can be grouped as follows: Arabian Peninsula_sentence_53

Arabian Peninsula_unordered_list_1

  • Northeast: The Hajar range, shared by the UAE and northern OmanArabian Peninsula_item_1_5
  • Southeast: The Dhofar Mountains of southern Oman, contiguous with the eastern Yemeni HadhramautArabian Peninsula_item_1_6
  • West: Bordering the eastern coast of the Red Sea are the Sarawat, which can be seen to include the Haraz Mountains of eastern Yemen, and the 'Asir and Hijaz Mountains of western Saudi Arabia, the latter including the Midian in northwestern Saudi ArabiaArabian Peninsula_item_1_7
  • Northwest: Aside from the Sarawat, the northern portion of Saudi Arabia hosts the Shammar Mountains, which include the Aja and Salma subrangesArabian Peninsula_item_1_8
  • Central: The Najd hosts the Tuwaiq Escarpment or Tuwair rangeArabian Peninsula_item_1_9

From the Hejaz southwards, the mountains show a steady increase in altitude westward as they get nearer to Yemen, and the highest peaks and ranges are all located in Yemen. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_54

The highest, Jabal An-Nabi Shu'ayb or Jabal Hadhur of the Haraz subrange of the Sarawat range, is about 3,666 m (2.278 mi) high. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_55

By comparison, the Tuwayr, Shammar and Dhofar generally do not exceed 1,000 m (0.62 mi) in height. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_56

Not all mountains in the peninsula are visibly within ranges. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_57

Jebel Hafeet in particular, on the border of the UAE and Oman, measuring between 1,100 and 1,300 m (3,600 and 4,300 ft), is not within the Hajar range, but may be considered an outlier of that range. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_58

Arabian Peninsula_unordered_list_2

  • Arabian Peninsula_item_2_10
  • Arabian Peninsula_item_2_11
  • Arabian Peninsula_item_2_12
  • Arabian Peninsula_item_2_13
  • Arabian Peninsula_item_2_14
  • Arabian Peninsula_item_2_15
  • Arabian Peninsula_item_2_16
  • Arabian Peninsula_item_2_17
  • Arabian Peninsula_item_2_18
  • Arabian Peninsula_item_2_19

Land and sea Arabian Peninsula_section_6

Most of the Arabian Peninsula is unsuited to agriculture, making irrigation and land reclamation projects essential. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_59

The narrow coastal plain and isolated oases, amounting to less than 1% of the land area, are used to cultivate grains, coffee and tropical fruits. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_60

Goat, sheep, and camel husbandry is widespread elsewhere throughout the rest of the Peninsula. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_61

Some areas have a summer humid tropical monsoon climate, in particular the Dhofar and Al Mahrah areas of Oman and Yemen. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_62

These areas allow for large scale coconut plantations. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_63

Much of Yemen has a tropical monsoon rain influenced mountain climate. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_64

The plains usually have either a tropical or subtropical arid desert climate or arid steppe climate. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_65

The sea surrounding the Arabian Peninsula is generally tropical sea with a very rich tropical sea life and some of the world's largest, undestroyed and most pristine coral reefs. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_66

In addition, the organisms living in symbiosis with the Red Sea coral, the protozoa and zooxanthellae, have a unique hot weather adaptation to sudden rise (and fall) in sea water temperature. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_67

Hence, these coral reefs are not affected by coral bleaching caused by rise in temperature as elsewhere in the indopacific coral sea. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_68

The reefs are also unaffected by mass tourism and diving or other large scale human interference. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_69

However, some reefs were destroyed in the Persian Gulf, mostly caused by phosphate water pollution and resultant increase in algae growth as well as oil pollution from ships and pipeline leakage. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_70

The fertile soils of Yemen have encouraged settlement of almost all of the land from sea level up to the mountains at 10,000 feet (3,000 m). Arabian Peninsula_sentence_71

In the higher reaches, elaborate terraces have been constructed to facilitate grain, fruit, coffee, ginger and khat cultivation. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_72

The Arabian peninsula is known for its rich oil, i.e. petroleum production due to its geographical location. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_73

Etymology Arabian Peninsula_section_7

Main article: Arab (etymology) Arabian Peninsula_sentence_74

During the Hellenistic period, the area was known as Arabia or Aravia (Greek: Αραβία). Arabian Peninsula_sentence_75

The Romans named three regions with the prefix "Arabia", encompassing a larger area than the current term "Arabian Peninsula": Arabian Peninsula_sentence_76

Arabian Peninsula_unordered_list_3

  • Arabia Petraea: for the area that is today southern modern Syria, Jordan, the Sinai Peninsula and northwestern Saudi Arabia. It was the only one that became a province, with Petra as its capital.Arabian Peninsula_item_3_20
  • Arabia Deserta ("Desert Arabia"): signified the desert interior of the Arabian peninsula. As a name for the region, it remained popular into the 19th and 20th centuries, and was used in Charles M. Doughty's Travels in Arabia Deserta (1888).Arabian Peninsula_item_3_21
  • Arabia Felix ("Fortunate Arabia"): was used by geographers to describe what is now Yemen, which enjoys more rainfall, is much greener than the rest of the peninsula and has long enjoyed much more productive fields.Arabian Peninsula_item_3_22

The Arab inhabitants used a north–south division of Arabia: Al Sham-Al Yaman, or Arabia Deserta-Arabia Felix. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_77

Arabia Felix had originally been used for the whole peninsula, and at other times only for the southern region. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_78

Because its use became limited to the south, the whole peninsula was simply called Arabia. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_79

Arabia Deserta was the entire desert region extending north from Arabia Felix to Palmyra and the Euphrates, including all the area between Pelusium on the Nile and Babylon. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_80

This area was also called Arabia and not sharply distinguished from the peninsula. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_81

The Arabs and the Ottoman Empire considered the west of the Arabian Peninsula region where the Arabs lived 'the land of the Arabs' – Bilad al-Arab (Arabia), and its major divisions were the bilad al-Sham (Syria), bilad al-Yaman (the Land of the southern Peninsula), and Bilad al-Iraq and modern-day Kuwait (the Land of the River Banks). Arabian Peninsula_sentence_82

The Ottomans used the term Arabistan in a broad sense for the region starting from Cilicia, where the Euphrates river makes its descent into Syria, through Palestine, and on through the remainder of the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_83

The provinces of Arabia were: Al Tih, the Sinai peninsula, Hedjaz, Asir, Yemen, Hadramaut, Mahra and Shilu, Oman, Hasa, Bahrain, Dahna, Nufud, the Hammad, which included the deserts of Syria, Mesopotamia and Babylonia. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_84

History Arabian Peninsula_section_8

The history of the Arabian Peninsula goes back to the beginnings of human habitation in Arabia up to 130,000 years ago. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_85

However, a Homo sapiens fossilized finger bone was found at Al Wusta in the Nefud Desert, which indicates that the first human migration out of Africa to Arabia might date back to approximately 90,000 years ago. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_86

Nevertheless, the stone tools from the Middle Paleolithic age along with fossils of other animals discovered at Ti's al Ghadah, in northwestern Saudi Arabia, might imply that hominids migrated through a "Green Arabia" between 300,000 and 500,000 years ago. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_87

Acheulean tools found in Saffaqah, Riyadh Region reveal that hominins lived in the Arabian Peninsula as recently as 188,000 years ago. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_88

Pre-Islamic Arabia Arabian Peninsula_section_9

Main articles: Pre-Islamic Arabia and Arabian Peninsula in the Roman era Arabian Peninsula_sentence_89

There is evidence that human habitation in the Arabian Peninsula dates back to about 106,000 to 130,000 years ago. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_90

The harsh climate historically prevented much settlement in the pre-Islamic Arabian peninsula, apart from a small number of urban trading settlements, such as Mecca and Medina, located in the Hejaz in the west of the peninsula. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_91

Archaeology has revealed the existence of many civilizations in pre-Islamic Arabia (such as the Thamud), especially in South Arabia. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_92

South Arabian civilizations include the Sheba, the Himyarite Kingdom, the Kingdom of Awsan, the Kingdom of Ma'īn and the Sabaean Kingdom. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_93

Central Arabia was the location of the Kingdom of Kindah in the 4th, 5th and early 6th centuries AD. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_94

Eastern Arabia was home to the Dilmun civilization. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_95

The earliest known events in Arabian history are migrations from the peninsula into neighbouring areas. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_96

The Arabian peninsula has long been accepted as the original Urheimat of the Semitic languages by a majority of scholars. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_97

Rise of Islam Arabian Peninsula_section_10

Main articles: Early Muslim conquests and Islamic Golden Age Arabian Peninsula_sentence_98

The seventh century saw the rise of Islam as the peninsula's dominant religion. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_99

The Islamic prophet Muhammad was born in Mecca in about 570 and first began preaching in the city in 610, but migrated to Medina in 622. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_100

From there he and his companions united the tribes of Arabia under the banner of Islam and created a single Arab Muslim religious polity in the Arabian peninsula. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_101

Muhammad established a new unified polity in the Arabian peninsula which under the subsequent Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates saw a century of rapid expansion of Arab power well beyond the Arabian peninsula in the form of a vast Muslim Arab Empire with an area of influence that stretched from the northwest Indian subcontinent, across Central Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, southern Italy, and the Iberian Peninsula, to the Pyrenees. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_102

With Muhammad's death in 632 AD, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_103

Umar ibn al-Khattab, a prominent companion of Muhammad, nominated Abu Bakr, who was Muhammad's intimate friend and collaborator. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_104

Others added their support and Abu Bakr was made the first caliph. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_105

This choice was disputed by some of Muhammad's companions, who held that Ali ibn Abi Talib, his cousin and son-in-law, had been designated his successor. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_106

Abu Bakr's immediate task was to avenge a recent defeat by Byzantine (or Eastern Roman Empire) forces, although he first had to put down a rebellion by Arab tribes in an episode known as the Ridda wars, or "Wars of Apostasy". Arabian Peninsula_sentence_107

Following Muhammad's death in 632, Abu Bakr became leader of the Muslims as the first Caliph. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_108

After putting down a rebellion by the Arab tribes (known as the Ridda wars, or "Wars of Apostasy"), Abu Bakr attacked the Byzantine Empire. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_109

On his death in 634, he was succeeded by Umar as caliph, followed by Uthman ibn al-Affan and Ali ibn Abi Talib. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_110

The period of these first four caliphs is known as al-khulafā' ar-rāshidūn: the Rashidun or "rightly guided" Caliphate. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_111

Under the Rashidun Caliphs, and, from 661, their Umayyad successors, the Arabs rapidly expanded the territory under Muslim control outside of Arabia. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_112

In a matter of decades Muslim armies decisively defeated the Byzantine army and destroyed the Persian Empire, conquering huge swathes of territory from the Iberian peninsula to India. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_113

The political focus of the Muslim world then shifted to the newly conquered territories. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_114

Nevertheless, Mecca and Medina remained the spiritually most important places in the Muslim world. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_115

The Qur'an requires every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it, as one of the five pillars of Islam, to make a pilgrimage, or Hajj, to Mecca during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah at least once in his or her lifetime. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_116

The Masjid al-Haram (the Grand Mosque) in Mecca is the location of the Kaaba, Islam's holiest site, and the Masjid al-Nabawi (the Prophet's Mosque) in Medina is the location of Muhammad tomb; as a result, from the 7th century, Mecca and Medina became the pilgrimage destinations for large numbers of Muslims from across the Islamic world. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_117

Middle Ages Arabian Peninsula_section_11

Despite its spiritual importance, in political terms Arabia soon became a peripheral region of the Islamic world, in which the most important medieval Islamic states were based at various times in such far away cities as Damascus, Baghdad, and Cairo. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_118

However, from the 10th century (and, in fact, until the 20th century) the Hashemite Sharifs of Mecca maintained a state in the most developed part of the region, the Hejaz. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_119

Their domain originally comprised only the holy cities of Mecca and Medina but in the 13th century it was extended to include the rest of the Hejaz. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_120

Although, the Sharifs exercised at most times independent authority in the Hejaz, they were usually subject to the suzerainty of one of the major Islamic empires of the time. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_121

In the Middle Ages, these included the Abbasids of Baghdad, and the Fatimids, Ayyubids and Mamluks of Egypt. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_122

Modern history Arabian Peninsula_section_12

The provincial Ottoman Army for Arabia (Arabistan Ordusu) was headquartered in Syria, which included Palestine, the Transjordan region in addition to Lebanon (Mount Lebanon was, however, a semi-autonomous mutasarrifate). Arabian Peninsula_sentence_123

It was put in charge of Syria, Cilicia, Iraq, and the remainder of the Arabian Peninsula. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_124

The Ottomans never had any control over central Arabia, also known as the Najd region. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_125

The Damascus Protocol of 1914 provides an illustration of the regional relationships. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_126

Arabs living in one of the existing districts of the Arabian peninsula, the Emirate of Hejaz, asked for a British guarantee of independence. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_127

Their proposal included all Arab lands south of a line roughly corresponding to the northern frontiers of present-day Syria and Iraq. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_128

They envisioned a new Arab state, or confederation of states, adjoining the southern Arabian Peninsula. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_129

It would have comprised Ciliciaİskenderun and Mersin, Iraq with Kuwait, Syria, Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate, Jordan, and Palestine. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_130

In the modern era, the term bilad al-Yaman came to refer specifically to the southwestern parts of the peninsula. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_131

Arab geographers started to refer to the whole peninsula as 'jazirat al-Arab', or the peninsula of the Arabs. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_132

Late Ottoman rule and the Hejaz Railway Arabian Peninsula_section_13

In the beginning of the 20th century, the Ottomans embarked on an ambitious project: the construction of a railway connecting Istanbul, the capital of the Ottoman Empire and the seat of the Islamic Caliphate, and Hejaz with its holiest shrines of Islam which are the yearly pilgrimage destination of the Hajj. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_133

Another important goal was to improve the economic and political integration of the distant Arabian provinces into the Ottoman state, and to facilitate the transportation of military troops in case of need. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_134

The Hejaz Railway was a narrow gauge railway (1,050 km (650 mi)) that ran from Damascus to Medina, through the Hejaz region of Arabia. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_135

It was originally planned to reach the holy city of Mecca, but due to the interruption of the construction works caused by the outbreak of World War I, it eventually only reached Medina. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_136

It was a part of the Ottoman railway network and was built in order to extend the previously existing line between Istanbul and Damascus (which began from the Haydarpaşa Terminal). Arabian Peninsula_sentence_137

The railway was started in 1900 at the behest of the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II and was built largely by the Turks, with German advice and support. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_138

A public subscription was opened throughout the Islamic world to fund the construction. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_139

The railway was to be a waqf, an inalienable religious endowment or charitable trust. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_140

The Arab Revolt and the foundation of Saudi Arabia Arabian Peninsula_section_14

The major developments of the early 20th century were the Arab Revolt during World War I and the subsequent collapse and partitioning of the Ottoman Empire. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_141

The Arab Revolt (1916–1918) was initiated by the Sherif Hussein ibn Ali with the aim of securing independence from the ruling Ottoman Empire and creating a single unified Arab state spanning from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_142

During World War I, the Sharif Hussein entered into an alliance with the United Kingdom and France against the Ottomans in June 1916. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_143

These events were followed by the foundation of Saudi Arabia under King Abdulaziz Ibn Saud. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_144

In 1902, Ibn Saud had captured Riyadh. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_145

Continuing his conquests, Abdulaziz subdued Al-Hasa, Jabal Shammar, Hejaz between 1913 and 1926 founded the modern state of Saudi Arabia. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_146

The Saudis absorbed the Emirate of Asir, with their expansion only ending in 1934 after a war with Yemen. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_147

Two Saudi states were formed and controlled much of Arabia before Ibn Saud was even born. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_148

Ibn Saud, however, established the third Saudi state. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_149

Oil reserves Arabian Peninsula_section_15

The second major development has been the discovery of vast reserves of oil in the 1930s. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_150

Its production brought great wealth to all countries of the region, with the exception of Yemen. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_151

Civil war in Yemen Arabian Peninsula_section_16

The North Yemen Civil War was fought in North Yemen between royalists of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen and factions of the Yemen Arab Republic from 1962 to 1970. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_152

The war began with a coup d'état carried out by the republican leader, Abdullah as-Sallal, which dethroned the newly crowned Muhammad al-Badr and declared Yemen a republic under his presidency. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_153

The Imam escaped to the Saudi Arabian border and rallied popular support. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_154

The royalist side received support from Saudi Arabia, while the republicans were supported by Egypt and the Soviet Union. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_155

Both foreign irregular and conventional forces were also involved. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_156

The Egyptian President, Gamal Abdel Nasser, supported the republicans with as many as 70,000 troops. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_157

Despite several military moves and peace conferences, the war sank into a stalemate. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_158

Egypt's commitment to the war is considered to have been detrimental to its performance in the Six-Day War of June 1967, after which Nasser found it increasingly difficult to maintain his army's involvement and began to pull his forces out of Yemen. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_159

By 1970, King Faisal of Saudi Arabia recognized the republic and a truce was signed. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_160

Egyptian military historians refer to the war in Yemen as their Vietnam. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_161

Gulf War Arabian Peninsula_section_17

In 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_162

The invasion of Kuwait by Iraqi forces led to the 1990–91 Gulf War. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_163

Egypt, Qatar, Syria and Saudi Arabia joined a multinational coalition that opposed Iraq. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_164

Displays of support for Iraq by Jordan and Palestine resulted in strained relations between many of the Arab states. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_165

After the war, a so-called "Damascus Declaration" formalized an alliance for future joint Arab defensive actions between Egypt, Syria, and the GCC member states. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_166

Yemen Arab Spring Arabian Peninsula_section_18

The Arab Spring reached Yemen in January 2011. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_167

People of Yemen took to the street demonstrating against three decades of rule by President Ali Abdullah Saleh. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_168

The demonstration lead to cracks in the ruling General Peoples Congress (GPC) and Saleh's Sanhani clan. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_169

Saleh used tactic of concession and violence to save his presidency. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_170

After numerous attempt Saleh accepted the Gulf Cooperation Council mediation. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_171

He eventually handed power to Vice President Hadi. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_172

He was sworn in as President of Yemen on 25 February 2012. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_173

He launched a national dialogue to address new constitution, political and social issues. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_174

Saudi Arabia launched a military intervention in Yemen in March 2015. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_175

The famine in Yemen is the direct result of the military intervention and blockade of Yemen. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_176

Transport and industry Arabian Peninsula_section_19

The extraction and refining of oil and gas are the major industrial activities in the Arabian Peninsula. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_177

The region also has an active construction sector, with many cities reflecting the wealth generated by the oil industry. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_178

The service sector is dominated by financial and technical institutions, which, like the construction sector, mainly serve the oil industry. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_179

Traditional handicrafts such as carpet-weaving are found in rural areas of Arabia. Arabian Peninsula_sentence_180


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