Arabic script

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For the Arabic script as it is used specifically to write Arabic, see Arabic alphabet. Arabic script_sentence_0

"Perso-Arabic script" redirects here. Arabic script_sentence_1

For the script as it is used to write Persian, see Persian alphabet. Arabic script_sentence_2

Arabic script_table_infobox_0

Arabic scriptArabic script_header_cell_0_0_0
TypeArabic script_header_cell_0_1_0 Abjad (abugida or true alphabet in some adaptations)Arabic script_cell_0_1_1
LanguagesArabic script_header_cell_0_2_0 See belowArabic script_cell_0_2_1
Time periodArabic script_header_cell_0_3_0 400 CE to the presentArabic script_cell_0_3_1
Parent systemsArabic script_header_cell_0_4_0 Proto-SinaiticArabic script_cell_0_4_1
Child systemsArabic script_header_cell_0_5_0 Inspired the N'Ko alphabet and the Hanifi scriptArabic script_cell_0_5_1
DirectionArabic script_header_cell_0_6_0 Right-to-leftArabic script_cell_0_6_1
ISO 15924Arabic script_header_cell_0_7_0 Arab, 160Arabic script_cell_0_7_1
Unicode aliasArabic script_header_cell_0_8_0 ArabicArabic script_cell_0_8_1
Unicode rangeArabic script_header_cell_0_9_0 Arabic script_cell_0_9_1

The Arabic script is a writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Persian (Farsi/Dari), Uyghur, Kurdish, Punjabi, Sindhi, Balochi, Pashto, Lurish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Rohingya, Somali and Mandinka, among others. Arabic script_sentence_3

Until the 16th century, it was also used to write some texts in Spanish. Arabic script_sentence_4

Additionally, prior to the language reform in 1928, it was the writing system of Turkish. Arabic script_sentence_5

It is the second-most widely used writing system in the world by the number of countries using it and the third by the number of users, after the Latin and Chinese scripts. Arabic script_sentence_6

The Arabic script is written from right to left in a cursive style, in which most of the letters are written in slightly different forms according to whether they stand alone or are joined to a following or preceding letter. Arabic script_sentence_7

The basic letter form remains unchanged. Arabic script_sentence_8

In most cases, the letters transcribe consonants or consonants and a few vowels, so most Arabic alphabets are abjads. Arabic script_sentence_9

It does not have capital letters. Arabic script_sentence_10

The script was first used to write texts in Arabic, most notably the Quran, the holy book of Islam. Arabic script_sentence_11

With the religion's spread, it came to be used as the primary script for many language families, leading to the addition of new letters and other symbols, with some versions, such as Kurdish, Uyghur and old Bosnian being abugidas or true alphabets. Arabic script_sentence_12

It is also the basis for the tradition of Arabic calligraphy. Arabic script_sentence_13

History Arabic script_section_0

Main article: History of the Arabic alphabet Arabic script_sentence_14

The Arabic alphabet is a derivative of the Nabataean alphabet or (less widely believed) directly from the Syriac alphabet which are both derived from the Aramaic alphabet, which descended from the Phoenician alphabet. Arabic script_sentence_15

The Phoenician alphabet gave rise to among others the Arabic alphabet, Hebrew alphabet and the Greek alphabet (and therefore the Cyrillic and Roman alphabets). Arabic script_sentence_16

Origins Arabic script_section_1

In the 6th and 5th centuries BCE, northern Arab tribes emigrated and founded a kingdom centred around Petra, Jordan. Arabic script_sentence_17

These people (now named Nabataeans from the name of one of the tribes, Nabatu) spoke Nabataean Arabic, a Northwest Semitic language. Arabic script_sentence_18

In the 2nd or 1st centuries BCE, the first known records of the Nabataean alphabet were written in the Aramaic language (which was the language of communication and trade), but included some Arabic language features: the Nabataeans did not write the language which they spoke. Arabic script_sentence_19

They wrote in a form of the Aramaic alphabet, which continued to evolve; it separated into two forms: one intended for inscriptions (known as "monumental Nabataean") and the other, more cursive and hurriedly written and with joined letters, for writing on papyrus. Arabic script_sentence_20

This cursive form influenced the monumental form more and more and gradually changed into the Arabic alphabet. Arabic script_sentence_21

Overview Arabic script_section_2

The Arabic script has been adapted for use in a wide variety of languages besides Arabic, including Persian, Malay and Urdu, which are not Semitic. Arabic script_sentence_22

Such adaptations may feature altered or new characters to represent phonemes that do not appear in Arabic phonology. Arabic script_sentence_23

For example, the Arabic language lacks a voiceless bilabial plosive (the [p] sound), therefore many languages add their own letter to represent [p] in the script, though the specific letter used varies from language to language. Arabic script_sentence_24

These modifications tend to fall into groups: Indian and Turkic languages written in the Arabic script tend to use the Persian modified letters, whereas the languages of Indonesia tend to imitate those of Jawi. Arabic script_sentence_25

The modified version of the Arabic script originally devised for use with Persian is known as the Perso-Arabic script by scholars. Arabic script_sentence_26

In the cases of Bosnian, Kurdish, Kashmiri and Uyghur writing systems, vowels are mandatory. Arabic script_sentence_27

The Arabic script can therefore be used in both abugida and abjad forms, although it is often strongly, if erroneously, connected to the latter due to it being originally used only for Arabic. Arabic script_sentence_28

Use of the Arabic script in West African languages, especially in the Sahel, developed with the spread of Islam. Arabic script_sentence_29

To a certain degree the style and usage tends to follow those of the Maghreb (for instance the position of the dots in the letters fāʼ and qāf). Arabic script_sentence_30

Additional diacritics have come into use to facilitate the writing of sounds not represented in the Arabic language. Arabic script_sentence_31

The term ʻAjamī, which comes from the Arabic root for "foreign," has been applied to Arabic-based orthographies of African languages. Arabic script_sentence_32

Table of writing styles Arabic script_section_3

Arabic script_table_general_1

Script or styleArabic script_header_cell_1_0_0 Alphabet(s)Arabic script_header_cell_1_0_1 Language(s)Arabic script_header_cell_1_0_2 RegionArabic script_header_cell_1_0_3 Derived fromArabic script_header_cell_1_0_4 CommentArabic script_header_cell_1_0_5
NaskhArabic script_cell_1_1_0 Arabic
& othersArabic script_cell_1_1_1
Arabic
& othersArabic script_cell_1_1_2
Every region where Perso-Arabic scripts are usedArabic script_cell_1_1_3 Arabic script_cell_1_1_4 Sometimes refers to a very specific calligraphic style, but sometimes used to refer more broadly to almost every font that is not Kufic or Nastaliq.Arabic script_cell_1_1_5
NastaliqArabic script_cell_1_2_0 Urdu,
Persian, 
& othersArabic script_cell_1_2_1
Urdu,
Persian, 
& othersArabic script_cell_1_2_2
Southern and Western AsiaArabic script_cell_1_2_3 TaliqArabic script_cell_1_2_4 Used for almost all modern Urdu text, but only occasionally used for Persian. (The term "Nastaliq" is sometimes used by Urdu speakers to refer to all Perso-Arabic scripts.)Arabic script_cell_1_2_5
TaliqArabic script_cell_1_3_0 PersianArabic script_cell_1_3_1 PersianArabic script_cell_1_3_2 Arabic script_cell_1_3_3 Arabic script_cell_1_3_4 A predecessor of Nastaliq.Arabic script_cell_1_3_5
KuficArabic script_cell_1_4_0 ArabicArabic script_cell_1_4_1 ArabicArabic script_cell_1_4_2 Middle East and parts of North AfricaArabic script_cell_1_4_3 Arabic script_cell_1_4_4 Arabic script_cell_1_4_5
RasmArabic script_cell_1_5_0 Restricted Arabic alphabetArabic script_cell_1_5_1 ArabicArabic script_cell_1_5_2 Mainly historicalArabic script_cell_1_5_3 Arabic script_cell_1_5_4 Omits all diacritics including i'jam. Digital replication usually requires some special characters. See:    (links to Wiktionary).Arabic script_cell_1_5_5

Table of alphabets Arabic script_section_4

Arabic script_table_general_2

AlphabetArabic script_header_cell_2_0_0 LettersArabic script_header_cell_2_0_1 Additional
CharactersArabic script_header_cell_2_0_2
Script or StyleArabic script_header_cell_2_0_3 LanguagesArabic script_header_cell_2_0_4 RegionArabic script_header_cell_2_0_5 Derived from:
(or related to)Arabic script_header_cell_2_0_6
NoteArabic script_header_cell_2_0_7
ArabicArabic script_cell_2_1_0 28Arabic script_cell_2_1_1 ^(see above)Arabic script_cell_2_1_2 Naskh, Kufi, Rasm, & othersArabic script_cell_2_1_3 ArabicArabic script_cell_2_1_4 North Africa, West AsiaArabic script_cell_2_1_5 Aramaic,
Syriac,
NabataeanArabic script_cell_2_1_6
Arabic script_cell_2_1_7
Ajami scriptArabic script_cell_2_2_0 33Arabic script_cell_2_2_1 Arabic script_cell_2_2_2 Arabic script_cell_2_2_3 Hausa, SwahiliArabic script_cell_2_2_4 West AfricaArabic script_cell_2_2_5 ArabicArabic script_cell_2_2_6 AbjadArabic script_cell_2_2_7
AljamiadoArabic script_cell_2_3_0 28Arabic script_cell_2_3_1 Arabic script_cell_2_3_2 Arabic script_cell_2_3_3 Old Spanish, Mozarabic, Ladino, Aragonese, Old Galician-PortugueseArabic script_cell_2_3_4 Southwest EuropeArabic script_cell_2_3_5 ArabicArabic script_cell_2_3_6 8th-13th centuries for Mozarabic, 14th-16th centuries for the other languagesArabic script_cell_2_3_7
ArebicaArabic script_cell_2_4_0 30Arabic script_cell_2_4_1 Arabic script_cell_2_4_2 Arabic script_cell_2_4_3 BosnianArabic script_cell_2_4_4 Southeastern EuropeArabic script_cell_2_4_5 Perso-ArabicArabic script_cell_2_4_6 Latest stage with full vowel markingArabic script_cell_2_4_7
Arwi alphabetArabic script_cell_2_5_0 41Arabic script_cell_2_5_1 Arabic script_cell_2_5_2 Arabic script_cell_2_5_3 TamilArabic script_cell_2_5_4 Southern India, Sri LankaArabic script_cell_2_5_5 Perso-ArabicArabic script_cell_2_5_6 Arabic script_cell_2_5_7
Belarusian Arabic alphabetArabic script_cell_2_6_0 32Arabic script_cell_2_6_1 Arabic script_cell_2_6_2 Arabic script_cell_2_6_3 BelarusianArabic script_cell_2_6_4 Eastern EuropeArabic script_cell_2_6_5 Perso-ArabicArabic script_cell_2_6_6 15th / 16th centuryArabic script_cell_2_6_7
Berber Arabic alphabet(s)Arabic script_cell_2_7_0 Arabic script_cell_2_7_1 Arabic script_cell_2_7_2 Arabic script_cell_2_7_3 Various Berber languagesArabic script_cell_2_7_4 North AfricaArabic script_cell_2_7_5 ArabicArabic script_cell_2_7_6 Arabic script_cell_2_7_7
BurushaskiArabic script_cell_2_8_0 53Arabic script_cell_2_8_1 (see note)Arabic script_cell_2_8_2 Arabic script_cell_2_8_3 BurushaskiArabic script_cell_2_8_4 South-West Asia (Pakistan)Arabic script_cell_2_8_5 UrduArabic script_cell_2_8_6 Also uses the additional letters shown for Urdu. Sometimes written with just the Urdu alphabet, or with the Latin alphabet.Arabic script_cell_2_8_7
Chagatai alphabet(s)Arabic script_cell_2_9_0 32Arabic script_cell_2_9_1 Arabic script_cell_2_9_2 Arabic script_cell_2_9_3 ChagataiArabic script_cell_2_9_4 Central AsiaArabic script_cell_2_9_5 Perso-ArabicArabic script_cell_2_9_6 Arabic script_cell_2_9_7
GalalArabic script_cell_2_10_0 32Arabic script_cell_2_10_1 Arabic script_cell_2_10_2 Arabic script_cell_2_10_3 SomaliArabic script_cell_2_10_4 Horn of AfricaArabic script_cell_2_10_5 ArabicArabic script_cell_2_10_6 Arabic script_cell_2_10_7
JawiArabic script_cell_2_11_0 36Arabic script_cell_2_11_1 Arabic script_cell_2_11_2 Arabic script_cell_2_11_3 MalayArabic script_cell_2_11_4 Peninsular MalayArabic script_cell_2_11_5 Perso-ArabicArabic script_cell_2_11_6 Since 1303 AD (Trengganu Stone)Arabic script_cell_2_11_7
KashmiriArabic script_cell_2_12_0 44Arabic script_cell_2_12_1 أ ٲ إٳ وٗۆۄےٚؠArabic script_cell_2_12_2 NastaliqArabic script_cell_2_12_3 KashmiriArabic script_cell_2_12_4 South AsiaArabic script_cell_2_12_5 Perso-ArabicArabic script_cell_2_12_6 Arabic script_cell_2_12_7
Kazakh Arabic alphabetArabic script_cell_2_13_0 35Arabic script_cell_2_13_1 Arabic script_cell_2_13_2 Arabic script_cell_2_13_3 KazakhArabic script_cell_2_13_4 Central Asia, ChinaArabic script_cell_2_13_5 Perso-Arabic

/ ChagataiArabic script_cell_2_13_6

Since 11th century, now official only in ChinaArabic script_cell_2_13_7
KhowarArabic script_cell_2_14_0 60Arabic script_cell_2_14_1 Arabic script_cell_2_14_2 Arabic script_cell_2_14_3 KhowarArabic script_cell_2_14_4 South AsiaArabic script_cell_2_14_5 Perso-ArabicArabic script_cell_2_14_6 Arabic script_cell_2_14_7
Kyrgyz Arabic alphabetArabic script_cell_2_15_0 33Arabic script_cell_2_15_1 Arabic script_cell_2_15_2 Arabic script_cell_2_15_3 KyrgyzArabic script_cell_2_15_4 Central AsiaArabic script_cell_2_15_5 Perso-ArabicArabic script_cell_2_15_6 Now official only in ChinaArabic script_cell_2_15_7
Kuryan alphabetArabic script_cell_2_16_0 44Arabic script_cell_2_16_1 Arabic script_cell_2_16_2 Arabic script_cell_2_16_3 KoreanArabic script_cell_2_16_4 East Asia, South KoreaArabic script_cell_2_16_5 Perso-ArabicArabic script_cell_2_16_6 Invented by Korean Muslim in the 2000sArabic script_cell_2_16_7
PashtoArabic script_cell_2_17_0 45Arabic script_cell_2_17_1 Arabic script_cell_2_17_2 Arabic script_cell_2_17_3 PashtoArabic script_cell_2_17_4 South-West Asia, Afghanistan and PakistanArabic script_cell_2_17_5 Perso-ArabicArabic script_cell_2_17_6 Arabic script_cell_2_17_7
Pegon scriptArabic script_cell_2_18_0 35Arabic script_cell_2_18_1 Arabic script_cell_2_18_2 Arabic script_cell_2_18_3 Javanese, SundaneseArabic script_cell_2_18_4 South-East Asia (Indonesia)Arabic script_cell_2_18_5 Perso-ArabicArabic script_cell_2_18_6 Arabic script_cell_2_18_7
PersianArabic script_cell_2_19_0 32Arabic script_cell_2_19_1 Arabic script_cell_2_19_2 Nastaliq or NaskhArabic script_cell_2_19_3 Persian (Farsi)Arabic script_cell_2_19_4 West Asia (Iran etc. )Arabic script_cell_2_19_5 ArabicArabic script_cell_2_19_6 Arabic script_cell_2_19_7
SaraikiArabic script_cell_2_20_0 45Arabic script_cell_2_20_1 Arabic script_cell_2_20_2 Arabic script_cell_2_20_3 SaraikiArabic script_cell_2_20_4 South-West Asia (Pakistan)Arabic script_cell_2_20_5 Perso-ArabicArabic script_cell_2_20_6 Arabic script_cell_2_20_7
ShahmukhiArabic script_cell_2_21_0 41+

(see note)Arabic script_cell_2_21_1

Arabic script_cell_2_21_2 Usually NastaliqArabic script_cell_2_21_3 PunjabiArabic script_cell_2_21_4 South-West Asia (Pakistan)Arabic script_cell_2_21_5 Perso-ArabicArabic script_cell_2_21_6 Similar to Urdu; 58 letters including digraphs for aspirated consonants.Arabic script_cell_2_21_7
SindhiArabic script_cell_2_22_0 64Arabic script_cell_2_22_1 Arabic script_cell_2_22_2 Naskh-likeArabic script_cell_2_22_3 SindhiArabic script_cell_2_22_4 South-West Asia (Pakistan)Arabic script_cell_2_22_5 Perso-ArabicArabic script_cell_2_22_6 Arabic script_cell_2_22_7
SorabeArabic script_cell_2_23_0 33Arabic script_cell_2_23_1 Arabic script_cell_2_23_2 Arabic script_cell_2_23_3 MalagasyArabic script_cell_2_23_4 MadagascarArabic script_cell_2_23_5 ArabicArabic script_cell_2_23_6 Arabic script_cell_2_23_7
SoranîArabic script_cell_2_24_0 33Arabic script_cell_2_24_1 Arabic script_cell_2_24_2 Arabic script_cell_2_24_3 Central KurdishArabic script_cell_2_24_4 Middle-EastArabic script_cell_2_24_5 Perso-ArabicArabic script_cell_2_24_6 Vowels are mandatory, i.e. abugidaArabic script_cell_2_24_7
Arabic script_cell_2_25_0 Arabic script_cell_2_25_1 Arabic script_cell_2_25_2 Arabic script_cell_2_25_3 SwahiliArabic script_cell_2_25_4 Arabic script_cell_2_25_5 Arabic script_cell_2_25_6 Arabic script_cell_2_25_7
İske imlâArabic script_cell_2_26_0 35Arabic script_cell_2_26_1 Arabic script_cell_2_26_2 Arabic script_cell_2_26_3 TatarArabic script_cell_2_26_4 Arabic script_cell_2_26_5 Chagatai / Perso-ArabicArabic script_cell_2_26_6 Before 1920Arabic script_cell_2_26_7
Ottoman TurkishArabic script_cell_2_27_0 32Arabic script_cell_2_27_1 Arabic script_cell_2_27_2 Arabic script_cell_2_27_3 Ottoman TurkishArabic script_cell_2_27_4 Ottoman EmpireArabic script_cell_2_27_5 Perso-ArabicArabic script_cell_2_27_6 Official until 1928Arabic script_cell_2_27_7
UrduArabic script_cell_2_28_0 39+
(see notes)Arabic script_cell_2_28_1
(see notes)Arabic script_cell_2_28_2 NastaliqArabic script_cell_2_28_3 UrduArabic script_cell_2_28_4 South AsiaArabic script_cell_2_28_5 Perso-ArabicArabic script_cell_2_28_6 58 letters including digraphs representing aspirated consonants.Arabic script_cell_2_28_7
UyghurArabic script_cell_2_29_0 32Arabic script_cell_2_29_1 Arabic script_cell_2_29_2 Arabic script_cell_2_29_3 UyghurArabic script_cell_2_29_4 China, Central AsiaArabic script_cell_2_29_5 Perso-Arabic

/ ChagataiArabic script_cell_2_29_6

Vowels are mandatory, i.e. abugidaArabic script_cell_2_29_7
WolofalArabic script_cell_2_30_0 28Arabic script_cell_2_30_1 Arabic script_cell_2_30_2 Arabic script_cell_2_30_3 WolofArabic script_cell_2_30_4 West AfricaArabic script_cell_2_30_5 ArabicArabic script_cell_2_30_6 Arabic script_cell_2_30_7
Xiao'erjingArabic script_cell_2_31_0 36Arabic script_cell_2_31_1 Arabic script_cell_2_31_2 Arabic script_cell_2_31_3 Sinitic languagesArabic script_cell_2_31_4 China, Central AsiaArabic script_cell_2_31_5 Perso-ArabicArabic script_cell_2_31_6 Arabic script_cell_2_31_7
Yaña imlâArabic script_cell_2_32_0 29Arabic script_cell_2_32_1 Arabic script_cell_2_32_2 Arabic script_cell_2_32_3 TatarArabic script_cell_2_32_4 RussiaArabic script_cell_2_32_5 Perso-Arabic

/ ChagataiArabic script_cell_2_32_6

1920–1927 replaced with CyrillicArabic script_cell_2_32_7

Current use Arabic script_section_5

Today Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and China are the main non-Arabic speaking states using the Arabic alphabet to write one or more official national languages, including Azerbaijani, Baluchi, Brahui, Persian, Pashto, Central Kurdish, Urdu, Sindhi, Kashmiri, Punjabi and Uyghur. Arabic script_sentence_33

An Arabic alphabet is currently used for the following languages: Arabic script_sentence_34

Middle East and Central Asia Arabic script_section_6

See also: Perso-Arabic alphabet Arabic script_sentence_35

Arabic script_unordered_list_0

East Asia Arabic script_section_7

Arabic script_unordered_list_1

South Asia Arabic script_section_8

Arabic script_unordered_list_2

Southeast Asia Arabic script_section_9

Arabic script_unordered_list_3

  • Malay in the Arabic script known as Jawi. In some cases it can be seen in the signboards of shops and market stalls. Particularly in Brunei, Jawi is used in terms of writing or reading for Islamic religious educational programs in primary school, secondary school, college, or even higher educational institutes such as universities. In addition, some television programming uses Jawi, such as announcements, advertisements, news, social programs or Islamic programsArabic script_item_3_39
  • Cham language in Cambodia besides Western Cham script.Arabic script_item_3_47

Africa Arabic script_section_10

Arabic script_unordered_list_4

  • North AfricaArabic script_item_4_48
    • ArabicArabic script_item_4_49
    • Maghrebi Arabic uses a modified Arabic script, with additional letters, in order to support /g/ (ڨ/ڭ), /v/ (ڥ) and /p/ (پ) along with the older /f/ (ڢ) and /q/ (ڧ)Arabic script_item_4_50
    • Berber languages have often been written in an adaptation of the Arabic alphabet. The use of the Arabic alphabet, as well as the competing Latin and Tifinagh scripts, has political connotationsArabic script_item_4_51
    • Tuareg language, (sometimes called Tamasheq) which is also a Berber languageArabic script_item_4_52
    • Coptic language of Egyptian Coptics as Coptic text written in Arabic lettersArabic script_item_4_53
  • Northeast AfricaArabic script_item_4_54
    • Bedawi or Beja, mainly in northeastern SudanArabic script_item_4_55
    • Wadaad writing, used in SomaliaArabic script_item_4_56
    • Nubian languagesArabic script_item_4_57
      • Dongolawi language or Andaandi language of Nubia, in the Nile Vale of northern SudanArabic script_item_4_58
      • Nobiin language, the largest Nubian language (previously known by the geographic terms Mahas and Fadicca/Fiadicca) is not yet standardized, being written variously in both Latinized and Arabic scripts; also, there have been recent efforts to revive the Old Nubian alphabet.Arabic script_item_4_59
    • Fur language of Darfur, SudanArabic script_item_4_60
  • Southeast AfricaArabic script_item_4_61
    • Comorian, in the Comoros, currently side by side with the Latin alphabet (neither is official)Arabic script_item_4_62
    • Swahili, was originally written in Arabic alphabet, Swahili orthography is now based on the Latin alphabet that was introduced by Christian missionaries and colonial administratorsArabic script_item_4_63
  • West AfricaArabic script_item_4_64
    • Zarma language of the Songhay family. It is the language of the southwestern lobe of the West African nation of Niger, and it is the second leading language of Niger, after Hausa, which is spoken in south central NigerArabic script_item_4_65
    • Tadaksahak is a Songhay language spoken by the pastoralist Idaksahak of the Ménaka area of MaliArabic script_item_4_66
    • Hausa language uses an adaptation of the Arabic script known as Ajami, for many purposes, especially religious, but including newspapers, mass mobilization posters and public informationArabic script_item_4_67
    • Dyula language is a Mandé language spoken in Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire and Mali.Arabic script_item_4_68
    • Jola-Fonyi language of the Casamance region of SenegalArabic script_item_4_69
    • Balanta language a Bak language of west Africa spoken by the Balanta people and Balanta-Ganja dialect in SenegalArabic script_item_4_70
    • Mandinka, widely but unofficially (known as Ajami), (another non-Latin script used is the N'Ko script)Arabic script_item_4_71
    • Fula, especially the Pular of Guinea (known as Ajami)Arabic script_item_4_72
    • Wolof (at zaouia schools), known as Wolofal.Arabic script_item_4_73
  • Arabic script outside AfricaArabic script_item_4_74
    • In writings of African American slavesArabic script_item_4_75
      • Writings of by Omar Ibn Said (1770–1864) of SenegalArabic script_item_4_76
      • The Bilali Document also known as Bilali Muhammad Document is a handwritten, Arabic manuscript on West African Islamic law. It was written by Bilali Mohammet in the 19th century. The document is currently housed in the library at the University of GeorgiaArabic script_item_4_77
      • Letter written by Ayuba Suleiman Diallo (1701–1773)Arabic script_item_4_78
      • Arabic Text From 1768Arabic script_item_4_79
      • Letter written by Abdulrahman Ibrahim Ibn Sori (1762–1829)Arabic script_item_4_80

Former use Arabic script_section_11

In the 20th century, the Arabic script was generally replaced by the Latin alphabet in the Balkans, parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, and Southeast Asia, while in the Soviet Union, after a brief period of Latinisation, use of Cyrillic was mandated. Arabic script_sentence_36

Turkey changed to the Latin alphabet in 1928 as part of an internal Westernizing revolution. Arabic script_sentence_37

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, many of the Turkic languages of the ex-USSR attempted to follow Turkey's lead and convert to a Turkish-style Latin alphabet. Arabic script_sentence_38

However, renewed use of the Arabic alphabet has occurred to a limited extent in Tajikistan, whose language's close resemblance to Persian allows direct use of publications from Afghanistan and Iran. Arabic script_sentence_39

Most languages of the Iranian languages family continue to use Arabic script, as well as the Indo-Aryan languages of Pakistan and of Muslim populations in India. Arabic script_sentence_40

However, the Bengali language of India and Bangladesh was never written in Arabic script, which has been written in the Bengali alphabet since inception. Arabic script_sentence_41

Africa Arabic script_section_12

Arabic script_unordered_list_5

Europe Arabic script_section_13

Arabic script_unordered_list_6

Central Asia and Caucasus Arabic script_section_14

Arabic script_unordered_list_7

Southeast Asia Arabic script_section_15

Arabic script_unordered_list_8

Middle East Arabic script_section_16

Arabic script_unordered_list_9

Unicode Arabic script_section_17

Main article: Arabic characters in Unicode Arabic script_sentence_42

As of Unicode 13.0, the following ranges encode Arabic characters: Arabic script_sentence_43

Arabic script_unordered_list_10

Additional letters used in other languages Arabic script_section_18

Assignment of phonemes to graphemes Arabic script_section_19

Arabic script_table_general_3

Ø = phoneme absent from languageArabic script_table_caption_3
Language familyArabic script_header_cell_3_0_0 Austron.Arabic script_header_cell_3_0_1 DravidArabic script_header_cell_3_0_3 TurkicArabic script_header_cell_3_0_4 Indic (Indo-European)Arabic script_header_cell_3_0_5 Iranian (Indo-European)Arabic script_header_cell_3_0_8 Arabic script_header_cell_3_0_12 Arabic (Semitic)Arabic script_header_cell_3_0_13
Language/scriptArabic script_header_cell_3_1_0 JawiArabic script_header_cell_3_1_1 PegonArabic script_header_cell_3_1_2 ArwiArabic script_header_cell_3_1_3 UyghurArabic script_header_cell_3_1_4 SindhiArabic script_header_cell_3_1_5 PunjabiArabic script_header_cell_3_1_6 UrduArabic script_header_cell_3_1_7 PersianArabic script_header_cell_3_1_8 BalochiArabic script_header_cell_3_1_9 KurdishArabic script_header_cell_3_1_10 PashtoArabic script_header_cell_3_1_11 MoroccanArabic script_header_cell_3_1_12 TunisianArabic script_header_cell_3_1_13 AlgerianArabic script_header_cell_3_1_14 HejaziArabic script_header_cell_3_1_15 NajdiArabic script_header_cell_3_1_16 EgyptianArabic script_header_cell_3_1_17 IsraeliArabic script_header_cell_3_1_18 LevantineArabic script_header_cell_3_1_19 IraqiArabic script_header_cell_3_1_20 GulfArabic script_header_cell_3_1_21
/p/Arabic script_cell_3_2_0 ڤArabic script_cell_3_2_1 ڣArabic script_cell_3_2_3 پArabic script_cell_3_2_4 Arabic script_cell_3_2_12 پ‎ / بArabic script_cell_3_2_13
/g/Arabic script_cell_3_3_0 ݢArabic script_cell_3_3_1 Arabic script_cell_3_3_2 گArabic script_cell_3_3_4 ګArabic script_cell_3_3_11 ڭ‎ / گArabic script_cell_3_3_12 ڨ‎ / ڧـ ـڧـ ـٯ‎ / قArabic script_cell_3_3_13 قArabic script_cell_3_3_15 جArabic script_cell_3_3_17 چ‎ / جArabic script_cell_3_3_18 ك‎ / جArabic script_cell_3_3_19 گ‎ / كArabic script_cell_3_3_20 ق / گArabic script_cell_3_3_21
/t͡ʃ/Arabic script_cell_3_4_0 چArabic script_cell_3_4_1 ØArabic script_cell_3_4_5 چArabic script_cell_3_4_6 ڜArabic script_cell_3_4_12 تش‎Arabic script_cell_3_4_13 چArabic script_cell_3_4_20
/v/Arabic script_cell_3_5_0 ۏArabic script_cell_3_5_1 فArabic script_cell_3_5_2 وArabic script_cell_3_5_3 ۋArabic script_cell_3_5_4 وArabic script_cell_3_5_5 ØArabic script_cell_3_5_9 ڤArabic script_cell_3_5_10 ØArabic script_cell_3_5_11 ڥ‎ / ڢ‎ / فArabic script_cell_3_5_12 ڤ‎ / فArabic script_cell_3_5_15
/ʒ/Arabic script_cell_3_6_0 ØArabic script_cell_3_6_1 ژArabic script_cell_3_6_4 ØArabic script_cell_3_6_5 ژArabic script_cell_3_6_6 جArabic script_cell_3_6_12 ØArabic script_cell_3_6_14 چ‎ / جArabic script_cell_3_6_17 جArabic script_cell_3_6_18 ØArabic script_cell_3_6_20
/ŋ/Arabic script_cell_3_7_0 ڠArabic script_cell_3_7_1 Arabic script_cell_3_7_3 ڭArabic script_cell_3_7_4 ڱArabic script_cell_3_7_5 ن٘‎Arabic script_cell_3_7_6 ØArabic script_cell_3_7_8 ØArabic script_cell_3_7_12
/ɳ/Arabic script_cell_3_8_0 ØArabic script_cell_3_8_1 ØArabic script_cell_3_8_2 ڹArabic script_cell_3_8_3 ØArabic script_cell_3_8_4 ڻArabic script_cell_3_8_5 ݨArabic script_cell_3_8_6 نArabic script_cell_3_8_7 ØArabic script_cell_3_8_8 ڼArabic script_cell_3_8_11 ØArabic script_cell_3_8_12
/ɲ/Arabic script_cell_3_9_0 ڽArabic script_cell_3_9_1 ۑArabic script_cell_3_9_2 ݧArabic script_cell_3_9_3 ØArabic script_cell_3_9_4 ڃArabic script_cell_3_9_5 نجArabic script_cell_3_9_6 ØArabic script_cell_3_9_7 ØArabic script_cell_3_9_12

Arabic script_description_list_11

  • Footnotes:Arabic script_item_11_141

Letter construction Arabic script_section_20

Most languages that use alphabets based on the Arabic alphabet use the same base shapes. Arabic script_sentence_44

Most additional letters in languages that use alphabets based on the Arabic alphabet are built by adding (or removing) diacritics to existing Arabic letters. Arabic script_sentence_45

Some stylistic variants in Arabic have distinct meanings in other languages. Arabic script_sentence_46

For example, variant forms of kāf ك ک ڪ are used in some languages and sometimes have specific usages. Arabic script_sentence_47

In Urdu and some neighbouring languages the letter Hā has diverged into two forms ھ dō-čašmī hē and ہ ہـ ـہـ ـہ gōl hē. Arabic script_sentence_48

while a variant form of ي yā referred to as baṛī yē ے is used at the end of some words. Arabic script_sentence_49

Table of Letter Components Arabic script_section_21

abbreviations used below Arabic script_section_22

A = The letter is used for most languages and dialects with writing systems based on Arabic. Arabic script_sentence_50

MSA = Letters used in Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic script_sentence_51

CA = Letters used in Classical Arabic. Arabic script_sentence_52

AD = Letters used in some regional Arabic Dialects. Arabic script_sentence_53

"Arabic" = Letters used in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic, and most regional dialects. Arabic script_sentence_54

"Farsi" = Letters used in modern Persian. Arabic script_sentence_55

FW = Foreign words: the letter is sometimes used to spell foreign words. Arabic script_sentence_56

SV = Stylistic variant: the letter is used interchangeably with at least one other lletter depending on the calligraphic style. Arabic script_sentence_57

AW = Arabic words: the letter is used in additional languages to spell Arabic words. Arabic script_sentence_58

Table Arabic script_section_23

No additions Arabic script_section_24
dots Arabic script_section_25

Arabic script_table_general_4

dots bigger headingArabic script_cell_4_0_0
1 Arabic script_section_26
2 Arabic script_section_27
3 Arabic script_section_28
4 Arabic script_section_29
different dots above and below Arabic script_section_30

Arabic script_unordered_list_12

  • ݓ U+0753, ݓ ARABIC LETTER BEH WITH THREE DOTS POINTING UPWARDS BELOW AND TWO DOTS ABOVE. HausaArabic script_item_12_142
  • ݑ U+0751, ݑ ARABIC LETTER BEH WITH DOT BELOW AND THREE DOTS ABOVE. WolofArabic script_item_12_143
tōē Arabic script_section_31
ring Arabic script_section_32
line Arabic script_section_33
numeral Arabic script_section_34

Arabic script_unordered_list_13

arrows Arabic script_section_35
Hamza Arabic script_section_36
other semi-optional vowels Arabic script_section_37
table end Arabic script_section_38

|- |} Arabic script_sentence_59

blank line for new entries Arabic script_section_39

header Arabic script_section_40

Arabic script_table_general_5

diacriticsArabic script_header_cell_5_0_0 Letter ShapesArabic script_header_cell_5_0_4 Arabic script_header_cell_5_0_6 Arabic script_header_cell_5_0_7 Arabic script_header_cell_5_0_8 Arabic script_header_cell_5_0_9 Arabic script_header_cell_5_0_10 Arabic script_header_cell_5_0_11 Arabic script_header_cell_5_0_12 Arabic script_header_cell_5_0_13 Arabic script_header_cell_5_0_14 Arabic script_header_cell_5_0_15 Arabic script_header_cell_5_0_16 Arabic script_header_cell_5_0_17 Arabic script_header_cell_5_0_19 Arabic script_header_cell_5_0_21 Arabic script_header_cell_5_0_22 Arabic script_header_cell_5_0_23 Arabic script_header_cell_5_0_24 Arabic script_header_cell_5_0_25 Arabic script_header_cell_5_0_26 Arabic script_header_cell_5_0_27 Arabic script_header_cell_5_0_28 Arabic script_header_cell_5_0_29 Arabic script_header_cell_5_0_30 Arabic script_header_cell_5_0_31 Arabic script_header_cell_5_0_32 Arabic script_header_cell_5_0_33


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic script.