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For other uses, see Aragon (disambiguation). Aragon_sentence_0



Aragón  (Spanish)

Aragón  (Aragonese)
Aragó  (Catalan)Aragon_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryAragon_header_cell_0_1_0 SpainAragon_cell_0_1_1
CapitalAragon_header_cell_0_2_0 ZaragozaAragon_cell_0_2_1
PresidentAragon_header_cell_0_4_0 Javier Lambán (PSOE)Aragon_cell_0_4_1
LegislatureAragon_header_cell_0_5_0 Cortes of AragonAragon_cell_0_5_1
Area(9.4% of Spain; ranked 4th)Aragon_header_cell_0_6_0
TotalAragon_header_cell_0_7_0 47,720 km (18,420 sq mi)Aragon_cell_0_7_1
Population (2016)Aragon_header_cell_0_8_0
TotalAragon_header_cell_0_9_0 1,308,563Aragon_cell_0_9_1
DensityAragon_header_cell_0_10_0 27/km (71/sq mi)Aragon_cell_0_10_1
Pop. rankAragon_header_cell_0_11_0 11thAragon_cell_0_11_1
PercentAragon_header_cell_0_12_0 2.82% of SpainAragon_cell_0_12_1
Demonym(s)Aragon_header_cell_0_13_0 AragoneseAragon_cell_0_13_1
ISO 3166 codeAragon_header_cell_0_14_0 ES-ARAragon_cell_0_14_1
Official languagesAragon_header_cell_0_15_0 SpanishAragon_cell_0_15_1
Recognised languagesAragon_header_cell_0_16_0 Aragonese, CatalanAragon_cell_0_16_1
Statute of AutonomyAragon_header_cell_0_17_0 16 August 1982

18 April 2007 (current version)Aragon_cell_0_17_1

National dayAragon_header_cell_0_18_0 23 AprilAragon_cell_0_18_1
ParliamentAragon_header_cell_0_19_0 Aragonese CortsAragon_cell_0_19_1
Congress seatsAragon_header_cell_0_20_0 13 (of 350)Aragon_cell_0_20_1
Senate seatsAragon_header_cell_0_21_0 14 (of 265)Aragon_cell_0_21_1
HDI (2018)Aragon_header_cell_0_22_0 0.898

very high · 6thAragon_cell_0_22_1

WebsiteAragon_header_cell_0_23_0 Aragon_cell_0_23_1

Aragon (/ˈærəɡɒn/ or /ˈærəɡən/, Spanish and Aragonese: Aragón [aɾaˈɣon, Catalan: Aragó [əɾəˈɣo) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon. Aragon_sentence_1

In northeastern Spain, the Aragonese autonomous community comprises three provinces (from north to south): Huesca, Zaragoza, and Teruel. Aragon_sentence_2

Its capital is Zaragoza. Aragon_sentence_3

The current Statute of Autonomy declares Aragon a historic nationality of Spain. Aragon_sentence_4

Covering an area of 47720 km (18420 sq mi), the region's terrain ranges diversely from permanent glaciers to verdant valleys, rich pasture lands and orchards, through to the arid steppe plains of the central lowlands. Aragon_sentence_5

Aragon is home to many rivers—most notably, the river Ebro, Spain's largest river in volume, which runs west–east across the entire region through the province of Zaragoza. Aragon_sentence_6

It is also home to the highest mountains of the Pyrenees. Aragon_sentence_7

As of January 2016, the population of Aragon was 1308563, with over half of it living in its capital city, Zaragoza. Aragon_sentence_8

During the same year, the economy of Aragon generated a GDP of €34687 million, which represents 3.1% of Spain's national GDP, and is currently 6th in per capita production behind Madrid, Basque Country, Navarre, Catalonia and La Rioja. Aragon_sentence_9

In addition to its three provinces, Aragon is subdivided into 33 comarcas or counties. Aragon_sentence_10

All comarcas of Aragon have a rich geopolitical and cultural history from its pre-Roman, Celtic and Roman days, four centuries of Islamic rule as Marca Superior of Al-Andalus or kingdom (or taifa) of Saraqusta, as lands that once belonged to the Frankish Marca Hispanica, counties that later formed the Kingdom of Aragon, and eventually the Crown of Aragon. Aragon_sentence_11

Geography Aragon_section_0

Location Aragon_section_1

The area of Aragon is 47720 km of which 15636 km belong to the province of Huesca, 17275 km to the province of Zaragoza and 14810 km to the province of Teruel. Aragon_sentence_12

The total represents a 9.43% of the surface of Spain, being thus the fourth autonomous community in size behind Castile and León, Andalusia, and Castile-La Mancha. Aragon_sentence_13

It is located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, at a latitude between 39º and 43º'N in the temperate zone. Aragon_sentence_14

Its boundaries and borders are in the north with France (the regions of Nouvelle-Aquitaine and Occitanie), in the west with the autonomous communities of Castile-La Mancha (provinces of Guadalajara and Cuenca), Castile and León (province of Soria), La Rioja and Navarre, and in the east with the autonomous communities of Catalonia (provinces of Lérida and Tarragona) and the Valencian Community (provinces of Castellón and Valencia). Aragon_sentence_15

Relief Aragon_section_2

The orography of the community has as central axis the Ebro valley (with heights between 150 and 300 meters approx.) Aragon_sentence_16

which transits between two foothills, the Pyrenean and the Ibérico, preambles of two great mountain formations, the Pyrenees to the north and the Sistema Ibérico to the south; the Community has the highest peaks of both mountain ranges, the Aneto and the Moncayo respectively. Aragon_sentence_17

Pyrenees Aragon_section_3

The Aragonese Pyrenees is located in the north of the province of Huesca and is arranged longitudinally in three large units: High Pyrenees, Intrapirenaic Depression and Outer Ranges. Aragon_sentence_18

The Aragonese High Pyrenees contains the maximum heights of all the Pyrenees mountainous chain. Aragon_sentence_19

The High Pyrenees is formed in turn by the axial Pyrenees and the Inland Ranges. Aragon_sentence_20

In the axial Pyrenees are the oldest materials: granites, quartzites, slates and limestones and the highest peaks like: the Aneto (3404 m), Maladeta (3309 m) and the Perdiguero (3221 m). Aragon_sentence_21

The inner Pre-Pyrenees, composed of more modern rocks (limestones) also has large mountains such as Monte Perdido (3355 m), Collarada (2886 m) and Tendeñera (2853 m). Aragon_sentence_22

The main Pyrenean valleys are formed by the rivers that are born there, which are: Aragon_sentence_23


The intrapirenaic depression is a broad perpendicular corridor. Aragon_sentence_24

Its best represented section is the Canal de Berdún. Aragon_sentence_25

The southern limit of the Depression corresponds to the energetic reliefs of San Juan de la Peña (1552 m) and Oroel Rock (1769 m), modeled on conglomerates of the Campodarbe Formation. Aragon_sentence_26

The pre-Pyrenean outer ranges are in the Huescan foothills and constitute the southernmost unit of the Pyrenees; formed by predominantly calcareous materials, reach heights between 1500 and 2000 meters. Aragon_sentence_27

The Sierra de Guara, one of the most important mountain ranges of the Spanish Pre-Pyrenees, stands out; its summit, the Guara Peak, reaches 2077 metres. Aragon_sentence_28

The Mallos de Riglos, near the town of Ayerbe, stand out for their beauty. Aragon_sentence_29

Depression of the Ebro Aragon_section_4

It extends a wide plain, after passing the foothills, corresponding to the Depression of the Ebro. Aragon_sentence_30

To the southwest is the Sierra de Alcubierre ranges (811 m) one of the typical limestone plateaus of the Depression. Aragon_sentence_31

The depression of the Ebro is a tectonic pit filled with sedimentary materials, accumulated in the Tertiary age in horizontal series. Aragon_sentence_32

In the center, fine materials such as clays, plasters and limestones were deposited. Aragon_sentence_33

To the south of the Ebro have been the limestone plateaus of Borja and of Zaragoza. Aragon_sentence_34

Sistema Ibérico Aragon_section_5

The Aragonese Sistema Ibérico is divided between the provinces of Zaragoza and Teruel. Aragon_sentence_35

It is a set of hills without a clear structural unit, which can be divided into two zones: Sistema Ibérico del Jalón and Sistema Ibérico turolense. Aragon_sentence_36

In the first, the Moncayo stands out with 2314 m, formed by Paleozoic quartzites and slates, partly covered by Mesozoic limestones; to the southeast of the Moncayo the Sistema Ibérico descends of height. Aragon_sentence_37

The second is formed by elevated terrain (from 1000 to 2000 m in general), but flattened and massive. Aragon_sentence_38

To the southwest of the depression the summits of the Sierra de Albarracín range are reached above 1800 m, southeast the 2000 m are reached in the Sierra de Javalambre range and finally we arrive at the Sierra de Gúdar range (2024 m) transition to Maestrazgo. Aragon_sentence_39

Climate and vegetation Aragon_section_6

Although the climate of Aragon can be considered, in general, as a continental Mediterranean climate, its irregular orography creates several climates or microclimates throughout the entire community. Aragon_sentence_40

From the High mountain climate of the central Pyrenees to the north, with perpetual ice (glaciers), to the steppe or semi-desert zones, such as the Monegros, passing through the intense Continental climate of the Teruel-Daroca area. Aragon_sentence_41

The main characteristics of the Aragonese climate are: Aragon_sentence_42


  • The aridity, product of a situation of bucket fitted between the Pyrenean mountain ranges of the north and the Sistema Ibérico to the south, that makes the rains discharge in these high foothills and creates a central situation of absence of precipitations and contrasts of temperatures, with very prolonged extreme seasons with very cold winters and hot summers, and of transition—spring and autumn—short and variable, all inherent to the continental climate specific to the Iberian Peninsula.Aragon_item_1_9


  • The irregularity of the rains due to the component Mediterranean climate, with alternating dry and wet years.Aragon_item_2_10
  • The air currents that are encased in the middle Ebro Valley from northwest to southeast (cierzo), which stands out for its intensity and frequency, and from southeast to northwest (heat index).Aragon_item_2_11

Average temperatures are very dependent on height. Aragon_sentence_43

In the Ebro Valley the winters are relatively moderate, although the frosts are very common and the thermal sensation can decrease a lot with the cierzo, temperatures in summer can reach near the 40 °C. Aragon_sentence_44

In mountain areas winters are long and rigorous, average temperatures can be up to 10 °C lower than in the valley. Aragon_sentence_45

The two most important winds of Aragon are the cierzo of the north and the heat index of levant. Aragon_sentence_46

The first is a very cold and dry wind that crosses the Ebro Valley from northwest to southeast and that can present great strength and speed. Aragon_sentence_47

The second is a warm wind, more irregular and smooth coming from the south-east. Aragon_sentence_48

The vegetation follows the oscillations of relief and climate. Aragon_sentence_49

There is a great variety, be it wild vegetation or human crops. Aragon_sentence_50

In the high areas you can find forests (pines, firs, beech trees, oaks), bushes and meadows, while the areas of Ebro Valley evergreen oak and juniper are the most numerous trees, apart from the lands exploited for agricultural use. Aragon_sentence_51

Hydrography Aragon_section_7

Most Aragonese rivers are tributaries of the Ebro River, which is the largest river in Spain and divides the community in two. Aragon_sentence_52

Of the tributaries of the left bank of the river, the ones originating in the Pyrenees, the Aragón River stands out. Aragon_sentence_53

Its headwaters are in Huesca, but it ends at the community of Navarre, the Gállego and the Cinca, which joins the Segre just before emptying into the Ebro at the height of Mequinenza. Aragon_sentence_54

On the right bank, the Jalón, Huerva and Guadalope stand out. Aragon_sentence_55

In the stream bed of the Ebro river, near the border with Catalonia, the Mequinenza Reservoir, of 1530 hm and a length of about 110 km; it is popularly known as the "Sea of Aragon". Aragon_sentence_56

The small Pyrenean mountain lakes called ibones merit special mention. Aragon_sentence_57

These lakes are very scenic, originating during the last glaciation, and are usually found above 2000 m. Aragon_sentence_58

The Autonomous Community lies within three hydrographic regions, the Ebro River, the Tagus River (which originates in the Sierra de Albarracín range), and the Júcar, which has as its main river in this community the Turia. Aragon_sentence_59

Protected Spaces Aragon_section_8

In Aragon, protected natural spaces are managed through the Red Natural de Aragón, an entity created in 2004 to protect all elements with ecological, landscape and cultural value and at the same time coordinate and establish common standards that contribute to their conservation and sustainable use. Aragon_sentence_60

In this entity are integrated national parks, natural parks, nature reserves, biosphere reserves and other protected natural areas that have been declared by the autonomous community, the Ramsar Convention or the Natura 2000. Aragon_sentence_61

Within the protected areas is the only national park of Aragon: the Ordesa y Monte Perdido National Park, the second national park created in Spain, in 1918, it is found in the Pyrenees in the comarca of Sobrarbe, occupies an area of 15608 ha, a part of the 19679 ha of the peripheral area of protection. Aragon_sentence_62

It also enjoys other figures of protection like the Biosphere Reserve of Ordesa-Viñamala and is cataloged as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Aragon_sentence_63

In addition there are other 4 natural parks: the Moncayo Natural Park with an extension of 11144 ha, the Sierra y Cañones de Guara Natural Park with 47453 ha and 33286 ha of peripheral area of protection, the Posets-Maladeta Natural Park with 33440.6 ha and 5920.2 ha of peripheral area of protection, and the Valles Occidentales Natural Park with 27073 ha and 7335 ha of peripheral area of protection. Aragon_sentence_64

There are also three nature reserves, five natural monuments and three protected landscapes. Aragon_sentence_65

Aiguabarreig Segre-Cinca-Ebro Aragon_section_9

At the confluence of the Segre and Ebro rivers, the Aiguabarreig Ebro-Segre-Cinca is a space with great natural wealth and a great variety of ecosystems that range from Mediterranean steppes to impenetrable riverside forests, making this space a paradise for biodiversity. Aragon_sentence_66

Territorially, the Aiguabarreig is at the center of the Middle Depression of the Ebro. Aragon_sentence_67

It borders to the west with the Monegros, to the east with the Tossals de Montmeneu and Almatret and to the south with the tail of the Ribarroja reservoir. Aragon_sentence_68

This space is named with Catalan word of origin that designates the place where two or more water streams meet and form one. Aragon_sentence_69

The Segre and Cinca form a first Aiguabarreig between the towns of La Granja d'Escarp, Massalcoreig and Torrente de Cinca, a few kilometers downstream they converge with the waters of the Ebro, already in the municipality of Mequinenza, forming one of the largest river confluences of the entire Iberian Peninsula. Aragon_sentence_70

History Aragon_section_10

Main page: :Category: History of Aragon Aragon_sentence_71

Aragon, occupying the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula has served as a bridge between the Mediterranean Sea, the peninsular center and the coasts of the Cantabrian Sea. Aragon_sentence_72

The human presence in the lands that today form the autonomous community date back several millennia, but the current Aragon, like many of the current historical nationalities, were formed during the Middle Ages. Aragon_sentence_73

Prehistory Aragon_section_11

The oldest testimonies of human life in the lands that today make up Aragon go back to the time of the glaciations, in the Pleistocene, some 600000 years ago. Aragon_sentence_74

This population left the Acheulean industry that found its best weapons in the hand axes of flint or the cleavers of quartzite. Aragon_sentence_75

In the Upper Palaeolithic appeared two new cultures: Solutrean and Magdalenian. Aragon_sentence_76

The Epipaleolithic was centered in Lower Aragon, occupying the epoch between the 7th and the 5th millennium. Aragon_sentence_77

In the first half of the 5th millennium BCE, Neolithic remains are found in the Huescan Outer Ranges and in Lower Aragon. Aragon_sentence_78

The Eneolithic was characterized in the province of Huesca presenting two important megalithic nuclei: the Pre-Pyrenees of the Outer Ranges and the High Pyrenean valleys. Aragon_sentence_79

The Late Bronze Age begins in Aragon around 1100 BCE with the arrival of the Urnfield culture. Aragon_sentence_80

They are Indo-European people, with an alleged origin in Central Europe, who incinerate their dead by placing the ashes in a funeral urn. Aragon_sentence_81

There are examples in the Cave del Moro of Olvena, the Masada del Ratón in Fraga, Palermo and the Cabezo de Monleón in Caspe. Aragon_sentence_82

From the metallurgical point of view there seems to be a boom given the increase in foundry molds that are located in the populations. Aragon_sentence_83

The Iron Age is the most important, since throughout the centuries it is the true substratum of the Aragonese historical population. Aragon_sentence_84

The arrival of Central Europeans during the Bronze Age by Pyrenees until reaching the Lower Aragon area, supposed an important ethnic contribution that prepared the way to the invasions of Iron Age. Aragon_sentence_85

Ancient history Aragon_section_12

See also: Hispania Aragon_sentence_86

The Mediterranean contributions represented a commercial activity that will constitute a powerful stimulus for the iron metallurgy, promoting the modernization of the tools and the indigenous armament, replacing the old bronze with the iron. Aragon_sentence_87

There is presence of Phoenician, Greek and Etruscan products. Aragon_sentence_88

In the 6th century BCE there are six groups with different social organization: products Vascones, Suessetani, Sedetani, Iacetani, Ilergetes and Citerior Celtiberians. Aragon_sentence_89

They are Iberized groups with a tendency towards stability, fixing their habitat in durable populations, with dwellings that evolve towards more enduring and stable models. Aragon_sentence_90

There are many examples in Aragon, among which Cabezo de Monleón in Caspe, Puntal of Fraga, Roquizal del Rullo or Loma de los Brunos. Aragon_sentence_91

The type of social organization was based on the family group, consisting of four generations. Aragon_sentence_92

Self-sufficient societies in which the greater part of the population was dedicated to agricultural and livestock activities. Aragon_sentence_93

In the Iberian scope the power was monarchical, exercised by a king; there was a democratic assembly with participation of the male population. Aragon_sentence_94

There were visible social differentiations and established legal-political statutes. Aragon_sentence_95

The Romans arrived and progressed easily into the interior. Aragon_sentence_96

In the territorial distribution that Rome made of Hispania, the current Aragon was included in the . Aragon_sentence_97

In the year 197 BCE, Sempronius Tuditanus is the praetor of the Citerior and had to face a general uprising in their territories that ended with the Roman defeat and the own death of Tuditanus. Aragon_sentence_98

In view of these facts the Senate sent the consul Marcus Porcius Cato with an army of 60000 men. Aragon_sentence_99

The indigenous peoples of the area were rebelling, except for the Ilergetes who negotiated peace with Cato. Aragon_sentence_100

There were different uprisings of the Iberian peoples against the Romans, in 194 BCE sees a general uprising with elimination of half of the Roman army, in 188 BCE Manlius Acidinus Fulvianus, praetor of the Citerior, must confront in Calagurris (Calahorra) with the Celtiberians, in the 184 BCE Terentius Varro did it with the Suessetani, to those who took the capital, Corbio. Aragon_sentence_101

In the 1st century BCE Aragon was the scene of the civil war to seize the power of Rome where the governor Quintus Sertorius made Osca (Huesca) the capital of all the territories controlled by them. Aragon_sentence_102

Already in the 1st century BCE, the today Aragonese territory became part of the province Tarraconensis and there was the definitive romanization of it creating roads and consolidating ancient Celtiberian and Iberian cities such as Caesaraugusta (Zaragoza), Turiaso (Tarazona), Osca (Huesca) or Bilbilis (Calatayud). Aragon_sentence_103

In the middle of the 3rd century the decay of the Roman Empire began. Aragon_sentence_104

Between the years 264 and 266 the Franks and the Alemanni, two Germanic peoples who passed through the Pyrenees and came to Tarazona, which they sacked. Aragon_sentence_105

In the agony of the Empire groups of bandits emerged who were dedicated to pillage. Aragon_sentence_106

The Ebro Valley was ravaged in the 5th century by several gangs of evildoers called Bagaudae. Aragon_sentence_107

Middle Ages Aragon_section_13

See also: Kingdom of Aragon and Crown of Aragon Aragon_sentence_108

After the disintegration of the Western Roman Empire, the current area of Aragon was occupied by the Visigoths, forming the Visigothic Kingdom. Aragon_sentence_109

In the year 714 muslims from North Africa conquered the central area of Aragon, converting to Islam the ancient Roman cities such as Saraqusta (Zaragoza) or Wasqa (Huesca). Aragon_sentence_110

It was at this time that an important Muladi family was formed, the Banu Qasi (بنو قاسي), their domains were located in the Ebro Valley between the 8th and 10th centuries. Aragon_sentence_111

After the disappearance of the Caliphate of Córdoba at the beginning of the 11th century, the Taifa of Zaragoza arose, one of the most important Taifas of Al-Andalus, leaving a great artistic, cultural and philosophical legacy. Aragon_sentence_112

The name of Aragon is documented for the first time during the Early Middle Ages in the year 828, when the small County of Aragon of Frankish origin, would emerge between the rivers that bear its name, the Aragón river, and its brother the Aragón Subordán river. Aragon_sentence_113

That County of Aragon would be linked to the Kingdom of Pamplona until 1035, and under its wing it would grow to form a dowry of García Sánchez III of Pamplona to the death of the king Sancho "the Great", in a period characterized by Muslim hegemony in almost the entire Iberian Peninsula. Aragon_sentence_114

Under the reign of Ramiro I of Aragon would be extended borders with the annexation of the counties of Sobrarbe and Ribagorza (year 1044), after having incorporated populations of the historical comarca of Cinco Villas. Aragon_sentence_115

In 1076, on the death of Sancho IV of Pamplona, Aragon incorporated part of the Navarrese kingdom into its territories while Castile did the same with the western area of the former domains of Sancho "the Great". Aragon_sentence_116

During the reigns of Sancho Ramírez and Peter I of Aragon and Pamplona, the kingdom extended its borders to the south, established threatening fortresses on the capital of Zaragoza in El Castellar and Juslibol and took Huesca, which became the new capital. Aragon_sentence_117

This leads to the reign of Alfonso I of Aragon that would conquer the flat lands of the middle Ebro Valley for Aragon: Ejea de los Caballeros, Valtierra, Calatayud, Tudela and Zaragoza, the capital of the Taifa of Saraqusta. Aragon_sentence_118

At his death the nobles would choose his brother Ramiro II of Aragon, who left his religious life to assume the royal scepter and perpetuate the dynasty, which he achieved with the dynastic union of the House of Aragon with the owner of the County of Barcelona in 1137, year in which the union of both patrimonies would give rise to the Crown of Aragon and would add the forces that to its they would make the conquests of the Kingdom of Majorca and the Kingdom of Valencia possible. Aragon_sentence_119

The Crown of Aragon would become the hegemonic power of the Mediterranean, controlling territories as important as Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia or Naples. Aragon_sentence_120

The monarch was known as King of Aragon and also held the titles of King of Valencia, King of Majorca (for a time), Count of Barcelona, Lord of Montpellier, and (temporarily) Duke of Athens and Neopatria. Aragon_sentence_121

Each of these titles gave him sovereignty over the specific region, and the titles changed as territories were lost and won. Aragon_sentence_122

According to Aragonese law, the monarch had to swear allegiance to the Kingdom's laws before being accepted as king. Aragon_sentence_123

Like other Pyrenean and Basque realms, the Aragonese justice and decision making system was based on Pyrenean consuetudinary law, the King was considered primus inter pares ('first among equals') within the nobility. Aragon_sentence_124

A nobleman with the title "Chustizia d'Aragón" acted as ombudsman and was responsible for ensuring that the King obeyed the Aragonese laws. Aragon_sentence_125

An old saying goes, "en Aragón antes de Rey hubo Ley" ("in Aragon Law came before King"), similar to the saying in Navarre, "antes fueron Leyes que Reyes", with much the same meaning. Aragon_sentence_126

The subsequent legend made the Aragonese monarchy eligible and created a phrase of coronation of the king that would be perpetuated for centuries: Aragon_sentence_127

This situation would be repeated in the Commitment of Caspe (1412), which avoids a war that had dismembered the Crown of Aragon when a good handful of aspirants to the throne emerged after the death of Martin of Aragon a year after the death of his first-born, Martin I of Sicily. Aragon_sentence_128

Ferdinand I of Aragon is the chosen one, of the Castilian House of Trastámara, but also directly connected with the Aragonese king Peter IV of Aragon, through his mother Eleanor of Aragon. Aragon_sentence_129

Aragon is already a large-scale political entity: the Crown, the Cortes, the Deputation of the Kingdom and the Foral Law constitute its nature and its character. Aragon_sentence_130

The marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon with Isabella I of Castile, celebrated in 1469 in Valladolid, derived later in the union of the crowns of Aragon and Castile, creating the bases of the Modern State. Aragon_sentence_131

Early Modern Age c. 1500–1789 Aragon_section_14

The Early Modern Age was marked by increasing tension between the power of the Spanish Monarchy and those of the regions. Aragon_sentence_132

The appointment of a Castilian as Viceroy in 1590, contrary to the agreement all Royal officials be Aragonese caused widespread unrest; when the Madrid authorities attempted to arrest the Aragonese writer and politician Antonio Perez in May 1591, it caused street violence in Zaragossa and a revolt known as the Alterations of Aragon. Aragon_sentence_133

The unrest was largely confined to Zaragossa and quickly suppressed, with Perez going into exile. Aragon_sentence_134

Philip then ordered a reduction in the proportion of taxes retained by the Generality of Aragon to lessen their capacity to raise an army against him. Aragon_sentence_135

The decay of independent institutions meant political activity focused instead on the preservation of Aragonese history, culture and art. Aragon_sentence_136

The Archive of the Kingdom of Aragon preserved legal documents and records from the Justiciar and the Palace of Deputation or Parliament, unfortunately largely destroyed by the French in the battles of 1809. Aragon_sentence_137

Debates on the causes of the 1590/91 revolt became a contest between opposing views of history that arguably persist in modern Spain. Aragon_sentence_138

The new emphasis on Aragonese history led to the creation of the position of Chronicler or Historian of Aragon; its holders included Jerónimo Zurita y Castro, the De Argensola brothers, Bartolomé and Lupercio, Juan Costa and Jerónimo Martel. Aragon_sentence_139

Much of the work produced by Aragonese writers challenged Philip II's version of events and were censored by the central government. Aragon_sentence_140

In retaliation, the Generality of Aragon ordered the work of Castilian historian Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas to be burned and commissioned Vicencio Blasco de Lanuza to write an alternative. Aragon_sentence_141

His 'History of Aragon' was published in two volumes, 1616 and 1619 respectively; the urgency shows the importance placed on responding to Herrera. Aragon_sentence_142

Other works commissioned at this time for the same purpose include a History of the Aragonese Deputation by Lorenzo Ibáñez de Aoiz and a detailed cartography of the Kingdom of Aragon by João Baptista Lavanha. Aragon_sentence_143

In 1590/91, the Spanish monarchy was at the height of its strength but during the 17th century Spanish power declined for a number of reasons. Aragon_sentence_144

Famine, disease and almost continuous warfare, largely in the Spanish Netherlands drained money, energy and men and weakened the economy; it is estimated the population of Spain fell nearly 25% between 1600 and 1700. Aragon_sentence_145

War and economic decline inevitably led to increases in taxes, with predictable results; the refusal of the Catalan Cortes to contribute their share of the 1626 Union of Arms eventually led to a full-scale revolt in 1640. Aragon_sentence_146

While Aragon itself remained relatively peaceful, it had to be treated with care by the Madrid government; during the reign of Charles II from 1665 to 1700, it provided his half-brother John of Austria with a power base in his battle for control of government with the Queen Regent Mariana of Austria. Aragon_sentence_147

During the 1701–1714 War of the Spanish Succession, Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia and Majorca supported the Austrian claimant Charles. Aragon_sentence_148

The victory of Philip V accelerated the trend towards greater centralisation; the Nueva Planta decrees of 1707 abolished the fueros and Aragonese political structures with their powers transferred to the Deputation of the Kingdom in Madrid; Aragon and Valencia were brought into the system in 1712, Catalonia and Majorca following in 1767. Aragon_sentence_149

1790–1936 Aragon_section_15

The French invasion of 1808 that made Joseph Bonaparte King led to the outbreak of the Guerra de la Independencia Española or War of Independence in May. Aragon_sentence_150

Zaragoza was largely destroyed in February 1809 during the Second Siege of Zaragoza, bringing a halt to its economic development. Aragon_sentence_151

The 1812 Constitution proposed a number of reforms, including the creation of provincial territories and dividing Aragon into the four provinces of Calatayud, Teruel, Soria and Guadalajara. Aragon_sentence_152

However, these reforms were delayed by Ferdinand VII's refusal to accept the constitution and finally implemented in 1822 during the 1820-23 Trienio Liberal. Aragon_sentence_153

When Ferdinand was restored by French Bourbon forces in 1823, he abolished the Constitution along with the provincial reforms. Aragon_sentence_154

When he died in 1833, the provincial division of 1833 divided Aragon into its current three provinces. Aragon_sentence_155

Throughout the 19th century, Aragon was a stronghold of the Carlists, who offered to restore the fueros and other rights associated with the former Kingdom of Aragon. Aragon_sentence_156

This period saw a massive exodus from the countryside into the larger cities of Aragon such as Huesca, Zaragoza, Teruel or Calatayud and other nearby regions, such as Catalonia or Madrid. Aragon_sentence_157

The history of Aragon in the first half of the 20th century was similar to that of the rest of Spain; the building of infrastructure and reforms made by Miguel Primo de Rivera led to a brief economic boom, with new civil and individual liberties during the Second Spanish Republic. Aragon_sentence_158

In June 1936, a draft Statute of Autonomy of Aragon was presented to the Cortes Generales but the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War prevented the development of this autonomist project. Aragon_sentence_159

1936 to present Aragon_section_16

During the 1936–1939 civil war, Aragon was divided between the two sides. Aragon_sentence_160

The Eastern Area which was closer to Catalonia was run by the Republican Regional Defence Council of Aragon, while the larger Western Area was controlled by the Nationalists. Aragon_sentence_161

Some of the most important battles were fought in or near Aragon, including Belchite, Teruel and Ebro. Aragon_sentence_162

After the defeat of the Republic in April 1939, Aragon and the rest of Spain was governed by the Francoist dictatorship. Aragon_sentence_163

Especially during the 1960s, there were large migrations, with a depopulation of the rural areas, towards the industrial areas like the provincial capitals, other areas of Spain, and other European countries. Aragon_sentence_164

In 1964, one of the so-called Development Poles was created in Zaragoza. Aragon_sentence_165

In 1970's, the old town of Mequinenza was demolished almost completely due to the construction of the Ribarroja reservoir. Aragon_sentence_166

The inhabitants of Mequinenza had to leave their homes to move to the new town on the banks of the River Segre. Aragon_sentence_167

A part of the inhabitants left for more industrial areas such as Barcelona or Zaragoza or even abroad to continue working in mining industries. Aragon_sentence_168

By the end of 1974 all population had already abandoned the Old Town of Mequinenza and was living in the new town. Aragon_sentence_169

In the 1970s a period of transition as in the rest of the Country was experienced, after the extinction of the previous regime, with the recovery of democratic normality and the creation of a new constitutional framework. Aragon_sentence_170

It began to demand an own political autonomy, for the Aragonese historical territory; sentiment that was reflected in the historic manifestation of April 23 of 1978 that brought together more than 100000 aragoneses through the streets of Zaragoza. Aragon_sentence_171

Not having plebiscited, in the past, affirmatively a draft Statute of autonomy (second transitory provision of the constitution) and not making use of the difficult access to autonomy by Article 151 whose aggravated procedure required, apart from the initiative of the process autonomic follow the steps of article 143, which was ratified by three quarters of the municipalities of each of the affected provinces that represent at least the majority of the electoral census, and that this initiative was approved by referendum by the affirmative vote of the majority absolute of the electors of each province, Aragon acceded to the self-government by the slow way of article 143 obtaining lower competence top, and less self-management of resources, during more than 20 years. Aragon_sentence_172

On August 10, 1982, Aragon's autonomy statute was approved by the Cortes Generales, signed by the then president of the Government, Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo, and sanctioned by His Majesty Juan Carlos I of Spain. Aragon_sentence_173

On May 7, 1992 a Special Commission of the Aragonese Corts, elaborated a reformed text that was approved by the Aragonese Corts and by the Spanish Cortes. Aragon_sentence_174

Again, a small statutory reform in the year 1996 extended the competence framework, forcing a definitive comprehensive review for several years, a new statutory text was approved in 2007, by majority but without reaching total unanimity. Aragon_sentence_175

In the 1990s the Aragonese society increases a significant qualitative step in the quality of life due to the economic progress of the State at all levels. Aragon_sentence_176

At the beginning of the 21st century, a significant increase in infrastructures was established, such as the arrival of the High Speed Train (AVE), the construction of the new dual carriageway Somport-Sagunto and the promotion of the two airports in the Autonomous Community, Zaragoza and Huesca-Pirineos. Aragon_sentence_177

At the same time, large technological projects are being undertaken, such as the Walqa Technology Park and the implementation of a telematic network throughout the community. Aragon_sentence_178

In 2007 the Statute of Autonomy of Aragon was reformed again -which was approved by a broad consensus in the Aragonese Corts, having the support of the PSOE, the PP, the PAR and the IU, whereas CHA abstained- granting the Autonomous Community the recognition of historical nationality (since the Organic Law of 1996 reform of the statute, it had the condition of nationality), includes a new title on the Administration of Chustizia and another on the rights and duties of the Aragoneses and guiding principles of public policies, the possibility of creating an own tax agency in collaboration with that of the State, and also the obligation to public authorities to ensure to avoid transfers from watersheds such as transfer of the Ebro, among many other modifications of the Statute of Autonomy. Aragon_sentence_179

The designation of Zaragoza as the venue for the 2008 International Exhibition, whose thematic axis was Water and Sustainable development, represented a series of changes and accelerated growth for the autonomous community. Aragon_sentence_180

In addition, two anniversaries were celebrated that same year, the bicentennial of Sieges of Zaragoza of the War of Independence against the Napoleonic invasion, occurred in 1808 and the centenary of the Hispano-French Exposition of 1908 that it supposed as a modern event, to demonstrate the cultural and economic thrust of Aragon and at the same time serve to strengthen ties and staunch wounds with the French neighbors after the events of the Napoleonic Wars of the previous century. Aragon_sentence_181

Demographics Aragon_section_17

Population Aragon_section_18

As of 2015, half of Aragon's population, 50.45%, live in the capital city of Zaragoza. Aragon_sentence_182

Huesca is the only other city in the region with a population greater than 50000. Aragon_sentence_183

The majority of Aragonese citizens, 71.8%, live in the province of Zaragoza. Aragon_sentence_184

17.1% live in the province of Huesca, and 11.1% in the province of Teruel. Aragon_sentence_185

The population density of the region is the second lowest in Spain after Castilla-La Mancha: only 26.8/km. Aragon_sentence_186

The most densely populated areas are around the valley of the river Ebro, particularly around Zaragoza, and in the Pyrenean foothills, while the areas with the fewest inhabitants tend to be those that are higher up in the Pyrenean mountains, and in most of the southern province of Teruel. Aragon_sentence_187

Only four cities have a population of more than 20000: Zaragoza 700000, Huesca 50000, Teruel 35000, and Calatayud 20000. Aragon_sentence_188

Languages Aragon_section_19

Spanish is the native language in most of Aragon, and it is the only official language, understood and spoken by virtually everyone in the region. Aragon_sentence_189

In addition to it, the Aragonese language continues to be spoken in several local varieties in the mountainous northern counties of the Pyrenees, particularly in western Ribagorza, Sobrarbe, Jacetania and Somontano; it is enjoying a resurgence of popularity as a tool for regional identity. Aragon_sentence_190

In the easternmost areas of Aragon, along the border with Catalonia, varieties of the Catalan language are spoken, including the comarcas of eastern Ribagorza, La Litera, Bajo Cinca, Bajo Aragón-Caspe, Bajo Aragón and Matarraña. Aragon_sentence_191

The strip-shaped Catalan-speaking area in Aragon is often called La Franja. Aragon_sentence_192

The Declaration of Mequinenza (Declaració de Mequinensa in Catalan) was a document signed on February 1, 1984 in Mequinenza by the mayors of 17 municipalities of the Aragonese Catalan-speaking area together with José Bada Paniello (Minister of Culture of Government of Aragon at the time). Aragon_sentence_193

Following the declaration, and complying with one of the proposals contained therein, on October 1, 1985, an agreement between the Government of Aragon and the Ministry of Education and Science was implemented for the teaching of the Catalan language as a voluntary and assessable subject in schools in the area. Aragon_sentence_194

The Languages Acts of Aragon of 2009 and 2013 have been passed to try to regulate the languages in this autonomous community. Aragon_sentence_195

An update of these laws was announced but as of 2019 it has not been carried out. Aragon_sentence_196

Territorial division Aragon_section_20

Aragon is divided into three provinces from north to south, named after their capitals: Huesca, Zaragoza and Teruel. Aragon_sentence_197

The provinces are further divided into 33 comarcas, three of which are in more than one province. Aragon_sentence_198

There are a total of 732 municipalities in the region. Aragon_sentence_199

Culture Aragon_section_21

See also: Music of Aragon Aragon_sentence_200

Some medieval monuments of Teruel and Zaragoza are protected by UNESCO as part of the World Heritage Sites Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon. Aragon_sentence_201

The traditional dance of Aragon is known as jota and is one of the faster Spanish dances. Aragon_sentence_202

It is also the most widespread in Aragon and the exact style and music depend on the area. Aragon_sentence_203

There are other less popular dances named "paloteaos" similar to the sword/stick dances of other regions. Aragon_sentence_204

The music to one local dance, "The Dance of Majordomos" of Benasque, was so enjoyed by Rafael del Riego on a visit to the town that he ordered it to be copied resulting in the "Hymn of Riego" . Aragon_sentence_205

Typical Aragonese instruments include the stringed drum or "Chicotén", bagpipes such as the "gaita de boto", oboes such as the "Dulzaina", and small flutes like the "Chiflo". Aragon_sentence_206

Some instruments have been lost, such as the "trompa de Ribagorza", although there have been efforts to reconstruct them. Aragon_sentence_207

In contrast to other Pyrenean regions, the "Chicotén" and "Chiflo" never have stopped being played. Aragon_sentence_208

The Carnival of Bielsa (Huesca) has ancient origins and includes a group of men carrying long sticks, wearing skirts, cowbells and boucard/goat-like horns and skins with black-painted faces called "Trangas" symbolising "virility" who surround another man wearing skins playing the part of a bear called "l'onso". Aragon_sentence_209

In Aragonese mythology the bear carried souls between the world of the living and the world of the dead. Aragon_sentence_210

Trangas dance with young females named "madamas" symbolising "purity" and wearing colourful dresses. Aragon_sentence_211

Other traditional figures include a horse rider named "Caballé". Aragon_sentence_212

Cuisine Aragon_section_22

Main article: Aragonese cuisine Aragon_sentence_213

With its lush Pyrenean pastures, lamb, beef, and dairy products are, not surprisingly, predominant in Aragonese cuisine. Aragon_sentence_214

Also of note is its ham from Teruel; olive oil from Empeltre and Arbequina; longaniza from Graus; rainbow trout and salmon, boar, truffles and wild mushrooms from the upper river valleys of the Jacetania, Gallego, Sobrarbe, and Ribagorza regions; and wines from Cariñena, Somontano, Calatayud, and Campo de Borja; and fruit, especially peaches, from its fertile lower valleys. Aragon_sentence_215

The region also features a unique local haggis, known as chireta, several interesting seafood dishes, including various crab pastes, which developed from an old superstition that crabs help prevent illness, and sweets such as "Adoquines del Pilar" and "Frutas de Aragón". Aragon_sentence_216

There are also other sweets like "Tortas de alma" from Teruel and "Trenza de Almudevar" or "Castañas de Huesca" from Huesca. Aragon_sentence_217

Economy Aragon_section_23

Aragon is among the richest autonomous regions in Spain, with GDP per capita above the nation's average. Aragon_sentence_218

The Gross domestic product (GDP) of the autonomous community was 37.0 billion euros in 2018, accounting for 3.1% of Spanish economic output. Aragon_sentence_219

GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 30,200 euros or 100% of the EU27 average in the same year. Aragon_sentence_220

The GDP per employee was 101% of the EU average. Aragon_sentence_221

The traditional agriculture-based economy from the mid-20th century has been greatly transformed in the past several decades and now service and industrial sectors are the backbone of the economy in the region. Aragon_sentence_222

The well-developed irrigation system around the Ebro has greatly supported the productive agriculture. Aragon_sentence_223

The most important crops include wheat, barley, rye, fruit and grapes. Aragon_sentence_224

Livestock-breeding is essential especially in the northern areas, where the lush meadows provide excellent conditions for sheep and cattle. Aragon_sentence_225

The main livestock are cattle, 334600; sheep, 2862100; pigs, 3670000; goats, 78000; and poultry, 20545000. Aragon_sentence_226

The chief industrial centre is the capital Zaragoza, where the largest factories are located. Aragon_sentence_227

The largest plant is the Opel automotive plant with 8730 employees and production of 200000 per year. Aragon_sentence_228

It supports many related industries in the area. Aragon_sentence_229

Other large plants in the city include factories for trains and household appliances. Aragon_sentence_230

Mining of iron ore and coal is developed to the south, near Ojos Negros. Aragon_sentence_231

Electricity production is concentrated to the north where numerous hydro power plants are located along the Pyrenean rivers and in the 1150 MW Teruel Power Plant. Aragon_sentence_232

There is an aluminium refinery in the town of Sabiñánigo. Aragon_sentence_233

The main centres of electronics industry are Zaragoza, Huesca and Benabarre. Aragon_sentence_234

Chemical industry is developed in Zaragoza, Sabiñánigo, Monzón, Teruel, Ojos Negros, Fraga, Benabarre and others. Aragon_sentence_235

The transport infrastructure has been greatly improved. Aragon_sentence_236

There are more than of motorways which run from Zaragoza to Madrid, Teruel, Basque country, Huesca and Barcelona. Aragon_sentence_237

The condition of the other roads is also good. Aragon_sentence_238

As of 2016 there are 899008 cars in Aragon. Aragon_sentence_239

Through the territory of the province runs the new high-speed railway between Madrid and Barcelona with siding from Zaragoza to Huesca, which is going to be continued to the French border. Aragon_sentence_240

There is an International Airport at Zaragoza, as well as several smaller airports at Huesca, Caudé, Santa Cilia de Jaca and Villanueva de Gállego. Aragon_sentence_241

The unemployment rate stood at 11.6% in 2017 and was lower than the national average. Aragon_sentence_242


YearAragon_header_cell_1_0_0 2006Aragon_header_cell_1_0_1 2007Aragon_header_cell_1_0_2 2008Aragon_header_cell_1_0_3 2009Aragon_header_cell_1_0_4 2010Aragon_header_cell_1_0_5 2011Aragon_header_cell_1_0_6 2012Aragon_header_cell_1_0_7 2013Aragon_header_cell_1_0_8 2014Aragon_header_cell_1_0_9 2015Aragon_header_cell_1_0_10 2016Aragon_header_cell_1_0_11 2017Aragon_header_cell_1_0_12
unemployment rate

(in %)Aragon_cell_1_1_0

5.5Aragon_cell_1_1_1 5.3Aragon_cell_1_1_2 7.3Aragon_cell_1_1_3 13.1Aragon_cell_1_1_4 15.0Aragon_cell_1_1_5 17.1Aragon_cell_1_1_6 18.7Aragon_cell_1_1_7 21.4Aragon_cell_1_1_8 20.2Aragon_cell_1_1_9 16.3Aragon_cell_1_1_10 14.7Aragon_cell_1_1_11 11.6Aragon_cell_1_1_12

Government and politics Aragon_section_24

Current political organization Aragon_section_25

As an autonomous community of Spain, Aragon has an elected regional parliament (Spanish: Cortes de Aragón, Aragonese: Cortz d'Aragón, Catalan: Corts d'Aragó) with 67 seats. Aragon_sentence_243

It meets in the Aljafería, a Moorish palace in the capital city, Zaragoza. Aragon_sentence_244

The Parliament chooses a President for the Diputación General de Aragón or Aragon Government, for a four-year term. Aragon_sentence_245

The current president (since July 2015) is Javier Lambán of the PSOE. Aragon_sentence_246

Nationally, Aragon elects 13 Deputies and 14 Senators to the Cortes Generales. Aragon_sentence_247

In addition to the Spanish-based political parties, there are a number of Aragón-based parties, such as the Chunta Aragonesista, a left-wing Aragonese nationalist party, and the Aragonese Party, more conservative. Aragon_sentence_248

Chunta Aragonesista had a seat in Spain's national Congress of Deputies from 2000 to 2008, while the centrist Aragonese Party has three national senators, who are in coalition with the ruling People's Party. Aragon_sentence_249

In a 2011 regional government survey, 47.6% of the population wanted greater autonomy for Aragon, while 35.2% were satisfied with its current level of autonomy. Aragon_sentence_250

A total of 6% wanted an end to autonomy and 3.2% wanted full independence. Aragon_sentence_251

Historic Aragon_section_26

Main articles: List of Aragonese monarchs, List of Aragonese consorts, and List of viceroys of Aragon Aragon_sentence_252

Aragon in the Middle Ages was the hub of the wider Crown of Aragon. Aragon_sentence_253

The Crown was represented in the region from 1517 by a viceroy. Aragon_sentence_254

In 1479, King Ferdinand II of Aragon married Isabella I of Castile, a kingdom covering much of the rest of modern Spain. Aragon_sentence_255

However, until the Nueva Planta decrees of 1707, Aragon maintained its own separate laws and institutions. Aragon_sentence_256

Media Aragon_section_27

Aragon has media set-ups in television, radio and numerous newspapers. Aragon_sentence_257

Television Aragon_section_28

On 21 April 2006, regional television broadcasts in Aragon officially began with the launch of Aragón TV. Aragon_sentence_258

The law which established the CARTV (Aragon Corporation Radio and Television) dated from 1987, but various political disputes delayed the project for several legislatures. Aragon_sentence_259

During the years that Aragon had no public television, several media groups sought to supplement their absence. Aragon_sentence_260

For one TVE-Aragon, taking the Territorial Centre in Zaragoza, produced several programs and educational activities with the Aragonese town. Aragon_sentence_261

As for private groups, there were several projects. Aragon_sentence_262

The most widely accepted for many years had been Antena Aragón, which came to be regarded as regional television. Aragon_sentence_263

This channel was created in 1998 and disappeared in 2005 shortly after having to leave the Media Production Centre (CPA), as this was built by the DGA for future public television host Aragon. Aragon_sentence_264

With the push for the creation of public television, Antena Aragón merged with RTVA (Radio Television Aragonesa) belonging to the Herald Group. Aragon_sentence_265

Merging RTVA Antena Aragón and led to channel ZTV (Zaragoza Television). Aragon_sentence_266

Moreover, Antena 3 Televisión aired for several years, and off to Aragon, a news report fully Aragonese, having a central issue in the Pinares de Venecia in Zaragoza, within the premises of the Theme Park of Zaragoza. Aragon_sentence_267

Aragón TV was launched in 2006 after spending a season broadcasting a letter and a loop with images of Aragonese villages and audio of regional radio programs. Aragon_sentence_268

Radio Aragon_section_29

Aragon Radio, began broadcasting on 18 August 2005 at 5 p.m. with the sound of drums and drums of Calanda and a group song Zaragoza "The Fish". Aragon_sentence_269

Estimates of its audience range from 20 000 listeners, according to the latest EMG, to 70000, according to private findings. Aragon_sentence_270

The channel has regional news bulletins every hour from 7 a.m. to midnight and coverage of sports. Aragon_sentence_271

Sport Aragon_section_30

Nowadays, SD Huesca is the best football team in Aragon. Aragon_sentence_272

In the year 2017/2018 the team had been playing in La Liga (Football First Division), this achievement was reached for the first time in the club's history. Aragon_sentence_273

However, historically, Aragon's most successful football club is Real Zaragoza. Aragon_sentence_274

The club was founded in 1932 and spent 58 seasons in First DIvision, having played at its current ground, La Romareda, since 1957. Aragon_sentence_275

Real Zaragoza have won six Copa del Rey titles from 1964 to 2004, and the 1995 European Cup Winners' Cup. Aragon_sentence_276

There are plenty of smaller clubs in the region, like CD Teruel. Aragon_sentence_277

Skiing is popular in the Pyrenean north of Aragon, at resorts such as Formigal and Candanchú. Aragon_sentence_278

The Aragonese city of Jaca in the Pyrenees bid to host the Winter Olympics from 2002 to 2014. Aragon_sentence_279

Zaragoza was considering a bid for the 2022 Winter Olympics, but dropped it in 2011 to strengthen the chance of Barcelona winning the games. Aragon_sentence_280

The Ciudad del Motor de Aragón, also known as Motorland Aragón, is a motorsport race track located near Alcañiz in Aragon. Aragon_sentence_281

It is home to the Aragon motorcycle Grand Prix. Aragon_sentence_282

Notable people from Aragon Aragon_section_31

Up to the 19th century Aragon_section_32


20th and 21st centuries Aragon_section_33


Symbols Aragon_section_34

Main articles: Coat of arms of Aragon and Himno de Aragón Aragon_sentence_283

The current coat of arms of Aragon is composed of the four barracks and is attested for the first time in 1499, consolidating since the Early Modern Ages to take root decisively in the 19th century and be approved, according to precept, by the Real Academia de la Historia in 1921. Aragon_sentence_284

The first quartering appears at the end of the 15th century and commemorates, according to traditional interpretation, the legendary kingdom of Sobrarbe; in the second quarter there is the so-called "Cross of Íñigo Arista", innovation of Peter IV of Aragon (from an anachronistic interpretation of the cross that symbolized the religion of the Asturian, Navarrese and Aragonese Christian kings), who took it as shields of the ancient kings of Aragon, although historically there were no heraldic emblems in the peninsula (or "signal shields", as it was said in the Middle Ages) before the union dynastic of 1137 of the House of Aragon with the House of Barcelona; in the third quartering appears the Saint George's Cross escutcheoned of four heads of Moors (the call "Cross of Alcoraz"), that is witnessed for the first time in a seal of 1281 of Peter III of Aragon and would remember, according to tradition arising from the 14th century, the battle in which Peter I of Aragon and Pamplona and the future Alfonso I of Aragon took Huesca and was considered in the Early modern Ages one of the proprietary emblems of the kingdom of Aragon; and in the fourth is the emblem of the so-called "bars of Aragon" or Royal Sign of Aragon, the oldest of the heraldic emblems that are part of the current coat of arms, dated in the second half of the 12th century. Aragon_sentence_285

This emblem of gules and gold was used in seals, banners, shields and standards indistinctly, not being but a familiar emblem that later denoted the authority as King of Aragon until, with the birth of Modern State, began to be a territorial symbol. Aragon_sentence_286

The current flag was approved in 1984, with the provisions of Article 3 of the Statute of Autonomy of Aragon, the flag is the traditional of the four horizontal red bars on a yellow background with the coat of arms of Aragon shifted towards the flagpole. Aragon_sentence_287

The bars of Aragon, common historic element of the current four autonomous communities that once were integrated into the Crown of Aragon, present in the third quartering of the coat of arms of Spain. Aragon_sentence_288

The anthem of Aragon (himno de Aragón) was regulated in 1989 with music by the Aragonese composer Antón García Abril that combines the old Aragonese musical tradition with popular musical elements within a modern conception. Aragon_sentence_289

The lyrics were elaborated by the Aragonese poets Ildefonso Manuel Gil, Ángel Guinda, Rosendo Tello and Manuel Vilas and highlights within its poetic framework, values such as freedom, justice, reason, truth, open land ... that historically represent the expression of Aragon as a people. Aragon_sentence_290

The Day of Aragon is celebrated on April 23 and commemorates Saint George, patron of the Kingdom of Aragon since the 15th century. Aragon_sentence_291

It appears in Article 3 of the Statute of Autonomy of Aragon since 1984. Aragon_sentence_292

Institutional acts such as the delivery of the Aragon Awards by the Government of Aragon or the composition of a flag of Aragon of flowers, with the collaboration of citizens, in the Plaza de Aragón square of Zaragoza. Aragon_sentence_293

Image gallery Aragon_section_35


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See also Aragon_section_36


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