"Aragonés" redirects here.
For people with the surname Aragonés, see Aragonés (surname).
|Pronunciation||Aragonese pronunciation: [aɾaɣoˈnes|
|Region||Aragon; northern and central Huesca and northern Zaragoza|
|Native speakers||10,000–12,000 (active speakers)
30,000–50,000 (including passive speakers) (2017)
|Early form||Old Aragonese|
|Writing system||Latin (Aragonese alphabet)|
|Regulated by||Academia d'a Luenga Aragonesa|
Aragonese (/ˌærəɡɒˈniːz/; aragonés [aɾaɣoˈnes in Aragonese) is a Romance language spoken in several dialects by about 12,000 people as of 2011, in the Pyrenees valleys of Aragon, Spain, primarily in the comarcas of Somontano de Barbastro, Jacetania, Alto Gállego, Sobrarbe, and Ribagorza/Ribagorça.
Historically, people referred to the language as fabla ("talk" or "speech").
The Kingdom of Aragon (formed by the counties of Aragon, Sobrarbe and Ribagorza) expanded southward from the mountains, pushing the Moors farther south in the Reconquista and spreading the Aragonese language.
The union of the Catalan counties and the Kingdom of Aragon which formed the 12th-century Crown of Aragon did not merge the languages of the two territories; Catalan continued to be spoken in the east and Navarro-Aragonese in the west, with the boundaries blurred by dialectal continuity.
He wrote an extensive catalog of works in Aragonese and translated several works from Greek into Aragonese (the first in medieval Europe).
A turning point was the 15th-century coronation of the Castilian Ferdinand I of Aragon, also known as Ferdinand of Antequera.
In the early 18th century, after the defeat of the allies of Aragon in the War of the Spanish Succession, Philip V ordered the prohibition of the Aragonese language in the schools and the establishment of Castilian (Spanish) as the only official language in Aragon.
This was ordered in the Aragonese Nueva Planta decrees of 1707.
In recent times, Aragonese was mostly regarded as a group of rural dialects of Spanish.
Compulsory education undermined its already weak position; for example, pupils were punished for using it.
However, the 1978 Spanish transition to democracy heralded literary works and studies of the language.
Aragonese is the native language of the Aragonese mountain ranges of the Pyrenees, in the comarcas of Somontano, Jacetania, Sobrarbe, and Ribagorza.
According to recent polls, there are about 25,500 speakers (2011) including speakers living outside the native area.
In 2017, the Dirección General de Política Lingüística de Aragón estimated there were 10,000 to 12,000 active speakers of Aragonese.
The language received several linguistic rights, including its use in public administration.
This legislation was repealed by a new law in 2013 (Law 3/2013).
Main article: Aragonese dialects
- Western dialect: Ansó, Valle de Hecho, Chasa, Berdún, Chaca
- Central dialect: Panticosa, Biescas, Torla, Broto, Bielsa, Yebra de Basa, Aínsa-Sobrarbe
- Eastern dialect: Benás, Plan, Bisagorri, Campo, Perarrúa, Graus, Estadilla
- Southern dialect: Agüero, Ayerbe, Rasal, Bolea, Lierta, Uesca, Almudévar, Nozito, Labata, Alguezra, Angüés, Pertusa, Balbastro, Nabal
Aragonese has many historical traits in common with Catalan.
- Romance initial F- is preserved, e.g. FILIUM > fillo ("son", Sp. hijo, Cat. fill, Pt. filho).
- Romance palatal approximant (GE-, GI-, I-) consistently became medieval [dʒ], as in medieval Catalan and Portuguese. This becomes modern ch [tʃ], as a result of the devoicing of sibilants (see below). In Spanish, the medieval result was either [dʒ]/[ʒ], (modern [x]), [ʝ], or nothing, depending on the context. E.g. IUVENEM > choven ("young man", Sp. joven /ˈxoβen/, Cat. jove /ˈʒoβə/), GELARE > chelar ("to freeze", Sp. helar /eˈlaɾ/, Cat. gelar /ʒəˈla/).
- Romance groups -LT-, -CT- result in [jt], e.g. FACTUM > feito ("done", Sp. hecho, Cat. fet, Gal./Port. feito), MULTUM > muito ("many"/"much", Sp. mucho, Cat. molt, Gal. moito, Port. muito).
- Romance groups -X-, -PS-, SCj- result in voiceless palatal fricative ix [ʃ], e.g. COXU > coixo ("crippled", Sp. cojo, Cat. coix).
- Romance groups -Lj-, -C'L-, -T'L- result in palatal lateral ll [ʎ], e.g. MULIERE > muller ("woman", Sp. mujer, Cat. muller), ACUT'LA > agulla ("needle", Sp. aguja, Cat. agulla).
- Open O, E from Romance result systematically in diphthongs [we], [je], e.g. VET'LA > viella ("old woman", Sp. vieja, Cat. vella). This includes before a palatal approximant, e.g. octō > ueito ("eight", Sp. ocho, Cat. vuit). Spanish diphthongizes except before yod, whereas Catalan only diphthongizes before yod.
- Loss of final unstressed -E but not -O, e.g. GRANDE > gran ("big"), FACTUM > feito ("done"). Catalan loses both -O and -E; Spanish preserves -O and sometimes -E.
- Voiced stops /b, d, ɡ/ may be lenited as approximants [β, ð, ɣ].
- Former voiced sibilants become voiceless ([z] > [s], [dʒ] > [tʃ]).
- Voiced palatal sonorant /j/ can most often be heard as a voiced fricative [ʝ].
- Latin -B- is maintained in past imperfect endings of verbs of the second and third conjugations: teneba, teniba ("he had", Sp. tenía, Cat. tenia), dormiba ("he was sleeping", Sp. dormía, Cat. dormia).
- High Aragonese dialects (alto aragonés) and some dialects of Gascon have preserved the voicelessness of many intervocalic stop consonants, e.g. CLETAM > cleta ("sheep hurdle", Cat. cleda, Fr. claie), CUCULLIATAM > cocullata ("crested lark", Sp. cogujada, Cat. cogullada).
- Several Aragonese dialects maintain Latin -ll- as geminate /ll/.
- Variants of the mid-vowels /e, o/ can be heard as [ɛ, ɔ], mainly in the Benasque dialect.
The new orthography is used by the .
Aragonese had two orthographic standards:
- The grafía de Uesca, codified in 1987 by the Consello d'a Fabla Aragonesa (CFA) at a convention in Huesca, is used by most Aragonese writers. It has a more uniform system of assigning letters to phonemes, with less regard for etymology; words traditionally written with ⟨v⟩ and ⟨b⟩ are uniformly written with ⟨b⟩ in the Uesca system. Similarly, ⟨ch⟩, ⟨j⟩, and ⟨g⟩ before ⟨e⟩ and ⟨i⟩ are all written ⟨ch⟩. It uses letters associated with Spanish, such as ⟨ñ⟩.
- The grafia SLA, devised in 2004 by the Sociedat de Lingüistica Aragonesa (SLA), is used by some Aragonese writers. It uses etymological forms which are closer to Catalan, Occitan, and medieval Aragonese sources; trying to come closer to the original Aragonese and the other Occitano-Romance languages. In the SLA system ⟨v⟩, ⟨b⟩,⟨ch⟩, ⟨j⟩, and ⟨g⟩ before ⟨e⟩ and ⟨i⟩ are distinct, and the digraph ⟨ny⟩ replaces ⟨ñ⟩.
The language in these texts has a mixture of Aragonese and Castilian traits, and they are among the last known written examples of the Aragonese formerly spoken in central and southern Aragon.
The definite article in Aragonese has undergone dialect-related changes, with definite articles in Old Aragonese similar to their present Spanish equivalents.
There are two main forms:
These forms are used in the eastern and some central dialects.
These forms are used in the western and some central dialects.
Words that were part of the Latin second declension—as well as words that joined it later on—are usually masculine:
- FILIU(M) > fillo (son)
- SCIURU + OLU(M) > esquiruelo (squirrel)
Words that were part of the Latin first declension are usually feminine:
- FILIA(M) > filla (daughter).
Some Latin neuter plural nouns joined the first declension as singular feminine nouns:
- FOLIA > fuella (leaf).
Words ending in -or are feminine:
- a honor, a calor, a color, and (in Medieval Aragonese) la amor
The names of fruit trees usually end in -era (a suffix derived from Latin -ARIA) and are usually feminine:
- a perera, a manzanera, a nuquera, a castanyera, a tellera / o tilero, a olivera, a ciresera, l'almendrera
The genders of river names vary:
- Many ending in -a are feminine: a Cinca/a Cinga, a Cinqueta, a Garona, L'Arba, a Noguera, a Isuela, La Uecha, La Uerva, etc. The last was known as río de la Uerba during the 16th century.
- Many from the second and the third declension are masculine: L'Ebro, O Galligo, O Flumen, L'Alcanadre.
En/ne is used for:
- Partitive objects: No n'he visto como aquello ("I haven't seen anything like that", literally 'Not (of it) I have seen like that').
- Partitive subjects: En fa tanto de mal ("It hurts so much", literally '(of it) it causes so much of pain')
- Ablatives, places from which movements originate: Se'n va ra memoria ("Memory goes away", literally '(away from [the mind]) memory goes')
Bi/hi/ie is used for:
- Locatives, where something takes place: N'hi heba uno ("There was one of them"), literally '(Of them) there was one')
- Allatives, places that movements go towards or end: Vés-be ('Go there (imperative)')
Main article: Aragonese-language literature
Aragonese was not written until the 12th and 13th centuries; the history Liber Regum, Razón feita d'amor, Libre dels tres reys d'orient, and Vida de Santa María Egipcíaca date from this period, there is also an Aragonese version of the Chronicle of Morea, differing also in its content and written in the late 14th century called Libro de los fechos et conquistas del principado de la Morea.
Early modern period
Since 1500, Spanish has been the cultural language of Aragon; many Aragonese wrote in Spanish, and during the 17th century the Argensola brothers went to Castile to teach Spanish.
Aragonese became a popular village language.
During the 17th century, popular literature in the language began to appear.
In a 1650 Huesca literary contest, Aragonese poems were submitted by Matías Pradas, Isabel de Rodas and "Fileno, montañés"., July 2016 Missing or empty |title= (help)
In pre-school education, students whose parents wish them to be taught Aragonese receive between thirty minutes to one hour of Aragonese lessons a week.
In the 2014/15 academic year there were 262 students recorded in pre-school Aragonese lessons.
Primary School Education
The subject of Aragonese now has a fully developed curriculum in primary education in Aragon.
Despite this, in academic year 2014/2015 there were only seven Aragonese teachers in the region across both pre-primary and primary education and none hold permanent positions, whilst the number of primary education students receiving Aragonese lessons was 320.
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aragonese language.