Aragonese language

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"Aragonés" redirects here. Aragonese language_sentence_0

For people with the surname Aragonés, see Aragonés (surname). Aragonese language_sentence_1

Aragonese language_table_infobox_0

AragoneseAragonese language_header_cell_0_0_0
PronunciationAragonese language_header_cell_0_1_0 Aragonese pronunciation: [aɾaɣoˈnesAragonese language_cell_0_1_1
Native toAragonese language_header_cell_0_2_0 SpainAragonese language_cell_0_2_1
RegionAragonese language_header_cell_0_3_0 Aragon; northern and central Huesca and northern ZaragozaAragonese language_cell_0_3_1
EthnicityAragonese language_header_cell_0_4_0 AragoneseAragonese language_cell_0_4_1
Native speakersAragonese language_header_cell_0_5_0 10,000–12,000 (active speakers)

30,000–50,000 (including passive speakers) (2017)Aragonese language_cell_0_5_1

Language familyAragonese language_header_cell_0_6_0 Indo-EuropeanAragonese language_cell_0_6_1
Early formAragonese language_header_cell_0_7_0 Old AragoneseAragonese language_cell_0_7_1
Writing systemAragonese language_header_cell_0_8_0 Latin (Aragonese alphabet)Aragonese language_cell_0_8_1
Official statusAragonese language_header_cell_0_9_0
Regulated byAragonese language_header_cell_0_10_0 Academia d'a Luenga AragonesaAragonese language_cell_0_10_1
Language codesAragonese language_header_cell_0_11_0
ISO 639-1Aragonese language_header_cell_0_12_0 Aragonese language_cell_0_12_1
ISO 639-2Aragonese language_header_cell_0_13_0 Aragonese language_cell_0_13_1
ISO 639-3Aragonese language_header_cell_0_14_0 Aragonese language_cell_0_14_1
GlottologAragonese language_header_cell_0_15_0 Aragonese language_cell_0_15_1
LinguasphereAragonese language_header_cell_0_16_0 51-AAA-dAragonese language_cell_0_16_1

Aragonese (/ˌærəɡɒˈniːz/; aragonés [aɾaɣoˈnes in Aragonese) is a Romance language spoken in several dialects by about 12,000 people as of 2011, in the Pyrenees valleys of Aragon, Spain, primarily in the comarcas of Somontano de Barbastro, Jacetania, Alto Gállego, Sobrarbe, and Ribagorza/Ribagorça. Aragonese language_sentence_2

It is the only modern language which survived from medieval Navarro-Aragonese in a form distinctly different from Spanish. Aragonese language_sentence_3

Historically, people referred to the language as fabla ("talk" or "speech"). Aragonese language_sentence_4

Native Aragonese people usually refer to it by the names of its local dialects such as cheso (from Valle de Hecho) or patués (from the Benasque Valley). Aragonese language_sentence_5

History Aragonese language_section_0

Aragonese, which developed in portions of the Ebro basin, can be traced back to the High Middle Ages. Aragonese language_sentence_6

It spread throughout the Pyrenees to areas where languages similar to Basque were previously spoken. Aragonese language_sentence_7

The Kingdom of Aragon (formed by the counties of Aragon, Sobrarbe and Ribagorza) expanded southward from the mountains, pushing the Moors farther south in the Reconquista and spreading the Aragonese language. Aragonese language_sentence_8

The union of the Catalan counties and the Kingdom of Aragon which formed the 12th-century Crown of Aragon did not merge the languages of the two territories; Catalan continued to be spoken in the east and Navarro-Aragonese in the west, with the boundaries blurred by dialectal continuity. Aragonese language_sentence_9

The Aragonese Reconquista in the south ended with the cession of Murcia by James I of Aragon to the Kingdom of Castile as dowry for an Aragonese princess. Aragonese language_sentence_10

The best-known proponent of the Aragonese language was Johan Ferrandez d'Heredia, the Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller in Rhodes at the end of the 14th century. Aragonese language_sentence_11

He wrote an extensive catalog of works in Aragonese and translated several works from Greek into Aragonese (the first in medieval Europe). Aragonese language_sentence_12

The spread of Castilian (Spanish), the Castilian origin of the Trastámara dynasty, and the similarity between Castilian (Spanish) and Aragonese facilitated the recession of the latter. Aragonese language_sentence_13

A turning point was the 15th-century coronation of the Castilian Ferdinand I of Aragon, also known as Ferdinand of Antequera. Aragonese language_sentence_14

In the early 18th century, after the defeat of the allies of Aragon in the War of the Spanish Succession, Philip V ordered the prohibition of the Aragonese language in the schools and the establishment of Castilian (Spanish) as the only official language in Aragon. Aragonese language_sentence_15

This was ordered in the Aragonese Nueva Planta decrees of 1707. Aragonese language_sentence_16

In recent times, Aragonese was mostly regarded as a group of rural dialects of Spanish. Aragonese language_sentence_17

Compulsory education undermined its already weak position; for example, pupils were punished for using it. Aragonese language_sentence_18

However, the 1978 Spanish transition to democracy heralded literary works and studies of the language. Aragonese language_sentence_19

Modern Aragonese Aragonese language_section_1

Aragonese is the native language of the Aragonese mountain ranges of the Pyrenees, in the comarcas of Somontano, Jacetania, Sobrarbe, and Ribagorza. Aragonese language_sentence_20

Cities and towns in which Aragonese is spoken are Huesca, Graus, Monzón, Barbastro, Bielsa, Chistén, Fonz, Echo, Estadilla, Benasque, Campo, Sabiñánigo, Jaca, Plan, Ansó, Ayerbe, Broto, and El Grado. Aragonese language_sentence_21

It is spoken as a second language by inhabitants of Zaragoza, Huesca, Ejea de los Caballeros, or Teruel. Aragonese language_sentence_22

According to recent polls, there are about 25,500 speakers (2011) including speakers living outside the native area. Aragonese language_sentence_23

In 2017, the Dirección General de Política Lingüística de Aragón estimated there were 10,000 to 12,000 active speakers of Aragonese. Aragonese language_sentence_24

In 2009, the Languages Act of Aragon (Law 10/2009) recognized the "native language, original and historic" of Aragon. Aragonese language_sentence_25

The language received several linguistic rights, including its use in public administration. Aragonese language_sentence_26

This legislation was repealed by a new law in 2013 (Law 3/2013). Aragonese language_sentence_27

Dialects Aragonese language_section_2

Main article: Aragonese dialects Aragonese language_sentence_28

Aragonese language_unordered_list_0

Phonology Aragonese language_section_3

Traits Aragonese language_section_4

Aragonese has many historical traits in common with Catalan. Aragonese language_sentence_29

Some are conservative features that are also shared with the Astur-Leonese languages and Galician-Portuguese, where Spanish innovated in ways that did not spread to nearby languages. Aragonese language_sentence_30

Shared with Catalan Aragonese language_section_5

Aragonese language_unordered_list_1

  • Romance initial F- is preserved, e.g. FILIUM > fillo ("son", Sp. hijo, Cat. fill, Pt. filho).Aragonese language_item_1_4
  • Romance palatal approximant (GE-, GI-, I-) consistently became medieval [dʒ], as in medieval Catalan and Portuguese. This becomes modern ch [tʃ], as a result of the devoicing of sibilants (see below). In Spanish, the medieval result was either [dʒ]/[ʒ], (modern [x]), [ʝ], or nothing, depending on the context. E.g. IUVENEM > choven ("young man", Sp. joven /ˈxoβen/, Cat. jove /ˈʒoβə/), GELARE > chelar ("to freeze", Sp. helar /eˈlaɾ/, Cat. gelar /ʒəˈla/).Aragonese language_item_1_5
  • Romance groups -LT-, -CT- result in [jt], e.g. FACTUM > feito ("done", Sp. hecho, Cat. fet, Gal./Port. feito), MULTUM > muito ("many"/"much", Sp. mucho, Cat. molt, Gal. moito, Port. muito).Aragonese language_item_1_6
  • Romance groups -X-, -PS-, SCj- result in voiceless palatal fricative ix [ʃ], e.g. COXU > coixo ("crippled", Sp. cojo, Cat. coix).Aragonese language_item_1_7
  • Romance groups -Lj-, -C'L-, -T'L- result in palatal lateral ll [ʎ], e.g. MULIERE > muller ("woman", Sp. mujer, Cat. muller), ACUT'LA > agulla ("needle", Sp. aguja, Cat. agulla).Aragonese language_item_1_8

Shared with Catalan and Spanish Aragonese language_section_6

Aragonese language_unordered_list_2

  • Open O, E from Romance result systematically in diphthongs [we], [je], e.g. VET'LA > viella ("old woman", Sp. vieja, Cat. vella). This includes before a palatal approximant, e.g. octō > ueito ("eight", Sp. ocho, Cat. vuit). Spanish diphthongizes except before yod, whereas Catalan only diphthongizes before yod.Aragonese language_item_2_9
  • Loss of final unstressed -E but not -O, e.g. GRANDE > gran ("big"), FACTUM > feito ("done"). Catalan loses both -O and -E; Spanish preserves -O and sometimes -E.Aragonese language_item_2_10
  • Voiced stops /b, d, ɡ/ may be lenited as approximants [β, ð, ɣ].Aragonese language_item_2_11

Shared with Spanish Aragonese language_section_7

Aragonese language_unordered_list_3

  • Former voiced sibilants become voiceless ([z] > [s], [dʒ] > [tʃ]).Aragonese language_item_3_12
  • Voiced palatal sonorant /j/ can most often be heard as a voiced fricative [ʝ].Aragonese language_item_3_13

Shared with neither Aragonese language_section_8

Aragonese language_unordered_list_4

  • Latin -B- is maintained in past imperfect endings of verbs of the second and third conjugations: teneba, teniba ("he had", Sp. tenía, Cat. tenia), dormiba ("he was sleeping", Sp. dormía, Cat. dormia).Aragonese language_item_4_14
  • High Aragonese dialects (alto aragonés) and some dialects of Gascon have preserved the voicelessness of many intervocalic stop consonants, e.g. CLETAM > cleta ("sheep hurdle", Cat. cleda, Fr. claie), CUCULLIATAM > cocullata ("crested lark", Sp. cogujada, Cat. cogullada).Aragonese language_item_4_15
  • Several Aragonese dialects maintain Latin -ll- as geminate /ll/.Aragonese language_item_4_16
  • Variants of the mid-vowels /e, o/ can be heard as [ɛ, ɔ], mainly in the Benasque dialect.Aragonese language_item_4_17

Vowels Aragonese language_section_9

Aragonese language_table_general_1

Vowel phonemesAragonese language_table_caption_1
Aragonese language_header_cell_1_0_0 FrontAragonese language_header_cell_1_0_1 CentralAragonese language_header_cell_1_0_2 BackAragonese language_header_cell_1_0_3
CloseAragonese language_header_cell_1_1_0 iAragonese language_cell_1_1_1 Aragonese language_cell_1_1_2 uAragonese language_cell_1_1_3
MidAragonese language_header_cell_1_2_0 eAragonese language_cell_1_2_1 Aragonese language_cell_1_2_2 oAragonese language_cell_1_2_3
OpenAragonese language_header_cell_1_3_0 Aragonese language_cell_1_3_1 aAragonese language_cell_1_3_2 Aragonese language_cell_1_3_3

Consonants Aragonese language_section_10

Aragonese language_table_general_2

Consonant phonemesAragonese language_table_caption_2
Aragonese language_header_cell_2_0_0 LabialAragonese language_header_cell_2_0_2 DentalAragonese language_header_cell_2_0_3 AlveolarAragonese language_header_cell_2_0_4 PalatalAragonese language_header_cell_2_0_5 VelarAragonese language_header_cell_2_0_6
NasalAragonese language_header_cell_2_1_0 mAragonese language_cell_2_1_2 Aragonese language_cell_2_1_3 nAragonese language_cell_2_1_4 ɲAragonese language_cell_2_1_5 Aragonese language_cell_2_1_6
PlosiveAragonese language_header_cell_2_2_0 voicelessAragonese language_header_cell_2_2_1 pAragonese language_cell_2_2_2 tAragonese language_cell_2_2_3 Aragonese language_cell_2_2_4 t͡ʃAragonese language_cell_2_2_5 kAragonese language_cell_2_2_6
voicedAragonese language_header_cell_2_3_0 bAragonese language_cell_2_3_1 dAragonese language_cell_2_3_2 Aragonese language_cell_2_3_3 Aragonese language_cell_2_3_4 ɡAragonese language_cell_2_3_5
FricativeAragonese language_header_cell_2_4_0 fAragonese language_cell_2_4_2 θAragonese language_cell_2_4_3 sAragonese language_cell_2_4_4 ʃAragonese language_cell_2_4_5 Aragonese language_cell_2_4_6
ApproximantAragonese language_header_cell_2_5_0 centralAragonese language_header_cell_2_5_1 Aragonese language_cell_2_5_2 Aragonese language_cell_2_5_3 Aragonese language_cell_2_5_4 jAragonese language_cell_2_5_5 wAragonese language_cell_2_5_6
lateralAragonese language_header_cell_2_6_0 Aragonese language_cell_2_6_1 Aragonese language_cell_2_6_2 lAragonese language_cell_2_6_3 ʎAragonese language_cell_2_6_4 Aragonese language_cell_2_6_5
FlapAragonese language_header_cell_2_7_0 Aragonese language_cell_2_7_2 Aragonese language_cell_2_7_3 ɾAragonese language_cell_2_7_4 Aragonese language_cell_2_7_5 Aragonese language_cell_2_7_6
TrillAragonese language_header_cell_2_8_0 Aragonese language_cell_2_8_2 Aragonese language_cell_2_8_3 rAragonese language_cell_2_8_4 Aragonese language_cell_2_8_5 Aragonese language_cell_2_8_6

Orthography Aragonese language_section_11

In 2010, the Academia de l'Aragonés (founded in 2006) established an orthographic standard to modernize medieval orthography and to make it more etymological. Aragonese language_sentence_31

The new orthography is used by the . Aragonese language_sentence_32

Aragonese had two orthographic standards: Aragonese language_sentence_33

Aragonese language_unordered_list_5

  • The grafía de Uesca, codified in 1987 by the Consello d'a Fabla Aragonesa (CFA) at a convention in Huesca, is used by most Aragonese writers. It has a more uniform system of assigning letters to phonemes, with less regard for etymology; words traditionally written with ⟨v⟩ and ⟨b⟩ are uniformly written with ⟨b⟩ in the Uesca system. Similarly, ⟨ch⟩, ⟨j⟩, and ⟨g⟩ before ⟨e⟩ and ⟨i⟩ are all written ⟨ch⟩. It uses letters associated with Spanish, such as ⟨ñ⟩.Aragonese language_item_5_18
  • The grafia SLA, devised in 2004 by the Sociedat de Lingüistica Aragonesa (SLA), is used by some Aragonese writers. It uses etymological forms which are closer to Catalan, Occitan, and medieval Aragonese sources; trying to come closer to the original Aragonese and the other Occitano-Romance languages. In the SLA system ⟨v⟩, ⟨b⟩,⟨ch⟩, ⟨j⟩, and ⟨g⟩ before ⟨e⟩ and ⟨i⟩ are distinct, and the digraphny⟩ replaces ⟨ñ⟩.Aragonese language_item_5_19

During the 16th century, Aragonese Moriscos wrote aljamiado texts (Romance texts in Arabic writing), possibly because of their inability to write in Arabic. Aragonese language_sentence_34

The language in these texts has a mixture of Aragonese and Castilian traits, and they are among the last known written examples of the Aragonese formerly spoken in central and southern Aragon. Aragonese language_sentence_35

Grammar Aragonese language_section_12

Aragonese grammar has a lot in common with Occitan and Catalan, but also Spanish. Aragonese language_sentence_36

Articles Aragonese language_section_13

The definite article in Aragonese has undergone dialect-related changes, with definite articles in Old Aragonese similar to their present Spanish equivalents. Aragonese language_sentence_37

There are two main forms: Aragonese language_sentence_38

Aragonese language_table_general_3

Aragonese language_header_cell_3_0_0 MasculineAragonese language_header_cell_3_0_1 FeminineAragonese language_header_cell_3_0_2
SingularAragonese language_header_cell_3_1_0 elAragonese language_cell_3_1_1 laAragonese language_cell_3_1_2
PluralAragonese language_header_cell_3_2_0 els/esAragonese language_cell_3_2_1 las/lesAragonese language_cell_3_2_2

These forms are used in the eastern and some central dialects. Aragonese language_sentence_39

Aragonese language_table_general_4

Aragonese language_header_cell_4_0_0 MasculineAragonese language_header_cell_4_0_1 FeminineAragonese language_header_cell_4_0_2
SingularAragonese language_header_cell_4_1_0 lo/ro/oAragonese language_cell_4_1_1 la/ra/aAragonese language_cell_4_1_2
PluralAragonese language_header_cell_4_2_0 los/ros/osAragonese language_cell_4_2_1 las/ras/asAragonese language_cell_4_2_2

These forms are used in the western and some central dialects. Aragonese language_sentence_40

Lexicology Aragonese language_section_14

Gender Aragonese language_section_15

Words that were part of the Latin second declension—as well as words that joined it later on—are usually masculine: Aragonese language_sentence_41

Aragonese language_unordered_list_6

  • FILIU(M) > fillo (son)Aragonese language_item_6_20
  • SCIURU + OLU(M) > esquiruelo (squirrel)Aragonese language_item_6_21

Words that were part of the Latin first declension are usually feminine: Aragonese language_sentence_42

Aragonese language_unordered_list_7

  • FILIA(M) > filla (daughter).Aragonese language_item_7_22

Some Latin neuter plural nouns joined the first declension as singular feminine nouns: Aragonese language_sentence_43

Aragonese language_unordered_list_8

  • FOLIA > fuella (leaf).Aragonese language_item_8_23

Words ending in -or are feminine: Aragonese language_sentence_44

Aragonese language_unordered_list_9

  • a honor, a calor, a color, and (in Medieval Aragonese) la amorAragonese language_item_9_24

The names of fruit trees usually end in -era (a suffix derived from Latin -ARIA) and are usually feminine: Aragonese language_sentence_45

Aragonese language_unordered_list_10

The genders of river names vary: Aragonese language_sentence_46

Aragonese language_unordered_list_11

  • Many ending in -a are feminine: a Cinca/a Cinga, a Cinqueta, a Garona, L'Arba, a Noguera, a Isuela, La Uecha, La Uerva, etc. The last was known as río de la Uerba during the 16th century.Aragonese language_item_11_26
  • Many from the second and the third declension are masculine: L'Ebro, O Galligo, O Flumen, L'Alcanadre.Aragonese language_item_11_27

Pronouns Aragonese language_section_16

Just like most other Occitano-Romance languages, Aragonese has partitive and locative clitic pronouns derived from the Latin inde and ibi: en/ne and bi/i/ie; unlike Ibero-Romance. Aragonese language_sentence_47

Such pronouns are present in most major Romance languages (Catalan en and hi, Occitan ne and i, French en and y, and Italian ne and ci/vi). Aragonese language_sentence_48

En/ne is used for: Aragonese language_sentence_49

Aragonese language_unordered_list_12

  • Partitive objects: No n'he visto como aquello ("I haven't seen anything like that", literally 'Not (of it) I have seen like that').Aragonese language_item_12_28
  • Partitive subjects: En fa tanto de mal ("It hurts so much", literally '(of it) it causes so much of pain')Aragonese language_item_12_29
  • Ablatives, places from which movements originate: Se'n va ra memoria ("Memory goes away", literally '(away from [the mind]) memory goes')Aragonese language_item_12_30

Bi/hi/ie is used for: Aragonese language_sentence_50

Aragonese language_unordered_list_13

  • Locatives, where something takes place: N'hi heba uno ("There was one of them"), literally '(Of them) there was one')Aragonese language_item_13_31
  • Allatives, places that movements go towards or end: Vés-be ('Go there (imperative)')Aragonese language_item_13_32

Literature Aragonese language_section_17

Main article: Aragonese-language literature Aragonese language_sentence_51

Aragonese was not written until the 12th and 13th centuries; the history Liber Regum, Razón feita d'amor, Libre dels tres reys d'orient, and Vida de Santa María Egipcíaca date from this period, there is also an Aragonese version of the Chronicle of Morea, differing also in its content and written in the late 14th century called Libro de los fechos et conquistas del principado de la Morea. Aragonese language_sentence_52

Early modern period Aragonese language_section_18

Since 1500, Spanish has been the cultural language of Aragon; many Aragonese wrote in Spanish, and during the 17th century the Argensola brothers went to Castile to teach Spanish. Aragonese language_sentence_53

Aragonese became a popular village language. Aragonese language_sentence_54

During the 17th century, popular literature in the language began to appear. Aragonese language_sentence_55

In a 1650 Huesca literary contest, Aragonese poems were submitted by Matías Pradas, Isabel de Rodas and "Fileno, montañés"., July 2016 Missing or empty |title= (help) Aragonese language_sentence_56

Contemporary literature Aragonese language_section_19

Pre-School Education Aragonese language_section_20

In pre-school education, students whose parents wish them to be taught Aragonese receive between thirty minutes to one hour of Aragonese lessons a week. Aragonese language_sentence_57

In the 2014/15 academic year there were 262 students recorded in pre-school Aragonese lessons. Aragonese language_sentence_58

Primary School Education Aragonese language_section_21

The subject of Aragonese now has a fully developed curriculum in primary education in Aragon. Aragonese language_sentence_59

Despite this, in academic year 2014/2015 there were only seven Aragonese teachers in the region across both pre-primary and primary education and none hold permanent positions, whilst the number of primary education students receiving Aragonese lessons was 320. Aragonese language_sentence_60

See also Aragonese language_section_22

Aragonese language_unordered_list_14

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: language.