Aramaic alphabet

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Aramaic alphabet_table_infobox_0

Aramaic alphabetAramaic alphabet_header_cell_0_0_0
TypeAramaic alphabet_header_cell_0_1_0 AbjadAramaic alphabet_cell_0_1_1
LanguagesAramaic alphabet_header_cell_0_2_0 Aramaic, Hebrew, Syriac, Mandaic, EdomiteAramaic alphabet_cell_0_2_1
Time periodAramaic alphabet_header_cell_0_3_0 800 BC to AD 600Aramaic alphabet_cell_0_3_1
Parent systemsAramaic alphabet_header_cell_0_4_0 Egyptian hieroglyphsAramaic alphabet_cell_0_4_1
Child systemsAramaic alphabet_header_cell_0_5_0 Hebrew

Nabataean

  →Arabic alphabet

Syriac

  →Sogdian

    →Old Uyghur

      →Mongolian

        →Manchu

Palmyrene Edessan Hatran Mandaic Elymaic Pahlavi Kharoṣṭhī Brahmi scriptAramaic alphabet_cell_0_5_1

DirectionAramaic alphabet_header_cell_0_6_0 Right-to-leftAramaic alphabet_cell_0_6_1
ISO 15924Aramaic alphabet_header_cell_0_7_0 Armi, 124 Imperial AramaicAramaic alphabet_cell_0_7_1
Unicode aliasAramaic alphabet_header_cell_0_8_0 Imperial AramaicAramaic alphabet_cell_0_8_1
Unicode rangeAramaic alphabet_header_cell_0_9_0 Aramaic alphabet_cell_0_9_1

The ancient Aramaic alphabet was adapted by Arameans from the Phoenician alphabet and became a distinct script by the 8th century BC. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_0

It was used to write the Aramaic language and had displaced the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, itself a derivative of the Phoenician alphabet, for the writing of Hebrew. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_1

The letters all represent consonants, some of which are also used as matres lectionis to indicate long vowels. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_2

The Aramaic alphabet is historically significant since virtually all modern Middle Eastern writing systems can be traced back to it as well as numerous non-Chinese writing systems of Central and East Asia. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_3

That is primarily from the widespread usage of the Aramaic language as both a lingua franca and the official language of the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian Empires, and their successor, the Achaemenid Empire. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_4

Among the scripts in modern use, the Hebrew alphabet bears the closest relation to the Imperial Aramaic script of the 5th century BC, with an identical letter inventory and, for the most part, nearly identical letter shapes. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_5

The Aramaic alphabet was an ancestor to the Nabataean alphabet and the later Arabic alphabet. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_6

Writing systems (like the Aramaic one) that indicate consonants but do not indicate most vowels other than by means of matres lectionis or added diacritical signs, have been called abjads by Peter T. Daniels to distinguish them from alphabets, such as the Greek alphabet, which represent vowels more systematically. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_7

The term was coined to avoid the notion that a writing system that represents sounds must be either a syllabary or an alphabet, which would imply that a system like Aramaic must be either a syllabary (as argued by Ignace Gelb) or an incomplete or deficient alphabet (as most other writers have said). Aramaic alphabet_sentence_8

Rather, it is a different type. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_9

Origins Aramaic alphabet_section_0

The earliest inscriptions in the Aramaic language use the Phoenician alphabet. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_10

Over time, the alphabet developed into the form shown below. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_11

Aramaic gradually became the lingua franca throughout the Middle East, with the script at first complementing and then displacing Assyrian cuneiform, as the predominant writing system. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_12

Achaemenid Empire (The First Persian Empire) Aramaic alphabet_section_1

Further information: Imperial Aramaic Aramaic alphabet_sentence_13

Around 500 BC, following the Achaemenid conquest of Mesopotamia under Darius I, Old Aramaic was adopted by the Persians as the "vehicle for written communication between the different regions of the vast Persian empire with its different peoples and languages. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_14

The use of a single official language, which modern scholarship has dubbed as Official Aramaic, Imperial Aramaic or Achaemenid Aramaic, can be assumed to have greatly contributed to the astonishing success of the Achaemenid Persians in holding their far-flung empire together for as long as they did." Aramaic alphabet_sentence_15

Imperial Aramaic was highly standardised; its orthography was based more on historical roots than any spoken dialect and was inevitably influenced by Old Persian. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_16

The Aramaic glyph forms of the period are often divided into two main styles, the "lapidary" form, usually inscribed on hard surfaces like stone monuments, and a cursive form whose lapidary form tended to be more conservative by remaining more visually similar to Phoenician and early Aramaic. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_17

Both were in use through the Achaemenid Persian period, but the cursive form steadily gained ground over the lapidary, which had largely disappeared by the 3rd century BC. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_18

For centuries after the fall of the Achaemenid Empire in 331 BC, Imperial Aramaic, or something near enough to it to be recognisable, would remain an influence on the various native Iranian languages. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_19

The Aramaic script would survive as the essential characteristics of the Iranian Pahlavi writing system. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_20

30 Aramaic documents from Bactria have been recently discovered, an analysis of which was published in November 2006. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_21

The texts, which were rendered on leather, reflect the use of Aramaic in the 4th century BC in the Persian Achaemenid administration of Bactria and Sogdiana. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_22

The widespread usage of Achaemenid Aramaic in the Middle East led to the gradual adoption of the Aramaic alphabet for writing Hebrew. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_23

Formerly, Hebrew had been written using an alphabet closer in form to that of Phoenician, the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_24

Aramaic-derived scripts Aramaic alphabet_section_2

Since the evolution of the Aramaic alphabet out of the Phoenician one was a gradual process, the division of the world's alphabets into the ones derived from the Phoenician one directly and the ones derived from Phoenician via Aramaic is somewhat artificial. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_25

In general, the alphabets of the Mediterranean region (Anatolia, Greece, Italy) are classified as Phoenician-derived, adapted from around the 8th century BC, and those of the East (the Levant, Persia, Central Asia and India) are considered Aramaic-derived, adapted from around the 6th century BC from the Imperial Aramaic script of the Achaemenid Empire. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_26

After the fall of the Achaemenid Empire, the unity of the Imperial Aramaic script was lost, diversifying into a number of descendant cursives. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_27

The Hebrew and Nabataean alphabets, as they stood by the Roman era, were little changed in style from the Imperial Aramaic alphabet. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_28

Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406) alleges that not only the old Nabataean writing was influenced by the "Syrian script" (i.e. Aramaic), but also the old Chaldean script. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_29

A cursive Hebrew variant developed from the early centuries AD, but it remained restricted to the status of a variant used alongside the noncursive. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_30

By contrast, the cursive developed out of the Nabataean alphabet in the same period soon became the standard for writing Arabic, evolving into the Arabic alphabet as it stood by the time of the early spread of Islam. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_31

The development of cursive versions of Aramaic also led to the creation of the Syriac, Palmyrene and Mandaic alphabets, which formed the basis of the historical scripts of Central Asia, such as the Sogdian and Mongolian alphabets. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_32

The Old Turkic script is generally considered to have its ultimate origins in Aramaic, in particular via the Pahlavi or Sogdian alphabets, as suggested by V. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_33 Thomsen, or possibly via Kharosthi (cf., Issyk inscription). Aramaic alphabet_sentence_34

Aramaic is also considered to be the most likely source of the Brahmi script, ancestor of the Brahmic family of scripts, which includes Devanagari. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_35

Languages using the alphabet Aramaic alphabet_section_3

Today, Biblical Aramaic, Jewish Neo-Aramaic dialects and the Aramaic language of the Talmud are written in the modern-Hebrew alphabet (distinguished from the Old Hebrew script). Aramaic alphabet_sentence_36

In classical Jewish literature, the name given to the modern-Hebrew script was "Ashurit" (the ancient Assyrian script), a script now known widely as the Aramaic script. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_37

It is believed that during the period of Assyrian dominion that Aramaic script and language received official status. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_38

Syriac and Christian Neo-Aramaic dialects are today written in the Syriac alphabet, which script has superseded the more ancient Assyrian script and now bears its name. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_39

Mandaic is written in the Mandaic alphabet. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_40

The near-identity of the Aramaic and the classical Hebrew alphabets caused Aramaic text to be typeset mostly in the standard Hebrew script in scholarly literature. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_41

Maaloula Aramaic alphabet_section_4

Further information: Western Neo-Aramaic Aramaic alphabet_sentence_42

In Maaloula, one of few surviving communities in which a Western Aramaic dialect is still spoken, an Aramaic institute was established in 2007 by Damascus University that teaches courses to keep the language alive. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_43

The institute's activities were suspended in 2010 amidst fears that the square Aramaic alphabet used in the program too closely resembled the square script of the Hebrew alphabet and all the signs with the square Aramaic script were taken down. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_44

The program stated that they would instead use the more distinct Syriac alphabet, although use of the Aramaic alphabet has continued to some degree. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_45

Al Jazeera Arabic also broadcast a program about Western Neo-Aramaic and the villages in which it is spoken with the square script still in use. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_46

Letters Aramaic alphabet_section_5

Aramaic alphabet_table_general_1

Letter

nameAramaic alphabet_header_cell_1_0_0

Aramaic written usingAramaic alphabet_header_cell_1_0_1 IPAAramaic alphabet_header_cell_1_0_5 Equivalent letter inAramaic alphabet_header_cell_1_0_6
Syriac scriptAramaic alphabet_header_cell_1_1_0 Imperial AramaicAramaic alphabet_header_cell_1_1_2 HebrewAramaic alphabet_header_cell_1_1_4 TurkicAramaic alphabet_header_cell_1_1_5 PhoenicianAramaic alphabet_header_cell_1_1_6 ArabicAramaic alphabet_header_cell_1_1_7 BrahmiAramaic alphabet_header_cell_1_1_8 NabataeanAramaic alphabet_header_cell_1_1_9 KharosthiAramaic alphabet_header_cell_1_1_10 Maalouli AramaicAramaic alphabet_header_cell_1_1_11
ImageAramaic alphabet_header_cell_1_2_0 TextAramaic alphabet_header_cell_1_2_1 ImageAramaic alphabet_header_cell_1_2_2 TextAramaic alphabet_header_cell_1_2_3
ĀlapAramaic alphabet_cell_1_3_0 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_3_1 ܐAramaic alphabet_cell_1_3_2 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_3_3 𐡀‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_3_4 /ʔ/; /aː/, /eː/Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_3_5 א‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_3_6 𐰁Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_3_7 𐤀‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_3_8 ا‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_3_9 𑀅Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_3_10 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_3_11 𐨀Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_3_12 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_3_13
BēthAramaic alphabet_cell_1_4_0 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_4_1 ܒAramaic alphabet_cell_1_4_2 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_4_3 𐡁‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_4_4 /b/, /β/Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_4_5 ב‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_4_6 𐰉Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_4_7 𐤁‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_4_8 ب‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_4_9 𑀩Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_4_10 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_4_11 𐨦Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_4_12 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_4_13
GāmalAramaic alphabet_cell_1_5_0 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_5_1 ܓAramaic alphabet_cell_1_5_2 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_5_3 𐡂‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_5_4 /ɡ/, /ɣ/Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_5_5 ג‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_5_6 𐰏Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_5_7 𐤂‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_5_8 ج‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_5_9 𑀕Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_5_10 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_5_11 𐨒Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_5_12 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_5_13
DālathAramaic alphabet_cell_1_6_0 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_6_1 ܕAramaic alphabet_cell_1_6_2 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_6_3 𐡃‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_6_4 /d/, /ð/Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_6_5 ד‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_6_6 𐰒Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_6_7 𐤃‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_6_8 د ذ‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_6_9 𑀥Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_6_10 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_6_11 𐨢Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_6_12 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_6_13
Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_7_0 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_7_1 ܗAramaic alphabet_cell_1_7_2 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_7_3 𐡄‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_7_4 /ɦ/Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_7_5 ה‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_7_6 𐰜Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_7_7 𐤄‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_7_8 ه‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_7_9 𑀳Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_7_10 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_7_11 𐨱Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_7_12 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_7_13
WawAramaic alphabet_cell_1_8_0 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_8_1 ܘAramaic alphabet_cell_1_8_2 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_8_3 𐡅‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_8_4 /w/; /oː/, /uː/Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_8_5 ו‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_8_6 𐰈Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_8_7 𐤅‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_8_8 و‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_8_9 𑀯Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_8_10 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_8_11 𐨬Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_8_12 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_8_13
ZainAramaic alphabet_cell_1_9_0 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_9_1 ܙAramaic alphabet_cell_1_9_2 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_9_3 𐡆‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_9_4 /z/Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_9_5 ז‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_9_6 𐰕Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_9_7 𐤆‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_9_8 ز‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_9_9 𑀚Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_9_10 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_9_11 𐨗Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_9_12 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_9_13
ḤēthAramaic alphabet_cell_1_10_0 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_10_1 ܚAramaic alphabet_cell_1_10_2 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_10_3 𐡇‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_10_4 /ʜ/ /χ/Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_10_5 ח‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_10_6 𐰴Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_10_7 𐤇‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_10_8 ح خ‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_10_9 𑀖Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_10_10 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_10_11 𐨓Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_10_12 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_10_13
ṬēthAramaic alphabet_cell_1_11_0 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_11_1 ܛAramaic alphabet_cell_1_11_2 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_11_3 𐡈‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_11_4 /tˤ/Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_11_5 ט‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_11_6 𐰓Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_11_7 𐤈‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_11_8 ط ظ‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_11_9 𑀣Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_11_10 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_11_11 𐨠Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_11_12 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_11_13
YodhAramaic alphabet_cell_1_12_0 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_12_1 ܝAramaic alphabet_cell_1_12_2 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_12_3 𐡉‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_12_4 /j/; /iː/, /eː/Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_12_5 י‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_12_6 𐰘Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_12_7 𐤉‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_12_8 ي‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_12_9 𑀬Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_12_10 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_12_11 𐨩Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_12_12 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_12_13
KāpAramaic alphabet_cell_1_13_0 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_13_1 ܟAramaic alphabet_cell_1_13_2 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_13_3 𐡊‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_13_4 /k/, /x/Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_13_5 כ ך‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_13_6 𐰚Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_13_7 𐤊‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_13_8 ك‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_13_9 𑀓Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_13_10 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_13_11 𐨐Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_13_12 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_13_13
LāmadhAramaic alphabet_cell_1_14_0 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_14_1 ܠAramaic alphabet_cell_1_14_2 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_14_3 𐡋‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_14_4 /l/Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_14_5 ל‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_14_6 𐰞Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_14_7 𐤋‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_14_8 ل‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_14_9 𑀮Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_14_10 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_14_11 𐨫Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_14_12 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_14_13
MemAramaic alphabet_cell_1_15_0 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_15_1 ܡAramaic alphabet_cell_1_15_2 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_15_3 𐡌‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_15_4 /m/Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_15_5 מ ם‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_15_6 𐰢Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_15_7 𐤌‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_15_8 م‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_15_9 𑀫Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_15_10 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_15_11 𐨨Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_15_12 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_15_13
NunAramaic alphabet_cell_1_16_0 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_16_1 ܢAramaic alphabet_cell_1_16_2 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_16_3 𐡍‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_16_4 /n/Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_16_5 נ ן‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_16_6 𐰤Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_16_7 𐤍‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_16_8 ن‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_16_9 𑀦Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_16_10 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_16_11 𐨣Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_16_12 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_16_13
SemkathAramaic alphabet_cell_1_17_0 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_17_1 ܣAramaic alphabet_cell_1_17_2 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_17_3 𐡎‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_17_4 /s/Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_17_5 ס‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_17_6 𐰾Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_17_7 𐤎‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_17_8 س‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_17_9 𑀰Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_17_10 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_17_11 𐨭Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_17_12 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_17_13
ʿĒAramaic alphabet_cell_1_18_0 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_18_1 ܥAramaic alphabet_cell_1_18_2 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_18_3 𐡏‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_18_4 /ʢ/ /ʁ/Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_18_5 ע‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_18_6 𐰠⸲𐰭Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_18_7 𐤏‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_18_8 ع غ‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_18_9 𑀏Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_18_10 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_18_11 𐨀𐨅Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_18_12 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_18_13
Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_19_0 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_19_1 ܦAramaic alphabet_cell_1_19_2 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_19_3 𐡐‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_19_4 /p/, /ɸ/Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_19_5 פ ף‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_19_6 𐰯Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_19_7 𐤐‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_19_8 ف‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_19_9 𑀧Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_19_10 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_19_11 𐨤Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_19_12 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_19_13
ṢādhēAramaic alphabet_cell_1_20_0 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_20_1 ܨAramaic alphabet_cell_1_20_2 ,Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_20_3 𐡑‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_20_4 /sˤ/Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_20_5 צ ץ‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_20_6 𐰽Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_20_7 𐤑‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_20_8 ص ض‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_20_9 𑀲Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_20_10 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_20_11 𐨯Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_20_12 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_20_13
QopAramaic alphabet_cell_1_21_0 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_21_1 ܩAramaic alphabet_cell_1_21_2 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_21_3 𐡒‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_21_4 /qˤ/Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_21_5 ק‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_21_6 𐰵Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_21_7 𐤒‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_21_8 ق‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_21_9 𑀔Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_21_10 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_21_11 𐨑Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_21_12 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_21_13
RēshAramaic alphabet_cell_1_22_0 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_22_1 ܪAramaic alphabet_cell_1_22_2 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_22_3 𐡓‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_22_4 /r/Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_22_5 ר‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_22_6 𐰺Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_22_7 𐤓‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_22_8 ر‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_22_9 𑀭Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_22_10 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_22_11 𐨪Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_22_12 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_22_13
ShinAramaic alphabet_cell_1_23_0 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_23_1 ܫAramaic alphabet_cell_1_23_2 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_23_3 𐡔‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_23_4 /ʃ/Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_23_5 ש‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_23_6 𐱂Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_23_7 𐤔‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_23_8 ش‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_23_9 𑀱Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_23_10 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_23_11 𐨮Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_23_12 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_23_13
TawAramaic alphabet_cell_1_24_0 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_24_1 ܬAramaic alphabet_cell_1_24_2 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_24_3 𐡕‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_24_4 /t/, /θ/Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_24_5 ת‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_24_6 𐱅Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_24_7 𐤕‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_24_8 ت ث‎Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_24_9 𑀢Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_24_10 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_24_11 𐨟Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_24_12 Aramaic alphabet_cell_1_24_13

Matres lectionis Aramaic alphabet_section_6

Main article: Mater lectionis Aramaic alphabet_sentence_47

In Aramaic writing, Waw and Yodh serve a double function. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_48

Originally, they represented only the consonants w and y, but they were later adopted to indicate the long vowels ū and ī respectively as well (often also ō and ē respectively). Aramaic alphabet_sentence_49

In the latter role, they are known as matres lectionis or "mothers of reading". Aramaic alphabet_sentence_50

Ālap, likewise, has some of the characteristics of a mater lectionis because in initial positions, it indicates a glottal stop (followed by a vowel), but otherwise, it often also stands for the long vowels ā or ē. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_51

Among Jews, the influence of Hebrew often led to the use of Hē instead, at the end of a word. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_52

The practice of using certain letters to hold vowel values spread to Aramaic-derived writing systems, such as in Arabic and Hebrew, which still follow the practice. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_53

Unicode Aramaic alphabet_section_7

Main articles: Syriac (Unicode block) and Imperial Aramaic (Unicode block) Aramaic alphabet_sentence_54

The Syriac Aramaic alphabet was added to the Unicode Standard in September 1999, with the release of version 3.0. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_55

The Syriac Abbreviation (a type of overline) can be represented with a special control character called the Syriac Abbreviation Mark (U+070F). Aramaic alphabet_sentence_56

The Unicode block for Syriac Aramaic is U+0700–U+074F: Aramaic alphabet_sentence_57

Aramaic alphabet_table_general_2

Syriac
(PDF)Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_0_0
Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_1_0 0Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_1_1 1Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_1_2 2Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_1_3 3Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_1_4 4Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_1_5 5Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_1_6 6Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_1_7 7Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_1_8 8Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_1_9 9Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_1_10 AAramaic alphabet_cell_2_1_11 BAramaic alphabet_cell_2_1_12 CAramaic alphabet_cell_2_1_13 DAramaic alphabet_cell_2_1_14 EAramaic alphabet_cell_2_1_15 FAramaic alphabet_cell_2_1_16
U+070xAramaic alphabet_cell_2_2_0 ܀Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_2_1 ܁Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_2_2 ܂Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_2_3 ܃Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_2_4 ܄Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_2_5 ܅Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_2_6 ܆Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_2_7 ܇Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_2_8 ܈Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_2_9 ܉Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_2_10 ܊Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_2_11 ܋Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_2_12 ܌Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_2_13 ܍Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_2_14 Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_2_15 ܏

 SAMAramaic alphabet_cell_2_2_16

U+071xAramaic alphabet_cell_2_3_0 ܐAramaic alphabet_cell_2_3_1 ܑAramaic alphabet_cell_2_3_2 ܒAramaic alphabet_cell_2_3_3 ܓAramaic alphabet_cell_2_3_4 ܔAramaic alphabet_cell_2_3_5 ܕAramaic alphabet_cell_2_3_6 ܖAramaic alphabet_cell_2_3_7 ܗAramaic alphabet_cell_2_3_8 ܘAramaic alphabet_cell_2_3_9 ܙAramaic alphabet_cell_2_3_10 ܚAramaic alphabet_cell_2_3_11 ܛAramaic alphabet_cell_2_3_12 ܜAramaic alphabet_cell_2_3_13 ܝAramaic alphabet_cell_2_3_14 ܞAramaic alphabet_cell_2_3_15 ܟAramaic alphabet_cell_2_3_16
U+072xAramaic alphabet_cell_2_4_0 ܠAramaic alphabet_cell_2_4_1 ܡAramaic alphabet_cell_2_4_2 ܢAramaic alphabet_cell_2_4_3 ܣAramaic alphabet_cell_2_4_4 ܤAramaic alphabet_cell_2_4_5 ܥAramaic alphabet_cell_2_4_6 ܦAramaic alphabet_cell_2_4_7 ܧAramaic alphabet_cell_2_4_8 ܨAramaic alphabet_cell_2_4_9 ܩAramaic alphabet_cell_2_4_10 ܪAramaic alphabet_cell_2_4_11 ܫAramaic alphabet_cell_2_4_12 ܬAramaic alphabet_cell_2_4_13 ܭAramaic alphabet_cell_2_4_14 ܮAramaic alphabet_cell_2_4_15 ܯAramaic alphabet_cell_2_4_16
U+073xAramaic alphabet_cell_2_5_0 ܰAramaic alphabet_cell_2_5_1 ܱAramaic alphabet_cell_2_5_2 ܲAramaic alphabet_cell_2_5_3 ܳAramaic alphabet_cell_2_5_4 ܴAramaic alphabet_cell_2_5_5 ܵAramaic alphabet_cell_2_5_6 ܶAramaic alphabet_cell_2_5_7 ܷAramaic alphabet_cell_2_5_8 ܸAramaic alphabet_cell_2_5_9 ܹAramaic alphabet_cell_2_5_10 ܺAramaic alphabet_cell_2_5_11 ܻAramaic alphabet_cell_2_5_12 ܼAramaic alphabet_cell_2_5_13 ܽAramaic alphabet_cell_2_5_14 ܾAramaic alphabet_cell_2_5_15 ܿAramaic alphabet_cell_2_5_16
U+074xAramaic alphabet_cell_2_6_0 ݀Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_6_1 ݁Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_6_2 ݂Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_6_3 ݃Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_6_4 ݄Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_6_5 ݅Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_6_6 ݆Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_6_7 ݇Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_6_8 ݈Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_6_9 ݉Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_6_10 ݊Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_6_11 Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_6_12 Aramaic alphabet_cell_2_6_13 ݍAramaic alphabet_cell_2_6_14 ݎAramaic alphabet_cell_2_6_15 ݏAramaic alphabet_cell_2_6_16
NotesAramaic alphabet_cell_2_7_0

The Imperial Aramaic alphabet was added to the Unicode Standard in October 2009, with the release of version 5.2. Aramaic alphabet_sentence_58

The Unicode block for Imperial Aramaic is U+10840–U+1085F: Aramaic alphabet_sentence_59

Aramaic alphabet_table_general_3

Imperial Aramaic
(PDF)Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_0_0
Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_1_0 0Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_1_1 1Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_1_2 2Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_1_3 3Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_1_4 4Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_1_5 5Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_1_6 6Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_1_7 7Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_1_8 8Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_1_9 9Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_1_10 AAramaic alphabet_cell_3_1_11 BAramaic alphabet_cell_3_1_12 CAramaic alphabet_cell_3_1_13 DAramaic alphabet_cell_3_1_14 EAramaic alphabet_cell_3_1_15 FAramaic alphabet_cell_3_1_16
U+1084xAramaic alphabet_cell_3_2_0 𐡀Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_2_1 𐡁Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_2_2 𐡂Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_2_3 𐡃Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_2_4 𐡄Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_2_5 𐡅Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_2_6 𐡆Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_2_7 𐡇Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_2_8 𐡈Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_2_9 𐡉Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_2_10 𐡊Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_2_11 𐡋Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_2_12 𐡌Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_2_13 𐡍Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_2_14 𐡎Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_2_15 𐡏Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_2_16
U+1085xAramaic alphabet_cell_3_3_0 𐡐Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_3_1 𐡑Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_3_2 𐡒Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_3_3 𐡓Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_3_4 𐡔Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_3_5 𐡕Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_3_6 Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_3_7 𐡗Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_3_8 𐡘Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_3_9 𐡙Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_3_10 𐡚Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_3_11 𐡛Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_3_12 𐡜Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_3_13 𐡝Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_3_14 𐡞Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_3_15 𐡟Aramaic alphabet_cell_3_3_16
NotesAramaic alphabet_cell_3_4_0

See also Aramaic alphabet_section_8

Aramaic alphabet_unordered_list_0


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aramaic alphabet.