Argentina

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For other uses, see Argentina (disambiguation). Argentina_sentence_0

Argentina_table_infobox_0

Argentine Republic

República Argentina  (Spanish)Argentina_header_cell_0_0_0

Capital

and largest cityArgentina_header_cell_0_1_0

Buenos AiresArgentina_cell_0_1_1
Official languagesArgentina_header_cell_0_2_0 NoneArgentina_cell_0_2_1
Recognised regional languagesArgentina_header_cell_0_3_0 Argentina_cell_0_3_1
National languageArgentina_header_cell_0_4_0 SpanishArgentina_cell_0_4_1
Ethnic groupsArgentina_header_cell_0_5_0 Argentina_cell_0_5_1
Religion (2019)Argentina_header_cell_0_6_0 79.6% Christianity

—62.9% Roman Catholic —15.3% Protestantism —1.4% Other Christian 18.9% No religion 1.2% Other religions 0.3% UndeclaredArgentina_cell_0_6_1

Demonym(s)Argentina_header_cell_0_7_0 Argentina_cell_0_7_1
GovernmentArgentina_header_cell_0_8_0 Federal presidential constitutional republicArgentina_cell_0_8_1
PresidentArgentina_header_cell_0_9_0 Alberto FernándezArgentina_cell_0_9_1
Vice PresidentArgentina_header_cell_0_10_0 Cristina Fernández de KirchnerArgentina_cell_0_10_1
Chief of the Cabinet of MinistersArgentina_header_cell_0_11_0 Santiago CafieroArgentina_cell_0_11_1
President of the Chamber of DeputiesArgentina_header_cell_0_12_0 Sergio MassaArgentina_cell_0_12_1
President of Supreme CourtArgentina_header_cell_0_13_0 Carlos RosenkrantzArgentina_cell_0_13_1
LegislatureArgentina_header_cell_0_14_0 National CongressArgentina_cell_0_14_1
Upper houseArgentina_header_cell_0_15_0 SenateArgentina_cell_0_15_1
Lower houseArgentina_header_cell_0_16_0 Chamber of DeputiesArgentina_cell_0_16_1
Independence from SpainArgentina_header_cell_0_17_0
May RevolutionArgentina_header_cell_0_18_0 25 May 1810Argentina_cell_0_18_1
DeclaredArgentina_header_cell_0_19_0 9 July 1816Argentina_cell_0_19_1
ConstitutionArgentina_header_cell_0_20_0 1 May 1853Argentina_cell_0_20_1
Area Argentina_header_cell_0_21_0
TotalArgentina_header_cell_0_22_0 2,780,400 km (1,073,500 sq mi) (8th)Argentina_cell_0_22_1
Water (%)Argentina_header_cell_0_23_0 1.57Argentina_cell_0_23_1
PopulationArgentina_header_cell_0_24_0
2019 estimateArgentina_header_cell_0_25_0 44,938,712 (31st)Argentina_cell_0_25_1
2010 censusArgentina_header_cell_0_26_0 40,117,096Argentina_cell_0_26_1
DensityArgentina_header_cell_0_27_0 14.4/km (37.3/sq mi) (214th)Argentina_cell_0_27_1
GDP (PPP)Argentina_header_cell_0_28_0 2019 estimateArgentina_cell_0_28_1
TotalArgentina_header_cell_0_29_0 $1.033 trillion (26th)Argentina_cell_0_29_1
Per capitaArgentina_header_cell_0_30_0 $22,997 (56th)Argentina_cell_0_30_1
GDP (nominal)Argentina_header_cell_0_31_0 2019 estimateArgentina_cell_0_31_1
TotalArgentina_header_cell_0_32_0 $444.458 billion (25th)Argentina_cell_0_32_1
Per capitaArgentina_header_cell_0_33_0 $9,890 (53rd)Argentina_cell_0_33_1
Gini (2018)Argentina_header_cell_0_34_0 41.4

mediumArgentina_cell_0_34_1

HDI (2019)Argentina_header_cell_0_35_0 0.845

very high · 46thArgentina_cell_0_35_1

CurrencyArgentina_header_cell_0_36_0 Peso ($) (ARS)Argentina_cell_0_36_1
Time zoneArgentina_header_cell_0_37_0 UTC−3 (ART)Argentina_cell_0_37_1
Date formatArgentina_header_cell_0_38_0 dd.mm.yyyy (CE)Argentina_cell_0_38_1
Driving sideArgentina_header_cell_0_39_0 rightArgentina_cell_0_39_1
Calling codeArgentina_header_cell_0_40_0 +54Argentina_cell_0_40_1
ISO 3166 codeArgentina_header_cell_0_41_0 ARArgentina_cell_0_41_1
Internet TLDArgentina_header_cell_0_42_0 .arArgentina_cell_0_42_1

Argentina (Spanish: [aɾxenˈtina), officially the Argentine Republic (Spanish: República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Argentina_sentence_1

Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. Argentina_sentence_2

With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km (1,073,500 sq mi), Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the second largest in South America after Brazil, and the largest Spanish-speaking nation by area. Argentina_sentence_3

The sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces (Spanish: provincias, singular provincia) and one autonomous city (ciudad autónoma), Buenos Aires, which is the federal capital of the nation (Spanish: Capital Federal) as decided by Congress. Argentina_sentence_4

The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina_sentence_5

Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas), and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. Argentina_sentence_6

The earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. Argentina_sentence_7

The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times. Argentina_sentence_8

The country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century. Argentina_sentence_9

Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. Argentina_sentence_10

The declaration and fight for independence (1810–1818) was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city. Argentina_sentence_11

The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration, mainly Italians and Spaniards, radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook; 62.5% of the population has full or partial Italian ancestry, and the Argentine culture has significant connections to the Italian culture. Argentina_sentence_12

The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Argentina_sentence_13

According to the Maddison Historical Statistics Project, Argentina had the world's highest real GDP per capita in 1895 and 1896, and was consistently in the top ten before at least 1920. Argentina_sentence_14

Currently, it is ranked 61st in the world. Argentina_sentence_15

Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, although it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Argentina_sentence_16

Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow and vice president, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency. Argentina_sentence_17

She was overthrown in 1976 by a military dictatorship. Argentina_sentence_18

The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics, activists, and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism and civil unrest that lasted over a decade until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as president in 1983. Argentina_sentence_19

Argentina is a developing country and ranks 46th on the Human Development Index, the second highest in Latin America after Chile. Argentina_sentence_20

It is a regional power in Latin America and retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina_sentence_21

Argentina maintains the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, and is a member of G-15 and G20. Argentina_sentence_22

It is also a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Mercosur, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Argentina_sentence_23

Name and etymology Argentina_section_0

The description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536. Argentina_sentence_24

In English, the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language; however, the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina_sentence_25

Argentina (masculine argentino) means in Italian "(made) of silver, silver coloured", probably borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine "(made) of silver" > "silver coloured" already mentioned in the 12th century. Argentina_sentence_26

The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in (same construction as Old French acerin "(made) of steel", from acier "steel" + -in, or sapin "(made) of fir wood", from OF sap "fir" + -in). Argentina_sentence_27

The Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". Argentina_sentence_28

In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is often used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina. Argentina_sentence_29

The name Argentina was probably first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. Argentina_sentence_30

In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are respectively plata and prata and "(made) of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina_sentence_31

Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin. Argentina_sentence_32

The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Argentina_sentence_33

Although "Argentina" was already in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, and "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence. Argentina_sentence_34

The 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. Argentina_sentence_35

The name "Argentine Confederation" was also commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. Argentina_sentence_36

In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", and that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as legally valid. Argentina_sentence_37

In English, the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and perhaps resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name 'Argentine Republic'. Argentina_sentence_38

'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, and now the country is simply referred to as "Argentina". Argentina_sentence_39

In Spanish, "Argentina" is feminine ("La [República] Argentina"), taking the feminine article "la", as the initial syllable of "Argentina" is unstressed. Argentina_sentence_40

History Argentina_section_1

Main article: History of Argentina Argentina_sentence_41

Pre-Columbian era Argentina_section_2

Main article: Indigenous peoples in Argentina Argentina_sentence_42

The earliest traces of human life in the area now known as Argentina are dated from the Paleolithic period, with further traces in the Mesolithic and Neolithic. Argentina_sentence_43

Until the period of European colonization, Argentina was relatively sparsely populated by a wide number of diverse cultures with different social organizations, which can be divided into three main groups. Argentina_sentence_44

The first group are basic hunters and food gatherers without development of pottery, such as the Selknam and Yaghan in the extreme south. Argentina_sentence_45

The second group are advanced hunters and food gatherers which include the Puelche, Querandí and Serranos in the centre-east; and the Tehuelche in the south—all of them conquered by the Mapuche spreading from Chile—and the Kom and Wichi in the north. Argentina_sentence_46

The last group are farmers with pottery, like the Charrúa, Minuane and Guaraní in the northeast, with slash and burn semisedentary existence; the advanced Diaguita sedentary trading culture in the northwest, which was conquered by the Inca Empire around 1480; the Toconoté and Hênîa and Kâmîare in the country's centre, and the Huarpe in the centre-west, a culture that raised llama cattle and was strongly influenced by the Incas. Argentina_sentence_47

Colonial era Argentina_section_3

Main article: Colonial Argentina Argentina_sentence_48

See also: Spanish colonization of the Americas Argentina_sentence_49

Europeans first arrived in the region with the 1502 voyage of Amerigo Vespucci. Argentina_sentence_50

The Spanish navigators Juan Díaz de Solís and Sebastian Cabot visited the territory that is now Argentina in 1516 and 1526, respectively. Argentina_sentence_51

In 1536 Pedro de Mendoza founded the small settlement of Buenos Aires, which was abandoned in 1541. Argentina_sentence_52

Further colonization efforts came from Paraguay—establishing the Governorate of the Río de la PlataPeru and Chile. Argentina_sentence_53

Francisco de Aguirre founded Santiago del Estero in 1553. Argentina_sentence_54

Londres was founded in 1558; Mendoza, in 1561; San Juan, in 1562; San Miguel de Tucumán, in 1565. Argentina_sentence_55

Juan de Garay founded Santa Fe in 1573 and the same year Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera set up Córdoba. Argentina_sentence_56

Garay went further south to re-found Buenos Aires in 1580. Argentina_sentence_57

San Luis was established in 1596. Argentina_sentence_58

The Spanish Empire subordinated the economic potential of the Argentine territory to the immediate wealth of the silver and gold mines in Bolivia and Peru, and as such it became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru until the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776 with Buenos Aires as its capital. Argentina_sentence_59

Buenos Aires repelled two ill-fated British invasions in 1806 and 1807. Argentina_sentence_60

The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and the example of the first Atlantic Revolutions generated criticism of the absolutist monarchy that ruled the country. Argentina_sentence_61

As in the rest of Spanish America, the overthrow of Ferdinand VII during the Peninsular War created great concern. Argentina_sentence_62

Independence and civil wars Argentina_section_4

Main articles: Argentine War of Independence and Argentine Civil Wars Argentina_sentence_63

Beginning a process from which Argentina was to emerge as successor state to the Viceroyalty, the 1810 May Revolution replaced the viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros with the First Junta, a new government in Buenos Aires composed by locals. Argentina_sentence_64

In the first clashes of the Independence War the Junta crushed a royalist counter-revolution in Córdoba, but failed to overcome those of the Banda Oriental, Upper Peru and Paraguay, which later became independent states. Argentina_sentence_65

Revolutionaries split into two antagonist groups: the Centralists and the Federalists—a move that would define Argentina's first decades of independence. Argentina_sentence_66

The Assembly of the Year XIII appointed Gervasio Antonio de Posadas as Argentina's first Supreme Director. Argentina_sentence_67

On 9 July 1816, the Congress of Tucumán formalized the Declaration of Independence, which is now celebrated as Independence Day, a national holiday. Argentina_sentence_68

One year later General Martín Miguel de Güemes stopped royalists on the north, and General José de San Martín took an army across the Andes and secured the independence of Chile; then he led the fight to the Spanish stronghold of Lima and proclaimed the independence of Peru. Argentina_sentence_69

In 1819 Buenos Aires enacted a centralist constitution that was soon abrogated by federalists. Argentina_sentence_70

The 1820 Battle of Cepeda, fought between the Centralists and the Federalists, resulted in the end of the Supreme Director rule. Argentina_sentence_71

In 1826 Buenos Aires enacted another centralist constitution, with Bernardino Rivadavia being appointed as the first president of the country. Argentina_sentence_72

However, the interior provinces soon rose against him, forced his resignation and discarded the constitution. Argentina_sentence_73

Centralists and Federalists resumed the civil war; the latter prevailed and formed the Argentine Confederation in 1831, led by Juan Manuel de Rosas. Argentina_sentence_74

During his regime he faced a French blockade (1838–1840), the War of the Confederation (1836–1839), and a combined Anglo-French blockade (1845–1850), but remained undefeated and prevented further loss of national territory. Argentina_sentence_75

His trade restriction policies, however, angered the interior provinces and in 1852 Justo José de Urquiza, another powerful caudillo, beat him out of power. Argentina_sentence_76

As new president of the Confederation, Urquiza enacted the liberal and federal 1853 Constitution. Argentina_sentence_77

Buenos Aires seceded but was forced back into the Confederation after being defeated in the 1859 Battle of Cepeda. Argentina_sentence_78

Rise of the modern nation Argentina_section_5

Main articles: List of Presidents of Argentina, Generation of '80, and Infamous Decade Argentina_sentence_79

See also: Argentine–Chilean naval arms race and South American dreadnought race Argentina_sentence_80

Overpowering Urquiza in the 1861 Battle of Pavón, Bartolomé Mitre secured Buenos Aires predominance and was elected as the first president of the reunified country. Argentina_sentence_81

He was followed by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento and Nicolás Avellaneda; these three presidencies set up the bases of the modern Argentine State. Argentina_sentence_82

Starting with Julio Argentino Roca in 1880, ten consecutive federal governments emphasized liberal economic policies. Argentina_sentence_83

The massive wave of European immigration they promoted—second only to the United States'—led to a near-reinvention of Argentine society and economy that by 1908 had placed the country as the seventh wealthiest developed nation in the world. Argentina_sentence_84

Driven by this immigration wave and decreasing mortality, the Argentine population grew fivefold and the economy 15-fold: from 1870 to 1910 Argentina's wheat exports went from 100,000 to 2,500,000 t (110,000 to 2,760,000 short tons) per year, while frozen beef exports increased from 25,000 to 365,000 t (28,000 to 402,000 short tons) per year, placing Argentina as one of the world's top five exporters. Argentina_sentence_85

Its railway mileage rose from 503 to 31,104 km (313 to 19,327 mi). Argentina_sentence_86

Fostered by a new public, compulsory, free and secular education system, literacy quickly increased from 22% to 65%, a level higher than most Latin American nations would reach even fifty years later. Argentina_sentence_87

Furthermore, real GDP grew so fast that despite the huge immigration influx, per capita income between 1862 and 1920 went from 67% of developed country levels to 100%: In 1865, Argentina was already one of the top 25 nations by per capita income. Argentina_sentence_88

By 1908, it had surpassed Denmark, Canada and the Netherlands to reach 7th place—behind Switzerland, New Zealand, Australia, the United States, the United Kingdom and Belgium. Argentina_sentence_89

Argentina's per capita income was 70% higher than Italy's, 90% higher than Spain's, 180% higher than Japan's and 400% higher than Brazil's. Argentina_sentence_90

Despite these unique achievements, the country was slow to meet its original goals of industrialization: after steep development of capital-intensive local industries in the 1920s, a significant part of the manufacture sector remained labour-intensive in the 1930s. Argentina_sentence_91

Between 1878 and 1884 the so-called Conquest of the Desert occurred, with the purpose of giving by means of the constant confrontations between natives and Criollos in the border, and the appropriation of the indigenous territories, tripling the Argentine territory. Argentina_sentence_92

The first conquest, consisted of a series of military incursions into the Pampa and Patagonian territories dominated by the indigenous peoples, distributing them among the members of the Sociedad Rural Argentina, financiers of the expeditions. Argentina_sentence_93

The conquest of Chaco lasted up to the end of the century, since its full ownership of the national economic system only took place when the mere extraction of wood and tannin was replaced by the production of cotton. Argentina_sentence_94

The Argentine government considered indigenous people as inferior beings, without the same rights as Criollos and Europeans. Argentina_sentence_95

In 1912, President Roque Sáenz Peña enacted universal and secret male suffrage, which allowed Hipólito Yrigoyen, leader of the Radical Civic Union (or UCR), to win the 1916 election. Argentina_sentence_96

He enacted social and economic reforms and extended assistance to small farms and businesses. Argentina_sentence_97

Argentina stayed neutral during World War I. Argentina_sentence_98

The second administration of Yrigoyen faced an economic crisis, precipitated by the Great Depression. Argentina_sentence_99

In 1930, Yrigoyen was ousted from power by the military led by José Félix Uriburu. Argentina_sentence_100

Although Argentina remained among the fifteen richest countries until mid-century, this coup d'état marks the start of the steady economic and social decline that pushed the country back into underdevelopment. Argentina_sentence_101

Uriburu ruled for two years; then Agustín Pedro Justo was elected in a fraudulent election, and signed a controversial treaty with the United Kingdom. Argentina_sentence_102

Argentina stayed neutral during World War II, a decision that had full British support but was rejected by the United States after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Argentina_sentence_103

In 1943 a military coup d'état, lead by General Arturo Rawson toppled the democratically elected government of Ramón Castillo and, under presure from the United States, later Argentina declared war on the Axis Powers on 27 March 1945, a month before the end of World War II in Europe. Argentina_sentence_104

During Rawson dictatorship a relatively unknown military colonel named Juan Domingo Perón was named head of the Labour Department. Argentina_sentence_105

Perón quickly managed climb the political ladder, being named Ministry of Defence by 1944. Argentina_sentence_106

Being perceived as a political threat by rivals faction in the military and the conservative camp he was forced to resign in 1945 and was arrested days later. Argentina_sentence_107

He was later released under mounting pressure from both his base and several allied unions. Argentina_sentence_108

He would later become president after a landslide victory over the UCR in the 1946 general election as the laborist candidate. Argentina_sentence_109

Peronist years Argentina_section_6

Main article: Peronism Argentina_sentence_110

The Labour Party later renamed Justicialist Party, the most powerful and influential party in Argentine history, came into power with the rise of Juan Domingo Perón to the presidency in 1946. Argentina_sentence_111

He nationalized strategic industries and services, improved wages and working conditions, paid the full external debt and claimed he achieved nearly full employment. Argentina_sentence_112

He pushed Congress to enact women's suffrage in 1947, and developed an system of social assistance for the most vulnerable sectors of society. Argentina_sentence_113

The economy, however, began to decline in 1950 because of government over-expenditure and the overly protectionist economic policies. Argentina_sentence_114

He also engaged in a campaign of political suppression. Argentina_sentence_115

Anyone who was perceived to be a political dissident or potential rival where subject to threats, physical violence and harassment. Argentina_sentence_116

The Argentine intelligentsia, the middle-class, university students and professors were seen as particularly troublesome. Argentina_sentence_117

Perón fired over 2000 university professors and faculty members from all major public education institutions. Argentina_sentence_118

Perón tried to bring under his thumb most trade and labour unions, regularly resorting to violence when needed. Argentina_sentence_119

For instance the meat-packers union leader, Cipriano Reyes, organised strikes in protest against the government after elected labour movement official were forcefully replace by peronist puppets from the Peronist Party. Argentina_sentence_120

Reyes was soon arrested on the charge of terrorism, though the allegations were never substantiated. Argentina_sentence_121

Reyes was tortured in prison for five years and was only released after the regime's downfall in 1955 without any charges. Argentina_sentence_122

Perón managed to get reelected in 1951. Argentina_sentence_123

Eva Perón, his wife who played a critical role in the party, died of cancer in 1952. Argentina_sentence_124

As the economy continued to tank Perón started loosing popular support. Argentina_sentence_125

Seen as a threat to the national process and taking advantage of the Perón's withering political power, in 1955 the Navy bombed the Plaza de Mayo. Argentina_sentence_126

Perón survived the attack but a few months later, during the Liberating Revolution coup, was deposed and went into exile in Spain. Argentina_sentence_127

Revolución Libertadora Argentina_section_7

Main article: Revolución Libertadora Argentina_sentence_128

The new head of State, Pedro Eugenio Aramburu, proscribed Peronism and banned the party from any future elections. Argentina_sentence_129

Arturo Frondizi from the UCR won the 1958 general election. Argentina_sentence_130

He encouraged investment to achieve energetic and industrial self-sufficiency, reversed a chronic trade deficit and lifted Peronism proscription; yet his efforts to stay on good terms with Peronists and the military earned him the rejection of both and a new coup forced him out. Argentina_sentence_131

But Senate Chief José María Guido reacted swiftly and applied the anti-power vacuum legislation, becoming president instead; elections were repealed and Peronism proscribed again. Argentina_sentence_132

Arturo Illia was elected in 1963 and led to an overall increase in prosperity; however he was overthrow in 1966 by another military coup d'état led by General Juan Carlos Onganía, the self nominated Argentine Revolution, creating a new military government that sought to rule indefinitely. Argentina_sentence_133

Perón's return and death Argentina_section_8

Following several year of military rule Alejandro Agustín Lanusse was appointed president by the military junta in 1971. Argentina_sentence_134

Under increasing pressure political pressure for the return of democracy Lanusse called for election in 1973. Argentina_sentence_135

Perón was banned from running but Peronist party was allowed to participate. Argentina_sentence_136

The presidential elections were won by Hector Cámpora, Perón's puppet candidate . Argentina_sentence_137

Dr. Héctor Cámpora, a left-wing Peronist, took office on 25 May 1973, a month later on June, Perón had returned from Spain. Argentina_sentence_138

One of Cámpora's first presidential actions was a granting of amnesty to members of terrorist organizations who had carried out political assassinations and terror attacks and who had been tried and sentenced to prison by judges. Argentina_sentence_139

Cámpora's months of government where beset by political and social unrest. Argentina_sentence_140

Over 600 social conflicts, strikes and factory occupations took place within a single month. Argentina_sentence_141

And even though far-left terrorist organisations had suspended their armed struggle, they joining with the participatory democracy process, which was seen as a direct threat by the Peronist right-wing faction. Argentina_sentence_142

In a state of political, social and economic upheaval Cámpora and Vice President Vicente Solano Lima resigned in July 1973, calling for new elections, this time with Perón. Argentina_sentence_143

as the Justicialist Party nominee. Argentina_sentence_144

Perón won the election with his then wife Isabel Perón as Vice President. Argentina_sentence_145

Perón's third term marked by an escalating conflict between the left and right-wing factions within the Peronist party, as well the return of armed terror guerrilla groups like the Guevarist ERP, leftist Peronist Montoneros and the state-backed fascist Triple A. Argentina_sentence_146

After a series of heart attacks and with signs of pneumonia in 1974 Perón's health deteriorated quickly. Argentina_sentence_147

Perón suffered a final attack on Monday, 1 July 1974 and died at 13:15. Argentina_sentence_148

He was 78 years old. Argentina_sentence_149

After his death, Isabel Perón, his wife and Vice President came into office. Argentina_sentence_150

Isabel, born María Estela Martínez Cartas, a grade school drop-out and a former nightclub dancer, prove to be a thoroughly incompetent and weak president. Argentina_sentence_151

During her presidency a military junta along with the Peronists far-right fascist faction became once again the de facto head of state. Argentina_sentence_152

She served as President of Argentina from 1974 to 1976, after being deposed by the military. Argentina_sentence_153

Her short presidency was marked by a total breakdown of the Argentine political and social systems and led into a constitutional crisis that paved the way for a decade of instability, left-wing terrorist guerrilla attacks and state sponsored terrorism. Argentina_sentence_154

National Reorganization Process Argentina_section_9

Main article: National Reorganization Process Argentina_sentence_155

Main article: Dirty War Argentina_sentence_156

The "Dirty War" (Spanish: Guerra Sucia) was part of Operation Condor which included participation of the right-wing dictatorships of the Southern Cone. Argentina_sentence_157

The Dirty War involved state terrorism in Argentina and elsewhere in the Southern Cone against political dissidents, with military and security forces employing urban and rural violence against left-wing guerrillas, political dissidents, and anyone believed to be associated with socialism or somehow contrary to the neoliberal economic policies of the regime. Argentina_sentence_158

Victims of the violence in Argentina alone included an estimated 15,000 to 30,000 left-wing activists and militants, including trade unionists, students, journalists, Marxists, Peronist guerrillas and alleged sympathizers. Argentina_sentence_159

Most were victims of state terrorism. Argentina_sentence_160

The guerrillas' number of victims are nearly 500–540 between military and police officials and up to 230 civilians. Argentina_sentence_161

Argentina received technical support and military aid from the United States government during the Johnson, Nixon, Ford, Carter, and Reagan administrations. Argentina_sentence_162

The exact chronology of the repression is still debated, however, as in some senses the long political war started in 1969. Argentina_sentence_163

Trade unionists were targeted for assassination by the Peronist and Marxist paramilitaries as early as 1969, and individual cases of state-sponsored terrorism against Peronism and the left can be traced back to the Bombing of Plaza de Mayo in 1955. Argentina_sentence_164

The Trelew massacre of 1972, the actions of the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance since 1973, and Isabel Martínez de Perón's "annihilation decrees" against left-wing guerrillas during Operativo Independencia (translates to Operation of Independence) in 1975, have also been suggested as dates for the beginning of the Dirty War. Argentina_sentence_165

Onganía shut down Congress, banned all political parties and dismantled student and worker unions. Argentina_sentence_166

In 1969, popular discontent led to two massive protests: the Cordobazo and the Rosariazo. Argentina_sentence_167

The terrorist guerrilla organization Montoneros kidnapped and executed Aramburu. Argentina_sentence_168

The newly chosen head of government, Alejandro Agustín Lanusse, seeking to ease the growing political pressure, let Héctor José Cámpora be the Peronist candidate instead of Perón. Argentina_sentence_169

Cámpora won the March 1973 election, issued a pardon for condemned guerrilla members and then secured Perón's return from his exile in Spain. Argentina_sentence_170

On the day Perón returned to Argentina, the clash between Peronist internal factions—right-wing union leaders and left-wing youth from Montoneros—resulted in the Ezeiza Massacre. Argentina_sentence_171

Cámpora resigned, overwhelmed by political violence, and Perón won the September 1973 election with his third wife Isabel as vice-president. Argentina_sentence_172

He expelled Montoneros from the party and they became once again a clandestine organization. Argentina_sentence_173

José López Rega organized the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance (AAA) to fight against them and the People's Revolutionary Army (ERP). Argentina_sentence_174

Perón died in July 1974 and was succeeded by his wife, who signed a secret decree empowering the military and the police to "annihilate" the left-wing subversion, stopping ERP's attempt to start a rural insurgence in Tucumán province. Argentina_sentence_175

Isabel Perón was ousted one year later by a junta of the three armed forces, led by army general Jorge Rafael Videla. Argentina_sentence_176

They initiated the National Reorganization Process, often shortened to Proceso. Argentina_sentence_177

The Proceso shut down Congress, removed the judges of the Supreme Court, banned political parties and unions, and resorted to the forced disappearance of suspected guerrilla members and of anyone believed to be associated with the left-wing. Argentina_sentence_178

By the end of 1976 Montoneros had lost near 2,000 members; by 1977, the ERP was completely defeated. Argentina_sentence_179

A severely weakened Montoneros launched a counterattack in 1979, which was quickly annihilated, ending the guerrilla threat. Argentina_sentence_180

Nevertheless, the junta stayed in power. Argentina_sentence_181

In 1982, the then head of state, General Leopoldo Galtieri, authorised the invasion of the British territories of South Georgia and, on 2 April, of the Falkland Islands. Argentina_sentence_182

This led to the Falklands War with the United Kingdom and an Argentine surrender on 14 June. Argentina_sentence_183

Rioting on the streets of Buenos Aires followed the defeat and the military leadership responsible for the humiliation stood down. Argentina_sentence_184

Reynaldo Bignone replaced Galtieri and began to organize the transition to democratic rule. Argentina_sentence_185

Return to Democarcy Argentina_section_10

Main articles: Presidency of Raúl Alfonsín and Argentine economic crisis (1999–2002) Argentina_sentence_186

Raúl Alfonsín won the 1983 elections campaigning for the prosecution of those responsible for human rights violations during the Proceso: the Trial of the Juntas and other martial courts sentenced all the coup's leaders but, under military pressure, he also enacted the Full Stop and Due Obedience laws, which halted prosecutions further down the chain of command. Argentina_sentence_187

The worsening economic crisis and hyperinflation reduced his popular support and the Peronist Carlos Menem won the 1989 election. Argentina_sentence_188

Soon after, riots forced Alfonsín to an early resignation. Argentina_sentence_189

Menem embraced neo-liberal policies: a fixed exchange rate, business deregulation, privatizations and dismantling of protectionist barriers normalized the economy for a while. Argentina_sentence_190

He pardoned the officers who had been sentenced during Alfonsín's government. Argentina_sentence_191

The 1994 Constitutional Amendment allowed Menem to be elected for a second term. Argentina_sentence_192

The economy began to decline in 1995, with increasing unemployment and recession; led by Fernando de la Rúa, the UCR returned to the presidency in the 1999 elections. Argentina_sentence_193

De la Rúa kept Menem's economic plan despite the worsening crisis, which led to growing social discontent. Argentina_sentence_194

A massive capital flight was responded to with a freezing of bank accounts, generating further turmoil. Argentina_sentence_195

The December 2001 riots forced him to resign. Argentina_sentence_196

Congress appointed Eduardo Duhalde as acting president, who abrogated the fixed exchange rate established by Menem, causing many Argentines to lose a significant portion of their savings. Argentina_sentence_197

By the late 2002 the economic crisis began to recede, but the assassination of two piqueteros by the police caused political commotion, prompting Duhalde to move elections forward. Argentina_sentence_198

Néstor Kirchner was elected as the new president. Argentina_sentence_199

Boosting the neo-Keynesian economic policies laid by Duhalde, Kirchner ended the economic crisis attaining significant fiscal and trade surpluses, and steep GDP growth. Argentina_sentence_200

Under his administration Argentina restructured its defaulted debt with an unprecedented discount of about 70% on most bonds, paid off debts with the International Monetary Fund, purged the military of officers with doubtful human rights records, nullified and voided the Full Stop and Due Obedience laws, ruled them as unconstitutional, and resumed legal prosecution of the Juntas' crimes. Argentina_sentence_201

He did not run for reelection, promoting instead the candidacy of his wife, senator Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, who was elected in 2007 and reelected in 2011. Argentina_sentence_202

Fernández de Kirchner's administration sought a positive foreign policy with good relations with countries with questionable human rights records, including Venezuela, Iran and Cuba; while at the same time relations with the United States and United Kingdom remained heavily strained. Argentina_sentence_203

On 22 November 2015, after a tie in the first round of presidential elections on 25 October, Mauricio Macri won the first ballotage in Argentina's history, beating Front for Victory candidate Daniel Scioli and becoming president-elect. Argentina_sentence_204

Macri was the first democratically elected non peronist president since 1916 that managed to see his presidency to the end without being overthrow. Argentina_sentence_205

He took office on 10 December 2015 and inherit a extremly weak economy with one of the highest inflation rates in history. Argentina_sentence_206

In April 2016, the Macri Government introduced austerity measures intended to tackle inflation and the overblown public deficits. Argentina_sentence_207

Though he managed tepid economic recovery, inflation rates remained high. Argentina_sentence_208

He run for re-election in 2019 but lost to Alberto Fernández, the kirchnerist acandidate. Argentina_sentence_209

President Alberto Fernández and Vice President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner took office on December 2019, just months before the Covid-19 pandemic hit Argentina and among accusations of corruption, bribery and misused of public funds during Nestors and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner presidencies. Argentina_sentence_210

Geography Argentina_section_11

Main article: Geography of Argentina Argentina_sentence_211

With a mainland surface area of 2,780,400 km (1,073,518 sq mi), Argentina is located in southern South America, sharing land borders with Chile across the Andes to the west; Bolivia and Paraguay to the north; Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east; and the Drake Passage to the south; for an overall land border length of 9,376 km (5,826 mi). Argentina_sentence_212

Its coastal border over the Río de la Plata and South Atlantic Ocean is 5,117 km (3,180 mi) long. Argentina_sentence_213

Argentina's highest point is Aconcagua in the Mendoza province (6,959 m (22,831 ft) above sea level), also the highest point in the Southern and Western Hemispheres. Argentina_sentence_214

The lowest point is Laguna del Carbón in the San Julián Great Depression Santa Cruz province (−105 m (−344 ft) below sea level, also the lowest point in the Southern and Western Hemispheres, and the seventh lowest point on Earth) Argentina_sentence_215

The northernmost point is at the confluence of the Grande de San Juan and Río Mojinete rivers in Jujuy province; the southernmost is Cape San Pío in Tierra del Fuego province; the easternmost is northeast of Bernardo de Irigoyen, Misiones and the westernmost is within Los Glaciares National Park in Santa Cruz province. Argentina_sentence_216

The maximum north–south distance is 3,694 km (2,295 mi), while the maximum east–west one is 1,423 km (884 mi). Argentina_sentence_217

Some of the major rivers are the Paraná, Uruguay—which join to form the Río de la Plata, Paraguay, Salado, Negro, Santa Cruz, Pilcomayo, Bermejo and Colorado. Argentina_sentence_218

These rivers are discharged into the Argentine Sea, the shallow area of the Atlantic Ocean over the Argentine Shelf, an unusually wide continental platform. Argentina_sentence_219

Its waters are influenced by two major ocean currents: the warm Brazil Current and the cold Falklands Current. Argentina_sentence_220

Biodiversity Argentina_section_12

Main article: Environment of Argentina Argentina_sentence_221

Argentina is one of the most biodiverse countries in the world hosting one of the greatest ecosystem varieties in the world: 15 continental zones, 2 marine zones, and the Antarctic region are all represented in its territory. Argentina_sentence_222

This huge ecosystem variety has led to a biological diversity that is among the world's largest: Argentina_sentence_223

Argentina_unordered_list_0

  • 9,372 cataloged vascular plant species (ranked 24th)Argentina_item_0_0
  • 1,038 cataloged bird species (ranked 14th)Argentina_item_0_1
  • 375 cataloged mammal species (ranked 12th)Argentina_item_0_2
  • 338 cataloged reptilian species (ranked 16th)Argentina_item_0_3
  • 162 cataloged amphibian species (ranked 19th)Argentina_item_0_4

The original pampa had virtually no trees; some imported species like the American sycamore or eucalyptus are present along roads or in towns and country estates (estancias). Argentina_sentence_224

The only tree-like plant native to the pampa is the evergreen Ombú. Argentina_sentence_225

The surface soils of the pampa are a deep black color, primarily mollisols, known commonly as humus. Argentina_sentence_226

This makes the region one of the most agriculturally productive on Earth; however, this is also responsible for decimating much of the original ecosystem, to make way for commercial agriculture. Argentina_sentence_227

The western pampas receive less rainfall, this dry pampa is a plain of short grasses or steppe. Argentina_sentence_228

The National Parks of Argentina make up a network of 35 national parks in Argentina. Argentina_sentence_229

The parks cover a very varied set of terrains and biotopes, from Baritú National Park on the northern border with Bolivia to Tierra del Fuego National Park in the far south of the continent. Argentina_sentence_230

The Administración de Parques Nacionales (National Parks Administration) is the agency that preserves and manages these national parks along with Natural monuments and National Reserves within the country. Argentina_sentence_231

Climate Argentina_section_13

Main articles: Climate of Argentina and Climatic regions of Argentina Argentina_sentence_232

In general, Argentina has four main climate types: warm, moderate, arid, and cold, all determined by the expanse across latitude, range in altitude, and relief features. Argentina_sentence_233

Although the most populated areas are generally temperate, Argentina has an exceptional amount of climate diversity, ranging from subtropical in the north to polar in the far south. Argentina_sentence_234

Consequently, there is a wide variety of biomes in the country, including subtropical rain forests, semi-arid and arid regions, temperate plains in the Pampas, and cold subantarctic in the south. Argentina_sentence_235

The average annual precipitation ranges from 150 millimetres (6 in) in the driest parts of Patagonia to over 2,000 millimetres (79 in) in the westernmost parts of Patagonia and the northeastern parts of the country. Argentina_sentence_236

Mean annual temperatures range from 5 °C (41 °F) in the far south to 25 °C (77 °F) in the north. Argentina_sentence_237

Major wind currents include the cool Pampero Winds blowing on the flat plains of Patagonia and the Pampas; following the cold front, warm currents blow from the north in middle and late winter, creating mild conditions. Argentina_sentence_238

The Sudestada usually moderates cold temperatures but brings very heavy rains, rough seas and coastal flooding. Argentina_sentence_239

It is most common in late autumn and winter along the central coast and in the Río de la Plata estuary. Argentina_sentence_240

The Zonda, a hot dry wind, affects Cuyo and the central Pampas. Argentina_sentence_241

Squeezed of all moisture during the 6,000 m (19,685 ft) descent from the Andes, Zonda winds can blow for hours with gusts up to 120 km/h (75 mph), fueling wildfires and causing damage; between June and November, when the Zonda blows, snowstorms and blizzard (viento blanco) conditions usually affect higher elevations. Argentina_sentence_242

Climate change Argentina_section_14

Politics Argentina_section_15

Main article: Politics of Argentina Argentina_sentence_243

In the 20th century, Argentina experienced significant political turmoil and democratic reversals. Argentina_sentence_244

Between 1930 and 1976, the armed forces overthrew six governments in Argentina; and the country alternated periods of democracy (1912–1930, 1946–1955, and 1973–1976) with periods of restricted democracy and military rule. Argentina_sentence_245

Following a transition that began in 1983, full-scale democracy in Argentina was reestablished. Argentina_sentence_246

Argentina's democracy endured through the 2001–02 crisis and to the present day; it is regarded as more robust than both its pre-1983 predecessors and other democracies in Latin America. Argentina_sentence_247

Government Argentina_section_16

Main articles: Government of Argentina and Ministries of the Argentine Republic Argentina_sentence_248

Argentina is a federal constitutional republic and representative democracy. Argentina_sentence_249

The government is regulated by a system of checks and balances defined by the Constitution of Argentina, the country's supreme legal document. Argentina_sentence_250

The seat of government is the city of Buenos Aires, as designated by Congress. Argentina_sentence_251

Suffrage is universal, equal, secret and mandatory. Argentina_sentence_252

The federal government is composed of three branches: Argentina_sentence_253

The Legislative branch consists of the bicameral Congress, made up of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. Argentina_sentence_254

The Congress makes federal law, declares war, approves treaties and has the power of the purse and of impeachment, by which it can remove sitting members of the government. Argentina_sentence_255

The Chamber of Deputies represents the people and has 257 voting members elected to a four-year term. Argentina_sentence_256

Seats are apportioned among the provinces by population every tenth year. Argentina_sentence_257

As of 2014 ten provinces have just five deputies while the Buenos Aires Province, being the most populous one, has 70. Argentina_sentence_258

The Chamber of Senators represents the provinces, has 72 members elected at-large to six-year terms, with each province having three seats; one third of Senate seats are up for election every other year. Argentina_sentence_259

At least one-third of the candidates presented by the parties must be women. Argentina_sentence_260

In the Executive branch, the President is the commander-in-chief of the military, can veto legislative bills before they become law—subject to Congressional override—and appoints the members of the Cabinet and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies. Argentina_sentence_261

The President is elected directly by the vote of the people, serves a four-year term and may be elected to office no more than twice in a row. Argentina_sentence_262

The Judicial branch includes the Supreme Court and lower federal courts interpret laws and overturn those they find unconstitutional. Argentina_sentence_263

The Judicial is independent of the Executive and the Legislative. Argentina_sentence_264

The Supreme Court has seven members appointed by the President—subject to Senate approval—who serve for life. Argentina_sentence_265

The lower courts' judges are proposed by the Council of Magistracy (a secretariat composed of representatives of judges, lawyers, researchers, the Executive and the Legislative), and appointed by the President on Senate approval. Argentina_sentence_266

Provinces Argentina_section_17

Argentina is a federation of twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires. Argentina_sentence_267

Provinces are divided for administration purposes into departments and municipalities, except for Buenos Aires Province, which is divided into partidos. Argentina_sentence_268

The City of Buenos Aires is divided into communes. Argentina_sentence_269

Provinces hold all the power that they chose not to delegate to the federal government; they must be representative republics and must not contradict the Constitution. Argentina_sentence_270

Beyond this they are fully autonomous: they enact their own constitutions, freely organize their local governments, and own and manage their natural and financial resources. Argentina_sentence_271

Some provinces have bicameral legislatures, while others have unicameral ones. Argentina_sentence_272

During the War of Independence the main cities and their surrounding countrysides became provinces though the intervention of their cabildos. Argentina_sentence_273

The Anarchy of the Year XX completed this process, shaping the original thirteen provinces. Argentina_sentence_274

Jujuy seceded from Salta in 1834, and the thirteen provinces became fourteen. Argentina_sentence_275

After seceding for a decade, Buenos Aires accepted the 1853 Constitution of Argentina in 1861, and was made a federal territory in 1880. Argentina_sentence_276

An 1862 law designated as national territories those under federal control but outside the frontiers of the provinces. Argentina_sentence_277

In 1884 they served as bases for the establishment of the governorates of Misiones, Formosa, Chaco, La Pampa, Neuquén, Río Negro, Chubut, Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego. Argentina_sentence_278

The agreement about a frontier dispute with Chile in 1900 created the National Territory of Los Andes; its lands were incorporated into Jujuy, Salta and Catamarca in 1943. Argentina_sentence_279

La Pampa and Chaco became provinces in 1951. Argentina_sentence_280

Misiones did so in 1953, and Formosa, Neuquén, Río Negro, Chubut and Santa Cruz, in 1955. Argentina_sentence_281

The last national territory, Tierra del Fuego, became the Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur Province in 1990. Argentina_sentence_282

It has three components, although two are nominal because they are not under Argentine sovereignty. Argentina_sentence_283

The first is the Argentine part of Tierra del Fuego; the second is an area of Antarctica claimed by Argentina that overlaps with similar areas claimed by the UK and Chile; the third comprises the two disputed British Overseas Territories of the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. Argentina_sentence_284

Foreign relations Argentina_section_18

Main article: Foreign relations of Argentina Argentina_sentence_285

Foreign policy is handled by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, International Trade and Worship, which answers to the President. Argentina_sentence_286

A middle power, Argentina bases its foreign policies on the guiding principles of non-intervention, human rights, self-determination, international cooperation, disarmament and peaceful settlement of conflicts. Argentina_sentence_287

The country is one of the G-15 and G-20 major economies of the world, and a founding member of the UN, WBG, WTO and OAS. Argentina_sentence_288

In 2012 Argentina was elected again to a two-year non-permanent position on the United Nations Security Council and is participating in major peacekeeping operations in Haiti, Cyprus, Western Sahara and the Middle East. Argentina_sentence_289

A prominent Latin American and Southern Cone regional power, Argentina co-founded OEI and CELAC. Argentina_sentence_290

It is also a founding member of the Mercosur block, having Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela as partners. Argentina_sentence_291

Since 2002 the country has emphasized its key role in Latin American integration, and the block—which has some supranational legislative functions—is its first international priority. Argentina_sentence_292

Argentina claims 965,597 km (372,819 sq mi) in Antarctica, where it has the world's oldest continuous state presence, since 1904. Argentina_sentence_293

This overlaps claims by Chile and the United Kingdom, though all such claims fall under the provisions of the 1961 Antarctic Treaty, of which Argentina is a founding signatory and permanent consulting member, with the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat being based in Buenos Aires. Argentina_sentence_294

Argentina disputes sovereignty over the Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas), and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, which are administered by the United Kingdom as Overseas Territories. Argentina_sentence_295

Armed forces Argentina_section_19

Main article: Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic Argentina_sentence_296

The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the Argentine Armed Forces, as part of a legal framework that imposes a strict separation between national defense and internal security systems: Argentina_sentence_297

The National Defense System, an exclusive responsibility of the federal government, coordinated by the Ministry of Defense, and comprising the Army, the Navy and the Air Force. Argentina_sentence_298

Ruled and monitored by Congress through the Houses' Defense Committees, it is organized on the essential principle of legitimate self-defense: the repelling of any external military aggression in order to guarantee freedom of the people, national sovereignty, and territorial integrity. Argentina_sentence_299

Its secondary missions include committing to multinational operations within the framework of the United Nations, participating in internal support missions, assisting friendly countries, and establishing a sub-regional defense system. Argentina_sentence_300

Military service is voluntary, with enlistment age between 18 and 24 years old and no conscription. Argentina_sentence_301

Argentina's defense has historically been one of the best equipped in the region, even managing its own weapon research facilities, shipyards, ordnance, tank and plane factories. Argentina_sentence_302

However, real military expenditures declined steadily after 1981 and the defense budget in 2011 was about 0.74% of GDP, a historical minimum, below the Latin American average. Argentina_sentence_303

The Interior Security System, jointly administered by the federal and subscribing provincial governments. Argentina_sentence_304

At the federal level it is coordinated by the Interior, Security and Justice ministries, and monitored by Congress. Argentina_sentence_305

It is enforced by the Federal Police; the Prefecture, which fulfills coast guard duties; the Gendarmerie, which serves border guard tasks; and the Airport Security Police. Argentina_sentence_306

At the provincial level it is coordinated by the respective internal security ministries and enforced by local police agencies. Argentina_sentence_307

Argentina was the only South American country to send warships and cargo planes in 1991 to the Gulf War under UN mandate and has remained involved in peacekeeping efforts in multiple locations like UNPROFOR in Croatia/Bosnia, Gulf of Fonseca, UNFICYP in Cyprus (where among Army and Marines troops the Air Force provided the UN Air contingent since 1994) and MINUSTAH in Haiti. Argentina_sentence_308

Argentina is the only Latin American country to maintain troops in Kosovo during SFOR (and later EUFOR) operations where combat engineers of the Argentine Armed Forces are embedded in an Italian brigade. Argentina_sentence_309

In 2007, an Argentine contingent including helicopters, boats and water purification plants was sent to help Bolivia against their worst floods in decades. Argentina_sentence_310

In 2010 the Armed Forces were also involved in Haiti and Chile humanitarian responses after their respective earthquakes. Argentina_sentence_311

Economy Argentina_section_20

Main article: Economy of Argentina Argentina_sentence_312

See also: Argentine foreign trade Argentina_sentence_313

Benefiting from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, a diversified industrial base, and an export-oriented agricultural sector, the economy of Argentina is Latin America's third-largest, and the second largest in South America. Argentina_sentence_314

It has a "very high" rating on the Human Development Index and a relatively high GDP per capita, with a considerable internal market size and a growing share of the high-tech sector. Argentina_sentence_315

Access to biocapacity in Argentina is much higher than world average. Argentina_sentence_316

In 2016, Argentina had 6.8 global hectares of biocapacity per person within its territory, much more than the world average of 1.6 global hectares per person. Argentina_sentence_317

In 2016 Argentina used 3.4 global hectares of biocapacity per person – their ecological footprint of consumption. Argentina_sentence_318

This means they use half as much biocapacity as Argentina contains. Argentina_sentence_319

As a result, Argentina is running a biocapacity reserve. Argentina_sentence_320

A middle emerging economy and one of the world's top developing nations, Argentina is a member of the G-20 major economies. Argentina_sentence_321

Historically, however, its economic performance has been very uneven, with high economic growth alternating with severe recessions, income maldistribution and—in the recent decades—increasing poverty. Argentina_sentence_322

Early in the 20th century Argentina achieved development, and became the world's seventh richest country. Argentina_sentence_323

Although managing to keep a place among the top fifteen economies until mid-century, it suffered a long and steady decline, but it is still a high income country. Argentina_sentence_324

High inflation—a weakness of the Argentine economy for decades—has become a trouble once again, with an annual rate of 24.8% in 2017. Argentina_sentence_325

To deter it and support the peso, the government imposed foreign currency control. Argentina_sentence_326

Income distribution, having improved since 2002, is classified as "medium", although it is still considerably unequal. Argentina_sentence_327

Argentina ranks 85th out of 180 countries in the Transparency International's 2017 Corruption Perceptions Index, an improvement of 22 positions over its 2014 rankings. Argentina_sentence_328

Argentina settled its long-standing debt default crisis in 2016 with the so-called vulture funds after the election of Mauricio Macri, allowing Argentina to enter capital markets for the first time in a decade. Argentina_sentence_329

The government of Argentina defaulted on 22 May 2020 by failing to pay a $500 million due date to its creditors. Argentina_sentence_330

Negotiations for the restructuring of $66 billion of its debt continue. Argentina_sentence_331

Industry Argentina_section_21

Main article: Industry in Argentina Argentina_sentence_332

In 2012 manufacturing accounted for 20.3% of GDP—the largest sector in the nation's economy. Argentina_sentence_333

Well-integrated into Argentine agriculture, half of the industrial exports have rural origin. Argentina_sentence_334

With a 6.5% production growth rate in 2011, the diversified manufacturing sector rests on a steadily growing network of industrial parks (314 as of 2013) Argentina_sentence_335

In 2012 the leading sectors by volume were: food processing, beverages and tobacco products; motor vehicles and auto parts; textiles and leather; refinery products and biodiesel; chemicals and pharmaceuticals; steel, aluminum and iron; industrial and farm machinery; home appliances and furniture; plastics and tires; glass and cement; and recording and print media. Argentina_sentence_336

In addition, Argentina has since long been one of the top five wine-producing countries in the world. Argentina_sentence_337

However, it has also been classified as one of the 74 countries where instances of child labour and forced labour have been observed and mentioned in a 2014 report published by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs. Argentina_sentence_338

The ILAB's List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor shows that many of the goods produced by child labour or forced labour comes from the agricultural sector. Argentina_sentence_339

Córdoba is Argentina's major industrial centre, hosting metalworking, motor vehicle and auto parts manufactures. Argentina_sentence_340

Next in importance are the Greater Buenos Aires area (food processing, metallurgy, motor vehicles and auto parts, chemicals and petrochemicals, consumer durables, textiles and printing); Rosario (food processing, metallurgy, farm machinery, oil refining, chemicals, and tanning); San Miguel de Tucumán (sugar refining); San Lorenzo (chemicals and pharmaceuticals); San Nicolás de los Arroyos (steel milling and metallurgy); and Ushuaia and Bahía Blanca (oil refining). Argentina_sentence_341

Other manufacturing enterprises are located in the provinces of Santa Fe (zinc and copper smelting, and flour milling); Mendoza and Neuquén (wineries and fruit processing); Chaco (textiles and sawmills); and Santa Cruz, Salta and Chubut (oil refining). Argentina_sentence_342

The electric output of Argentina in 2009 totaled over 122 TWh (440 PJ), of which about 37% was consumed by industrial activities. Argentina_sentence_343

Transport Argentina_section_22

Main article: Transport in Argentina Argentina_sentence_344

Argentina has the largest railway system in Latin America, with 36,966 km (22,970 mi) of operating lines in 2008, out of a full network of almost 48,000 km (29,826 mi). Argentina_sentence_345

This system links all 23 provinces plus Buenos Aires City, and connects with all neighbouring countries. Argentina_sentence_346

There are four incompatible gauges in use; this forces virtually all interregional freight traffic to pass through Buenos Aires. Argentina_sentence_347

The system has been in decline since the 1940s: regularly running up large budgetary deficits, by 1991 it was transporting 1,400 times less goods than it did in 1973. Argentina_sentence_348

However, in recent years the system has experienced a greater degree of investment from the state, in both commuter rail lines and long-distance lines, renewing rolling stock and infrastructure. Argentina_sentence_349

In April 2015, by overwhelming majority the Argentine Senate passed a law which re-created Ferrocarriles Argentinos (2015), effectively re-nationalising the country's railways, a move which saw support from all major political parties on both sides of the political spectrum. Argentina_sentence_350

By 2004 Buenos Aires, all provincial capitals except Ushuaia, and all medium-sized towns were interconnected by 69,412 km (43,131 mi) of paved roads, out of a total road network of 231,374 km (143,769 mi). Argentina_sentence_351

Most important cities are linked by a growing number of expressways, including Buenos Aires–La Plata, Rosario–Córdoba, Córdoba–Villa Carlos Paz, Villa Mercedes–Mendoza, National Route 14 General José Gervasio Artigas and Provincial Route 2 Juan Manuel Fangio, among others. Argentina_sentence_352

Nevertheless, this road infrastructure is still inadequate and cannot handle the sharply growing demand caused by deterioration of the railway system. Argentina_sentence_353

In 2012 there were about 11,000 km (6,835 mi) of waterways, mostly comprising the La Plata, Paraná, Paraguay and Uruguay rivers, with Buenos Aires, Zárate, Campana, Rosario, San Lorenzo, Santa Fe, Barranqueras and San Nicolas de los Arroyos as the main fluvial ports. Argentina_sentence_354

Some of the largest sea ports are La PlataEnsenada, Bahía Blanca, Mar del Plata, QuequénNecochea, Comodoro Rivadavia, Puerto Deseado, Puerto Madryn, Ushuaia and San Antonio Oeste. Argentina_sentence_355

Buenos Aires has historically been the most important port; however since the 1990s the Up-River port region has become dominant: stretching along 67 km (42 mi) of the Paraná river shore in Santa Fe province, it includes 17 ports and in 2013 accounted for 50% of all exports. Argentina_sentence_356

In 2013 there were 161 airports with paved runways out of more than a thousand. Argentina_sentence_357

The Ezeiza International Airport, about 35 km (22 mi) from downtown Buenos Aires, is the largest in the country, followed by Cataratas del Iguazú in Misiones, and El Plumerillo in Mendoza. Argentina_sentence_358

Aeroparque, in the city of Buenos Aires, is the most important domestic airport. Argentina_sentence_359

Media and communications Argentina_section_23

Main article: Communications in Argentina Argentina_sentence_360

Print media industry is highly developed in Argentina, with more than two hundred newspapers. Argentina_sentence_361

The major national ones include Clarín (centrist, Latin America's best-seller and the second most widely circulated in the Spanish-speaking world), La Nación (centre-right, published since 1870), Página/12 (leftist, founded in 1987), the Buenos Aires Herald (Latin America's most prestigious English language daily, liberal, dating back to 1876), La Voz del Interior (centre, founded in 1904), and the Argentinisches Tageblatt (German weekly, liberal, published since 1878) Argentina_sentence_362

Argentina began the world's first regular radio broadcasting on 27 August 1920, when Richard Wagner's Parsifal was aired by a team of medical students led by Enrique Telémaco Susini in Buenos Aires' Teatro Coliseo. Argentina_sentence_363

By 2002 there were 260 AM and 1150 FM registered radio stations in the country. Argentina_sentence_364

The Argentine television industry is large, diverse and popular across Latin America, with many productions and TV formats having been exported abroad. Argentina_sentence_365

Since 1999 Argentines enjoy the highest availability of cable and satellite television in Latin America, as of 2014 totaling 87.4% of the country's households, a rate similar to those in the United States, Canada and Europe. Argentina_sentence_366

By 2011 Argentina also had the highest coverage of networked telecommunications among Latin American powers: about 67% of its population had internet access and 137.2%, mobile phone subscriptions. Argentina_sentence_367

Science and technology Argentina_section_24

Main article: Science and technology in Argentina Argentina_sentence_368

Argentines have received three Nobel Prizes in the Sciences. Argentina_sentence_369

Bernardo Houssay, the first Latin American recipient, discovered the role of pituitary hormones in regulating glucose in animals, and shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1947. Argentina_sentence_370

Luis Leloir discovered how organisms store energy converting glucose into glycogen and the compounds which are fundamental in metabolizing carbohydrates, receiving the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1970. Argentina_sentence_371

César Milstein did extensive research in antibodies, sharing the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1984. Argentina_sentence_372

Argentine research has led to treatments for heart diseases and several forms of cancer. Argentina_sentence_373

Domingo Liotta designed and developed the first artificial heart that was successfully implanted in a human being in 1969. Argentina_sentence_374

René Favaloro developed the techniques and performed the world's first coronary bypass surgery. Argentina_sentence_375

Argentina's nuclear programme has been highly successful. Argentina_sentence_376

In 1957 Argentina was the first country in Latin America to design and build a research reactor with homegrown technology, the RA-1 Enrico Fermi. Argentina_sentence_377

This reliance in the development of own nuclear related technologies, instead of simply buying them abroad, was a constant of Argentina's nuclear programme conducted by the civilian National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). Argentina_sentence_378

Nuclear facilities with Argentine technology have been built in Peru, Algeria, Australia and Egypt. Argentina_sentence_379

In 1983, the country admitted having the capability of producing weapon-grade uranium, a major step needed to assemble nuclear weapons; since then, however, Argentina has pledged to use nuclear power only for peaceful purposes. Argentina_sentence_380

As a member of the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Argentina has been a strong voice in support of nuclear non-proliferation efforts and is highly committed to global nuclear security. Argentina_sentence_381

In 1974 it was the first country in Latin America to put in-line a commercial nuclear power plant, Atucha I. Argentina_sentence_382

Although the Argentine built parts for that station amounted to 10% of the total, the nuclear fuel it uses are since entirely built in the country. Argentina_sentence_383

Later nuclear power stations employed a higher percentage of Argentine built components; Embalse, finished in 1983, a 30% and the 2011 Atucha II reactor a 40%. Argentina_sentence_384

Despite its modest budget and numerous setbacks, academics and the sciences in Argentina have enjoyed an international respect since the turn of the 1900s, when Luis Agote devised the first safe and effective means of blood transfusion as well as René Favaloro, who was a pioneer in the improvement of the coronary artery bypass surgery. Argentina_sentence_385

Argentine scientists are still on the cutting edge in fields such as nanotechnology, physics, computer sciences, molecular biology, oncology, ecology and cardiology. Argentina_sentence_386

Juan Maldacena, an Argentine-American scientist, is a leading figure in string theory. Argentina_sentence_387

Space research has also become increasingly active in Argentina. Argentina_sentence_388

Argentine built satellites include LUSAT-1 (1990), Víctor-1 (1996), PEHUENSAT-1 (2007), and those developed by CONAE, the Argentine space agency, of the SAC series. Argentina_sentence_389

Argentina has its own satellite programme, nuclear power station designs (4th generation) and public nuclear energy company INVAP, which provides several countries with nuclear reactors. Argentina_sentence_390

Established in 1991, the CONAE has since launched two satellites successfully and, in June 2009, secured an agreement with the European Space Agency for the installation of a 35-m diameter antenna and other mission support facilities at the Pierre Auger Observatory, the world's foremost cosmic ray observatory. Argentina_sentence_391

The facility will contribute to numerous ESA space probes, as well as CONAE's own, domestic research projects. Argentina_sentence_392

Chosen from 20 potential sites and one of only three such ESA installations in the world, the new antenna will create a triangulation which will allow the ESA to ensure mission coverage around the clock Argentina_sentence_393

Tourism Argentina_section_25

Main article: Tourism in Argentina Argentina_sentence_394

Tourism in Argentina is characterized by its cultural offerings and its ample and varied natural assets. Argentina_sentence_395

The country had 5.57 million visitors in 2013, ranking in terms of the international tourist arrivals as the top destination in South America, and second in Latin America after Mexico. Argentina_sentence_396

Revenues from international tourists reached US$4.41 billion in 2013, down from US$4.89 billion in 2012. Argentina_sentence_397

The country's capital city, Buenos Aires, is the most visited city in South America. Argentina_sentence_398

There are 30 National Parks of Argentina including many World Heritage Sites. Argentina_sentence_399

Demographics Argentina_section_26

Main article: Demographics of Argentina Argentina_sentence_400

See also: Argentines Argentina_sentence_401

The 2010 census counted 40,117,096 inhabitants, up from 36,260,130 in 2001. Argentina_sentence_402

Argentina ranks third in South America in total population, fourth in Latin America and 33rd globally. Argentina_sentence_403

Its population density of 15 persons per square kilometer of land area is well below the world average of 50 persons. Argentina_sentence_404

The population growth rate in 2010 was an estimated 1.03% annually, with a birth rate of 17.7 live births per 1,000 inhabitants and a mortality rate of 7.4 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants. Argentina_sentence_405

Since 2010, the crude net migration rate has ranged from below zero to up to four immigrants per 1,000 inhabitants per year. Argentina_sentence_406

Argentina is in the midst of a demographic transition to an older and slower-growing population. Argentina_sentence_407

The proportion of people under 15 is 25.6%, a little below the world average of 28%, and the proportion of people 65 and older is relatively high at 10.8%. Argentina_sentence_408

In Latin America this is second only to Uruguay and well above the world average, which is currently 7%. Argentina_sentence_409

Argentina has one of Latin America's lowest population growth rates as well as a comparatively low infant mortality rate. Argentina_sentence_410

Its birth rate of 2.3 children per woman is considerably below the high of 7.0 children born per woman in 1895, though still nearly twice as high as in Spain or Italy, which are culturally and demographically similar. Argentina_sentence_411

The median age is 31.9 years and life expectancy at birth is 77.14 years. Argentina_sentence_412

In 2010, Argentina became the first country in Latin America, the second in the Americas, and the tenth worldwide to legalize same-sex marriage. Argentina_sentence_413

Ethnography Argentina_section_27

Main articles: Ethnography of Argentina and Immigration to Argentina Argentina_sentence_414

As with other areas of new settlement, such as the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Uruguay, Argentina is considered a country of immigrants. Argentina_sentence_415

Argentines usually refer to the country as a crisol de razas (crucible of races, or melting pot). Argentina_sentence_416

In colonial times, the ethnic composition of Argentina was the result of the interaction of the pre-Columbian indigenous population with a colonizing population of Spanish origin and with sub-Saharan African slaves. Argentina_sentence_417

Before the middle 19th century, the ethnic make up of Argentina was very similar to that of other countries of Hispanic America. Argentina_sentence_418

Between 1857 and 1950 Argentina was the country with the second biggest immigration wave in the world, at 6.6 million, second only to the United States in the numbers of immigrants received (27 million) and ahead of other areas of new settlement like Canada, Brazil and Australia. Argentina_sentence_419

However, mass European immigration did not have the same impact in the whole country. Argentina_sentence_420

According to the 1914 national census, 30% of Argentina's population was foreign-born, including 50% of the people in the city of Buenos Aires, but foreigners were only 2% in the provinces of Catamarca and La Rioja (North West region). Argentina_sentence_421

Strikingly, at those times, the national population doubled every two decades. Argentina_sentence_422

This belief is endured in the popular saying "los argentinos descienden de los barcos" (Argentines descend from the ships). Argentina_sentence_423

Therefore, most Argentines are descended from the 19th- and 20th-century immigrants of the great immigration wave to Argentina (1850–1955), with a great majority of these immigrants coming from diverse European countries, particularly Italy and Spain. Argentina_sentence_424

The majority of Argentines descend from multiple European ethnic groups, primarily of Italian and Spanish descent, with over 25 million Argentines (almost 60% of the population) having some partial Italian origins. Argentina_sentence_425

Argentina is home to a significant Arab population; including those with partial descent, Arab Argentines number 1.3 to 3.5 million, mostly of Syrian and Lebanese origin. Argentina_sentence_426

As in the United States, they are considered white. Argentina_sentence_427

The majority of Arab Argentines are Christians belonging to the Maronite Church, Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Rite Catholic Churches. Argentina_sentence_428

A minority are Muslims, albeit the largest Muslim community in the Americas. Argentina_sentence_429

The Asian population in the country numbers around 180,000 individuals, most of whom are of Chinese and Korean descent, although an older Japanese community originating from the early 20th century still exists. Argentina_sentence_430

A 2010 study conducted on 218 individuals by the Argentine geneticist Daniel Corach established that the genetic map of Argentina is composed of 79% from different European ethnicities (mainly Italian and Spanish), 18% of different indigenous ethnicities, and 4.3% of African ethnic groups; 63.6% of the tested group had at least one ancestor who was Indigenous. Argentina_sentence_431

From the 1970s, immigration has mostly been coming from Bolivia, Paraguay and Peru, with smaller numbers from the Dominican Republic, Ecuador and Romania. Argentina_sentence_432

The Argentine government estimates that 750,000 inhabitants lack official documents and has launched a program to encourage illegal immigrants to declare their status in return for two-year residence visas—so far over 670,000 applications have been processed under the program. Argentina_sentence_433

Genetics studies Argentina_section_28

Argentina_unordered_list_1

  • Homburguer et al., 2015, PLOS One Genetics: 67% European, 28% Amerindian, 4% African and 1,4% Asian.Argentina_item_1_5
  • Avena et al., 2012, PLOS One Genetics: 65% European, 31% Amerindian, and 4% African.Argentina_item_1_6
    • Buenos Aires Province: 76% European and 24% others.Argentina_item_1_7
    • South Zone (Chubut Province): 54% European and 46% others.Argentina_item_1_8
    • Northeast Zone (Misiones, Corrientes, Chaco & Formosa provinces): 54% European and 46% others.Argentina_item_1_9
    • Northwest Zone (Salta Province): 33% European and 67% others.Argentina_item_1_10
  • Oliveira, 2008, on Universidade de Brasília: 60% European, 31% Amerindian and 9% African.Argentina_item_1_11
  • National Geographic: 52% European, 27% Amerindian ancestry, 9% African and 9% others.Argentina_item_1_12

Languages Argentina_section_29

Main article: Languages of Argentina Argentina_sentence_434

The de facto official language is Spanish, spoken by almost all Argentines. Argentina_sentence_435

The country is the largest Spanish-speaking society that universally employs voseo, the use of the pronoun vos instead of tú ("you"), which imposes the use of alternative verb forms as well. Argentina_sentence_436

Due to the extensive Argentine geography, Spanish has a strong variation among regions, although the prevalent dialect is Rioplatense, primarily spoken in the La Plata Basin and accented similarly to the Neapolitan language. Argentina_sentence_437

Italian and other European immigrants influenced Lunfardo—the regional slang—permeating the vernacular vocabulary of other Latin American countries as well. Argentina_sentence_438

There are several second-languages in widespread use among the Argentine population: Argentina_sentence_439

Argentina_unordered_list_2

  • English, taught since elementary school. 42.3% of Argentines claim to speak it, with 15.4% of them claiming to have a high level of language comprehension.Argentina_item_2_13
  • Italian, by 1.5 million people.Argentina_item_2_14
  • Arabic, specially its Northern Levantine dialect, by one million people.Argentina_item_2_15
  • Standard German, by 400,000 people.Argentina_item_2_16
  • Yiddish, by 200,000 people, the largest Jewish population in Latin America and 7th in the world.Argentina_item_2_17
  • Guaraní, by 200,000 people, mostly in Corrientes (where it is official de jure) and Misiones.Argentina_item_2_18
  • Catalan, by 174,000 people.Argentina_item_2_19
  • Quechua, by 65,000 people, mostly in the Northwest.Argentina_item_2_20
  • Wichí, by 53,700 people, mainly in Chaco where, along with Kom and Moqoit, it is official de jure.Argentina_item_2_21
  • Vlax Romani, by 52,000 people.Argentina_item_2_22
  • Albanian, by 40,000 people.Argentina_item_2_23
  • Japanese, by 32,000 people.Argentina_item_2_24
  • Aymara, by 30,000 people, mostly in the Northwest.Argentina_item_2_25
  • Ukrainian, by 27,000 people.Argentina_item_2_26
  • Welsh, 5,000 people in Patagonia. Some districts have incorporated it as an educational language.Argentina_item_2_27

Religion Argentina_section_30

Main article: Religion in Argentina Argentina_sentence_440

The Constitution guarantees freedom of religion. Argentina_sentence_441

Although it enforces neither an official nor a state faith, it gives Roman Catholicism a preferential status. Argentina_sentence_442

According to a 2008 CONICET poll, Argentines were 76.5% Catholic, 11.3% Agnostics and Atheists, 9% Evangelical Protestants, 1.2% Jehovah's Witnesses, and 0.9% Mormons, while 1.2% followed other religions, including Islam, Judaism and Buddhism. Argentina_sentence_443

These figures appear to have changed quite significantly in recent years: data recorded in 2017 indicated that Catholics made up 66% of the population, indicating a drop of 10.5% in nine years, and the nonreligious in the country standing at 21% of the population, indicating an almost doubling over the same period. Argentina_sentence_444

The country is home to both the largest Muslim and largest Jewish communities in Latin America, the latter being the seventh most populous in the world. Argentina_sentence_445

Argentina is a member of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance. Argentina_sentence_446

Argentines show high individualization and de-institutionalization of religious beliefs; 23.8% claim to always attend religious services; 49.1% seldom do and 26.8% never do. Argentina_sentence_447

On 13 March 2013, Argentine Jorge Mario Bergoglio, the Cardinal Archbishop of Buenos Aires, was elected Bishop of Rome and Supreme Pontiff of the Catholic Church. Argentina_sentence_448

He took the name "Francis", and he became the first Pope from either the Americas or from the Southern Hemisphere; he is the first Pope born outside of Europe since the election of Pope Gregory III (who was Syrian) in 741. Argentina_sentence_449

Urbanization Argentina_section_31

See also: List of cities in Argentina by population Argentina_sentence_450

Argentina is highly urbanized, with 92% of its population living in cities: the ten largest metropolitan areas account for half of the population. Argentina_sentence_451

About 3 million people live in the city of Buenos Aires, and including the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area it totals around 13 million, making it one of the largest urban areas in the world. Argentina_sentence_452

The metropolitan areas of Córdoba and Rosario have around 1.3 million inhabitants each. Argentina_sentence_453

Mendoza, San Miguel de Tucumán, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Salta and Santa Fe have at least half a million people each. Argentina_sentence_454

The population is unequally distributed: about 60% live in the Pampas region (21% of the total area), including 15 million people in Buenos Aires province. Argentina_sentence_455

The provinces of Córdoba and Santa Fe, and the city of Buenos Aires have 3 million each. Argentina_sentence_456

Seven other provinces have over one million people each: Mendoza, Tucumán, Entre Ríos, Salta, Chaco, Corrientes and Misiones. Argentina_sentence_457

With 64.3 inhabitants per square kilometre (167/sq mi), Tucumán is the only Argentine province more densely populated than the world average; by contrast, the southern province of Santa Cruz has around 1.1/km (2.8/sq mi). Argentina_sentence_458

Education Argentina_section_32

Main article: Education in Argentina Argentina_sentence_459

The Argentine education system consists of four levels: Argentina_sentence_460

Argentina_unordered_list_3

  • An initial level for children between 45 days to 5 years old, with the last two years being compulsory.Argentina_item_3_28
  • An elementary or lower school mandatory level lasting 6 or 7 years. In 2010 the literacy rate was 98.07%.Argentina_item_3_29
  • A secondary or high school mandatory level lasting 5 or 6 years. In 2010 38.5% of people over age 20 had completed secondary school.Argentina_item_3_30
  • A higher level, divided in tertiary, university and post-graduate sub-levels. in 2013 there were 47 national public universities across the country, as well as 46 private ones. In 2010 7.1% of people over age 20 had graduated from university. The public universities of Buenos Aires, Córdoba, La Plata, Rosario, and the National Technological University are some of the most important.Argentina_item_3_31

The Argentine state guarantees universal, secular and free-of-charge public education for all levels. Argentina_sentence_461

Responsibility for educational supervision is organized at the federal and individual provincial states. Argentina_sentence_462

In the last decades the role of the private sector has grown across all educational stages. Argentina_sentence_463

Health care Argentina_section_33

Main article: Health care in Argentina Argentina_sentence_464

Health care is provided through a combination of employer and labour union-sponsored plans (Obras Sociales), government insurance plans, public hospitals and clinics and through private health insurance plans. Argentina_sentence_465

Health care cooperatives number over 300 (of which 200 are related to labour unions) and provide health care for half the population; the national INSSJP (popularly known as PAMI) covers nearly all of the five million senior citizens. Argentina_sentence_466

There are more than 153,000 hospital beds, 121,000 physicians and 37,000 dentists (ratios comparable to developed nations). Argentina_sentence_467

The relatively high access to medical care has historically resulted in mortality patterns and trends similar to developed nations': from 1953 to 2005, deaths from cardiovascular disease increased from 20% to 23% of the total, those from tumors from 14% to 20%, respiratory problems from 7% to 14%, digestive maladies (non-infectious) from 7% to 11%, strokes a steady 7%, injuries, 6%, and infectious diseases, 4%. Argentina_sentence_468

Causes related to senility led to many of the rest. Argentina_sentence_469

Infant deaths have fallen from 19% of all deaths in 1953 to 3% in 2005. Argentina_sentence_470

The availability of health care has also reduced infant mortality from 70 per 1000 live births in 1948 to 12.1 in 2009 and raised life expectancy at birth from 60 years to 76. Argentina_sentence_471

Though these figures compare favorably with global averages, they fall short of levels in developed nations and in 2006, Argentina ranked fourth in Latin America. Argentina_sentence_472

Culture Argentina_section_34

Main article: Culture of Argentina Argentina_sentence_473

See also: List of Argentines Argentina_sentence_474

Argentina is a multicultural country with significant European influences. Argentina_sentence_475

Modern Argentine culture has been largely influenced by Italian, Spanish and other European immigration from France, United Kingdom, and Germany among others. Argentina_sentence_476

Its cities are largely characterized by both the prevalence of people of European descent, and of conscious imitation of American and European styles in fashion, architecture and design. Argentina_sentence_477

Museums, cinemas, and galleries are abundant in all the large urban centres, as well as traditional establishments such as literary bars, or bars offering live music of a variety of genres although there are lesser elements of Amerindian and African influences, particularly in the fields of music and art. Argentina_sentence_478

The other big influence is the gauchos and their traditional country lifestyle of self-reliance. Argentina_sentence_479

Finally, indigenous American traditions have been absorbed into the general cultural milieu. Argentina_sentence_480

Argentine writer Ernesto Sabato has reflected on the nature of the culture of Argentina as follows: Argentina_sentence_481

Literature Argentina_section_35

Main article: Argentine literature Argentina_sentence_482

Although Argentina's rich literary history began around 1550, it reached full independence with Esteban Echeverría's El Matadero, a romantic landmark that played a significant role in the development of 19th century's Argentine narrative, split by the ideological divide between the popular, federalist epic of José Hernández' Martín Fierro and the elitist and cultured discourse of Sarmiento's masterpiece, Facundo. Argentina_sentence_483

The Modernist movement advanced into the 20th century including exponents such as Leopoldo Lugones and poet Alfonsina Storni; it was followed by Vanguardism, with Ricardo Güiraldes's Don Segundo Sombra as an important reference. Argentina_sentence_484

Jorge Luis Borges, Argentina's most acclaimed writer and one of the foremost figures in the history of literature, found new ways of looking at the modern world in metaphor and philosophical debate and his influence has extended to authors all over the globe. Argentina_sentence_485

Short stories such as Ficciones and The Aleph are among his most famous works. Argentina_sentence_486

He was a friend and collaborator of Adolfo Bioy Casares, who wrote one of the most praised science fiction novels, The Invention of Morel. Argentina_sentence_487

Julio Cortázar, one of the leading members of the Latin American Boom and a major name in 20th century literature, influenced an entire generation of writers in the Americas and Europe. Argentina_sentence_488

A remarkable episode in the Argentine literature's history is the social and literarial dialectica between the so-called named this way because its members used to meet together at the at Florida street and published in the , like Jorge Luis Borges, , (artist), among others, versus the of Roberto Arlt, , (tango composer), that used to meet at the and published their works with the , with both the cafe and the publisher located at the Boedo Avenue. Argentina_sentence_489

Other highly regarded Argentine writers, poets and essayists include Estanislao del Campo, Eugenio Cambaceres, Pedro Bonifacio Palacios, Hugo Wast, Benito Lynch, Enrique Banchs, Oliverio Girondo, Ezequiel Martínez Estrada, Victoria Ocampo, Leopoldo Marechal, Silvina Ocampo, Roberto Arlt, Eduardo Mallea, Manuel Mujica Láinez, Ernesto Sábato, Silvina Bullrich, Rodolfo Walsh, María Elena Walsh, Tomás Eloy Martínez, Manuel Puig, Alejandra Pizarnik, and Osvaldo Soriano. Argentina_sentence_490

Music Argentina_section_36

Main article: Music of Argentina Argentina_sentence_491

Tango, a Rioplatense musical genre with European and African influences, is one of Argentina's international cultural symbols. Argentina_sentence_492

The golden age of tango (1930 to mid-1950s) mirrored that of jazz and swing in the United States, featuring large orchestras like those of Osvaldo Pugliese, Aníbal Troilo, Francisco Canaro, Julio de Caro and Juan d'Arienzo. Argentina_sentence_493

After 1955, virtuoso Astor Piazzolla popularized Nuevo tango, a subtler and more intellectual trend for the genre. Argentina_sentence_494

Tango enjoys worldwide popularity nowadays with groups like Gotan Project, Bajofondo and Tanghetto. Argentina_sentence_495

Argentina developed strong classical music and dance scenes that gave rise to renowned artists such as Alberto Ginastera, composer; Alberto Lysy, violinist; Martha Argerich and Eduardo Delgado, pianists; Daniel Barenboim, pianist and symphonic orchestra director; José Cura and Marcelo Álvarez, tenors; and to ballet dancers Jorge Donn, José Neglia, Norma Fontenla, Maximiliano Guerra, Paloma Herrera, Marianela Núñez, Iñaki Urlezaga and Julio Bocca. Argentina_sentence_496

A national Argentine folk style emerged in the 1930s from dozens of regional musical genres and went to influence the entirety of Latin American music. Argentina_sentence_497

Some of its interpreters, like Atahualpa Yupanqui and Mercedes Sosa, achieved worldwide acclaim. Argentina_sentence_498

The romantic ballad genre included singers of international fame such as Sandro de América. Argentina_sentence_499

Argentine rock developed as a distinct musical style in the mid-1960s, when Buenos Aires and Rosario became cradles of aspiring musicians. Argentina_sentence_500

Founding bands like Los Gatos, Sui Generis, Almendra and Manal were followed by Seru Giran, Los Abuelos de la Nada, Soda Stereo and Patricio Rey y sus Redonditos de Ricota, with prominent artists including Gustavo Cerati, Litto Nebbia, Andrés Calamaro, Luis Alberto Spinetta, Charly García, Fito Páez and León Gieco. Argentina_sentence_501

Tenor saxophonist Leandro "Gato" Barbieri and composer and big band conductor Lalo Schifrin are among the most internationally successful Argentine jazz musicians. Argentina_sentence_502

Another popular musical genre at present is Cumbia villera is a subgenre of cumbia music originated in the slums of Argentina and popularized all over Latin America and the Latin communities abroad. Argentina_sentence_503

Theatre Argentina_section_37

Main article: Theatre in Argentina Argentina_sentence_504

Buenos Aires is one of the great theatre capitals of the world, with a scene of international caliber centered on Corrientes Avenue, "the street that never sleeps", sometimes referred to as an intellectual Broadway in Buenos Aires. Argentina_sentence_505

Teatro Colón is a global landmark for opera and classical performances; its acoustics are considered among the world's top five. Argentina_sentence_506

Other important theatrical venues include Teatro General San Martín, Cervantes, both in Buenos Aires City; Argentino in La Plata, El Círculo in Rosario, Independencia in Mendoza, and Libertador in Córdoba. Argentina_sentence_507

Griselda Gambaro, Copi, Roberto Cossa, Marco Denevi, Carlos Gorostiza, and Alberto Vaccarezza are a few of the most prominent Argentine playwrights. Argentina_sentence_508

Argentine theatre traces its origins to Viceroy Juan José de Vértiz y Salcedo's creation of the colony's first theatre, La Ranchería, in 1783. Argentina_sentence_509

In this stage, in 1786, a tragedy entitled Siripo had its premiere. Argentina_sentence_510

Siripo is now a lost work (only the second act is conserved), and can be considered the first Argentine stage play, because it was written by Buenos Aires poet Manuel José de Lavardén, it was premiered in Buenos Aires, and its plot was inspired by an historical episode of the early colonization of the Río de la Plata Basin: the destruction of Sancti Spiritu colony by aboriginals in 1529. Argentina_sentence_511

La Ranchería theatre operated until its destruction in a fire in 1792. Argentina_sentence_512

The second theatre stage in Buenos Aires was Teatro Coliseo, opened in 1804 during the term of Viceroy Rafael de Sobremonte. Argentina_sentence_513

It was the nation's longest-continuously operating stage. Argentina_sentence_514

The musical creator of the Argentine National Anthem, Blas Parera, earned fame as a theatre score writer during the early 19th century. Argentina_sentence_515

The genre suffered during the regime of Juan Manuel de Rosas, though it flourished alongside the economy later in the century. Argentina_sentence_516

The national government gave Argentine theatre its initial impulse with the establishment of the Colón Theatre, in 1857, which hosted classical and operatic, as well as stage performances. Argentina_sentence_517

Antonio Petalardo's successful 1871 gambit on the opening of the Teatro Opera, inspired others to fund the growing art in Argentina. Argentina_sentence_518

Cinema Argentina_section_38

Main article: Cinema of Argentina Argentina_sentence_519

The Argentine film industry has historically been one of the three most developed in Latin American cinema, along with those produced in Mexico and Brazil. Argentina_sentence_520

Started in 1896; by the early 1930s it had already become Latin America's leading film producer, a place it kept until the early 1950s. Argentina_sentence_521

The world's first animated feature films were made and released in Argentina, by cartoonist Quirino Cristiani, in 1917 and 1918. Argentina_sentence_522

Argentine films have achieved worldwide recognition: the country has won two Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film, for The Official Story (1985) and The Secret in Their Eyes (2009), from seven nominations: Argentina_sentence_523

Argentina_unordered_list_4

In addition, Argentine composers Luis Enrique Bacalov and Gustavo Santaolalla have been honored with Academy Awards for Best Original Score, and Armando Bó and Nicolás Giacobone shared in the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay for 2014. Argentina_sentence_524

Also, the Argentine French actress Bérénice Bejo received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress in 2011 and won the César Award for Best Actress and won the Best Actress award in the Cannes Film Festival for her role in the film The Past. Argentina_sentence_525

Argentina also has won seventeen Goya Awards for Best Spanish Language Foreign Film with A King and His Movie (1986), A Place in the World (1992), Gatica, el mono (1993), Autumn Sun (1996), Ashes of Paradise (1997), The Lighthouse (1998), Burnt Money (2000), The Escape (2001), Intimate Stories (2003), Blessed by Fire (2005), The Hands (2006), XXY (2007), The Secret in Their Eyes (2009), Chinese Take-Away (2011), Wild Tales (2014), The Clan (2015) and The Distinguished Citizen (2016), being by far the most awarded country in Latin America with twenty-four nominations. Argentina_sentence_526

Many other Argentine films have been acclaimed by the international critique: Camila (1984), Man Facing Southeast (1986), A Place in the World (1992), Pizza, Beer, and Cigarettes (1997), Nine Queens (2000), A Red Bear (2002), The Motorcycle Diaries (2004), The Aura (2005), Chinese Take-Away (2011) and Wild Tales (2014) being some of them. Argentina_sentence_527

In 2013 about 100 full-length motion pictures were being created annually. Argentina_sentence_528

Visual arts Argentina_section_39

See also: Argentine painting Argentina_sentence_529

Some of the best-known Argentine painters are Cándido López and Florencio Molina Campos (Naïve style); Ernesto de la Cárcova and Eduardo Sívori (Realism); Fernando Fader (Impressionism); Pío Collivadino, Atilio Malinverno and Cesáreo Bernaldo de Quirós (Postimpressionism); Emilio Pettoruti (Cubism); Julio Barragán (Concretism and Cubism) Antonio Berni (Neofigurativism); Roberto Aizenberg and Xul Solar (Surrealism); Gyula Košice (Constructivism); Eduardo Mac Entyre (Generative art); Luis Seoane, Carlos Torrallardona, Luis Aquino, and Alfredo Gramajo Gutiérrez (Modernism); Lucio Fontana (Spatialism); Tomás Maldonado and Guillermo Kuitca (Abstract art); León Ferrari and Marta Minujín (Conceptual art); and Gustavo Cabral (Fantasy art). Argentina_sentence_530

In 1946 Gyula Košice and others created The Madí Movement in Argentina, which then spread to Europe and United States, where it had a significant impact. Argentina_sentence_531

Tomás Maldonado was one of the main theorists of the Ulm Model of design education, still highly influential globally. Argentina_sentence_532

Other Argentine artists of worldwide fame include Adolfo Bellocq, whose lithographs have been influential since the 1920s, and Benito Quinquela Martín, the quintessential port painter, inspired by the immigrant-bound La Boca neighbourhood. Argentina_sentence_533

Internationally laureate sculptors Erminio Blotta, Lola Mora and Rogelio Yrurtia authored many of the classical evocative monuments of the Argentine cityscape. Argentina_sentence_534

Architecture Argentina_section_40

Main article: Architecture of Argentina Argentina_sentence_535

The colonization brought the Spanish Baroque architecture, which can still be appreciated in its simpler Rioplatense style in the reduction of San Ignacio Miní, the Cathedral of Córdoba, and the Cabildo of Luján. Argentina_sentence_536

Italian and French influences increased at the beginning of the 19th century with strong eclectic overtones that gave the local architecture a unique feeling. Argentina_sentence_537

Numerous Argentine architects have enriched their own country's cityscape and those around the world: Juan Antonio Buschiazzo helped popularize Beaux-Arts architecture and Francisco Gianotti combined Art Nouveau with Italianate styles, each adding flair to Argentine cities during the early 20th century. Argentina_sentence_538

Francisco Salamone and Viktor Sulčič left an Art Deco legacy, and Alejandro Bustillo created a prolific body of Neoclassical and Rationalist architecture. Argentina_sentence_539

Alberto Prebisch and Amancio Williams were highly influenced by Le Corbusier, while Clorindo Testa introduced Brutalist architecture locally. Argentina_sentence_540

César Pelli's and Patricio Pouchulu's Futurist creations have graced cities worldwide: Pelli's 1980s throwbacks to the Art Deco glory of the 1920s made him one of the world's most prestigious architects, with the Norwest Center and the Petronas Towers among his most celebrated creations. Argentina_sentence_541

Sport Argentina_section_41

Main article: Sport in Argentina Argentina_sentence_542

Pato is the national sport, an ancient horseback game locally originated in the early 1600s and predecessor of horseball. Argentina_sentence_543

The most popular sport is football. Argentina_sentence_544

Along with Brazil and France, the men's national team is the only one to have won the most important international triplet: World Cup, Confederations Cup, and the Olympic Gold Medal. Argentina_sentence_545

It has also won 14 Copas América, 7 Pan American Gold Medals and many other trophies. Argentina_sentence_546

Alfredo Di Stéfano, Diego Maradona and Lionel Messi are among the best players in the game's history. Argentina_sentence_547

The country's women's field hockey team Las Leonas, is one of the world's most successful with four Olympic medals, two World Cups, a World League and seven Champions Trophy. Argentina_sentence_548

Luciana Aymar is recognized as the best female player in the history of the sport, being the only player to have received the FIH Player of the Year Award eight times. Argentina_sentence_549

Basketball is a very popular sport. Argentina_sentence_550

The men's national team is the only one in the FIBA Americas zone that has won the quintuplet crown: World Championship, Olympic Gold Medal, Diamond Ball, Americas Championship, and Pan American Gold Medal. Argentina_sentence_551

It has also conquered 13 South American Championships, and many other tournaments. Argentina_sentence_552

Emanuel Ginóbili, Luis Scola, Andrés Nocioni, Fabricio Oberto, Pablo Prigioni, Carlos Delfino and Juan Ignacio Sánchez are a few of the country's most acclaimed players, all of them part of the NBA. Argentina_sentence_553

Argentina hosted the Basketball World Cup in 1950 and 1990. Argentina_sentence_554

Rugby is another popular sport in Argentina. Argentina_sentence_555

As of 2017 the men's national team, known as 'Los Pumas' has competed at the Rugby World Cup each time it has been held, achieving their highest ever result in 2007 when they came third. Argentina_sentence_556

Since 2012 the Los Pumas have competed against Australia, New Zealand & South Africa in The Rugby Championship, the premier international Rugby competition in the Southern Hemisphere. Argentina_sentence_557

Since 2009 the secondary men's national team known as the 'Jaguares' has competed against the US, Canada, and Uruguay first teams in the Americas Rugby Championship, which Los Jaguares have won six out of eight times it has taken place. Argentina_sentence_558

Argentina has produced some of the most formidable champions for Boxing, including Carlos Monzón, the best middleweight in history; Pascual Pérez, one of the most decorated flyweight boxers of all times; Horacio Accavallo, the former WBA and WBC world flyweight champion; Víctor Galíndez, as of 2009 record holder for consecutive world light heavyweight title defenses and Nicolino Locche, nicknamed "The Untouchable" for his masterful defense; they are all inductees into the International Boxing Hall of Fame. Argentina_sentence_559

Tennis has been quite popular among people of all ages. Argentina_sentence_560

Guillermo Vilas is the greatest Latin American player of the Open Era, while Gabriela Sabatini is the most accomplished Argentine female player of all time—having reached #3 in the WTA Ranking, are both inductees into the International Tennis Hall of Fame. Argentina_sentence_561

Argentina reigns undisputed in Polo, having won more international championships than any other country and been seldom beaten since the 1930s. Argentina_sentence_562

The Argentine Polo Championship is the sport's most important international team trophy. Argentina_sentence_563

The country is home to most of the world's top players, among them Adolfo Cambiaso, the best in Polo history. Argentina_sentence_564

Historically, Argentina has had a strong showing within Auto racing. Argentina_sentence_565

Juan Manuel Fangio was five times Formula One world champion under four different teams, winning 102 of his 184 international races, and is widely ranked as the greatest driver of all time. Argentina_sentence_566

Other distinguished racers were Oscar Alfredo Gálvez, Juan Gálvez, José Froilán González and Carlos Reutemann. Argentina_sentence_567

Cuisine Argentina_section_42

Main article: Argentine cuisine Argentina_sentence_568

Besides many of the pasta, sausage and dessert dishes common to continental Europe, Argentines enjoy a wide variety of Indigenous and Criollo creations, including empanadas (a small stuffed pastry), locro (a mixture of corn, beans, meat, bacon, onion, and gourd), humita and mate. Argentina_sentence_569

The country has the highest consumption of red meat in the world, traditionally prepared as asado, the Argentine barbecue. Argentina_sentence_570

It is made with various types of meats, often including chorizo, sweetbread, chitterlings, and blood sausage. Argentina_sentence_571

Common desserts include facturas (Viennese-style pastry), cakes and pancakes filled with dulce de leche (a sort of milk caramel jam), alfajores (shortbread cookies sandwiched together with chocolate, dulce de leche or a fruit paste), and tortas fritas (fried cakes) Argentina_sentence_572

Argentine wine, one of the world's finest, is an integral part of the local menu. Argentina_sentence_573

Malbec, Torrontés, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Chardonnay are some of the most sought-after varieties. Argentina_sentence_574

National symbols Argentina_section_43

Main article: National symbols of Argentina Argentina_sentence_575

Some of Argentina's national symbols are defined by law, while others are traditions lacking formal designation. Argentina_sentence_576

The Flag of Argentina consists of three horizontal stripes equal in width and colored light blue, white and light blue, with the Sun of May in the centre of the middle white stripe. Argentina_sentence_577

The flag was designed by Manuel Belgrano in 1812; it was adopted as a national symbol on 20 July 1816. Argentina_sentence_578

The Coat of Arms, which represents the union of the provinces, came into use in 1813 as the seal for official documents. Argentina_sentence_579

The Argentine National Anthem was written by Vicente López y Planes with music by Blas Parera, and was adopted in 1813. Argentina_sentence_580

The National Cockade was first used during the May Revolution of 1810 and was made official two years later. Argentina_sentence_581

The Virgin of Luján is Argentina's patron saint. Argentina_sentence_582

The hornero, living across most of the national territory, was chosen as the national bird in 1928 after a lower school survey. Argentina_sentence_583

The ceibo is the national floral emblem and national tree, while the quebracho colorado is the national forest tree. Argentina_sentence_584

Rhodochrosite is known as the national gemstone. Argentina_sentence_585

The national sport is pato, an equestrian game that was popular among gauchos. Argentina_sentence_586

Argentine wine is the national liquor, and mate, the national infusion. Argentina_sentence_587

Asado and locro are considered the national dishes. Argentina_sentence_588

See also Argentina_section_44

Argentina_unordered_list_5


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentina.