This article is about the State of Arizona.
For other uses, see Arizona (disambiguation).
|Before statehood||Arizona Territory|
|Admitted to the Union||February 14, 1912 (48th)|
|Largest metro||Greater Phoenix|
|Governor||Doug Ducey (R)|
|Secretary of State||Katie Hobbs (D)|
|Lower house||House of Representatives|
|Judiciary||Arizona Supreme Court|
|U.S. senators||Kyrsten Sinema (D)
Mark Kelly (D)
|U.S. House delegation||5 Democrats
4 Republicans (list)
|Total||113,990 sq mi (295,234 km)|
|Length||400 mi (645 km)|
|Width||310 mi (500 km)|
|Elevation||4,100 ft (1,250 m)|
|Highest elevation (Humphreys Peak)||12,637 ft (3,852 m)|
|Lowest elevation (Colorado River at the Sonora border)||72 ft (22 m)|
|Density||57/sq mi (22/km)|
|Median household income||$56,581|
|Spoken language||As of 2010|
|Most of state||UTC– 07:00 (Mountain)|
|Navajo Nation||UTC– 07:00 (Mountain)|
|Summer (DST)||UTC– 06:00 (MDT)|
|ISO 3166 code||US-AZ|
|Latitude||31°20′ N to 37° N|
|Longitude||109°03′ W to 114°49′ W|
Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico; its other neighboring states are Nevada and California to the west and the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California to the south and southwest.
Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912.
After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848.
The southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase.
Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, and spruce trees; the Colorado Plateau; mountain ranges (such as the San Francisco Mountains); as well as large, deep canyons, with much more moderate summer temperatures and significant winter snowfalls.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens.
Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley (1948).
The state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, Arizonac, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which initially applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora.
To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like Arissona.
The area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language.
Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona ("the good oak"), as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area.
A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería (village) of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c. 1737.
Main article: History of Arizona
Geography and geology
Main article: Geography of Arizona
- See also lists of counties, islands, rivers, lakes, state parks, national parks, national forests, and volcanic craters.
Arizona is in the Southwestern United States as one of the Four Corners states.
Of the state's 113,998 square miles (295,000 km), approximately 15% is privately owned.
The remaining area is public forest and park land, state trust land and Native American reservations.
Its climate has exceptionally hot summers and mild winters.
Like other states of the Southwest United States, Arizona has an abundance of mountains and plateaus.
Despite the state's aridity, 27% of Arizona is forest, a percentage comparable to modern-day Romania or Greece.
The world's largest stand of ponderosa pine trees is in Arizona.
In 2002, this was an area of the Rodeo–Chediski Fire, the worst fire in state history until 2011.
The canyon was created by the Colorado River cutting a channel over millions of years, and is about 277 miles (446 km) long, ranges in width from 4 to 18 miles (6 to 29 km) and attains a depth of more than 1 mile (1.6 km).
Nearly two billion years of the Earth's history have been exposed as the Colorado River and its tributaries cut through layer after layer of sediment as the Colorado Plateau uplifted.
Arizona is home to one of the most well-preserved meteorite impact sites in the world.
Created around 50,000 years ago, the Barringer Meteorite Crater (better known simply as "Meteor Crater") is a gigantic hole in the middle of the high plains of the Colorado Plateau, about 25 miles (40 km) west of Winslow.
A rim of smashed and jumbled boulders, some of them the size of small houses, rises 150 feet (46 m) above the level of the surrounding plain.
The crater itself is nearly a mile (1.6 kilometers) wide and 570 feet (170 m) deep.
Arizona is one of two U.S. states (Hawaii being the other) that do not observe Daylight Saving Time.
(The large Navajo Nation in the state's northeastern region does.)
Generally, Arizona is at low risk of earthquakes, except for the southwestern portion which is at moderate risk due to its proximity to southern California.
On the other hand, northern Arizona is at moderate risk due to numerous faults in the area.
The regions near and west of Phoenix have the lowest risk.
They were centered near the Imperial Valley, or Mexico, back in the 1800s.
The first damaging earthquake known to be centered within Arizona occurred on January 25, 1906, also including a series of other earthquakes centered near Socorro, New Mexico.
The shock was violent in Flagstaff.
In September 1910, a series of 52 earthquakes caused a construction crew near Flagstaff to leave the area.
In 1912, the year Arizona achieved statehood, on August 18, an earthquake caused a 50-mile crack in the San Francisco Range.
Arizona experienced its largest earthquake in 1959, with a tremor of a magnitude 5.6.
The tremor was felt across the border in Nevada and Utah.
- Utah (north)
- Colorado (northeast)
- Nevada (northwest)
- Sonora, Mexico (south)
- Baja California, Mexico (southwest)
- New Mexico (east)
- California (west)
Due to its large area and variations in elevation, the state has a wide variety of localized climate conditions.
In the lower elevations, the climate is primarily desert, with mild winters and extremely hot summers.
Typically, from late fall to early spring, the weather is mild, averaging a minimum of 60 °F (16 °C).
November through February are the coldest months, with temperatures typically ranging from 40 to 75 °F (4 to 24 °C), with occasional frosts.
About midway through February, the temperatures start to rise, with warm days, and cool, breezy nights.
The summer months of June through September bring a dry heat from 90 to 120 °F (32 to 49 °C), with occasional high temperatures exceeding 125 °F (52 °C) having been observed in the desert area.
Arizona's all-time record high is 128 °F (53 °C) recorded at Lake Havasu City on June 29, 1994, and July 5, 2007; the all-time record low of −40 °F (−40 °C) was recorded at Hawley Lake on January 7, 1971.
Due to the primarily dry climate, large diurnal temperature variations occur in less-developed areas of the desert above 2,500 ft (760 m).
The swings can be as large as 83 °F (46 °C) in the summer months.
In the state's urban centers, the effects of local warming result in much higher measured night-time lows than in the recent past.
The monsoon season occurs toward the end of summer.
In July or August, the dewpoint rises dramatically for a brief period.
During this time, the air contains large amounts of water vapor.
Dewpoints as high as 81 °F (27 °C) have been recorded during the Phoenix monsoon season.
These downpours often cause flash floods, which can turn deadly.
Arizona's northern third is a plateau at significantly higher altitudes than the lower desert, and has an appreciably cooler climate, with cold winters and mild summers, though the climate remains semiarid to arid.
Extremely cold temperatures are not unknown; cold air systems from the northern states and Canada occasionally push into the state, bringing temperatures below 0 °F (−18 °C) to the state's northern parts.
Indicative of the variation in climate, Arizona is the state which has both the metropolitan area with the most days over 100 °F (38 °C) (Phoenix), and the metropolitan area in the lower 48 states with the most days with a low temperature below freezing (Flagstaff).
|Location||July (°F)||July (°C)||December (°F)||December (°C)|
Main article: Demographics of Arizona
Arizona remained sparsely settled for most of the 19th century.
The 1860 census reported the population of "Arizona County" to be 6,482, of whom 4,040 were listed as "Indians", 21 as "free colored", and 2,421 as "white".
Arizona's continued population growth puts an enormous stress on the state's water supply.
As of 2011, 61.3% of Arizona's children under age one belonged to racial groups of color.
The population of metropolitan Phoenix increased by 45.3% from 1991 through 2001, helping to make Arizona the second fastest-growing state in the U.S. in the 1990s (the fastest was Nevada).
As of July 2018, the population of the Phoenix area is estimated to be over 4.9 million.
According to the 2010 United States Census, Arizona had a population of 6,392,017.
In 2010, illegal immigrants constituted an estimated 7.9% of the population.
This was the second highest percentage of any state in the U.S. Arizona has banned sanctuary cities.
Metropolitan Phoenix (4.7 million) and Tucson (1.0 million) are home to about five-sixths of Arizona's people (as of the 2010 census).
Metro Phoenix alone accounts for two-thirds of the state's population.
Race and ethnicity
In 1980, the Census Bureau reported Arizona's population as 16.2% Hispanic, 5.6% Native American, and 74.5% non-Hispanic white.
In 2010, the racial makeup of the state was:
- 73.0% White
- 4.6% Native American and Alaska Native
- 4.1% Black or African American
- 2.8% Asian
- 0.2% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
- 11.9% from some other race
- 3.4% from two or more races.
Hispanics or Latinos of any race made up 29.6% of the state's population.
Non-Hispanic whites formed 57.8% of the total population.
|Native Hawaiian and||–||–||0.1%||0.2%|
|Two or more races||–||–||2.9%||3.4%|
Arizona's five largest ancestry groups, as of 2009, were:
|Language||Percentage of population
(as of 2010)
|Chinese (including Mandarin)||0.4%|
|Other North American indigenous languages (especially indigenous languages of Arizona)||0.3%|
As of 2010, 72.9% (4,215,749) of Arizona residents age five and older spoke only English at home, while 20.8% (1,202,638) spoke Spanish, 1.5% (85,602) Navajo, 0.4% (22,592) German, 0.4% (22,426) Chinese (which includes Mandarin), 0.3% (19,015) Tagalog, 0.3% (17,603) Vietnamese, 0.3% (15,707) Other North American Indigenous Languages (especially indigenous languages of Arizona), and French was spoken as a main language by 0.3% (15,062) of the population over the age of five.
In total, 27.1% (1,567,548) of Arizona's population age five and older spoke a mother language other than English.
Arizona is home to the largest number of speakers of Native American languages in the 48 contiguous states, as more than 85,000 individuals reported speaking Navajo, and 10,403 people reported Apache, as a language spoken at home in 2005.
Arizona's Apache County has the highest concentration of speakers of Native American Indian languages in the United States.
Cities and towns
Other prominent cities in the Phoenix metro area include Mesa (Arizona's third largest city), Chandler (Arizona's fourth largest city), Glendale, Peoria, Buckeye, Sun City, Sun City West, Fountain Hills, Surprise, Gilbert, El Mirage, Avondale, Tempe, Tolleson and Scottsdale, with a total metropolitan population of just over 4.7 million.
The average high temperature in July, 106 °F (41 °C), is one of the highest of any metropolitan area in the United States, offset by an average January high temperature of 67 °F (19 °C), the basis of its winter appeal.
Tucson, with a metro population of just over one million, is the state's second-largest city.
Located in Pima County, approximately 110 miles (180 km) southeast of Phoenix, it was incorporated in 1877, making it the oldest incorporated city in Arizona.
It is home to the University of Arizona.
It has an average July temperature of 100 °F (38 °C) and winter temperatures averaging 65 °F (18 °C).
With 212,635 residents, this cluster of towns is the state's third largest metropolitan area.
The city of Prescott (population 41,528) lies approximately 100 miles (160 km) northwest of the Phoenix metropolitan area.
Situated in pine tree forests at an elevation of about 5,500 feet (1,700 m), Prescott enjoys a much cooler climate than Phoenix, with average summer highs around 88 °F (31 °C) and winter temperatures averaging 50 °F (10 °C).
Yuma is center of the fourth-largest metropolitan area in Arizona.
Located in Yuma County, it is near the borders of California and Mexico.
It is one of the hottest cities in the United States, with an average July high of 107 °F (42 °C).
(The same month's average in Death Valley is 115 °F (46 °C).)
The city features sunny days about 90% of the year.
The Yuma Metropolitan Statistical Area has a population of 160,000.
Yuma attracts many winter visitors from all over the United States.
With its large Ponderosa pine forests, snowy winter weather and picturesque mountains, it is a stark contrast to the desert regions typically associated with Arizona.
Historic U.S. is the main east–west street in the town. Route 66
The Flagstaff metropolitan area is home to 134,421 residents and the main campus of Northern Arizona University.
Lake Havasu City has a population of about 53,000 people.
It is famous for huge spring break parties, sunsets and the London Bridge, relocated from London, England.
Lake Havasu City was founded by real estate developer Robert P. McCulloch in 1963.
It has two colleges, Mohave Community College and ASU Colleges in Lake Havasu City.
In 2010, the Association of Religion Data Archives reported that the three largest denominational groups in Arizona were the Catholic Church, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints and non-denominational Evangelical Protestants.
The Catholic Church has the highest number of adherents in Arizona (at 930,001), followed by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 410,263 members reported and then non-denominational Evangelical Protestants, reporting 281,105 adherents.
The religious body with the largest number of congregations is The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (with 836 congregations) followed by the Southern Baptist Convention (with 323 congregations).
According to the Association of Religion Data Archives, the fifteen largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 and 2000 were:
|Religion||2010 Population||2000 Population|
|The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints||410,263||251,974|
|Southern Baptist Convention||126,830||138,516|
|Assemblies of God||123,713||82,802|
|United Methodist Church||54,977||53,232|
|Christian Churches and Churches of Christ||48,386||33,162|
|Evangelical Lutheran Church in America||42,944||69,393|
|Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod||26,322||24,977|
|Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)||26,078||33,554|
|Episcopal Church (United States)||24,853||31,104|
|Seventh-day Adventist Church||20,924||11,513|
|Church of the Nazarene||16,991||18,143|
|Lutheran Congregations in Mission for Christ||14,350||0|
|Churches of Christ||14,151||14,471|
Hinduism became the largest non-Christian religion (when combining all denominations) in 2010 with more than 32,000 adherents, followed by Judaism with more than 20,000 and Buddhism with more than 19,000.
The 2011 total gross state product was $259 billion.
The composition of the state's economy is moderately diverse; although health care, transportation and the government remain the largest sectors.
The state's per capita income is $40,828, ranking 39th in the U.S.
The state had a median household income of $50,448, making it 22nd in the country and just below the U.S. national mean.
Copper is still extensively mined from many expansive open-pit and underground mines, accounting for two-thirds of the nation's output.
- Total employment (2016): 2,379,409
- Total employer establishments (2016): 139,134
The state government is Arizona's largest employer, while Banner Health is the state's largest private employer, with more than 39,000 employees (2016).
As of August 2020, the state's unemployment rate was 5.9%.
The largest employment sectors in Arizona are (August 2020, Nonfarm Employment):
|Trade, transportation, and utilities||553,300|
|Education and health services||459,400|
|Professional and business services||419,200|
|Leisure and hospitality||269,400|
|Mining and logging||13,300|
According to The Arizona Republic, the largest private employers in the state as of 2019 were:
Tax is collected by the Arizona Department of Revenue.
Arizona collects personal income taxes in five brackets: 2.59%, 2.88%, 3.36%, 4.24% and 4.54%.
The state transaction privilege tax is 5.6%; however, county and municipal sales taxes generally add an additional 2%.
The state rate on transient lodging (hotel/motel) is 7.27%.
The state of Arizona does not levy a state tax on food for home consumption or on drugs prescribed by a licensed physician or dentist.
However, some cities in Arizona do levy a tax on food for home consumption.
All fifteen Arizona counties levy a tax.
Incorporated municipalities also levy transaction privilege taxes which, with the exception of their hotel/motel tax, are generally in the range of 1-to-3%.
These added assessments could push the combined sales tax rate to as high as 10.7%.
|Single||Tax rate||Joint||Tax rate|
|0 – $10,000||2.59%||0 – $20,000||2.59%|
|$10,000 – $25,000||2.88%||$20,001 – $50,000||2.88%|
|$25,000 – $50,000||3.36%||$50,001 – $100,000||3.36%|
|$50,000 – $150,001||4.24%||$100,000 – $300,001||4.24%|
|$150,001 +||4.54%||$300,001 +||4.54%|
Main article: Transportation in Arizona
Main Interstate routes include I-17, and I-19 traveling north–south, I-8, I-10, and I-40, traveling east–west, and a short stretch of I-15 traveling northeast–southwest through the extreme northwestern corner of the state.
Public transportation, Amtrak, and intercity bus
The Phoenix and Tucson metropolitan areas are served by public bus transit systems.
Yuma and Flagstaff also have public bus systems.
Greyhound Lines serves Phoenix, Tucson, Flagstaff, Yuma, and several smaller communities statewide.
Sun Link, loosely based on the Portland Streetcar, launched in July 2014.
Phoenix lost Amtrak service in 1996 with the discontinuation of the Desert Wind, and now an Amtrak bus runs between Phoenix and the station in Maricopa.
See also: List of airports in Arizona
Airports with regularly scheduled commercial flights include: Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (IATA: PHX, ICAO: KPHX) in Phoenix (the state's largest airport and the major international airport); Tucson International Airport (IATA: TUS, ICAO: KTUS) in Tucson; Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport (IATA: AZA, ICAO: KIWA) in Mesa; Yuma International Airport (IATA: NYL, ICAO: KNYL) in Yuma; Prescott Municipal Airport (PRC) in Prescott; Flagstaff Pulliam Airport (IATA: FLG, ICAO: KFLG) in Flagstaff, and Grand Canyon National Park Airport (IATA: GCN, ICAO: KGCN, FAA: GCN), a small, but busy, single-runway facility providing tourist flights, mostly from Las Vegas.
Phoenix Sky Harbor is the world's 7th busiest airport in terms of aircraft movements and 17th for passenger traffic.
Other significant airports without regularly scheduled commercial flights include Scottsdale Municipal Airport (IATA: SCF, ICAO: KSDL) in Scottsdale, and Deer Valley Airport (IATA: DVT, ICAO: KDVT, FAA: DVT) home to two flight training academies and the nation's busiest general aviation airport.
Law and government
Main article: Government of Arizona
The capital of Arizona is Phoenix.
The original Capitol building, with its distinctive copper dome, was dedicated in 1901 (construction was completed for $136,000 in 1900), when the area was a territory.
Phoenix became the official state capital with Arizona's admission to the union in 1912.
The House of Representatives and Senate buildings were dedicated in 1960, and an Executive Office Building was dedicated in 1974 (the ninth floor of this building is where the Office of the Governor is located).
The original Capitol building was converted into a museum.
The site also includes many monuments and memorials, including the anchor and signal mast from the USS Arizona (one of the U.S. Navy ships sunk in Pearl Harbor) and a granite version of the Ten Commandments.
State legislative branch
Each of the thirty legislative districts has one senator and two representatives.
Legislators are elected for two-year terms.
Each Legislature covers a two-year period.
The first session following the general election is known as the first regular session, and the session convening in the second year is known as the second regular session.
Each regular session begins on the second Monday in January and adjourns sine die (terminates for the year) no later than Saturday of the week in which the 100th day from the beginning of the regular session falls.
The President of the Senate and Speaker of the House, by rule, may extend the session up to seven additional days.
Thereafter, the session can be extended only by a majority vote of members present of each house.
The majority party is the Republican Party, which has held power in both houses since 1993.
Arizona state senators and representatives are elected for two-year terms and are limited to four consecutive terms in a chamber, though there is no limit on the total number of terms.
When a lawmaker is term-limited from office, it is common for him or her to run for election in the other chamber.
The fiscal year 2006–07 general fund budget, approved by the Arizona Legislature in June 2006, was slightly less than $10 billion.
Besides the money spent on state agencies, it also included more than $500 million in income and property tax cuts, pay raises for government employees, and additional funding for the K–12 education system.
State executive branch
|State of Arizona elected officials|
|Governor||Doug Ducey (R)|
|Secretary of State||Katie Hobbs (D)|
|Attorney General||Mark Brnovich (R)|
|State Treasurer||Kimberley Yee (R)|
|Superintendent of Public Instruction||Kathy Hoffman (D)|
|State Mine Inspector||Joe Hart (R)|
|Speaker of the House|
|House Democratic Leader|
|President of the Senate|
|Senate Democratic Leader|
Arizona's executive branch is headed by a governor, who is elected to a four-year term.
The governor may serve any number of terms, though no more than two in a row.
Arizona is one of the few states that has no governor's mansion.
During their term the governors reside within their private residence, with executive offices housed in the executive tower at the state capitol.
The governor of Arizona is Doug Ducey (R).
Arizona has had four female governors, more than any other state.
Other elected executive officials include the Secretary of State, State Treasurer, State Attorney General, Superintendent of Public Instruction, State Mine Inspector and a five-member Corporation Commission.
All elected officials hold a term of four years, and are limited to two consecutive terms (except the office of the State Mine Inspector, which is limited to four terms).
Arizona is one of five states that do not have a lieutenant governor.
The elected secretary of state is first in line to succeed the governor in the event of death, disability, resignation, or removal from office.
If appointed, the Secretary of State is not eligible and the next governor is selected from the next eligible official in the line of succession, including the attorney general, state treasurer and superintendent of public instruction.
Since 1977, four secretaries of state and one attorney general have succeeded to Arizona's governorship.
State judicial branch
The Arizona Supreme Court is the highest court in Arizona, consisting of a chief justice, a vice chief justice, and five associate justices.
Justices are appointed by the governor from a list recommended by a bipartisan commission, and must be sustained in office by election after the first two years following their appointment.
Subsequent sustaining elections occur every six years.
The supreme court has appellate jurisdiction in death penalty cases, but nearly all other appellate cases go through the Arizona Court of Appeals first.
The court has original jurisdiction in a few other circumstances, as outlined in the state constitution.
The court may declare laws unconstitutional if seated en banc.
The court meets in the Arizona Supreme Court Building at the capitol complex (at the southern end of Wesley Bolin Plaza).
The Arizona Court of Appeals, subdivided into two divisions, is the intermediate court in the state.
Division One is based in Phoenix, consists of sixteen judges, and has jurisdiction in the Western and Northern regions of the state, along with the greater Phoenix area.
Division Two is based in Tucson, consists of six judges, and has jurisdiction over the Southern regions of the state, including the Tucson area.
Judges are selected in a method similar to the one used for state supreme court justices.
Each county of Arizona has a superior court, the size and organization of which are varied and generally depend on the size of the particular county.
Arizona is divided into 15 counties, ranging in size from 1,238 square miles (3,210 km) to 18,661 square miles (48,330 km).
|County name||County seat||Founded||2010 population||Percent of total||Area (sq. mi.)||Percent of total|
|Apache||St. Johns||February 24, 1879||71,518||1.12%||11,218||9.84%|
|Cochise||Bisbee||February 1, 1881||131,346||2.05%||6,219||5.46%|
|Coconino||Flagstaff||February 18, 1891||134,421||2.10%||18,661||16.37%|
|Gila||Globe||February 8, 1881||53,597||0.84%||4,796||4.21%|
|Graham||Safford||March 10, 1881||37,220||0.58%||4,641||4.07%|
|Greenlee||Clifton||March 10, 1909||8,437||0.13%||1,848||1.62%|
|La Paz||Parker||January 1, 1983||20,489||0.32%||4,513||3.96%|
|Maricopa||Phoenix||February 14, 1871||3,817,117||59.72%||9,224||8.09%|
|Mohave||Kingman||November 9, 1864||200,186||3.13%||13,470||11.82%|
|Navajo||Holbrook||March 21, 1895||107,449||1.68%||9,959||8.74%|
|Pima||Tucson||November 9, 1864||980,263||15.34%||9,189||8.06%|
|Pinal||Florence||February 1, 1875||375,770||5.88%||5,374||4.71%|
|Santa Cruz||Nogales||March 15, 1899||47,420||0.74%||1,238||1.09%|
|Yavapai||Prescott||November 9, 1864||211,033||3.30%||8,128||7.13%|
|Yuma||Yuma||November 9, 1864||195,751||3.06%||5,519||4.84%|
As of the start of the 115th Congress, Arizona's representatives in the United States House of Representatives are Tom O'Halleran (D-1), Ann Kirkpatrick (D-2), Raul Grijalva (D-3), Paul Gosar (R-4), Andy Biggs (R-5), David Schweikert (R-6), Ruben Gallego (D-7), Debbie Lesko (R-8), and Greg Stanton (D-9).
From statehood through the late 1940s, Arizona was primarily dominated by the Democratic Party.
During this time, the Democratic candidate for the presidency carried the state each election, the only exceptions being the elections of 1920, 1924 and 1928—all three were national Republican landslides.
In 1924, Congress had passed a law granting citizenship and suffrage to all Native Americans, some of whom had previously been excluded as members of tribes on reservations.
Legal interpretations of Arizona's constitution prohibited Native Americans living on reservations from voting, classifying them as being under "guardianship".
This interpretation was overturned as being incorrect and unconstitutional in 1948 by the Arizona Supreme Court, following a suit by World War II Indian veterans Frank Harrison and Harry Austin, both of the Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation.
The landmark case is Harrison and Austin v. Laveen.
After the men were refused the opportunity to register in Maricopa County, they filed suit against the registrar.
The National Congress of American Indians, the Department of Justice, the Department of the Interior, and the American Civil Liberties Union all filed amicus curiae (friends of the court) briefs in the case.
The State Supreme Court established the rights of Native Americans to vote in the state; at the time, they comprised about 11% of the population.
That year, a similar provision was overturned in New Mexico when challenged by another Indian veteran in court.
These were the only two states that had continued to prohibit Native Americans from voting.
During this forty-year span, it was the only state not to be carried by a Democrat at least once.
(This was the most closely contested state in what was otherwise a landslide victory for Johnson that year.)
Democrat Bill Clinton ended this streak in 1996, when he won Arizona by a little over two percentage points (Clinton had previously come within less than two percent of winning Arizona's electoral votes in 1992).
From 2000 until 2016, the majority of the state continued to support Republican presidential candidates by solid margins.
Since the late 20th century, the Republican Party has also dominated Arizona politics in general.
The fast-growing Phoenix and Tucson suburbs became increasingly friendly to Republicans from the 1950s onward.
During this time, many "Pinto Democrats", or conservative Democrats from rural areas, became increasingly willing to support Republicans at the state and national level.
While the state normally supports Republicans at the federal level, Democrats are often competitive in statewide elections.
Two of the last six governors have been Democrats.
On March 4, 2008, Senator John McCain effectively clinched the Republican nomination for 2008, becoming the first presidential nominee from the state since Barry Goldwater in 1964.
The two counties have almost 75 percent of the state's population and cast almost 80 percent of the state's vote.
They also elect a substantial majority of the state legislature.
Maricopa County is home to almost 60 percent of the state's population, and most of the state's elected officials live there.
Before Joe Biden won Maricopa County in 2020, it had voted Republican in every presidential election since 1948.
This includes the 1964 run of native son Barry Goldwater; he would not have carried his home state without his 20,000-vote margin in Maricopa County.
Similarly, while McCain won Arizona by eight percentage points in 2008, aided by his 130,000-vote margin in Maricopa County.
In contrast, Pima County, home to Tucson, and most of southern Arizona have historically voted more Democratic.
While Tucson's suburbs lean Republican, they hold to a somewhat more moderate brand of Republicanism than is common in the Phoenix area.
Arizona rejected a same-sex marriage ban in a referendum as part of the 2006 elections.
Arizona was the first state in the nation to do so.
Same-sex marriage was not recognized in Arizona, but this amendment would have denied any legal or financial benefits to unmarried homosexual or heterosexual couples.
In 2008, Arizona voters passed Proposition 102, an amendment to the state constitution to define marriage as a union of one man and one woman.
It passed by a more narrow majority than similar votes in a number of other states.
A fierce debate erupted between supporters and detractors of the law.
The United States Supreme Court heard arguments March 18, 2013, regarding the validity of the Arizona law, which requires individuals to show documents proving U.S. citizenship in order to register to vote in national elections.
Same-sex marriage and civil unions
In 2006, Arizona became the first state in the United States to reject a proposition, Prop 107, that would have banned same-sex marriage and civil unions.
However, in 2008, Arizona voters approved of Prop 102, a constitutional amendment that prohibited same-sex marriage but not other unions.
The state's Attorney General at the time, Tom Horne, threatened to sue, but rescinded the threat once Bisbee amended the ordinance; Bisbee approved of civil unions in 2013.
A November 2011 Public Policy Polling survey found 44% of Arizona voters supported the legalization of same-sex marriage, while 45% opposed it and 12% were not sure.
A separate question on the same survey found 72% of respondents supported legal recognition of same-sex couples, with 40% supporting same-sex marriage, 32% supporting civil unions, 27% opposing all legal recognition and 1% not sure.
Arizona Proposition 102, known by its supporters as the Marriage Protection Amendment, appeared as a legislatively referred constitutional amendment on the November 4, 2008 ballot in Arizona, where it was approved: 56.2%–43%.
It amended the Arizona Constitution to define marriage as between one man and one woman.
On October 17, 2014, Arizona Attorney General Tom Horne announced his office would no longer object to same-sex marriage, in response to a U.S. District Court Ruling on Arizona Proposition 102.
On that day, each county's Clerk of the Superior Court began to issue same-sex marriage licenses, and Arizona became the 31st state to legalize same-sex marriage.
Elementary and secondary education
Public schools in Arizona are separated into about 220 local school districts which operate independently, but are governed in most cases by elected county school superintendents; these are in turn overseen by the Arizona State Board of Education and the Arizona Department of Education.
A state Superintendent of Public Instruction (elected in partisan elections every even-numbered year when there is not a presidential election, for a four-year term).
In 2005, a School District Redistricting Commission was established with the goal of combining and consolidating many of these districts.
These schools are governed by the Arizona Board of Regents.
Private higher education in Arizona is dominated by a large number of for-profit and "chain" (multi-site) universities.
Arizona has a wide network of two-year vocational schools and community colleges.
These colleges were governed historically by a separate statewide board of directors but, in 2002, the state legislature transferred almost all oversight authority to individual community college districts.
The Maricopa County Community College District includes 11 community colleges throughout Maricopa County and is one of the largest in the nation.
Public universities in Arizona
- Arizona State University, (Sun Devils) Tempe/Phoenix/Mesa/Glendale/Lake Havasu
- Northern Arizona University, (Lumberjacks) Flagstaff/Yuma/Prescott
- University of Arizona, (Wildcats) Tucson/Sierra Vista, MD college in downtown Phoenix and UA Agricultural Center in Yuma/Maricopa
Private colleges and universities in Arizona
Art and culture
Visual arts and museums
See also: List of museums in Arizona
The museum displays international exhibitions alongside the museum's collection of more than 18,000 works of American, Asian, European, Latin American, Western American, modern and contemporary art, and fashion design.
With a community education mandate since 1951, Phoenix Art Museum holds a year-round program of festivals, live performances, independent art films and educational programs.
The museum also has PhxArtKids, an interactive space for children; photography exhibitions through the museum's partnership with the Center for Creative Photography; the landscaped Sculpture Garden and dining at Arcadia Farms.
Arizona is a recognized center of Native American art, with a number of galleries showcasing historical and contemporary works.
The Heard Museum, also in Phoenix, is a major repository of Native American art.
Some of the signature exhibits include a full Navajo hogan, the Mareen Allen Nichols Collection containing 260 pieces of contemporary jewelry, the Barry Goldwater Collection of 437 historic Hopi kachina dolls, and an exhibit on the 19th century boarding school experiences of Native Americans.
The Heard Museum has about 250,000 visitors a year.
See also: List of films shot in Arizona
Several major Hollywood films, such as Billy Jack, U Turn, Waiting to Exhale, Just One of the Guys, Can't Buy Me Love, Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure, The Scorpion King, The Banger Sisters, Used Cars, and Raising Arizona have been made there (as have many Westerns).
The TV sitcom Alice, which was based on the movie was set in Phoenix.
Twilight had passages set in Phoenix at the beginning and the end of the film.
Main article: Music of Arizona
George Strait's "Oceanfront Property" uses "ocean front property in Arizona" as a metaphor for a sucker proposition.
"Arizona" was the title of a popular song recorded by Mark Lindsay.
Arizona is also mentioned in the Beatles' song "Get Back", credited to John Lennon and Paul McCartney; McCartney sings: "JoJo left his home in Tucson, Arizona, for some California grass."
Arizona's budding music scene is helped by emerging bands, as well as some well-known artists.
Also, a number of punk and rock bands got their start in Arizona, including JFA, The Feederz, Sun City Girls, The Meat Puppets, The Maine, The Summer Set, and more recently Authority Zero and Digital Summer.
Arizona also has many singers and other musicians.
Other notable singers include country singers Dierks Bentley and Marty Robbins, folk singer Katie Lee, Fleetwood Mac's Stevie Nicks, CeCe Peniston, Rex Allen, 2007 American Idol winner Jordin Sparks, and Linda Ronstadt.
Arizona is also known for its heavy metal scene, which is centered in and around Phoenix.
Beginning in and around 2009, Phoenix began to host a burgeoning desert rock and sludge metal underground, (ala' Kyuss in 1990s California) led by bands like Wolves of Winter, Asimov, and Dead Canyon.
American composer Elliott Carter composed his first String Quartet (1950–51) while on sabbatical (from New York) in Arizona.
The quartet won a Pulitzer Prize and other awards and is now a staple of the string quartet repertoire.
Main article: Sports in Arizona
|Arizona Cardinals||American football||National Football League||2 (1925, 1947)|
|Phoenix Suns||Basketball||National Basketball Association||0|
|Arizona Diamondbacks||Baseball||Major League Baseball||1 (2001)|
|Arizona Coyotes||Ice hockey||National Hockey League||0|
|Arizona Rattlers||Indoor football||Indoor Football League||6 (1994, 1997, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2017)|
|Phoenix Rising FC||Soccer||USL Championship||0|
|Phoenix Mercury||Basketball||Women's National Basketball Association||3 (2007, 2009, 2014)|
|Tucson Roadrunners||Ice hockey||American Hockey League||0|
|Northern Arizona Suns||Basketball||NBA G League||1|
The stadium is also scheduled to host Super Bowl LVII tentatively scheduled for February 5, 2023.
Due to its numerous golf courses, Arizona is home to several stops on the PGA Tour, most notably the Phoenix Open, held at the TPC of Scottsdale, and the WGC-Accenture Match Play Championship at the Ritz-Carlton Golf Club in Marana.
Auto racing is another sport known in the state.
College sports are also prevalent in Arizona.
The Arizona State Sun Devils and the Arizona Wildcats belong to the Pac-12 Conference while the Northern Arizona Lumberjacks compete in the Big Sky Conference and the Grand Canyon Antelopes compete in the Western Athletic Conference.
The Territorial Cup, first awarded in 1889 and certified as the oldest trophy in college football, is awarded to the winner of the annual football game between the two schools.
Arizona also hosts several college football bowl games.
The Fiesta Bowl is part of the new College Football Playoff (CFP).
State Farm Stadium hosted the Final Four of the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament in 2017 and is scheduled to host it again in 2024.
Spring training was first started in Arizona in 1947, when Brewers owner Veeck sold them in 1945 but went onto purchase the Cleveland Indians in 1946.
Thus the Cactus League was born.
On March 9, 1995, Arizona was awarded a franchise to begin to play for the 1998 season.
A $130 million franchise fee was paid to Major League Baseball and on January 16, 1997, the Diamondbacks were officially voted into the National League.
Since their debut, the Diamondbacks have won five National League West titles, one National League Championship pennant, and the 2001 World Series.
For a more comprehensive list, see List of people from Arizona.
- Former Arizona Governor Jan Brewer
- Former Surgeon General of the United States Richard Carmona
- Former United States Secretary of Transportation Mary Peters
- Former Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor
- Former Supreme Court Chief Justice William Rehnquist
- Former U.S. Senator Dennis DeConcini
- Former Maricopa County Sheriff Joe Arpaio
- Former Graham County Sheriff Richard Mack
- National Education Association President Dennis Van Roekel
- Junior Republican Senator Jon Kyl, former Senate Minority Whip.
- Presidential candidate (2000, 2008) and former U.S. Senator John McCain
- Presidential candidate (1964) and former U.S. Senator Barry Goldwater
- Former governor, Secretary of the Interior, and presidential candidate (1988) Bruce Babbitt
- Presidential candidate (1976) and former Arizona congressman Mo Udall and his brother Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall
- Former U.S. Senator Carl Hayden
- Former United States Solicitor General Rex E. Lee.
- Former Governor and Secretary of Homeland Security in the Obama Administration Janet Napolitano
- Former State Senator Jack Taylor also served as mayor of Mesa and was for one two-year term a member of the Arizona House of Representatives.
- Labor leader and civil rights pioneer Cesar Estrada Chavez was from San Luis, near Yuma
- Actress Emma Stone is from Scottsdale
- Actress Gail Edwards resides in Sedona
- Athlete Auston Mathews (Toronto Maple Leaf Center)
- Author Zane Grey
- Architect Frank Lloyd Wright
- Disc sports (Frisbee) pioneer Ken Westerfield lives in Bisbee
- Film director Steven Spielberg was raised in Phoenix and attended Arcadia High School
- Actor David Spade was raised in Scottsdale and graduated from Arizona State University
- Actress Lynda Carter, star of Wonder Woman, is from Phoenix and attended Arizona State University
- Horse owner and trainer Bob Baffert.
- Musicians Chester Bennington of Linkin Park (Phoenix), Alice Cooper (Phoenix), Stevie Nicks of Fleetwood Mac (Phoenix), (Jerome), Linda Ronstadt (Tucson), Michelle Branch (Sedona), Nate Ruess of Fun. (Glendale)
- Musicians in the bands Meat Puppets (Phoenix/Tempe), Authority Zero (Mesa), Gin Blossoms (Tempe), Chronic Future (Scottsdale), Jimmy Eat World (Mesa), The Format (Glendale), Stellar Kart (Phoenix), Malignus Youth (Sierra Vista), Job for a Cowboy (Glendale), blessthefall (Phoenix), Eyes Set to Kill (Phoenix), The Word Alive (Phoenix), and Psychostick (Tempe).
- Poet Jim Simmerman of Flagstaff
- Frederick Sommer, an artist/photographer, moved to Tucson in 1931 and lived in Prescott from 1935 to 1999
- Rancher and political insider John G.F. Speiden—Jay Six Ranch
- Author Diana Gabaldon mostly known for Outlander was born in and resides in Arizona
- Musician Zella Day is originally from Pinetop, Arizona
- Arizona state amphibian: Arizona treefrog (Hyla eximia)
- Arizona state bird: cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus)
- Arizona state butterfly: two-tailed swallowtail (Papilio multicaudata)
- Arizona state colors: federal blue and old gold
- Arizona state dinosaur: Sonorasaurus
- Arizona state fish: Apache trout (Oncorhynchus apache)
- Arizona state flag: Flag of the State of Arizona
- Arizona state flower: saguaro blossom (Carnegiea gigantea)
- Arizona state fossil: petrified wood
- Arizona state gemstone: turquoise
- Arizona state mammal: ring-tailed cat (Bassariscus astutus)
- Arizona state motto: Ditat Deus (Latin God enriches)
- Arizona state neckwear: bolo tie
- Arizona state reptile: Arizona ridge-nosed rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi)
- Arizona state seal: Great Seal of the State of Arizona
- Arizona state slogan: Grand Canyon State
- Arizona state songs: "Arizona March Song" (by Margaret Rowe Clifford) and "Arizona" (by Rex Allen, Jr.)
- Arizona state tree: palo verde (Parkinsonia)
- Arizona state gun: Colt Single Action Army revolver
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arizona.